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BLACKBURN E T. Middle Helladlc Graves and Burial CUS!ol11sw,lh Special Referenee to Lema in Argolid. Dissertation. University 01 Cincinnatti.Cincinnatti 1970 BLEGEN C W - WACE AJ B ~Middle Hella· die Tombs.- Symbolae Osloenses 9, 1930, a 28·37. CASKEYJ.L. -ereece eoc ne Aegean in the Middle Bronze Age~. Cambridge Ancient Hi· from

~~~II
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CAVANACH G" Attic Bu,,~1 Customs 2000-700 B,C London 1977.

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KoIIlOP'fItC; Tije:; llE.oor.Mlaanu'ic:; KCP<lIIE.lllij<;. KoicrroM.lTOupylKOTO-

DIETZ Bronze Age Tumulus Cemetery in Assine Southern Greece •. Archeology 28. 1975.0.157·163 HOWELL R.J .. ~The Origins of the Middle Helladic Cullure~ in CROSSLAND A.A. BIRCHALL A .. Bronze Age Migralions In the Aegean. G6teborg 1977, c. 73·106 LEROI-GOURHAN A .. Les re'igions de 13 cretustore. PUF Paris 1964 MYLONAS G .. ~The Cult of the Dead In Helladie Times». in MYLONAS G E lEd) Sludies presentedtoDavidM Robinson 1,0.64-105. MYI\ONAr r., ..TO. 'TOlpII<OtellJO an;v Mu· ~llVOI~~ tnoxt'i~, EEE 7, 1976. c. 291·355 PELON 0, Tholoi. tumuli et cerctes funeralres. aoccaro. Paris 1976 VERMEULE E .. Greece in the Bronze Age ChicagoLondon 1964 BPANOnOYI\Or E .• "TolpOi KO( 10tjllKO Eel1J0 Tii" McooO.Aa1iIKtl<; tnOxtlt:;". Xapumj· prov ci<; AK. 'OpMvi5ov TOIJ. tJ.'. ·Atll'lvo 1964. (BI6'\109r'lKIlTIit:;r.v·A6t'jvoLt:;·APxolo il.oYIKiic; 'arcrcercc cp. 54) a,2BQ-294

s. "A

Burial Customs in Continental Greece in the Mid-Bronze Age
O.Polychronopoulou Death customs Archaeology buna' burial customs cuuciwe OX. 2, OIlOUp6XP'Wl'o. monies early burial Ihe unanswered customs: preparation used Since. from times in and burial deals are via framed SPeech by and various action of of its testithe since of and the to its epithe for loRare dale organiAge are the are mode

expressed

~~

with the visual of the dead, a society Age the however. etc

segment

formation

of the site

The burial witness

the relevant are scarce. Man. problem body

OX. 1, IIIVUOIUl,

the Bronze questions had faced

are many urcent that

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them - Neolithic appear this

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existence

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in a foetal from and with burial signify the theke artificial offerings

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Bl6Aloypa<pia DUCKWORTH W.l.H..• The craniology 01 the Ancient tntiabuantsct Palaikastro& its Neighbourhood Bril.Ass. for the Advan· •. cement 01 Science.Dundeet912. 248,Table VII. KANTAA., ~A SarcophagusIrom the village of Maroulas.Relhymnon»,A.A.A 1973, 315-323 McGEORGEP.J.P The Minoans Demo.. graphy. Physical Variation and Aflinlties, Phd Thesis, Universityof Landon. 1983. nOYAlANOI A.. 'H KIlTCl'f1ll'fli TW KpTJTwv. v 'Aef)va 1971 THORN G.W ADAMS R.D. ET AL, Harri.. son's Principles of Internal Medicine McGraw-Hill 1977.856·658. TZEMKH! L, 'APXOlOAo"VIK6 AEAT[O 25, 1970,XpovIKa2,476·7·26,1971,XpaIlIK6 2,513-6·27, 1972,Xpovl~a2, 639·44. TZEDAKISJ.,Larnakesof the LateMinoan Cemeteryof Relhymnon.A.A.A.1911,216·
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QUaKOAio nou ncoouoiczer il aVOaKOtplKTl eccuvo peco at 1J10 oUYXPovIl nMIl. ctttv 'A9rivo EXOUVanOKOAUIjl8Ei OPKETOi rrnpot, KUp(WC;KOTO TI') OlOPK€lO OWOTlKWVQVOOKOIjlWV.'Opvcveuevc V£KpOTOtpE100IlWC; BpESIlKOV t~w cno TO TEiXllllic; n6Mc:, rn] OUTlKC TO VEKPOTO<jlE10 TOO KEPO~€lKoD rtcocuever onc TO rue 0Il110VTlKa. cnou KOTOT6v 50-40 oi. n.x. oovcve81lKE ri TO<jllKri 'OMC;, tm6AIlTlKOe; OP0I10C; nAOlOlWIlEVOC; crto TOIjlIKO IJv'llJe10. K6nwc; nOpOIJEpO ueco ere vexporcceto 6pioKOVTOV at TOtpOI nOlOUDV Kat KOIVWVnOAlTWV et~o npoowmKi)e; trtlAoylie; errorexocce Kat nOAl TO dooc; rccnc. TO QV ollAoof) 6 vexooc 90 KOlYOTOV Ii 80

20

T6v sacecv hal anAa. Oi rccor ~TOV cuvnacx OToIlIKOi. 'An01:EAOuvTOV «no evov ACKKOOKOIlIlEVO vn nou ot nAOYIEC; i:OWTEPIKEC;TOU nAEUPEC; e41EpOV EniXPIOIlO KOt T6 I5O.nE<5o OU T ~TOV crptouevc I-lt nETPo<5oKlO. Euxv6. ot TOItIOI exouv KOAUIlIlO 6n6 lI.illIlEVEe; m'lAIVEe; nACKEe;. Mtoo crov T6tpo Ton09ETtOTOV occxoecvoc (~uAIVIl ii rrnxrvn ii Kai ntTpIVIlIJOVOAISlKn). ITnv neotrrrecn KOUOEWVrtcpcTIlPEITOl IlEYelA'l nOIKIAio TEItIPoMXWV 150XElwv, T600 6.n6 T!')V anoll.i'l TOU oxTiIJOToe: 000 Kai 6n6 TO UAIK6 6n6 TO cnoto elver «crcoseucouevc Kai 6n6 Tft 1510K601l1lar1TOUe:. lniv KAaoIKf) tnoxn OUVOVTOIJEKoi noM6 «evorcqxc, I5IlAoi5r; 6I5EIOVOUC; TO-

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1p0UC; rrrf IlVrll..l1")oowv OKOTWBIlKOV IlOKPUO uno rnv nrrtpidn TOUe;,To KEVOT6.tpIO15exovTouoav Tie; 'i<5IEC; TllltC; ue TOUe;KOlVOUC; ocouc. XOPOKTIlPIr O"TLK6 TTle; KAOOlKnC;tnOXTle; KTtPIOIlO anOTEAOUV ot AriKuBol Kai El<5IK6TEPO ot AEUKOXPWI-lEe;nou elver ~WVPOtpl0I-lEVee; I-lt 1l6T XPWIlOTO. TO. 9tIJOT6 TOUe;,VEKPIKa Ii lluBoAOVIKel i1 Kat TIie: K081l1lEPlviie: ~wriC;. unOvpalJlli~oVTo\ crrc eva IJOUPOnectvcouuc nou TOUe: <5ivElll16 ~ExwplmTi £VTOOTj.luxv6 T6 eccrrepuco TOU aYYEtOU elver. tv I..lEpEL ucvo. KOlv6 wmE vc XwpaEI Alvo AOi5I. TOOO 600 nTOV cncccrrnrc Vl6 TiC; TEAETte: (6A. 0.29 Kat 31). 'AMel o.e; i50UIlE Tel fBllla nou ouvoI5EUOVTO 86vaTO Kl 6.e;apXiOOUI-lEcrto

Tel uvnuorc Koi TO.orurcrc. Kct cmv KAOOlKri tnoxri OUVEXi~ouv vc urmpXOUV TUll601 (AO<ll[OKOIcrto XWIlO) KUKAIKOi Koi 6pBoyWV101, nou KoMrrrouv uin TO<llri. lniv KOpU<lIr; TOUe; crnverct I-llel OTr;lI'l, Eva 6.YYEio ii EVo CiyaAl-la. To OTiIlOTO OUTelnTOV TUAIVuevc IJE i5loKOOI-lIlTlKte; KopMMEe;. Oi TO<llOInou eptcxovrov ere tOWTEpIK6 nEpl60AOU elXav Tie;crnxec TOUe; (Kai YEVIK6n:pa, Tn 1510K601J'l0riTOUe;) nove ere TOlxaACKl TOU nEpI60AOU. 'Ana Tie; WPOIOTEpEe; KOAAITEXVIKte; tmTEU~Ele; Trie; tnOXTlC; OUTfjC; SewPOUVTOI ot tntTull6lEe; O"TiiAEe;,1510KOOlllWtVEC; Ili: 6.vSpwmvEC; uoocec. nco tptAOTEXV!,)B'lKOV (Il£XPI TO.TtAI") TOU 60u 01. n.X. nrcv at 6.V8lOTj). l'

21

K0100KI:Ut) l!llpWv ntplOOOll:POI one atKa TO uorooxor. TJiv TpiTT] ueoc. npiv ~Tjavopt~ VlcilPl:i<':;lJtpt<.:; Koioiro~o'vcitivOIOIO' l-I£pWOel, 1-116.OlWn'lATi nowrri M'lYoOKOO(JJ](Jtvo'(J£ £niXPI0j.10 lopuslectorumj1'\ va ce TOV V£KPO crcv TOepOTOU. 'H tKIPO&XOUV, tcrtoaernuevec tmlvw rove. 8t6010 Ti )(povo"oyio tlilv Oowv oVO<ptPI:I e KlIltpwV otv po !lTOV OIKOV£V£IOK!') TEAETn. euctec EiVQ!OO<Pol<.:;6MootctoIKOirucrrl:iiouvOnnp6cvctpoxrsc «or ncooeccec yivOVTOV KCITOlYIO TO 530 n.x. crov rcco. MeTa rnv TOql~, eva 6.y~ 3. ITTiv ArTlKI\ Mo clOIl crri1'"-I:<.:; un6.PXouv, AU· VEIO I-It veoo ronoeerouvrcv t~ crto T£<.:;noUCl"TI'jvKopu~f1tOu<.:;t<ptpolltlloy,"-umo TO ortrn TOO V£KPOO·. METa T6 TtAoe; KOlanOTI:,;,oiiv"TQIlOnOTPioKojJIJOno:n'l600fl, TO oWjJO TI'i<.:; I"TI'j'"-Il<.:; TO y,"-um6 Kol hElvE<':; C Kol Taq:.ri<; 01 oUYYEv£i<; IlO(e:uOVTOUnou l\TOIl K0100KEUOO).ltvc<.:;on6oiio)JOvo KO(J' cov OAOt 1-10(1,Kat iowc;, zemvococve. (J01IO:nj6oOTjKOtn'lcm'(';'IlTTOUKOTtMWt.cm'(v T6 «etpevc IltAOOV Yl6 nEpl~£lnvO\l KOPU~I\, ot Evo6v9tjJIO 6.M6 Mv cvccecouv rtnorc rteorcco4, To vecc OUIJ60';'Il;tTOlJloojJoTouonrnoO nOli 6~tIMTOV CITe severe Koi XPflollJl:ut ClTOU<':; reoo. 'H tnOIJEVTj rexern tlTOV TO Tpjouyytvei<.:; Yla va TTAu900v. va tQlVV,crroiiv. TO. Tr;v rotrn O'lAOOr; uecc ana T6 Bo5. Gordon Child, "Directional Changes in suneVOTO YIVOTOV ilia I-IIKPJi TEAf::n; tvw raryPract,eeduring50.000yearsu,Man 1945,0. 