UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICA DE CONSTRUCTII BUCURESTI

FACULTATEA DE INSTALATII
Proiect aparate termice
- CAZAN ABA -
Nume: Radu Cristian
Profesor: Mihalascu Gheorghe
Paul-Dan Stanescu
An: III, Seria: A, Grupa: 3
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICA DE CONSTRUCTII BUCURESTI
FACULTATEA DE INSTALATII
STUDENT: RADU CRISTIAN
AN: III ; SERIA: A ; GRUPA: 3
Memoriu justificativ
Din echipamentul unei centrale termice se va proiecta un
cazan tip agregat – bloc – abur, efectuandu-se urmatoarele
calcule:
- calculul arderii combustibilului gazos ;
- bilantul termic al cazanului ;
- calculul focarului ;
- calculul termic al sistemelor convective ale cazanului ;
- echilibrarea suprafetelor .
UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICA DE CONSTRUCTII BUCURESTI
FACULTATEA DE INSTALATII
STUDENT: RADU CRISTIAN
AN: III ; SERIA: A ; GRUPA: 3
Tema de proiectare:
Din echipamentul unei centrale termice se va proiecta un
cazan tip agregat – bloc – abur cu urmatoarele caracteristici:
- debit orar
] [ ) 1 . 0 2 (
h
t
N D
h
⋅ + ·
- temperatura de alimentare a consumului
] [ ) 5 . 0 105 (
0
C N t ° ⋅ − ·
- tipul aerului
98 . 0 · x
- presiunea de saturatie a aburului
] [ ) 1 . 0 2 . 2 ( bar N P
s
⋅ + ·

- combustibilul gazos cu urmatoarea compozitie exprimata in
participanti volumetrici:
% 0
% 5 . 0 ) (
% 5 . 1 t a n ) (
% ) 0 2 . 0 5 ( ) (
% ) 0 1 . 0 2 ( t a n ) (
% ) 0 1 . 0 9 ( t a n ) (
2 2 2
2
1 0 4
8 3
6 2
4
· · · ·
·
·
⋅ − ·
⋅ + ·
⋅ + ·
O S H H C O
N a z o t
H C b u
N H C p r o p a n
N H C e
N C H m e
Date initiale: (N=25)
% 0
% 5 . 0
% 5 . 1
% 5 . 4
% 25 . 2
% 25 . 91
7 . 4
98 . 0
5 . 92
5 . 4
2 2 2
2
10 4
8 3
6 2
4
0
· · · ·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
° ·
·
O S H H CO
N
H C
H C
H C
CH
bar P
x
C t
h
t
D
s
h
Mod de functionare:
La arzatorul (1) este adus combustibil si aer. Arderea are loc in
focarul (2).
In focar, gazele de ardere se racesc de la temperatura teoretica de
2000 °C la inceputul focarului (in dreptul arzatorului) pana la 1000 °C la
sfarsitul focarului. Schimbul de caldura in focar este proponderent prin
radiatie.
Gazele de ardere de la sfarsitul focarului cu 1000 °C sunt obligate
prin intermediul cutiei de intoarcere (4) sa patrunda in tevile din
convectivul I si sa mai strabata o data lungimea cazanului. Schimbul de
caldura este prin radiatie si convectie. La sfarsitul convectivului I
temperatura gazelor are in jur de 600 °C.
Prin intermediul cutiei de intoarcere fata (6) gazele de ardere sunt
obligate sa patrunda in tevile convectivului II si sa mai strabata o data
lungimea cazanului. Schimbul de caldura este proponderent prin
convectie si foarte putin prin radiatie.
Gazele sunt evacuate la cosul (8) cu o temperatura civilizata de 180
– 200 °C.
Apa este introdusa prin doua tevi perforate pe toata lungimea lor
situate simetric fata de axul vertical al cazanului. Aburul strabate
separatorul de picaturi (12) si e dat la consumator prin conducta de abur
(13).
Cazanul este prevazut cu o supapa de siguranta cu contragreutate
(16), cu o sticla de nivel (14) si cu un manometru (15). Pentru diminuarea
sarurulor inca existente in apa introdusa in cazan, acesta se purjeaza prin
intemediul unei conducte (11), purja fiind aruncata la canal.

• Calculul arderii combustibilului gazos
Volumul teoretic de aer necesar arderii:
3
3
0
10 4 8 3 6 2 4
2 2 2 0
597 . 10
) 5 . 1 5 . 6 5 . 4 5 25 . 2 5 . 3 25 . 91 2 ( 0476 . 0
] 0 )
4
10
4 ( )
4
8
3 ( )
4
6
2 ( )
4
4
1 ( 0 0 0 [ 0476 . 0
] )
4
( 5 . 1 1 . 0 5 . 0 [ 0476 . 0
Nm
Nm
V
H C H C H C CH
O H C
n
m S H H CO V
n m
·
⇒ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ·
· − ⋅ + + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + ⋅ + + + + ⋅ ·
· − ⋅ + Σ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ·
Volumul de bioxid de carbon:
3
3
0
10 4 8 3 6 2 4 2 0
1525 . 1
) 5 . 1 4 5 . 4 3 25 . 2 2 25 . 91 1 ( 01 . 0
) 4 3 2 1 0 0 ( 01 . 0 ) ( 01 . 0
2
2
Nm
Nm
V
H C H C H C CH H C m CO CO V
C
n m C
·
⇒ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ·
· ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + + ⋅ · ⋅ Σ + + ⋅ ·
Volumul de bioxid de sulf:
3
3
2
0 ) ( 01 . 0
2
Nm
Nm
S H V
SO
· ⋅ ·
3
3
1525 . 1 0 1525 . 1
2 2 2
Nm
Nm
V V V
SO CO RO
· + · + ·
Volumul de azot:
3
3
2
0
377 . 8
100
5 . 0
597 . 10 79 . 0
100
79 . 0
2
Nm
Nm
N
V V
N
· + ⋅ · + ⋅ ·
Volumul vaporilor de apa:
3
3
0
10 4 8 3 6 2 4
0 2 2 0
317 . 2
597 . 10 016 . 0 ) 5 . 1 5 5 . 4 4 25 . 2 5 . 3 25 . 91 2 ( 01 . 0
597 . 10 016 . 0 )
2
10
2
8
2
6
2
4
0 0 ( 01 . 0
016 . 0 )
2
( 01 . 0
2
Nm
Nm
V
H C H C H C CH
V H C
n
S H H V
H
n m H
·
⇒ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ·
· ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + + ⋅ ·
· ⋅ + ⋅ Σ + + ⋅ ·
Volumul teoretic total de gaze de ardere:
3
3
0
7865 . 111 317 . 2 377 . 8 1525 . 1
2 2 2
Nm
Nm
V V V V
O H N RO g
· + + · + + ·
Puterea calorica a combustibilului:
3
10 4 8 3 6 2 4 2 2
225 . 39983
5 . 1 1184 5 . 4 4 . 912 25 . 2 3 . 637 25 . 91 0 . 358 0 0 0
1184 4 . 912 3 . 637 0 . 358 229 9 . 107 4 . 126
Nm
kJ
H
H C H C H C CH S H H CO H
i
i
·
⇒ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + + + ·
· ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ·
Bilantul termic al cazanului
• Pierderi specifice si bilantul termic indirect al cazanului
C t bar P
C
D
t t
s
ANEXA
s
h
s
° · ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ·
° · + + · + + ≅
52 . 149 7 . 4
1 . 223
5 . 4
50
50 52 . 149
50
50
4
cos
C t
kgK
kJ
c
kg
kJ
t c V I
aer aer p
aer aer p aer
° · ·
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
20 ; 297 . 1
886 . 274 20 297 . 1 597 . 10
0 0 0 0
- Pierderile specifice de caldura prin entalpia gazelor de ardere evacuate
la cos:
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ) (
1
0 0 cos cos 2 o aer aer p g g p g
i
t c V t c V
H
q α

106 . 0 ) 20 297 . 1 597 . 10 3 . 1 1 . 223 75 . 1 7865 . 11 (
225 . 39983
1
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
kg
kJ
I
kgK
kJ
t V
I
c
t I diagrama
g g
g p
717 . 4622 3 . 1
; 75 . 1
1 . 223 3065 . 12
717 . 4622
cos
3 . 1 ;
cos
cos
· ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ·
·

·

·
· − α
α
- Pierderea specifica de caldura prin ardere incompleta de natura chimica:
-la focare cu ecranare puternica
015 . 0
3
· q
- Pierderea specifica de caldura prin ardere incompleta de natura
mecanica:
0
4
· q
- Pierderea specifica de caldura catre mediul exterior prin suprafetele
exterioare ale cazanului:
0203 . 0 ) 5 . 4 ( 10 4643 . 5 10 4643 . 5
6577 . 0 2
6577 . 0
2
5
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
− −


h
D q
- Ppierderea specifica de caldura prin entalpia produselor sopide ale
arderii evacuate sub focar:
0
6
· q
Randamentul indirect al cazanului
% 87 . 85 8587 . 0 ) 0 0203 . 0 0 015 . 0 106 . 0 ( 1 ) ( 1
6 5 4 3 2
· · + + + + − · + + + + − · q q q q q η
Consumul de combustibil
kg
kJ
i
i x i x i
kg
kJ
i
kg
kJ
i
bar P
s
kg
D D
s
kg
D D
s
kg
H
i i D i i D
B
ANEXA
s
p
h
i
p
686 . 2703
3 . 630 ) 98 . 0 1 ( 2746 98 . 0 ' ) 1 ( "
2746 "
3 . 630 '
7 . 4
05 . 0 251 . 1 04 . 0 ) 05 . 0 03 . 0 (
251 . 1 5 . 4 278 . 0 278 . 0
085 . 0
225 . 39983 8587 . 0
) 205 . 387 3 . 630 ( 05 . 0 ) 205 . 387 686 . 2703 ( 251 . 1
) ' ( ) (
*
4
0 0
· ⇒
⋅ − + ⋅ · ⋅ − + ⋅ · ⇒
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
·
·
÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ·
· ⋅ · ⋅ ÷ ·
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
·