13K.tK TI'JV EVatT] ueoc. OT6. hOTO, uczsuov7. TCIjIOl; t\&lJ"o~lwv TOV nOAI ot OUYYEvel<; at I-IlaV 6Mn TEAeTr;. To TtAoc; TaU ntvBoue; tpxocurec napIOTQV£TOl 6 v£Kp6C; ue ouyTOV OTOV at ovvvevetc eixov npo~el Burials in Ancient Athens vevetc ~ Kat uovoc TOU ueoc at Eva TO \/01-11(°1-1£\/0. fltv ~EPOUl-le Ollwe; Anna Lambraki aPXm:KTOVIKO rtxctoto. rtccov KOlpO I-I£TO TO B6vOTO YIVOTOV 'An6 TOV 40 at. Kol rteoc unapX£l vee ~ TEAEUToio oun'j. Bt6Ota, TO rexoc Since IS not possible for us to exarrune in an w8I'JaTJ crnv KOTOOKCUr') OTrlAWV, TOO nevecuc 6t ar;I-IOIV£ Kot ATj01JO- article the eocent bunars throughout Greece OJlWC;elver oaAU crtxoucrsoec. croxrVia Tall V£KPOO ii TtAOC; tf)c; eUBuvTl<; m enuquuy we Will limit our study to Athens ouevec Ilt TO xapOKTTlPIOTIKO p6liaone 01 Ihe most lively centers 01 Greece TWV ouyyevwv. KoBE XpOVO YlVOTOV KO. n6vw OTiC; tnlTlJl16lec; O'ti)'\ec; Themycenaeansettlement otAthens was bu,11 un6.PXEI Kat tmrul.l61o tmypo(jli] 11£ no.AI jlla rexern, «en ccv IlVlll.l00UVO on the Acropolis hili and its cemetery lay at Its (K09' tVloUT6). T6 OVOjlC TOU V&KPOU Kai Ci.Mo OTmtMIlvIOTIKi'j neotozo ot «crvot foot 10. the west The graves 01 the amemao XeTo TOU (rcnoc KOTOYWYr,c: KAn.), TO hJiv cemetery have the torn and shape 01 a pit or TCepOI, curet TWV cvcvuuev nOAITwv, ovouc rev atplEPWTWV TOO uvnustcu chamber while vaulted graves a kmc comelvcr cnxot Kat OUOTT]poi tvw ol rrxouii Kal evcc enrrcqnoc (elK. 6). ~AMo mon ITT the rest 01 Attica have not been found exouv evrumco.cDunng the Iron Age me corpses were crematnmJJl610 ).IvnI.. rero cnorsxouv ot Ali- 0101 KO! erucovetc Ku80l, uliplec; K.o.. oinxsuuevec at K6 IlVTJIl£io Koi I.l0UOWA£io. r11')v rreot- ted and the ashes placed into a vase were ozo oull') 6V!,)Kel Koi eve elOo<; TCIIPWV buned in the grave along with the offerings AEUKO uccpcpc Ti xcrcceeuccuevec Kerarneikos becomes the burial area In the rtou elver 010 YVWOTO OTO nAOTU KOI6n6 "11M nou KQ'\umOVTQV 6n6 xeuvo. 6Mo rtou Mv ovl'JK£1 OTO xcoo early geometric age while another cemetery 1(6 XpWI10 VIC va aUlli~ouv 1l0P110po. of the same pence has been ocateo at Nea Tric; ·ATTIKf[C;. npoKenol Yla TOUC; pcT6 nerorvc 6yyeia ceccuv Ol!xv6 Ionia Attica The graves containing me Ke~ovIKoU<; TOq:.OU<;, ocv KI CUTOUC; 6.V6:yAUtpT} 610KOOIJIlOTJ rtou ncprcrcashes Of the dead were cyclical Pits With a rtou SptBTjKOV 0ll'J Bepvtvn. Eivm KTI- smaller trench in the center properly dug so vel ouvnaoc TTi 6e~[wOl1, 611Ao6fl XCIpia rtou KOAlJmOVTOI TUIJSO (xwpeTIOJlO ue TO rtccoenc rtcu l51vpuv as 10 accept jhe cinerary vase acnvo Mtpa). 'H t~WTE:pIKr; TOUe; I-IOP- The mouth of this vase was closed either by a TO xtpl. 'El-itpav(oVTat tniOTl<; Kat «tovee nou cmv KOPUtpI'J TOU<; exouv EVa epr; 1-I016(el 1-1£ onm. pnooctc 6t stab or a sherd or a smaller vase The famous Dlpylon vases named after the site where txouv tva zpouo nee £l.ltpov[(eTOtl.l£ vxurrro. they were found (Dipylon of Kerameikos) ca6IQq:.apec; ucccec: urtocet vc elver rT~V 'Aanvc nrcv OTlI-IOVTlKO 6 veIe from me geometric age The leo-ne repreKp6<; vc Totp£i OT6v reno TOU I-It 11') OKaAUmO<; il vc elver KOI-IOpOoKenl'Jc;, sentations of this period led the specialists to urtocet vc eXel cecxcncnc ii vo. elver tppovTi~Q ouyyevwv TOU i1 OV aev EiX£ the conclusion that the death ritual consisted cuvvevetc. vc TOtp£1 cno tpLAou<; TOU Ilta OnAr'J KOTIlepOPIKJi tnineOll tmepo.- 01 the exposition of the dead and the funeral Til tppovTIOo Hi<; tTOII-IOO(Oe; TOO ve- vela. ruvr;8w<; r'J rtoccoipn TOU I.lvTj- the lamentation and probably the procession uetou q:.tpel KOl (WypOtplcrrr'j 6l0KOKPOO elxav 01 vuvctsec. rUl-lepwvo I-It accompanied by dances The peaking of OIl'lOTl, '0 pu81.l0c; TOO «nctou EiVOt lunerary artts cne ot the characteneucs of the pcotuptc TOO cnuoceevn vuvoteec ii OWplKOe; (etov, archaic period Many of the surviving ana 60 xpovwv Koi neve v,.ou(ov TO IwvlKoC; (Bepy(vo) I\euKQ6la) i1 «ct ocvaeroc (I\£UKo.- monuments are works 01 celebrated comernvexpc, TOV oAeiepov I-It MOl, TOV evtuporary artists However ITT the tate 6th 6(0). To towTeplKO TOO «ncrou eivct vav TOV OToAI(ov I-It AouAou~lo, KOpcenturyBC a oecnne ot this art IS obvious a XWPlOl-ltVO OTO ~uo: "avec npWTOC; ~tAA£<; KOt KOOI-lTiI-lOTO. h!')v np6B£phenomenon explained by the political and Xwpo<; etcczou Koi 6 KUPIOC; xwpo<; D'l, rtcu OIOPKOOO£ 1-110 I-IOVO ueoc. T6 economic situation ortou SptOKOTOV r; TOq:.r;. '0 xwpoe; cuvexoc TOV ~clTTAwvav oe ilia ~TjATi KAIDunng the archarc period the burmng of the TOC; elver BOAooKem'j<; «ct nepI£xel V'l, TUALYl-ltVO ere £vOUI-IQ, cxouurude~d becomes more frequent as opposed to KO! «xtvec (elK. 7). burial The corpses are cremated in a grave cuevo rtcvo OLO o-rPWI-IO «ct oxermthat is up 10 two meters deep The informaouevo Ilt TO tnf6A'l1.I0. npOOK£ipOtion on the claSSIC era both excavanorat and AOlo TOO avaar;Kwvav Aivo T6 Ketp6AI, literary is ampte The Inner Side 01 the grave wor£ ti K6TW otcvov vc I-lJiv nEepT£1 I.S covered by a layer 01 mortar, a sarco1. 'EKT6c; OnO/lnKu90U<':;, KoM90u<.:; K,1i. TWpa atpl'JVOVTO<; TO orOIJO aVOlXTO. KalliO phagus containing the corpse or its ashes IS npWTotj.j[pov!~nolfvoKo,voup'Otloo<':;KtPOiJtl· epopa 6Bwve<; eoneocccv O· aUTO placed in the grave KOQ: Ti nu~<.:; iJE av9pwnoiJop~oO)(l'iiJO, (!lTOV TOIVi£C; nov cctvvov yupw ana venous indicative Signs such as statues 2. '0 K'KtpwV aVQ(ptPI:I ere tpyo TOU "De LeTO OOVOvt KOt TO KetpoAt). rTJi 610p9,bus»jll,26j6n}liyo(JtTaroIoAwvofvo60v· funerary stelae stone or ceramic vases etc ,"-w(Joonoyopcul:voXPl1ol(JonoloiiVta,YloT1'1v «ere Tri<; rtoceecnc xoecrve Xwpo Kai stand on the grave

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23

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Vemanl{"la eene recn JOLJtnaldePsychologle

Athens,
N. t.craux Certain the unique. do. nat terary riaus (9.85) The their

the

Historian

and Burial

burials significant need

are histerian further

simply facts. The

mentioned they and theretcre ot the In the by

by are they livlcto-

ancient

because mterpretatton burial killed

elaboratien. ereek warriors as

bait Ie ot

Plataeae. venous political

meouoneo a gaad Greek and status practise cities death. had to. hide

Herodotus express their coIhe Athens the those Idea of with bunal an and of the the from exhibits

furnishes

example.

cines-states cansequently Ihrough Sparta Tegea. proclaim while their lambs. be [he In cammon solid that can collaborated that

srnothecrenca! customs hierarchic they other before that try no

concept.

venous
equality Greeks invaders the What. tustonan phases
III

aosense

battle

in empty one. can

of course of the all the toenucar menInterpret

deceive

however. who ot case?

purpose detail and historian. have the

describes

a ritual. a most the rituals We text

every only

Thucydrdes, tions SIgnificance Thucycrces the the ting dicated further deeply For bunal heroes Atbenes' fore cles, into epic glary lhat are to back colours

a tustonc

possibly the the burial of

by using and mainly alive to

epos.
cieos.

since I.e. wriis deas It is

values

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as long historic rhapsody

narrated,

In the

iliad

an entire lamentation

rnv

although Achilles of due secures Thereby Pericitizens 01 of a of Ihe a for the

narration.
the cescnpuon that. Citizens, memory. given ot the the the the for any the for ideal by speech pra.se within places becomes city. means to her

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flo

·Thucydides ritual and IS the

celebrated in eternal the the given to. the

place

Epilaphios, transtcrms a hymn ritual facts

The description frame time

e,·

a burial

historic histone
result any

narration

into. a timeless to Athens. city. invents

presem.As
model cons-defuneral sake

Epitaphios reference

ranon ot Ihe orancn Pencles

However.

me
city

of

postenty. presents the and stands as a model to. draw have mes.an and last annually tnerr Thucydidlan re the have historian the est state dead: figure grandeur thus of glary. hving been compenucn had of only from altogether teenve so rituals as lives ignared that

nseu.u
the

ct Athens cne nac

Thucydrdes element were the for funeral participate values goal of omitted. reaches

one funeral takmq citizens Athens. games. the

wculc qaplace who in the whehVlng, the that highIn

mcrspensabte to. recall fighting the the

of funeral

text far

Citizens purpasely a unique the the

In a noble since to prove its

citizen figure city

in the

of the

Atheruen the

realizes

rtseu

28

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ria vc anOqlUyel 6 i5lo8tT11e; TOV «Ivovvo oMoiwOlle; ii 6VTlK0T6UTOOT'jC; Tile; cHoBrlKIle; unocet vc KOTOIPuyel ce i51ocpopa uccc. npWTO - rtptlrm TOU i5iVETOl 1'1 CUVOTOT'lTOvc vvccrortomcer OlOUe; uccrucec TO necrerouevo T'lC;, hot WOTE vc elver ot aeon vd 8E6mwoouv on TO tvypotpO nou So nopOUOlOOlEl opyon:po we; ,eAeu,oio 60UAI10ll EivO( np6VIJOTl Ii i5loSnKI1 nou TOUe;1510600£ 6 'iOlOe;0 OIOStT11e;. OI1We;,anaVtO oi 'ABTlvOIOI Kmo" tpeuyouv O· aUTO TO ).ltoov Yla va t~oOqlO,\[OOUV TI'j IJET6 86vOTO t(jlOPIJOyr, TWV tm8UIJlWV TOUe;.Ylo,i IJt ,ov Tpono aUTO ctv UnaPXEI 1'1 tnL8uIJIlnl I1UOTlKOT'l1"OTfie; i510BrlKIle;

ria vc OnOqluYEI ni ).lET060Ar'j TOU neo.exouevou Tfie; oloBnKIle;, oi51oBtTile; unopet vc ccoovtcer TO evvoccc KOt v6 TO qlUM~el ce OtVOUPO ueooc. ria uevcxnrecn 6Ko)..lO OO(jlOAtIO, unooet vo eurucreoeet TO 0(jlpOY10lJtvo tYYPOqlO ot tva ncoccmo E).lTTlOTOOUVIlC;, (jliAO ii cuvvevn ii aKOlJa vc OUVTa~el rteo.ccorepc ana tva cvrlvccec Kat vc rc KaToBtOEl ce i510<pOPO OTOJ.lO TIle; tIJTTlOTOOUVIle; TOU, 'AKOIJO uevcxurecn OlYOUPl6 t~ooIPoAi(el ri KOTa8EaT) nie; i51aSnKIle; napa aprIl 011Aool'j ae evcv o.PXOVTO ii at tva v06. "01lW<:. J.ltXPI Tic; 6pxte; TT')e; tMIlVlOlIK-r;e; necrceou, ortcvro ot OPXOiOl tJ.lTTlUTEUOVTOV rc L01WTlK6TOUe;evvoocc. ornoc elver ot OloSf)KEe;, Olrl tpUAO~1l).l16e;O'llJOOtOe; "Ii 6pr]OKeUTlK-r;e;apx-r;e;. tvw 6vTiBeTO crto TOUe; opxo'iKoue; iii5'l xPOVOue;, TOUe; ElJ.mareUOVTOV Kai O(jl'lVOV arl'j cpuAo~l'j TOUe; cvrucetuevc 6~toe;.

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The Will in Antiquity J. VeHssaropoulos
The Will as a when the and the legal the 01 the awakening Institutions. historic the document social ancient of and became pohucal perthe the ot world the Three evonnlcn the by in B.C. In the and childless law arts. are raw customary. circumstances mitted that law consequently in the 01 will that enabled of their

mdrvldualism

affected

landmarks institution Solon to silent practice during period. effective. Wills With estate tam son. even the part The to as dispose

of the

in antiquityproperty century age.

evolution 01 Ihe4th the

01 this

Iy rbe qreat

poourarttvthatthe hetlenisuc the they heirs and age men and alter usually his in the when purpose

wtu gained u-e crass.cai
was still

although

law of Solon had

Athenians either or to bequeath to a third of the no law. women their rich right and age death. relation Citizens were to The can lent had property their a cerperwill
In

10 their of type the

their

Bl6Aloypa<pia L BEAUGHET. Hrstcrre du drOit prlve de la Republlqueathen,enne.napiOl.1897.toI-'Oe; III, 0" .l23·473 L. GERNET. La 101de Solon sur le "testament". Droit et secrete dans la Grece ancrenne nopioI1955.o.T2H49 A R. W HARRISON. The Law 01 AThens. I The Family and Property, OE;4'opo'l1968 0122-1&2 JW.JONES. The Law and Legal Theory of tne oreees. An Introduction Ot;IjlOP0'l 1956.0.189-199. J.H LlPSIUS Das aruscbe Hecht und neethsverfah,en. A~"jllo 1905·1915. 537-561 o. R. TAUBENSCHLAG, The Law at Greco-

the

neuenlsuc

whaand equally dispose nauem-

tsoever foreigners. rreateo of stic
In

Solonian

regards

their wills

properly were They

Interesting and

content. they or the also that as

contained name, whether

a oescnpnoo

01 the sron: terate written they and red the the was ness 10 Ihe was Will the

testator. not will stated declaration and terms by once

c-oresillihad sane the and of else

mentioned case on that

he was the

someone of the testator had Will: the The and

behalf

testator: was then

mv

lhedocument heirs

to ba ccnsroementioned violation document the was

01 last were

witnesses will and also who Wills

Roman E9yptm the Light ot the PapYII. 2'1 E~<,)OorJ. Bapao6ia 1955. cr. 181 ~n E SEIDL. ptoternarscne Reclhsgeschlchle zn ~K<')OOTl, Gluckstadll962. 0 179·181 Kai 183 err.

provisions signed

prohibiting followed. the more of the the the as henenrsnc testator

wumade

provisions mentioned was

executor

usually form

established ly written 20u clcvc IJ.X. public wills by

of the

period. herald the

normalmodern

t!.lo6rlK'1

ncnuccu

TOU

'O~upuyxou

(up.

105)

TOO

a notary,

33

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unvoc
tr

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G HERRLlNGER TOlenklage urn Tie,e In oer anl,ken Q,chlung. Sturtqart. 1930 G KAIBEL (ed). Ep'grammata graeca ex lapldlbus cceecra. Berlin. 1871:1 F,D LAZENB'Y "Greek and Roman HOUsehold Pets~, The cresecar Journal -1-1. 1949.245-252&299-307 S LIUA. Dogs in Anclenl Greek Poelry Hels,nk',1976 W PEEK. Gnecmsche Vers·lnschroflen_ t Grab-Eplg.amme. Berlin, 1955 E PFUHL & H MOBIUS. Dre ostgnechlschen Grab.elle-fs, R REITZENSTEIN. Malnz am Rhe,n 1979 Epigramm urnJ Skollon

n

Glessen_ 11:193 A SCHNAPP-GOURBEILLON heros. masques tes representations arurnat Chez Homere- Pans, 1981

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also an

to be buried

Underworld. animal life becomes dealh the the

If

tails or neglects

then

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expression 01

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a

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mutudimenuonat world. never
In

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ancient lomb

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excavancos minute me Its hfe starts epigrams and the ttus Through anguish loss even reflects sight reason fear Greek of if

bring

of a cicada and ends

of the" Anthofogra verses, of Ihe IS fully sorrow "other", .. ctnerburial that

Palatma

these

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IS an animal. of Ihe dead own did not fear for man's

concern

for the

orrou 6

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mv
0 j.1t TWV j.110 EVOe; Kat

«oectpncucvooc. T00e; vouc i'] TOU~ cvaocmooc
E;OVE ot TOqJO TOUe; 600 roue zooocv rtoxxc onolo OllKWVOVTOI

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ani
6 oro

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never

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1923
I1:i<; TOO ljJOV Lll:ATO xf]e; 00 KOV, Yla crouc apxt<; ckovc mT]V apxoio T!')V 86 TTiC; oeurecnc ucc. Koi ol nEAEKiO'le; TOO vexcorccero TOUe; eoeuvnrec TOU. rtoo nUKVOTI1TO 10q)QU<; tv6lmptpov bEKOE1:io<;, KouanOKOAU(i)O'\IlPLKOO rtcu Ttle; apXolOMyOl

~uAov tnElb1'] nevreouo.vvov
KAOIOUe; KOTOb[KOU ·H tE;tle;: ocvtoc. TOO KO, blOOIKooio rfcve nou orti ce

ii

Suvoun XOAKOO, I-IOVO

01-

OKOjJO TOO 1'] YEPI'] au

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TE «ni oM6.

f1
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ct-

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crncizcv ocvlzc.

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at

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at

ei43

OUYKPL'

J]
OT] KOt

The Oeath Penalty J. veussercpeutcs
In ancient Greece people were condemned either over lhrown death condemned towards Rather must lhe to by a the wllh the than a be death laking precipice board hemlock end 01 the 01 by Ihe court hemlock or, was ... Poisoning first executec by practiced B.C. poisoning lreatment was for a relatives over 1fT Sparta, and and practice also of

or by being finally, 01 the

-cn

51h century execution,

ccuvncoreon i:E,arr[ac; TOU KOptpWI-lOlOC; nov QKPWV. cuvertcvercr vonvoooteoo
I'] PWj.lQ'iKI']

Ilt

rev

anorUI.mOVI0I-l0.

'AKOI-lO

vrc nerocrec rtou cnecocucv
TIKte; ~TQV TOe; OKT£C; -

croupccn.

rtcocuorec
oi TOUe; OUTO

OUVf]810I1tVEC; TOU rOAWVa.

XPOVOUC;

80VOTO YOU

AOYW

TIle; TOU K08e

onWAEIOe;

To ucorcorc

cncruuncv.toueneplYp0tpl']. IlE TaU TOUe;

cjucroc
ruKAOlOUC;

uvoc
nove
poe; TO TO

E,enEpvo

ouvexcecv Kat TOV cncveocmo rtoc
tE,oAelt(l'lC; EVa

rnv

tmt'ipOI-li],

rtplv ana TOUe; 'Anoxpouov'Aanvctoi TOUe;

erueocuec

rrrlc

OT-

mode considerd

as an exhortation his corpse his criminal but over

10 suicide, delivered burial. not precipice. only Oelph1. Ihe steep cliff

atalter

reran
death wing Athens and deep 11'. This served as was involved pushed

a merciful to a

condeIn throan in was mtc a

mned,since

K08f]AWjJi:voe;

crnv

Op810 jJE

ccvtec.

TOU
KO,W, KOTW

OWIlOT6e; ric; KVr;l-lec;,

oAo ,0 scencore rtpoc
ot «xorot
va Kat nov WAEVEe; KAOlOI TO

'0 Al8060AIO!-lOe; KOt a KOTQKP'lI-lVIOIlOC; TWV KOTOOiKWV elvm EVOe; rpoTOO EYKAr1l10 EVa OTiC; tvoxou, npWTO t.!;oyvlol10 yevv6. KupiwC; yanK!') SPTlOKEUTlK00

esrexeoove ue rocrto.