− ⋅ + − ⋅
·

− ⋅ + − ⋅
·
η
C t
kgK
kj
c x
kg
kJ
t c i
p
p
° · · ·
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
5 . 92 ; 186 . 4 ; 98 . 0
205 . 387 5 . 92 186 . 4
0
0 0
• Bilantul termic direct al cazanului
Bilantul de ansamblu al cazanului de abur
% 17 . 1 100
07 . 2910
07 . 2910 06 . 2944
100
"
" '
085 . 0 ) 0 1 ( 085 . 0 ) 1 ( * ; 1 ; 1 . 1
06 . 2944 ' 225 . 39983 085 . 0 0203 . 0 225 . 39982 085 . 0 015 . 0
225 . 39983 085 . 0 106 . 0 886 . 274 1 . 1 1 085 . 0 225 . 39983 085 . 0
'
07 . 2910 ) 205 . 387 3 . 630 ( 05 . 0 ) 205 . 387 686 . 2703 ( 251 . 1
) ' ( ) ( "
886 . 274 20 297 . 1 597 . 10
4
5 3 2 0
0 0
0
· ⋅

· ⋅

·
· − ⋅ · − ⋅ · · ·
· ⇒ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ −
− ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ·
· ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ·
· − ⋅ + − ⋅ ·
· − ⋅ + − ⋅ · ·
· ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
Q
Q Q
s
kg
q B B
kW Q
H B q H B q H B q t c V B H B Q
kW
i i D i i D Q Q
kW t c V Q
f
i i i aer paer f i
p ut
aer aer p
ε
ϕ α
ϕ α
• Bilantul partial pe suprafete
Entalpia teoretica:
kg
kJ
I
i V H q q q I
t
aer f i t
2 . 38874 20 297 . 1 597 . 10 1 . 1 225 . 39983 ) 0203 . 0 0 015 . 0 1 (
) 1 (
0 0 5 4 3
· ⇒ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ − − − ·
· ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ − − − · α
Temperatura teoretica:
C t I
t
t I diagrama
t
° · ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ·
· −
17 . 1839 2 . 3874
1 . 1 ;α
Temperatura la sfarsitul focarului:
C t
f
° ÷ · 1100 900
kg
kJ
I C t
f
t I diagrama
f
36 . 29674 1000
1 . 1 ;
· ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ° ·
· − α
Fluxul de caldura preluat prin radiatie in focar este:
kW I I q B Q
f t R
857 . 1598 ) 36 . 19674 2 . 38874 ( ) 0203 . 0 1 ( 085 . 0 ) ( ) 1 (
5
· − ⋅ − ⋅ · − ⋅ − ⋅ ·
Fluxul de caldura preluat in sistemul convectiv este:
kW Q Q Q
kW Q Q
kW Q Q Q
sfcI sfc sfcII
sfc sfcI
R ut C
243 . 262 97 . 1048 213 . 1311
97 . 1048 213 . 1311 80 . 0 ) 85 . 0 75 . 0 (
213 . 1311 857 . 1598 07 . 2910
· − · − ·
· ⋅ · ⋅ ÷ ·
· − · − ·
Entalpia gazelor de ardere la sfarsitul sistemului fierbator
convectiv
kg
kJ
q B
Q
I I
kg
kJ
q B
Q
I I
sfcII
sfcI sfcII
sfcI
f sfcI
687 . 3928
) 0203 . 0 1 ( 085 . 0
243 . 262
827 . 7077
) 1 (
827 . 7077
) 0203 . 0 1 ( 085 . 0
97 . 1048
36 . 19674
) 1 (
5
5
·
− ⋅
− ·
− ⋅
− ·
·
− ⋅
− ·
− ⋅
− ·
C t
kg
kJ
I
C t
kg
kJ
I
sfcII
t I diagrama
sfcII
sfcI
t I diagrama
sfcI
° · ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ·
° · ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ ·
· −
· −
61 . 190 182 . 17049
314 . 360 754 . 7003
3 . 1 ;
2 . 1 ;
α
α
Eroarea de inchidere a bilantului pertial pe suprafete:
% 041 . 2 100
717 . 4627 2 . 38874
717 . 4627 687 . 3928
100
% 01 . 2 100
1 . 223 17 . 1839
1 . 223 61 . 190
100
cos
cos
cos
cos
· ⋅


· ⋅


·
· ⋅


· ⋅


·
I I
I I
t t
t t
t
sfcII
I
t
sfcII
t
ε
ε
Calculul focarului
• Predimensionarea focarului prin calcul aproximativ
Aplicand relatia de schimb de caldura prin radiatie (Stefan –
Boltzmann) – metoda empirica, se obtine o suprafata preliminara de
schimb de caldura a focarului:
C C t
K t t t t t T
K t T
a
K m
kW
C
m
T
T
a C
Q
S
p
p s p fl p p
f f
f
O
P
f
f O
R
R
° · ° ÷ · ∆
· + + · ° + ∆ + · ° + ∆ + · ° + ·
· + · ° + ·
·
⋅ ·
·
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
·
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅
·