executional probably lrench mode for also

common

Korinth

in Thessaty, a high called

convict

uetccporoc nco
dvoc. 'H Sarteprrmooe«; oro IjlUOlKO
a.v..o. an' TfJe; EXel OAO KatTOO

Varalhron Korakes was

in Athena. rn 'rnessarather criminals. but of trench accept is menlioned way. descriplion lexiocograwith a the lhe lhe (= drum). Interperebetore when in and mentiodug was the re-

OUVEnetO

Kaeadas

1fT Sparta religious the over 406 Athenians probably executed type has the of literature as According execution

mczouv
QKPWV

rtc
ot

01 execution case

XOPOK'!,)PO. tKTtAeOT] TOU

ccvovr.

or political a prohibition

"Av

ecooc nEttlrel 010 AOtjJO «of cuvexreeroi ro «cno ocvcvc xrtc oouvec coree neenet vel noocreaoov I'] rtetvc. ri 611jJa. TO KPUO, ri ~Emr], TO. evtouc Kat TO coveo. ot uoxuvce.c. i] vcvvonvc.
£IVQl XOAopoi, OAa

ourcc OEV occvrcpo
8PTloKeuTlKi] VWVlKr;e; O'(!-IOTOe;

onocxonet

wi1h poisoning, is not new to 4th century

in add ilion B.C.

burtal.

u

Throwing ned by most The in alter lhe

a precipice and the in the purposed convicts. execution bul to was detailed

cnoexener crcv
011000e;

xporc ,

ucoruptc

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TOO OUTe

nou pncoouccv

vc

610PKE-

6iOtfl
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nov 8a crtortourm
Kat eUO'E6eloc; nAEupa

cno mv euauvn
OTO

xuaet. "Erterrn. r'l 8avQTO evcc
!-IEAOUe; 8c:wP1lgei: IlEpOUe; 000 Kat

othrewise third classic

in a laconic later

KOTOPOIlEVOU

nou
nOIVr;

o!-l6.i5ac;

unocet

rooo

vc
6.n6

Nowhere survived. phers the tation second wooden help had

performed This

mv erueoorsct
TO nOAlTIKc

cnoruunc

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ro

6tv

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crto rnv
TWV TeAeiwc; TOUe;

OUYKEKPIl..lEV'lC;

011000C;

01

the not

-tympanoninslrument. been disputed centrury,

TOO KOT0i51KOOf.ltvou

death decade an Phaliron. Among

8P'lOKEUTI-

6 onotoc
askov

tYKoTOAEtneTOI OUVOIlEWV. olmpop£TIKr'l KOKOUPYWV.

oro exeoc
ElVOl

01

cur

rmccn ttcv
aOTlYEi (jlOPETlKO KP'lIlVt0l..l0 11.00

r'j

neor-

archaeologisls discovered area burials. one in it significant, without wore the hands still Judging skeleton neck. mnants. can projections conclude of

Kourouniotis ancient the impressive

Pelekidis its dense excavated, was quite buried Each lhe sharp reone had

01

XOKOOp-

«cmvoptc cmv ortolc neotxou60VOVTOV. KOTO T6v 'Aorcrorexn

ce SOVOTO TEAeiwe; oronrto ro SOVOTO ue KOTOTWV tvoxwv tYKAi]l1oTOe;. tKT1SeTOl 8PTlOK£UTI-

'H

EKTtAEm;

cemetery for graves period had ring

01 the

early since any an

86 arcarc
17 men burial iron

been around with wooden evidence

(' Aanvckov nOAITdo 52, 1): xAtmat, QvOpano010TO( Awnoourm, rOlXwpuXOI Koi BoAovTlor0J.101 (TOOVTOK'li5ee;)

«ot

tvi5ExoIlEvWC; eYKA'l110T1EC; KaT' rtPelE,'l

ot eovrczec'.
OAOl

"Av

OUAAlltp900v

tn' aUTOrpoP4J,

co-

'0 crtoOTI'] OflI-lOcvrucetuevo crtoorooq>r;c; Kat XAEUQO!-l00, ,6 anoia rtpenet vc urtoceosr Ilt <cas toorto. 'AnoTEnOAlTlKOO

i']

offerings.

tuuncvizouevoc
010

eec

ocv

and

the ankles lhis

preserving from that each dead

rot ol
PIO yoov onTIKI'] 0[0, Hie; TO

OVelKPIOT] nov

euectcv ere
'EqI'

6i5'lYOOVTOI

xwplc.; liIKOcm;OIlOAOOUV-

AEI

OUV0l10

K.oi EVa

tva ElVOl

01-100: j.lOTlKrl

'H

mv

"Evoexu.

ocov

one

cvcvto

ueco

tKtp061-

body

me nooczerv-

been stretched and had been and In rings that the in Ihat his the

on a board. 50-55 ern wide. kept still with the help of were nailed on the board. Keramopoulos recognized of Phaliron mode the the 01 4th arused legal had only also 930 and proved until on on grave

rrreuo.

TOUe; OKOAOUSEI

OI1EO'WC;.

'H cuvormsn curn liI0i51KOIi anaywyrj, cnorcxct KOTaAOtnO
ii51WTlKr;e; Koi TO tKoiKllOT]e;, i5pOOT'l Kat

610011'.00'10

«of

IrtIJtLWOE<t:: 1 A. KtPOIJ¢nouMo~. '0 6.n01ullml~L0J.l6~ rocBoil!') opxoLoiloV<K!') £1<:; I!')V toroptcv lOU nOL~L" KOU ou<olou set rnv xcovccctcv. A8~vo 1923 tBL6i1LOB!')Kr] 1!')t:: Ae!i~ol~ apXOLol"'YLKr;~ ETOIPEio<:;.22) 2 L. GerneL ..Sur I execuncn capitale". REG 37. 1924. IJ 261·293 = Antropolo9,e dans la antique, Paris 1968, o. 302-329. 0 Mac Dowell AtheJHan Homicide Law In me Age 01 the Orators. Manchester 1963. F. Bluche ... La peine de mort dan5tEgypteptolemalque".Rid~ 22,1975.0143-175 3. nop6l1.o no':' 6. ",avoc; otv cvceeccrc. ono lev Ap,moTdlrt on'jv apiBWlOT] TWV tyKl\r]l.lCncv £lOU TIIJWpOUV'TOl !.It OnOIUlJnoV<O!.lO, 0 Macpoweu {Alhenian Homicide Law) UlioOTT]pl" (EI-!.lErpOIiOfTElGTlK6-cIlIKOi6",6vo<;tlllllJ-

1923

archaeologist internationally

EKTEAOOVTOl

proved study reveals exeoctlnq from century the

atoretorc
common. that not but

tne

most criminals

me

ncvcoxotcc
liIKOlOOUVlle; '(010

cnovounc
OTOV TaU TOV TI']V

ev

been

pre-solonian B.C. like Based finds

period

TO

SOI-lO

f'J ot cuvvevetc
xwpic;

ouvexopaovov

esrcxotrccv eneueocn TWV
0\
ywv. cntecvo rIo TOV VEKPOt T00 I-lEVWC; "OI1We;, vu A.

cueccx.

n-ece

chaeological sources phanes' doubt means in comedy

literary Aristo-

Thesrnopnortasouses. (verse theory on

KPOTlKWV

cmv «omvopto
TO yeyovoe; 17 rtpoxcrrcn Kepcuonovxxo

coxnoou

6viit<ov TWV

opvdvrov cnoKOKOUPK081OTO KAttpTEe;. npOKElTOl

following) beyond was the buried

Keramopoulos'

that death 01 execution

the
of the

board

17

men

OTI TOtpl")KOV yui

Pbatircn

O'uYXpovwe;

tYKA'ljJOTic:c.;

P<:ITOIIJEr!,)V!OIOnoLvft

IIP08El:H KAI EK<I»OPATOY NEKPOY l:THN APXAIA EAAAL\A

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LTD

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rtou

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at

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ITPOT';C; nonot36nouAoc;,
TeAEI6<.pOITOI TOU aPXOIOAOYIKOU rouse

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TOU Ilovemcrrunoo 8£o/viKr1C:

45

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uno

noxnc.

1 EUPll1i6'l~

A'\Kl1an<;,

158·162.

170·172.

194

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Funeral Greece Sources.

and Burial in Ancient According to Literary
N. Kcusoutakou had dead occurec had the close of

1551·1554 E FrasrJIII. 735 ri.E

s. Papadopoulos Soon after of the death the

EUPL11iO'lC;.6.'1 .• B6·SS n/\6TWI/. N6IJOI,960A Eupl'1io'l<;.O'1 89·90 6.f"! .. 99-100. APIOTO<llllVf1<;_ 'EK~"110l6(ounO'\UOEUK'l<;.ol1"H 65·66

relatives sition. corpse. was was

to take

care of

oOl.1033 18.'1oullIoC;

its practical

consequences. funeral was and the following

i.e.

the expo-

burial

tae.n
20 ·APIOTO'jl(lVf]~. 6.'1. 21 EUPll1ili'l<;.o.;'_,101·102EuPl!lio'lC; IKtT,· Ol.:~, 973-974 22 Eupmi611<;. 'AA~'lOTl<;. 73-76 23. m.OH(lV. <DciOwv, 80C·D 24. EUplT"[ioll<:;. 011 .. 215-216. 25.Sokolowskl. lOIS sacrees de I ASleMmeure 26. EUPl11ili'lC;, o.n.. 425-431 27 LyrilGraeca.l, Ul'ltpW. 144 28. ·AVfl(llWV. ncpt TOU x,opeuTou, 34 29. EUp''1ilil"]<;. Hpo~'\i1C; MClvo'_'£va<:;. 922 ~.t ("0 'Hpa~~i1<"; tlOIlJol;I.:TCl vc Sumoo!:I. y'a vo tE;OYVlOTEiT0'1oMT.onoTO<p6vorou8oo['\,6 I\UKCU, 110U OKOTWOI.:0<010<";1. 30,'louAloC;noAuo!:ux'l<;.o.'1 .. 65. 31 Sokolowski. LOIS sacrees des cnes Grecques.77 32.·AplOTO<pOVIl<";.6.!l ;3, m,OUTOpX,O<;. .. 1032 nop6AA~AO!. !6Awv. XXI

In the day

the death by a servant placed

me me
or

sad event

announced by a pitcher.

Indicated washed cut

mtront

of the house

door

of the dead. ana and Invited The wore

The corpse mournful friends for and by la-

and tayed their They day hair also

bed. Therela-

uvee

garments. place the the king The the from ch the

the exposrtlon

of the dead alter. women day, The
In

that was taking lamentation performed throughoul itself and was

uaotnonat
second

mourning funerat silent

professionaf

lasted

crace
pubfic

the

third was The

day at down. followed attended tc approaday the was women

procession road. a distance they grave was with the the

ccesetc".

and except were yard. In the

tne varv close next

relatives house

not allowed With from Then. mourning for lour

Ot il.OyOl TWV rtoocncaeuov nie; rtoxrTelae; vtx nccroctcer TO rtevecc KOt rtOpoAil.Tlil.o vc i:l1tIlB£I. onwe; ovoeepOIJE' ncocnove. O'TO TUlllKO Tile; KTlQeioe; q>OiVETOIon elver noxmcot, t81!-llKoi «ui OiKOVOIlIKOl. '0 £AEYXOe; TOU aortvou, Yla 110p6QElY110,KO! Tile;

ate.