22 30 15
52 . 444 273 22 52 . 149 273 ) ( 273 ) ( 273
1273 273 1000 273
75 . 0
10 765 . 5
3 . 14
100
52 . 444
100
1273
75 . 0 10 765 . 5
867 . 1598
100 100
'
4 2
3
2
4 4
3
4
4
'
'
In functie de debitul de abur D
h
se alege diametrul tubului de
flacara:
mm D
h
t
D
h
760 1400 700 5 . 4 · ÷ · → ·
Focar tub de flacara
1 – Tub de flacara;
2 – Ecran la cutia de intoarcere;
3 – Samotare;
4 – Arzator.
m
D
D
S
L
mm D D
R
R
s
8 . 5
76 . 0
4
76 . 0
3 . 14
4
35 . 757 65 . 2 760 65 . 2
2 2
'
·



·



·
· − · − ·
π
π
π
π
Volumul focarului:
3
2 2 2 2
95 . 2
4
75735 . 0
7 . 0
4
76 . 0
8 . 5
4 4
m
D
L
D
L V
s
s R f
·

⋅ +

⋅ ·

⋅ +

⋅ ·
π π π π
mm L
s
700 1200 600 · ÷ ·
Suprafata peretilor:
2
2 2
42 . 16
4
76 . 0 2
] 7 . 0 75735 . 0 8 . 5 76 . 0 [
4
2
] [ m
D
L D L D S
s s R p
·
⋅ ⋅
+ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ·
⋅ ⋅
+ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ·
π
π
π
π
• Calculul final al focarului cu metoda aplicarii
invariantului de modelare
apei a partiala presiunea P
ardere de gazele in SO si CO gazelor a partiala presiunea P
bar P
V
V
P
bar P
bar P
V
V V
P
O H
RO
g
g
O H
O H
g
g
g
SO CO
RO


· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
·
· ⋅
+
· ⋅
+
·
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1966 . 0 1
7865 . 11
317 . 2
1
1966 . 0 1
7865 . 11
0 1525 . 1
Grosimea stratului radiant de gaze de ardere
m
S
V
l
p
f
647 . 0
42 . 16
95 . 2 4
9 . 0
4
9 . 0 ·

⋅ ·

⋅ ·
Constanta de radiatie a gazelor din focar
27 . 0 ) 0978 . 0 1966 . 0 ( )
1000
1273
38 . 0 1 (
] 647 . 0 ) 0978 . 0 1966 . 0 [(
1966 . 0 6 . 1 8 . 0
) ( )
1000
38 . 0 1 (
] ) [(
6 . 1 8 . 0
5 . 0
5 . 0 2 2
2 2
2
· + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
⋅ +
⋅ +
·
· + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
⋅ +
⋅ +
·
CO O H
f
CO O H
O H
g
P P
T
l P P
P
K
Coeficientul de absorbtie in focar
16 . 0 1 1
647 . 0 27 . 0
· − · − ·
⋅ −
⋅ −
e e a
l K
f
g
Constanta de radiatie a flacarii
5368 . 1 5 . 0
1000
1273
6 . 1 5 . 0
1000
6 . 1 · − ⋅ · − ⋅ ·
f
fl
T
K
Coeficientul de absorbtie al flacarii
63 . 0 1 1
647 . 0 6368 . 1
· − · − ·
⋅ −
⋅ −
e e a
l K
fl
fl
Ponderea absorbtiei flacarii cu cea a mediului radiant de gaze de
ardere
2 . 0
254 . 0 16 . 0 ) 2 . 0 1 ( 63 . 0 2 . 0 ) 1 (
·
· ⋅ − + ⋅ · ⋅ − + ⋅ ·
β
β β
gazos l combustibi de ata autocarbur flacara pentru
a a a
g fl
Radiatia partilor samotate ale focarului
871 . 0
42 . 16
3 . 14
'
· · ·
p
R
S
S
ψ
Coeficientul de absorbtie al focarului
7 . 0
358 . 0
7 . 0 871 . 0 ) 254 . 0 1 ( 254 . 0
254 . 0
) 1 (
·
·
⋅ ⋅ − +
·
⋅ Ψ ⋅ − +
·
ξ
ξ a a
a
a
f
Suprafata de radiatie
2 2 ' 2
2
3
2
2 3 3
3
3
2
2 2
3
773 . 14 1 . 1 3 . 14 087 . 12 9 . 0
17 . 2112 273 17 . 1839 273
43 . 13 1
1273
17 . 2112
48 . 0
1
48 . 0 17 . 2112 1273 358 . 0 7 . 0 10 765 . 5
10 857 . 1598
1
1 10
m S m S m S
K t T
m
T
T
M M T T a C
Q
S
R R R
t t
f
t
t f f O
R
R
· ⋅ < · < · ⋅
· + · ° + ·
·
,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