sprinkled earth corpse. to keep the

sea water. the

34 Sokolowsk" 0,'1 .. 97 35_0'1 36. 'APIOTOtp<i.V'l<;. b.n .• 1030 37 1'I0u~,ovo<;, nep: '1tv6ouC;.

daubed non tives three of

and linally

was washed contammawere for The relamale

so as to be cleaned 10. offered to the had and

sacrifices gods. the

38. APIOTo<p6v'l<;. 6.11.. 1032 39. AIO)(uAo<";, 611 40 EUPll1iof]C;. -A~K'lOT1<;. 629·631

houselhold femate

months

To vexpopovrelo
To
TO

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mv

vapo

oro

teoo

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extraordinary monuments period: chitectural masterpieces ting. century ted The B.C. monuments funerary (350

achievements over not is furnished may interest most belong, The the B,C.), antique best monument one but

funerary a direct are vase to and ot seven the arpain4th was, Allkarmirac-

by the geometric present they art and however. known of of the Indeed funerary celebra-

of plastic

significant

antiquity

undoubtedly, naS$OS les The the also serious ciety the thaI on The that Great the Greek of the

Mausoleum world. was

monument the architects wrote

commissioned of Alikarnassos, Satyros, on the Greek great the book of and

by to who it. The so-

Mausofos,

dynast Pytheos

a, lost followed contributed

today. the

transformations to rulers

death the and

of Alexander effect had Impressive East

luxurious of the architecture

monuments

01

monumental a distinct chamber carefully to be hidden tradition was heir and ism with of the passed of Greek new group. and

Macedcnfan The the

graves

BI6Aloypotpio
ALAIN ERLANOE-BRANDENBURG, sallies" Monumellls Hisloriques de re France,124(1983)27·32. B, FLETCHERS, A Hislory of ArChitecture. (6th ed.) revised by J.e. Palmes, London 1975,249-252,311-318,367-370. A, GRABAR, Le premier art Chretien, Pans 1966,160-169. IITOPIA EJ\IIHNIKOY E6NOYL. a, 289 Itoi E, 0, 436, IT. AYll.AKHI, 01 -EM'lv£C; rl.umcc; - r') V£oEMllvIKT')y),umlltT'),'IOTOpio wncxcyio-Ac~K6YAumwv,'AeT')va1981 (Mtl.lO·

form vaulted facade stined are The

underground temple-shaped - although a hill deof earth graves, archithe was style. cyclical period. theory than and and of

decorated under Greek over

typical

characteristics

of these funerary to

tecture cultural enriched Tombs in thai death meaning Tile plan Christian

Rome.

civilization, varieties usually the Roman the along nothing for eternity,

rou. rz

mausoleums brought lile interval to obtaine was

characterize

terrestial had

more content

a temporary

therefore

0'0),

IT, IIYll.AKHI, Mia nO),UTl[Jll YAum08T')It'l, T6 A' N£KPQTOIp£iO 'Aef1vtdv (np6),oyo<: E. M1xcMj). 'A8T')vo 1981, X. MnoypAI. M081i!.lOTO '[OToplac; Ti'Je: 'APXIT£ltTOVIKi'ie:, T6!.l. zoe, 'A8T')vo 1975. A, :yrrOnOYIIOI, .'0 T6",0C; TOU l!.IYC· vi')".'EMflVllt620(1967),24-28

a

new

snan
on

funerary age that of

buildings are of with to - for pioneers

of the the of the

the

early

crhfarchiof - life faias by the inthe tradito

insignifacant exception

tectural martyria the The and th. official Constantine continuation tion death

interest aimed the exemplary establishment religion the

tocustne
of the new

auenuon new

believers Christianism Empire

of of the

Great

contributed existing with of

already

1. 'Ynopxouv eccocec 6vonopaOTQOC!C; TOU cuvcxcu li')C; np60OljlllC;, 9palio[JOta l~W ~!o· vcv nou lllO[Joptpwvov1l')v Eioo606El;lOltoI6pl' OTCpa fxouv cceet OT6 'E6vllt6 'APXmol.0Yllt6 Mouocio Tf)c; 'A8T')voe: ant TO. BpnovvUl6 0'10 IIov6lvo, 2, TO. 317n.X. [Jt 616TOY).lO lOU lI.'W'lTp[OU <DoAllPto 6nuyopCUOV1'01 lO no}.uu:Mj TO'l',lt6 [JVf)[Jcio Itoi rc lOU l6'1'ou ncplOp((i:To, at ImM,)oltoOjJ!)TTlO1l'\I.!).ot,((QvloKo.K.I.,n. 3 Newton-Pullan, Cockerell, Ferguson, Omsmoor, K.6 4,Mcy6A.Of[JT')[JOfO~f$l6pwVTOU!.lVTl[JEiou,KOeWe; Koll6 avdAtJOTO TOU Mouo<ill.ou Koi l1ie: 'APT£[JIOioC;, t"etTOV1'OI 0'16 Bpnovv,lt6 Mou· octo TOU IIov6ivou 5,T6!.lVlltJ£10rtp09pt(6TOVVoru:pV.06£llo),tl· ccvc Twvout6ltpaT6pwvnou6tEKi6pl0ll0vet· Of) cecc OTOV t6~ fOU AuyoliOTOU. n6 [Jt· oolwvo ot Flcnec TO. l-Iutrp£ljJOv O~ f$lpaliPIO

in funerary the in It when, properly The had new

monuments incorporation religious was with not Ihe until

one

novation: monuments complexes. century the ditions Since an as ding grave was as the prehistoric various the dead became developed we possible Urnes Interest retlqlcus body the wiU in many try to in some architecture, point man has shown As seen regarthe and forms as fully have a of chitecture. The class and mast the wealth War human put first appear.

architectural the of decree

Death and Architecture: Types and Forms
M. Kambouri

1634,
conar-

ism-

organized social and effect

cemeteries political on funerary

-oncc-

a direct

exceptional

in death. theories were of types

continuously at the military famous execution and under vanity, 19th its

rising century, economic,

Greek wishing political,

middle to comartistic the with of and its the World

formed, interest and that

memorate

success of power. control the

commissioned artists proof Second luxury final The the

contemporary

Therefore, special funerary

illustrate the

examples

significance

evolution

59

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60

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VETat 6 DPWOe; KOt ot 6.~iee; nou exnpoccmet. ·AvoKec.poAoIWVOVTOe; tnt011Il0{VOIlE on I'j 6.vOlltTP'1OT] 'Hpum - Xnpou nco 6.KoAou8ei TO 1l0VTEAO Tf)<; T'JPWLKT)e; alfTiYTlOT]e;, cvcrtcorcrc nAoOTIKa Koi (5POj.lOTlKD., ueco 6.n6 j.llD. j.lU81Kti OUYKPOUOT), TO aAUTO rtooexnpc rnc OUVunop~'1e; TOO cvceoc Tf)e; ~wfie; 11£ n; uotpc TOU eovcrou 'H cvcueronon oun; nctover Tr')1l0Pcpr') ovnrtcocescnc cvcuecc cmv KOOJ1IKrj TQ~T) 6.cpev6<;, non ectooo»netrcr crto TO X6po (KO! TO 8e6) KOt OUj.lc.pWVO ~t rnv cnotc vouuro Kat 5iKOIO EIVOlI'j KOlVf) potco TOO 80V6.TOU KOt QVTiOTPOc.pO, rtcocvopo Kat a151Ko T') cecvcctc (KOOj.llKr') aUIJ60011). Kat OTJ'jV avepl.i.JmvT) Kat r.pUOIKrj T6~T), ocsreoov. rtcu esrtooccmernn 6n6 TOV 'Hpum KOl OUj.llfWVO j.lt n;v ortotc V6j.lIIlO Ka! OtKOlO elver I'j 6AOKhl'jpwCIT] (nAIlP6T'lTO-eUi501j.lOvio) KOt 5101WVlOT") Tf)e; ~wile;, nOpaVOIlO KO! aOlKO elver uotoc TOO 80VclTOU. LT6 rtxcloto TWV OUO aUTWV cvnnoccn8tIJEVWV ouuaocetov T'Ji]PWLKl'J (5p6on nctcver 15uo TOUTOXPOVO aVTi8£Tee; onuccrocornccrc:

n

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"'''
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Mt 66.0T) tnv nopan6vw 15\rtAti eveyVWOf) TaU uuaou, r, VIK'1 TOU xcocu ere ncovpcnxo eninEoo cnuctver Tr')V em60Ar, lile; KOOj.llKfje; T6~T]<;, 15'1A. erueeecucver mv 6naptKM.llTJ iO)(u Tf]e; uotocc TOU 80VOTOU, aUIJqxovc I1t rnv 6.vnKElj.lEV1Kr') eunerotc. TOUTOXPOVO - Xo.PTl crmv ,,6mlKr1 ywvia" TOO 6.c.p'1YTl"Tf1,nou npo60Mel rev 0.(51KO set 6vr'j81KO xapoKTl'jpo Tf]<::; cuuneoupoocc TOO XopOU (c.p86voe;. o6Aoe;) - ncovucrcncretrcr ore 6.~loKpanK6 tninE(5o evcc IlU81K6e; uercoxnucnouoc me UAIKfje; tjnoe; TOO "Hcccc ce r')81K6 actcueo. rtou l(5eoAoYlKa cnuotvet TI'jV KOToyyeAio Tile; uorocc TOU 8avOTOU Kat ui (51KO(WOTl TWV 6~lwv Tfje; ~wfje;, OUIlc.pWva j.lt TOUe; soeurepouc noeouc TOO 6.KPOOTfj. ··ETOI cuvrexetrcr j.110 KO-

nou ccevoc «ever 6n0(5EKTf) Tr')V TO.· ~r] TOU K601l0U, ccereocu (5100TlAWver ue Tri lleYOAUTepT] EIl!.pOO11rnv nlOT'1 TOU AOOU j.loe; OTr') ~wTi we; npwlTJ Kat j.lEyOA'l 6~10.' Meoc 0' aUTO. TO [(5eoAOYLKO ouucoc~6j.lEVO tm66MeTQI va tVTaxgei Kat 6vayvwOT] TWV TPOYOUOlWV Tf)e; T£AEUTO[Oe; cpcocc (36). lTl'jV 6~twOT") TOU tTOLIJo8avOTou i')pwo v: cveeer crov ocpcvc Kat vc nccer ere Xt.PLO TaU TOV eAeyxo TWV c.pUOlKWV OTOIXE[WV 6voyvWp{~Oj.lE 1110veoeMllvlKf] eKtppoon Tfje; «np0J.11"J8eiKIjr; loear;". It urd eKp'1~'1 ~wlKtie; oPllfie; 6 '"Hpwoc; 6.~lwvel vc onoecrccrncet Tr,V "(510 TT']V KOOj.lLKl'J apxrl (TO 8eio) Kat vc tm6o.AEL Tr') 151Kr') TaU T6.~'1 crov K60j.l0, nou elver ti KOT6.i\U011

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TOO 80VaTOU· xnl f] KoBltPWOll errtvercc cacvcotcc.