·

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

·

ξ
Calculul termic al sistemelor convective ale cazanului
• Determinarea sectiunii de trecere pentru convectiv
Pentru cazanul cu 3 drumuri ABA, cu D
h
> 4 t/h vom folosi tevi de
60 x 3 mm pentru convectiv.
Asezarea drumurilor dedesubtul si lateral de
tubul de flacara
1 – tub de flacara
2 – convectiv I
3 – convectiv II
Convectiv I
Temperatura medie a gazelor de ardere
C
t t
t
I sfc f
m g
° ·
+
·
+
· 157 . 680
2
314 . 360 1000
2
Debitul de gaze mediu care circula prin tevi
3
3
0 0
3
906 . 13 597 . 10 ) 1 2 . 1 ( 7865 . 11 ) 1 (
127 . 4
273
) 273 157 . 680 ( 906 . 13 085 . 0
273
) 273 (
Nm
Nm
V V V
s
m
t V B
D
g g
m g g
g
· ⋅ − + · ⋅ − + ·
·
+ ⋅ ⋅
·
+ ⋅ ⋅
·
α
Viteza de circulatie a gazelor de erdere:
s
m
w
g
20 15÷ ·
Sectiunea necesara de trecere a gazelor de ardere
2
0
206 . 0
20
127 . 4
m
w
D
S
g
g
· · ·
Numarul necesar de tevi in focar
tevi n
d
S
n
i
92 1 . 90
4
054 . 0
206 . 0
4
'
2 2
0
· ⇒ ·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅
·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅
·
π π
s
m
d
n
D
w
i
g
g
587 . 19
4
054 . 0
92
127 . 4
4
2 2
·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅

·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅

·
π π
• Determinarea coeficientilor de transfer de caldura

K m
W
d
N u
m L L L L
L
d
N u
d w
m K
W
s
m
C t
c
s R f
i
m g
2
2
8 . 1 5 8 . 1 5
R e
4 . 0 8 . 0
3
2
R e
4 . 0 8 . 0
3
2
6
2
2
6
3 3 . 4 6
0 5 4 . 0
1 0 1 0 . 8 8 8 7 . 3 0
5 . 6 7 . 0 8 . 5
9 6 1 . 0 ) 0 8 5 . 9 8 4 8 1 0 6 1 ( ) R e 1 0 6 1 ( 1 0 0 0 0 R e
8 8 7 . 3 0 9 6 1 . 0 6 1 2 . 0 0 8 5 . 9 8 4 8 ]
6 0 5
0 5 4 . 0
1 [ 0 2 4 . 0
P r R e ] 1 [ 0 2 4 . 0
2 3 0 0 0 8 5 . 9 8 4 8
3 5 . 1 0 8
0 5 4 . 0 1 0 5 8 7 . 1 9
R e
6 1 2 . 0 P r
1 0 . 8 1 0
3 5 . 1 0 8 1 0
1 5 7 . 6 8 0
·
⋅ ⋅
·

·
· + · + · ·
· ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ ⋅ − · ⇒ <
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
+ ⋅ ·
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
+ ⋅ ·
⇒ > ·
⋅ ⋅
·

·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
· ⋅
· ⋅
→ ° ·

− −
λ
α
ε
ε
υ
λ
υ
Presiunile gazelor triatomice
bar P
V
V
P
bar P
V
V
P
g
g
O H
O H
g
g
RO
RO
1666 . 0 1
906 . 13
317 . 2
0828 . 0 1
906 . 13
1525 . 1
2
2
2
2
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
Grosimea stratului radiant
m d l
i
0486 . 0 054 . 0 9 . 0 9 . 0 · ⋅ · ⋅ ·
Constanta de absorbtie
792 . 1 ) 1666 . 0 0828 . 0 ( )
1000
157 . 680
38 . 0 1 (
] 0486 . 0 ) 0828 . 0 1666 . 0 [(
1666 . 0 6 . 1 8 . 0
) ( )
1000
38 . 0 1 (
] ) [(
6 . 1 8 . 0
5 . 0
5 . 0 2 2
2 2
2
· + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
⋅ +
⋅ +
·
· + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
⋅ +
⋅ +
·
RO O H
m g
RO O H
O H
P P
T
l P P
P
K
Coeficientul de absorbtie a gazelor de ardere
0834 . 0 1 1
0486 . 0 792 . 1
· − · − ·
⋅ − ⋅ −
e e a
l K
g
Coeficientul de transfer de caldura prin radiatia gazelor de ardere
K t T
K t t T
a
K m
W
T
T
T
T
T
a
a
a
m g m g
s fl p
p
m g
m g
P
m g
P
g
p
r
175 . 953 273 157 . 680 273
52 . 442 273 20 52 . 149 273 20 273 20
82 . 0
625 . 6 157 . 953
157 . 953
52 . 442
1
157 . 953
52 . 442
1
0834 . 0
2
1 82 . 0
10 765 . 5
1
1
2
1
10 765 . 5
2
6 . 3
8
6 . 3
8
· + · + ·
· + + · + + · + + ·
·
· ⋅
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

⋅ ⋅
+
⋅ ⋅ ·
· ⋅
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

⋅ ⋅
+
⋅ ⋅ ·


Coeficiemtul de schimb de caldura prin convectie si radiatie de la
gazele de ardere
1
955 . 52 625 . 6 33 . 46 1
2
·
· + ⋅ · + ⋅ ·
ω
α α ω α
K m
W
r c f
• Determinarea coeficientului global de transfer de caldura
W
K m
s
m
w
K m
W
K
g
f
f
2
3
2
3
395 . 1 10 587 . 19
312 . 49
955 . 52 10 395 . 1 1
955 . 52
1
· ⋅ ⇒ ·
·
⋅ ⋅ +
·
⋅ +
·