LrUl£IWoe:I<; - B(6),.IOypo<plo

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1 rill TO. XOpO~n;pa TOOI' I-'OlpOJ"aVIW~, nop66oOl'tTolle;<'mon'lv6.PXmOTT)TO.T6.t811-"1I6 TOUe; OUI-'<ppa~6iJevo 61.. KllPIO~lo'1. Kou~olJM Alexiou rte. (~iooywVr1), EuM.iJmo. Schmidt. rIo Tliv TtXVIKJi. rle; IjlOPI-'e:e;,n;v al06IlTIKrj laue; 8)" ·AnOOTO~QKTl. ·Iwovvioau. LKonnto, naOOYI6.1II1 (Yla Tie; OUvTOl-'oypo<pi~e; on') OT)". 3) 2. 'Av6.iJeo6. roue; ~ol ot KaT· tn6.yye:i\"o porpoxovrrrcec. nee npooopl-'6<;ouvon')vneplmWOll OTe:p~6TLmo oxril-'aro I-'Olpoi\OVlWv Vl6 VEO. VIO 116PTl.YlaTovlJ(t>t~TT)TOUOmnou.YlaTijVKUP6.. LnopoolKO iJOPTUP~ltal TO.<pOlv6I-'cVO 1'0 porpoxovccv ~ol otevrcec (KouKauMe;) KO( Ii 6,B),.,oypo<pia nee XP'101I-'onOlri8'1K~OUVTOl-'oypo<peiTQ,6nM,I-'E ui IIvolJo Tououyypo<peoij16vliT),.OloOnep,ooIKOU

mv

ri

3.01

rowe.:;

rovrunoc« t<papl-'6<;OI-'E iJOVO OTOu~ oU~'18tOT~pOUe; i\ l-'o~pooKe~eje; TiTi\Oue; A.A. ·AKOOlliJio ·A6'1vfuv. ·E)J,.'1v,lIo o'1l-'on~o lpayout.lia ("E~i\oyijl. TA. tv ·AeijvQl~ 1962 Alelliou, Marg., The ritual lament In Greek uaul71

uon Cambridge University Press, 1974 ·Anorrro}..!i.K'1C;. r,OVV'1C;. T6 1i'11-l0t'KO rpcvculi,o. Mtpo~ A' Oi ouhlloyt~. 'A9l'lvo, 1929 rIOVVOp'1~. A. (Jeannaraki) .• ""AoIJQlO KPIlT'Ka (Kretas Volkslieder). Leipzig 1876 (Neudruck: Wiesbaden 1967) rv<:uToe;,n.,Tpoyau1i,a1inI.lOT'KaTi)C;P61iou.tv ABljvol~ 1926 lU.E.E.: {I,<:AT(OV 11'lC;'lerrop'KilC; Ko(·EBvo.l.OYI-

thllI]VlK6iS'11.10llKoTpayou61.rrrOVTOI-lO!'l" I-IE'WT'Kr, KO( KOLVIIlVia, ·A8f)vo. ·OOUOOEO". 1980. c. 227-32. ncex. Koi Eltl.l£~Il" t03-3e 9 .• N· 6.n08dvEI0 xcooc!Eivmi')OIJv'l81O)JEv'1 6vao:pwv'10ll oE Ov611.oy£<; tKpT')~IC; 4>J1Kr,C; U' E o:popioc;rrr6yMVTI.0l0XllpOljrrroTpayouol.

EuMj.lnLOC;. r.. ·O ·AI--'Opovme;. I\ro, P6Qo-me; avoyevv'1geiOT)C; ·EAM1ioC;. ~v nnpounoAEI 1843 CA91'lvaI, xcocercc. 1973) SElleA'1<;. r .. ·H 1i,1iaal<o.l.;o 1WV Necrv 'EhII'1Y'KWV. TO np66A'11l0 Tiic; tpWlveloc;, 2'l tK1i. (l.A·). eecocxovten 1956. 0.103·36 ElEpCC;. "Ay,C;, lI'1l-l0llKa 1payou1ilO. 'A9f]VOL 1909 (Koi: Tpoyoli1im TWV·EN\l\vwv. B'. 'A9l\vo, ·A<:10<:;.1952) ·lwavvl1iou. M., Untersuchungen zur Form der neugriechischen Klagelieder (Moirologien). Munchen 1938 KOUKouMC;.¢I .. BU~OvTlvwvB[oC;Ko[noA\TIOI-l6c;. Call. de 1'lnSlllut Francais d·Alhenes. 1. A" (1948). c. 33 (IlOLpoMYLO). 1. l'.' (1951). O. 162-72 ( 68piivoe;) KupmKi1i'1". !liAnwv, To 0'11.1011K6 Tpoyolio, !uvoywyT') lleAETwv. 'A8T')va, ·Eplll'le;. 1978 I'IOl.lnaKnC;. It ..01 KaT0600E''' errov KOTIIl KOO)JO OTT') 8u~ovTlVI'J Kat ClTl') I-l<:T08ul;oVTlvft AOYOTExvia, 'ABftva 1982 I'Illoypoo:pia.l'.E1I.liavTi)c;·EhII'1v,Kiie;lIlloypoqaKfic; 'Ercrpelcc. EY ·A8f)vo,C;. 1909 K.E.. T. 1,5,9 I\£MKOC;. M., {l,rUJOTlKTi ·Av80~oyio. tK1i. B'. tv A8r,vmc; 1868 ncveecc, IUYYPOjJI-Illn£pLOO'KOV, IOTOP'K6vKIlI ~OYOT£XVIKOV. tv 'A6r,vo,C; 1860 naoaYH'iv'1C;, K., MOVlciTlKlll-lO,poMy,o KoiTPO' youi'lIa, 'A81'lvOI1928 Passow. Am .. Tpayou1i1O PUJI--'O('KO[Pcpularla carrntoa araecrae recentioris, Lipslae 1860 ne.: neroonovxoc. "., ·EhII'1VIKa6'll.laTIKa rocyouiS,o. B'. 'A6iivOL, Boa. B,6~106TiK'1 47. 1959 (nE.A·: rterpenouxoc. o.n., T.A·) no.: nOAiTT]C;, N.r .. 'EK~Oyoi cino TO rpayoulila TOU thll'lVIKOQ xcoc, 'A8ijva, 1914 PO~EAOC;,2T., rtcocuuc jJolpaMylwv 1I.OI<WV,KWV. 'ABiivo, 1870 Schmidt. Bern .. nes voixsrebeo der Neugriechen und das hellenische Altertum. Leipzig 1871 2KonE1EIl. LTal.lo\l,QT'KOIJO,poMy'o.·A8"vo 1972 T~,al~'OC;. E.. TpoYOll<'iLO nov rcccscrocvctcv, 'A6iivQI t928 rommasec, N .. Cantl popctart erect Venezia 1842 XOOIW1'1C;. r .. IuMoyl'j TWV «ore mv 'Hnetpov li'lI.lOT'KWV 00I-l0TIIlV. EV 'ASf)vOI" 1866 Oi op,BIlOi TWV noponOl-mwv 1i1)1I.wvouv aE~.,

"

Kiic; 'E1mpeloc;

riie; ·8.MlioC;,

tv 'ABT')vol~ 1883"

Death E.

in Folk-Song

Kaphsomenas extent to which Death as a theme af-

The fects and cal the

theoretical biological criterion Greek puts creating research for system. case, in hierarchic

problems character the From where, motion or even this the

of a universal can be used as a as a typologi01 a of view siof point

«key .. for cultural gnificant death for thus for view In the whose course. specifically sions. ced rion in of towards adventure mension dents triation character, mentations: purely which the Here stinct the ruler The are tuals dead; of the well the or the

determination represents a clear

folk-song

a most

experience procedure

classification

Ilf values, plane We will point of ITOV

an extremely subject from

suitable this

the study the

of bio-cosmctheory.

To

KWVIO «cctocovc-.
'Aq>aO

approach

poetry modern limited Almost

of a people history to the equally songs, usually in

like the Greeks, series is of of of death

6

nMTWV 80VQTO

~aC; i5(VEl TOO Iwf)Tlle TO

is a long category mournful often where serves ballads, with

xerrrouecerec

YI4J T6

hardships.

the problem related with

net.

«pcm:
KWVlO, n:PWTO TaU,

6

tpLA6oaq>ac;

of songs occabe traattitude the diinciexpalathe in

evncce Eva rtcvouc ore notnc «ot l1eTO cmv KaLAla, KQTOmV
TO KOt IWKpCl"Tn, txouv Kto KC:nW KI aKpo aMol

nercrc
death

it can the

aVOIo8'1Ton:mi)9IlKOV,

as the critewhere or social bloody in the to

cuonocenxe

heroism; is songs

'EKTOe;

of life in its mythic interlaced that. in the and motives only can with due death stand banquet known that experience: very close adages dancing of

rtoxmcot ~t K(i)VlO,
~tVT]C; lowe; KWVlO'. rIa TO

crro

rteecve.
8ovQTw8eI

TOV

avi5pee;

crrc rnv
KWVlO

omoc 6 orpcmvoc
(404
npGlTOC; noxxot n.X.) n00 KOt

encortou

to their

lamenting death in songs diem". songs diof (= that ri-

vd elver

6

rmoe

and death

I..1I'\OV ae; 600l1e

ouyypo-

perspective

creates

q>eie;', OTIKo. VOUV

0.'\'\6. TOO OTTiv

TO xcooxrrtprKWVLOU In;v ce !pUTPW'ATTIKi) Utj.JOe; 2 KuplwC; 11.

of «carpe the specific

q>UTOO

a(ITOO.

we deal groups: Underworld of death).

.6.laq>opec;

n:OlKl'\tec; 'EM6.i5a. crcvet

of death

be classified or songs

in two

lamentations

and songs of Charon songs burial the

ortoooc. to
Kat piau xet 01 pt~ec;. rtou 110Ia~f.:t

0I1We; T6 q>UTO T6 i5T],\T]Ti)PIO
aVail, 'H Tfle;

nepltxouV '\lyoTepo nevre VIKOTtVnC;

0

6

IJ.[OXoe;

lamentations related of the they pain with

are mournful the folk and a direct for

ouorcon TOO
Kat

liT]hT]Tlln:POKO-

4.·H

,,'

apIBI.l0Tpllyouli'lluKllinopaAAoYI'J(KEO:P,ypOj.J-

customs

and

preparation represent and sorrow

of the of a

erccrccoocn

expression loss

ue

neplE:Xf.:l rtcccxucn

Cu\KoJ..oellif\J

c' cure

TO OT)I-lEioI.lE TO TpO-

Yf.:VlKTI

KOt eovcro-.

YIlU1i11l Tile; ~EVITlac; enrroener Ql.lo,8oiec; erncertain person and tnecetore they have an ecoonc. onwe; OVToMoyl\ jJoTI6wv Kol I-IETOO:POextemporizing character. PLKWVOXlljJUlI.!JV. The songs of Charon form a thematic 6. 'Ava~oYIl rrro 8tjJil TaU 1I.<:6tVTIl «cr TOU Xu· group of allegories originating from the pou. 6 /ipwac;. OlOV OUVOVTO POBO~WVTOe; 6nO TO Kap<poBouVIOT6X6po.TOii6nEUBuVE,QVUnOl(JlmITo"TOXOlpETl01.l6:.relooouxapaoou, xcccvrc!tt'eesow zss. 418, 304.428. nc. 221· 22.214K.Il.) 6. 'Ana 220.211. Tl'Jv npoo:popLKf) nop66OO1l. npB1I.. no PIl~t1l.oC; 24, I'IeMKOC; 155 K.a Middle-Age, combined They the Via the forces. and difference basic a common towards songs of Charon. with not themes of frontier tain ral and poetry. do refer to cerlife

persons approach death

but they

mythicize

in a gene01 the in

struggle

between

1. no~tj.Jllpxac; TOV KOIPO lWV TPIOKOVTO (404 n.X.). ¢lIIlKiwv l-lo~llltTtooEPlC; ouvTp6q>oUC;TOU (318 n.X.), AIOXiv'1C; 0 pf)Topae; (323rt.X.) K.1i. 2. 'IrmOKpOT'1C; (ITO OUYYPOI.I",Ola TaU, NlKav1ipoc; (Gnp. err. 186). l'.,a<JM:opio'1~ (10. 575), ro)..'lVOC; IXI. 596. XI. 601). nAivLoc; (XXV. 95) K.tl 3. Kwv,iv'1. 1.I£8U1l.oKlIlvlv'l. KIIlVU1ipivll, y Kwv'K&lv'1, l(J£uliaKwvuop(V'1. 4. r,a acvcuccn xp'1OLj.JonOLoiioov TO anopo Tau O:PUTllii nou n£p,tXEI 1% O'1A'lTIiPIO, tvw IPU~AO KolllicrxoC; EXOUV IlOVO 0.5%. 'H 06or1 I'JTov4.5ypal-lllaplo,6:A1I.iiouvt6olvEvoXPc,o, (IT£i ItvllC;Ko1ci1iIKac; KolTpm1l.l'JooOl)y,ovone-

personification

oppenent spite se, and their finnaly,

7. B1I..ava),UTlKOmovl'lalln6K'l 6, B.I.. UV01l.UlLKOTEPO e.r. KO<IJwIJEVO~.T61:1.1I.'1· v'K61i'1j.JIlT'K61payouiSl.·HoiaeI]T'KI'J.6I-luElo" xoil'llo£IlAlly(aTOu.Pt9uj.JvoI978.0.79-92 ToO l1i,ou. 'H QVTi8£OI)o:puOllC;-KOUATOlipo"oro 72

Lamentations le. share

in character

and styof

concepts

so as to compounderstanding life and death.

approach

acve,

uon Cambridge University Press, 1974 ·Anorrro}..!i.K'1C;. r,OVV'1C;. T6 1i'11-l0t'KO rpcvculi,o. Mtpo~ A' Oi ouhlloyt~. 'A9l'lvo, 1929 rIOVVOp'1~. A. (Jeannaraki) .• ""AoIJQlO KPIlT'Ka (Kretas Volkslieder). Leipzig 1876 (Neudruck: Wiesbaden 1967) rv<:uToe;,n.,Tpoyau1i,a1inI.lOT'KaTi)C;P61iou.tv ABljvol~ 1926 lU.E.E.: {I,<:AT(OV 11'lC;'lerrop'KilC; Ko(·EBvo.l.OYI-

thllI]VlK6iS'11.10llKoTpayou61.rrrOVTOI-lO!'l" I-IE'WT'Kr, KO( KOLVIIlVia, ·A8f)vo. ·OOUOOEO". 1980. c. 227-32. ncex. Koi Eltl.l£~Il" t03-3e 9 .• N· 6.n08dvEI0 xcooc!Eivmi')OIJv'l81O)JEv'1 6vao:pwv'10ll oE Ov611.oy£<; tKpT')~IC; 4>J1Kr,C; U' E o:popioc;rrr6yMVTI.0l0XllpOljrrroTpayouol.

EuMj.lnLOC;. r.. ·O ·AI--'Opovme;. I\ro, P6Qo-me; avoyevv'1geiOT)C; ·EAM1ioC;. ~v nnpounoAEI 1843 CA91'lvaI, xcocercc. 1973) SElleA'1<;. r .. ·H 1i,1iaal<o.l.;o 1WV Necrv 'EhII'1Y'KWV. TO np66A'11l0 Tiic; tpWlveloc;, 2'l tK1i. (l.A·). eecocxovten 1956. 0.103·36 ElEpCC;. "Ay,C;, lI'1l-l0llKa 1payou1ilO. 'A9f]VOL 1909 (Koi: Tpoyoli1im TWV·EN\l\vwv. B'. 'A9l\vo, ·A<:10<:;.1952) ·lwavvl1iou. M., Untersuchungen zur Form der neugriechischen Klagelieder (Moirologien). Munchen 1938 KOUKouMC;.¢I .. BU~OvTlvwvB[oC;Ko[noA\TIOI-l6c;. Call. de 1'lnSlllut Francais d·Alhenes. 1. A" (1948). c. 33 (IlOLpoMYLO). 1. l'.' (1951). O. 162-72 ( 68piivoe;) KupmKi1i'1". !liAnwv, To 0'11.1011K6 Tpoyolio, !uvoywyT') lleAETwv. 'A8T')va, ·Eplll'le;. 1978 I'IOl.lnaKnC;. It ..01 KaT0600E''' errov KOTIIl KOO)JO OTT') 8u~ovTlVI'J Kat ClTl') I-l<:T08ul;oVTlvft AOYOTExvia, 'ABftva 1982 I'Illoypoo:pia.l'.E1I.liavTi)c;·EhII'1v,Kiie;lIlloypoqaKfic; 'Ercrpelcc. EY ·A8f)vo,C;. 1909 K.E.. T. 1,5,9 I\£MKOC;. M., {l,rUJOTlKTi ·Av80~oyio. tK1i. B'. tv A8r,vmc; 1868 ncveecc, IUYYPOjJI-Illn£pLOO'KOV, IOTOP'K6vKIlI ~OYOT£XVIKOV. tv 'A6r,vo,C; 1860 naoaYH'iv'1C;, K., MOVlciTlKlll-lO,poMy,o KoiTPO' youi'lIa, 'A81'lvOI1928 Passow. Am .. Tpayou1i1O PUJI--'O('KO[Pcpularla carrntoa araecrae recentioris, Lipslae 1860 ne.: neroonovxoc. "., ·EhII'1VIKa6'll.laTIKa rocyouiS,o. B'. 'A6iivOL, Boa. B,6~106TiK'1 47. 1959 (nE.A·: rterpenouxoc. o.n., T.A·) no.: nOAiTT]C;, N.r .. 'EK~Oyoi cino TO rpayoulila TOU thll'lVIKOQ xcoc, 'A8ijva, 1914 PO~EAOC;,2T., rtcocuuc jJolpaMylwv 1I.OI<WV,KWV. 'ABiivo, 1870 Schmidt. Bern .. nes voixsrebeo der Neugriechen und das hellenische Altertum. Leipzig 1871 2KonE1EIl. LTal.lo\l,QT'KOIJO,poMy'o.·A8"vo 1972 T~,al~'OC;. E.. TpoYOll<'iLO nov rcccscrocvctcv, 'A6iivQI t928 rommasec, N .. Cantl popctart erect Venezia 1842 XOOIW1'1C;. r .. IuMoyl'j TWV «ore mv 'Hnetpov li'lI.lOT'KWV 00I-l0TIIlV. EV 'ASf)vOI" 1866 Oi op,BIlOi TWV noponOl-mwv 1i1)1I.wvouv aE~.,

"

Kiic; 'E1mpeloc;

riie; ·8.MlioC;,

tv 'ABT')vol~ 1883"

Death E.

in Folk-Song

Kaphsomenas extent to which Death as a theme af-

The fects and cal the

theoretical biological criterion Greek puts creating research for system. case, in hierarchic

problems character the From where, motion or even this the

of a universal can be used as a as a typologi01 a of view siof point

«key .. for cultural gnificant death for thus for view In the whose course. specifically sions. ced rion in of towards adventure mension dents triation character, mentations: purely which the Here stinct the ruler The are tuals dead; of the well the or the

determination represents a clear

folk-song

a most

experience procedure

classification

Ilf values, plane We will point of ITOV

an extremely subject from

suitable this

the study the

of bio-cosmctheory.

To

KWVIO «cctocovc-.
'Aq>aO

approach

poetry modern limited Almost

of a people history to the equally songs, usually in

like the Greeks, series is of of of death

6

nMTWV 80VQTO

~aC; i5(VEl TOO Iwf)Tlle TO

is a long category mournful often where serves ballads, with

xerrrouecerec

YI4J T6

hardships.

the problem related with

net.

«pcm:
KWVlO, n:PWTO TaU,

6

tpLA6oaq>ac;

of songs occabe traattitude the diinciexpalathe in

evncce Eva rtcvouc ore notnc «ot l1eTO cmv KaLAla, KQTOmV
TO KOt IWKpCl"Tn, txouv Kto KC:nW KI aKpo aMol

nercrc
death

it can the

aVOIo8'1Ton:mi)9IlKOV,

as the critewhere or social bloody in the to

cuonocenxe

heroism; is songs

'EKTOe;

of life in its mythic interlaced that. in the and motives only can with due death stand banquet known that experience: very close adages dancing of

rtoxmcot ~t K(i)VlO,
~tVT]C; lowe; KWVlO'. rIa TO

crro

rteecve.
8ovQTw8eI

TOV

avi5pee;

crrc rnv
KWVlO

omoc 6 orpcmvoc
(404
npGlTOC; noxxot n.X.) n00 KOt

encortou

to their

lamenting death in songs diem". songs diof (= that ri-

vd elver

6

rmoe

and death

I..1I'\OV ae; 600l1e

ouyypo-

perspective

creates

q>eie;', OTIKo. VOUV

0.'\'\6. TOO OTTiv

TO xcooxrrtprKWVLOU In;v ce !pUTPW'ATTIKi) Utj.JOe; 2 KuplwC; 11.

of «carpe the specific

q>UTOO

a(ITOO.

we deal groups: Underworld of death).

.6.laq>opec;

n:OlKl'\tec; 'EM6.i5a. crcvet

of death

be classified or songs

in two

lamentations

and songs of Charon songs burial the

ortoooc. to
Kat piau xet 01 pt~ec;. rtou 110Ia~f.:t

0I1We; T6 q>UTO T6 i5T],\T]Ti)PIO
aVail, 'H Tfle;

nepltxouV '\lyoTepo nevre VIKOTtVnC;

0

6

IJ.[OXoe;

lamentations related of the they pain with

are mournful the folk and a direct for

ouorcon TOO
Kat

liT]hT]Tlln:POKO-

4.·H

,,'

apIBI.l0Tpllyouli'lluKllinopaAAoYI'J(KEO:P,ypOj.J-

customs

and

preparation represent and sorrow

of the of a

erccrccoocn

expression loss

ue

neplE:Xf.:l rtcccxucn

Cu\KoJ..oellif\J

c' cure

TO OT)I-lEioI.lE TO TpO-

Yf.:VlKTI

KOt eovcro-.

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persons approach death

but they

mythicize

in a gene01 the in

struggle

between

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personification

oppenent spite se, and their finnaly,

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Lamentations le. share

in character

and styof

concepts

so as to compounderstanding life and death.

approach

acve,

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one

Three Representations of the Last Judgment in Western Crete.