ε
α ε
α
• Determinarea diferentei medie de temperatura
C t t t
C t t t
C
t
t
t t
t
s I sfc
s f
m
° · − · − · ∆
° · − · − · ∆
° ·

·


∆ − ∆
· ∆
794 . 210 52 . 149 314 . 360
48 . 850 52 . 149 1000
583 . 458
794 . 210
48 . 850
ln
794 . 210 48 . 850
ln
min
max
min
max
min max
• Determinarea suprafetei de schimb de caldura
m
N d
S
L
m
t K
Q
S
i
m
972 . 2
92 054 . 0
386 . 46
386 . 46
583 . 458 312 . 49
10 97 . 1048
2
3
·
⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
·
·


·
∆ ⋅
·
π π
Convectiv II
Temperatura medie a gazelor de ardere
C
t t
t
II sfc I sfc
m g
° ·
+
·
+
· 462 . 275
2
61 . 190 314 . 360
2
Debitul de gaze mediu care circula prin tevi
3
3
0 0
3
966 . 14 597 . 10 ) 1 3 . 1 ( 7865 . 11 ) 1 (
556 . 2
273
) 273 462 . 275 ( 966 . 14 085 . 0
273
) 273 (
Nm
Nm
V V V
s
m
t V B
D
g g
m g g
g
· ⋅ − + · ⋅ − + ·
·
+ ⋅ ⋅
·
+ ⋅ ⋅
·
α
Viteza de circulatie a gazelor de erdere:
s
m
w
g
20 15÷ ·
Sectiunea necesara de trecere a gazelor de ardere
2
0
128 . 0
20
556 . 2
m
w
D
S
g
g
· · ·
Numarul necesar de tevi in focar
tevi n
d
S
n
i
56 796 . 55
4
054 . 0
128 . 0
4
'
2 2
0
· ⇒ ·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅
·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅
·
π π
s
m
d
n
D
w
i
g
g
93 . 19
4
054 . 0
56
556 . 2
4
2 2
·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅

·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅

·
π π
• Determinarea coeficientilor de transfer de caldura

K m
W
d
N u
m L L L L
L
d
N u
d w
m K
W
s
m
C t
c
s R f
i
m g
2
2
8 . 1 5 8 . 1 5
R e
4 . 0 8 . 0
3
2
R e
4 . 0 8 . 0
3
2
6
2
2
6
0 5 2 . 5 4
0 5 4 . 0
1 0 6 4 4 . 4 8 5 1 . 6 2
5 . 6 7 . 0 8 . 5
1 ) 8 9 5 . 2 3 0 8 9 1 0 6 1 ( ) R e 1 0 6 1 ( 1 0 0 0 0 R e
8 5 1 . 6 2 1 6 5 5 . 0 8 9 5 . 2 3 0 8 9 ]
6 0 5
0 5 4 . 0
1 [ 0 2 4 . 0
P r R e ] 1 [ 0 2 4 . 0
2 3 0 0 8 9 5 . 2 3 0 8 9
6 1 . 4 6
0 5 4 . 0 1 0 9 3 . 1 9
R e
6 5 5 . 0 P r
6 4 4 . 4 1 0
6 1 . 4 6 1 0
4 6 2 . 2 7 5
·
⋅ ⋅
·

·
· + · + · ·
· ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ ⋅ − · ⇒ <
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
+ ⋅ ·
· ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
+ ⋅ ·
⇒ > ·
⋅ ⋅
·

·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
· ⋅
· ⋅
→ ° ·

− −
λ
α
ε
ε
υ
λ
υ
Presiunile gazelor triatomice
bar P
V
V
P
bar P
V
V
P
g
g
O H
O H
g
g
RO
RO
155 . 0 1
966 . 14
317 . 2
077 . 0 1
966 . 14
1525 . 1
2
2
2
2
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
Grosimea stratului radiant
m d l
i
0486 . 0 054 . 0 9 . 0 9 . 0 · ⋅ · ⋅ ·
Constanta de absorbtie
K t T
P P
T
l P P
P
K
m g m g
RO O H
m g
RO O H
O H
462 . 548 273 462 . 275 273
812 . 1 ) 155 . 0 077 . 0 ( )
1000
462 . 548
38 . 0 1 (
] 0486 . 0 ) 077 . 0 155 . 0 [(
155 . 0 6 . 1 8 . 0
) ( )
1000
38 . 0 1 (
] ) [(
6 . 1 8 . 0
5 . 0
5 . 0 2 2
2 2
2
· + · ° + ·
· + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
⋅ +
⋅ +
·
· + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
⋅ +
⋅ +
·
Coeficientul de absorbtie a gazelor de ardere
0843 . 0 1 1
0486 . 0 812 . 1
· − · − ·
⋅ − ⋅ −
e e a
l K
g
Coeficiemtul de schimb de caldura prin convectie si radiatie de la
gazele de ardere
1
052 . 54 052 . 54 1
2
·
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
ω
α ω α
K m
W
c f
• Determinarea coeficientului global de transfer de caldura
W
K m
s
m
w
K m
W
K
g
f
f
2
3
2
3
395 . 1 10 93 . 19
036 . 50
54 . 57 10 395 . 1 1
052 . 54
1
· ⋅ ⇒ ·
·
⋅ ⋅ +
·
⋅ +
·

ε
α ε
α
• Determinarea diferentei medie de temperatura
C t t t
C t t t
C
t
t
t t
t
s II sfc
s I sfc
m
° · − · − · ∆
° · − · − · ∆
° ·

·


∆ − ∆
· ∆
09 . 41 52 . 149 61 . 190
794 . 210 52 . 149 314 . 360
787 . 103
09 . 41
794 . 210
ln
09 . 41 794 . 210
ln
min
max
min
max
min max
• Determinarea suprafetei de schimb de caldura
m
N d
S
L
m
t K
Q
S
i
m
728 . 4
56 054 . 0
499 . 50
499 . 50
787 . 103 036 . 50
10 243 . 262
2
3
·
⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
·
·


·
∆ ⋅
·
π π
Echilibrarea suprafetelor
m
q n q n d q D
Q Q q
D
Q
L
S
Q
q
S
Q
q
S
Q
q
II cv II cv I cv I cv i R f
II cv I cv R
f
R
II cv
II cv
II cv
I cv
I cv
I cv
R
R
rad
95 . 3
) 10 193 . 5 56 10 614 . 22 92 ( 054 . 0 10 05 . 119 76 . 0
10 243 . 262 10 97 . 1048 ) 10 05 . 119
4
76 . 0
10 857 . 1598 (
) (
)
4
(
10 193 . 5
499 . 50
10 243 . 262
10 614 . 22
386 . 46
10 97 . 1048
10 05 . 119
43 . 13
10 857 . 1598
3 3 3
3 3 3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
·
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅

− ⋅
·
·
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
+ + ⋅


·
⋅ ·

· ·
⋅ ·

· ·
⋅ ·

· ·
π π
π
π π
π

. efectuandu-se urmatoarele calcule: .echilibrarea suprafetelor .UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICA DE CONSTRUCTII BUCURESTI FACULTATEA DE INSTALATII STUDENT: RADU CRISTIAN AN: III .calculul focarului .calculul arderii combustibilului gazos . GRUPA: 3 Memoriu justificativ Din echipamentul unei centrale termice se va proiecta un cazan tip agregat – bloc – abur.calculul termic al sistemelor convective ale cazanului .bilantul termic al cazanului . . . . . SERIA: A .

5 % N 2 = 0.0 1⋅ N ) % C3 H 8 = (5 − 0.7 bar C H4 = 91.UNIVERSITATEA TEHNICA DE CONSTRUCTII BUCURESTI FACULTATEA DE INSTALATII STUDENT: RADU CRISTIAN AN: III .98 P = ( 2.debit orar h .0 2⋅ N ) % C 4 H 1 0 = 1.presiunea de saturatie a aburului .5 ° C x = 0.5 % C O= H 2 = H 2 S = O2 = 0 % Date initiale: h t 0 = 92.25% C 3 H 8 = 4 .1 ⋅ N ) [ t ] .tipul aerului x = 0. GRUPA: 3 Tema de proiectare: Din echipamentul unei centrale termice se va proiecta un cazan tip agregat – bloc – abur cu urmatoarele caracteristici: Dh = (2 + 0.0 1⋅ N ) % C 2 H 6 = (2 + 0.5 % N 2 = 0 .1 ⋅ N ) [bar ] .combustibilul gazos cu urmatoarea compozitie exprimata in participanti volumetrici: 0 s (m eta n ) (e ta n ) ( p r o p a) n (b uta n ) (a z o)t C H4 = (9 + 0.temperatura de alimentare a consumului t = (105 − 0.98 Ps = 4. SERIA: A .25% C 2 H 6 = 2.2 + 0.5 ⋅ N ) [°C ] .5 t (N=25) Mod de functionare: .5 % C O = H 2 = H 2 S = O2 = 0 % D h = 4 .5 % C 4 H 10 = 1.

La arzatorul (1) este adus combustibil si aer. La sfarsitul convectivului I temperatura gazelor are in jur de 600 °C. Apa este introdusa prin doua tevi perforate pe toata lungimea lor situate simetric fata de axul vertical al cazanului. Schimbul de caldura este prin radiatie si convectie. Cazanul este prevazut cu o supapa de siguranta cu contragreutate (16). Schimbul de caldura este proponderent prin convectie si foarte putin prin radiatie. In focar. Arderea are loc in focarul (2). acesta se purjeaza prin intemediul unei conducte (11). cu o sticla de nivel (14) si cu un manometru (15). purja fiind aruncata la canal. Gazele de ardere de la sfarsitul focarului cu 1000 °C sunt obligate prin intermediul cutiei de intoarcere (4) sa patrunda in tevile din convectivul I si sa mai strabata o data lungimea cazanului. Prin intermediul cutiei de intoarcere fata (6) gazele de ardere sunt obligate sa patrunda in tevile convectivului II si sa mai strabata o data lungimea cazanului. Gazele sunt evacuate la cosul (8) cu o temperatura civilizata de 180 – 200 °C. Aburul strabate separatorul de picaturi (12) si e dat la consumator prin conducta de abur (13). Pentru diminuarea sarurulor inca existente in apa introdusa in cazan. gazele de ardere se racesc de la temperatura teoretica de 2000 °C la inceputul focarului (in dreptul arzatorului) pana la 1000 °C la sfarsitul focarului. • Calculul arderii combustibilului gazos . Schimbul de caldura in focar este proponderent prin radiatie.