M. Bougrat

«etuevc.

The iconography of the Last Judgment In Byzantine art was basically formed in the t ttn century, while in the four following centuries it was additionaly developed and enriched as a result 01 the awakening and maturity of the individual conscience that enabled the believer to consider and question the problem of life and death. Many rural chapels in Crete are decorated with wall paintings of the Last Judgment. 'Anc TIe; roetc £KK'\l1olee; rtcu £16011& To illustrate this specific subjest three IltXPI 1'WPO, unopouue vc 6y6Aouj..l& monuments are selected that are all locall&ptK6 cuuneocoucrc: 1) "Av Kal 01 ted around the village Kandaka in the province of Ohanta. rpetc vcot eptoxcvrcr OT6v i610 y£wypClpIK6 xwpo, OV KOt EXOUVKOlva £1- The one 01 the churches, honoured in the name 01 SI. George, is dated, according KOVOypOepLKOcrorxetc. Mv unapX&t to an inscription, in 1409-1410, hile the w KOIVI') ouMl1tlJl1 oTT') ouveecn. 2) 'H other two, honoured in the name 01 51. .6.£lJU':pn rlcpouctc onwe; £lKov(l;£1'aL Prokopios and the Virgin Mary respec01'61\£16006. liloeptpel6.n6Tl<; 6uo OA- tively, are not dated, By examining the xec tKKAl1ol£e; KOt nAllol6.l;£L 1'6 BuLast Judgment frescoes in these chl;avTLv6 rtocturtc 1'WV 110u xdl 120u urches we reach the following conclusions: The choice of lhe individual, 01. T600 01'1') ouveeon 000 KO! 01'6 secondary subjects thaI form the componeorexouevo. 3) Ol TOLXOYPo41I£e; 01'6 sition of Ihe Last Judgment, as well as 'AVIOOPOKI KO! O1'C nA£l..I£VIOv6 lil· their position in this complex representavouv neprocctepc Bapoe; crrr'j eeuretion, have probably been inlluenced by PI1 rtcpcuctc rrccc omv Kpian· "low<; the iconography of the East or have nenn I') IlitOTUnio aun'] va crtorexet tnl6padictated by space umttanoes. Crete, locaon 1'f]e; etxovovocotcc TTie; 6VOTOAL- ted far from the art centers olthe ByzantrKf]e; Bul;ovrLvf]e; MTOKp01'opioe;, 1'1lr'J- ne world, accepts their inlluence, but 1l01'0e; ttou OUXVO eiK6v!l;£ 1'0 zuo transforms the original prototypes into archalztnq representations. tn&106610 xwpt01'6.

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'Ana rnv 0'\'\11 jJEPIO, 1'6 Aou'\oulilo 01'6v rcco. non OUll6oAt<auv 6.va01'CD11 Tf]e; tlJuxfic; uecc 6n6 Tf]v tTf]OIO BM01''lOTJ TWV epUTWVvtvcve Kol cere 686.v01'o n'\oOTIK6 xcuxou610. "E1'OL evcc ouvxoovoc T6410e; KPOTO l;wv1'ovl') n']v etsovc l'OU V£+ KPOli oe rtcccexcvn unoocrc ornv anoia Kol£! 1'0 KaV1'I'),\1 (ouxv6 i]'\&KTpIK6) Ilt 1'1; tpMyo Tfjc; IVuxfie; Kai n;e; thniliae;. Kol liiw..o 6v8il;ouv 0'\0 1'6 xp6vo (av KOt Alya OKOVIOj.ltVO) 1'0 OIlOPOVTO n'\OO1'IKa '\ou'\ou610.

mv

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'AVQTOAf)t; TlI.llinux; npotpX&TaL 6n6 TI')V fM&lIjJll xwpou; 'H li&on6l;ouoo 8tCJTj Tlit; 6Mnyopiot; Tlit; n;t; KO[ Tli<; 00AOOOO<; ncu 6nolit60uv TOUt; V&KPOU<;,T600 OT6 fu:t60liil boo KO! OT6 'AVIOOPOKL,KOt nop6MnAO '" Ill') 6n£LK6vl0Tl aMwv erterooeuov. IlO<; KaV£! vo T£!VOUIl& nocc TfJ li&U1'£PIl urtcae011· 'E~QMou, '" cteceorurtlc Tli<; On&LK6VI011e;ouTTie; Tfje; OKllvf)e; &IVOI T600 evrcvn nou TfJ 6Mnoull£ vc tnovoAOIl6av£1'at rtoxc ouxv6, T6 OTOlx&Ia ncu an01'£AOOV Ka! nou n£pIYP{HjJOIl& rue rt<lvw, litv &IVOLxcpaKtT]pIOTIKO Tfje; KpnTIKf)e; pcvc t,tJr ypmpIKr,c; 6.Mo aoroxovrcr ot 6116KAnpn TfJ 6ul;ovrlVn tntKPOT£IO 1'00 140u at. Ilt 11'! liLClpopa rtou 01'6 oMo Iltpn 6 cuvoucouoc TOUe; elver 016

IrW·tIW(J!:U, EuxaplOTW mv KO 'revic Bu.(JCvC; VIa n'JV K090Of)vrlor'll"l)<;ou')vtpvaolooun') Ko9Wc;Koln')vKo Aouil;o Koponl66KI'I nou t8o.1-.c ern') Ola9EOl\ IJOU npoownlKtc; TIlC; <fIUjToVpo"lt,;: anO lloMt,;: tKKM]cIEc;TiIc; KPrllTlC; 1. T6 fPVOTOU Gerola tXEI(JCTO~poOTEIOTa 'E~· ~"VIKa ana rev K. A00l']9l111TaKT]: TonOVPO~IK6<; K01Q),OVoc; TWV TOIXOVPO(jlT](Jtvwv t~K~T]OlWV Til,;: Kpf)lTl';:, ·HpaKM:IO 1961. 8~. geIJOTIK6 EG· PE~PIO Ko~oOl-ltvwv TI(Jwple,;: 0, 150 Kol Mt1l.· xouec KpiOlC; 0', lSI, 2. G. eercie. Monumentl Veneti nella isola di Creta aevertc 1917,T. 4,0'. 459,ap. 35. ITav KOTQ),oyO TaU IOlou 6A. OT](J. 1,6 A00T]8w.I1<lK'lC; npoTEtliEI OIOqKlPETlKit aVQyIlIl)OT]: 1449·1450 c. 41. OIW 52. xcrornv npoowmKfjc; 1l0poTriP1l0l']C; CU(JlPUIvouue (Jt n')lIonoll/ll ceecia 3. 'H tKM.T]oto oun') fXtlljOT] ntp.ypo'!'ti ana T6v I.N. MOI'iEpci.KT],.H KaAoOT] sul ot nowt,;: TWV KoAoO).ltvwv~ OTa "YOwp t~ ntTpoc;, t. II 19790'.185, 4. T.M. f1po801aKf1';:, '0 llla8o~oc; tiC; n')v 6u~ovT!VT\v TtXIIT]V, eecccxovtsn 1980, El~, 142. 5.811.. cv. 0'.185 6.E[VOlXOpoKlTlPIOTIKaOTO!XEiolWvn~olwvToO Mtco!wvo. 'AvQ).oytC; cvcnccccrcceic imapxouvct ITO~IKt" anEIKov(CEIC;nAO(WVKo81il<; KOt cmv Decant ct avQ),0VT]OKllvf). 7. M. Restle, Die byzanLinische Wandmalerei in Kleinasien,Recklinghausen,I967,TIIl,EiK.3113, 402. 8. TriviOIO~tmOlJtpE1Q6plcKou(Jtern')vtKKJur 0[0 TaU 'Apxoyvt~ou MIXor'i~ (1411) 0't6 -gMI, ~T. Kopom66Kf1.

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one

Three Representations of the Last Judgment in Western Crete.
M. Bougrat

«etuevc.

The iconography of the Last Judgment In Byzantine art was basically formed in the t ttn century, while in the four following centuries it was additionaly developed and enriched as a result 01 the awakening and maturity of the individual conscience that enabled the believer to consider and question the problem of life and death. Many rural chapels in Crete are decorated with wall paintings of the Last Judgment. 'Anc TIe; roetc £KK'\l1olee; rtcu £16011& To illustrate this specific subjest three IltXPI 1'WPO, unopouue vc 6y6Aouj..l& monuments are selected that are all locall&ptK6 cuuneocoucrc: 1) "Av Kal 01 ted around the village Kandaka in the province of Ohanta. rpetc vcot eptoxcvrcr OT6v i610 y£wypClpIK6 xwpo, OV KOt EXOUVKOlva £1- The one 01 the churches, honoured in the name 01 SI. George, is dated, according KOVOypOepLKOcrorxetc. Mv unapX&t to an inscription, in 1409-1410, hile the w KOIVI') ouMl1tlJl1 oTT') ouveecn. 2) 'H other two, honoured in the name 01 51. .6.£lJU':pn rlcpouctc onwe; £lKov(l;£1'aL Prokopios and the Virgin Mary respec01'61\£16006. liloeptpel6.n6Tl<; 6uo OA- tively, are not dated, By examining the xec tKKAl1ol£e; KOt nAllol6.l;£L 1'6 BuLast Judgment frescoes in these chl;avTLv6 rtocturtc 1'WV 110u xdl 120u urches we reach the following conclusions: The choice of lhe individual, 01. T600 01'1') ouveeon 000 KO! 01'6 secondary subjects thaI form the componeorexouevo. 3) Ol TOLXOYPo41I£e; 01'6 sition of Ihe Last Judgment, as well as 'AVIOOPOKI KO! O1'C nA£l..I£VIOv6 lil· their position in this complex representavouv neprocctepc Bapoe; crrr'j eeuretion, have probably been inlluenced by PI1 rtcpcuctc rrccc omv Kpian· "low<; the iconography of the East or have nenn I') IlitOTUnio aun'] va crtorexet tnl6padictated by space umttanoes. Crete, locaon 1'f]e; etxovovocotcc TTie; 6VOTOAL- ted far from the art centers olthe ByzantrKf]e; Bul;ovrLvf]e; MTOKp01'opioe;, 1'1lr'J- ne world, accepts their inlluence, but 1l01'0e; ttou OUXVO eiK6v!l;£ 1'0 zuo transforms the original prototypes into archalztnq representations. tn&106610 xwpt01'6.

rniv -efxovc .. OUYK01'aAtYOV1'OI 01 1l0UIlIEe; j.lt TO <wypoeplO1'O rtocrcctTO, TO.6.y6AlJow 1'WVV£KpWV, li'1holif] oi crteucovlcerc rrou crto T6v 206 neptnou ctevc KOt rteoc n£pv..01l66vouv KO( 1'1') crrovocetc c TOO V£KpOO. "OAOL vvceuouv TO.UA(K6 nee lilOPKEi ctavrc: Tliv nerco (YAumIKr'j), 1'0 j..ItTO'\AO (XU1'&UT6 nOp1'pOlTO). 'H np60lioe; Ol-lwe; Tfie; rexvoxovtcc ce cuvaucouc Ilt 1'1') VEKpIKr; 1'tXV'1 tliwoe 1116 vee jJopepf) cmv 6n£IK6vIon nllv npootimwv: TI') cpwl'Oypocpia 1'00 vexcou 1'Unwlltvll ce noocexcVI1' KO! bnwe; 1'6 016 KOIVO oxlilJo EIval T6 mOTO, 6AtnoujJ£ rc noorcotrc TWV V£KPWV rurteuevc "o.v£E;ilT}'\Q"

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mv

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