0476 ⋅ [0 + 0 + 0 + (1 + ) ⋅ CH 4 + (2 + ) ⋅ C 2 H 6 + (3 + ) ⋅ C 3 H 8 + (4 + ) ⋅ C 4 H 10 − 0] = 4 4 4 4 = 0.597 = 2 2 2 2 = 0.1525 Nm 3 Volumul de bioxid de carbon: Nm 3 VSO2 Volumul de bioxid de sulf: 3 = 0.5 + 6.01 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 91.5 ⋅ 2.377 + 2.016 ⋅ 10.3 ⋅ 2.4 ⋅ 4.0476 ⋅ [0.25 + 912 .01 ⋅ (0 + 0 + 1 ⋅ CH 4 + 2 ⋅ C 2 H 6 + 3 ⋅ C 3 H 8 + 4 ⋅ C 4 H 10 ) = = 0.0 ⋅ 91.317 Nm Nm 3 Volumul teoretic total de gaze de ardere: V g 0 = VRO2 + V N 2 + VH 2O = 1.25 + 2 ⋅ 2.01 ⋅ ( H 2 + H 2 S + Σ 3 V H 2 0 = 2.5 ⋅ CO + 0.317 = 111.5 ⋅ 2.1525Nm Nm3 Volumul de azot: V N 2 = 0.5) ⇒ V0 = 10.5 ⋅ 1.5 + 1184 ⋅ 1.0476 ⋅ (2 ⋅ 91.25 + 637 .25 + 3.9 ⋅ H 2 + 229 ⋅ H 2 S + 358 .1525+ 0 = 1.4 ⋅ CO + 107 .597 + = 8.1 ⋅ H 2 + 1.225 kJ Nm 3 Bilantul termic al cazanului • Pierderi specifice si bilantul termic indirect al cazanului .5) ⇒ VC 0 2 = 1.3 ⋅ C 2 H 6 + 912 .4 ⋅ C 3 H 8 + 1184 ⋅ C 4 H 10 = = 0 + 0 + 0 + 358 .016 ⋅ V0 = 2 4 6 8 10 = 0.25 + 3 ⋅ 4.25 + 5 ⋅ 4.Volumul teoretic de aer necesar arderii: n V0 = 0.25 + 4 ⋅ 4.79 ⋅ 10.5 + 5 ⋅ 1.01⋅ ( H 2S ) = 0 Nm Nm3 3 VRO2 = VCO2 + VSO2 = 1.79 ⋅ V0 + 3 N2 0 .377 Nm Nm 3 100 100 Volumul vaporilor de apa: VH 0 n ⋅ C m H n ) + 0.01 ⋅ (1 ⋅ 91.016 ⋅ 10.5 + 4 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ H 2 S + Σ(m + ) ⋅ C m H n − O2 ] = 4 4 6 8 10 = 0.0 ⋅ CH 4 + 637 .5) + 0.25 + 3.5 = 0.01 ⋅ (CO2 + CO + Σm ⋅ C m H n ) = 0.597 Nm 3 Nm 3 VC 0 2 = 0.5 ⇒ H i = 39983 .1525+ 8.01 ⋅ (0 + 0 + ⋅ CH 4 + ⋅ C 2 H 6 + ⋅ C 3 H 8 + ⋅ C 4 H 10 ) + 0.7865Nm Puterea calorica a combustibilului: 3 Nm3 H i = 126 .597 ⇒ = 0.

05 kg i ' = 630.717 kJ kg  I − .015 -la focare cu ecranare puternica .278 ⋅ Dh = 0.7 bar  4 →   ⇒ i = x ⋅ i"+ (1 − x ) ⋅ i ' = 0.1 −1.205) + 0.717 = = 1.225 s s D = 0.03 ÷ 0.4643⋅ 10 −2 ⋅ Dh −0.75 kJ .7 bar  →t s = 149 .05 ⋅ (630. t aer = 20 °C kg .297 ⋅ 20 ) = 0.686 kJ kg .015 + 0 + 0.75 ⋅ 223 .87 % Randamentul indirect al cazanului Consumul de combustibil B* = D ⋅ (i − i0 ) + D p ⋅ (i '−i0 ) η ⋅ Hi = 1.3065 ⋅ 223 .3 diagramat=1.7865 ⋅1. kgK V g ⋅ t g 12.98 ⋅ 2746 + (1 − kJ  i" = 2746 kg  ⇒ i = 2703.686 − 387.Ppierderea specifica de caldura prin entalpia produselor sopide ale arderii evacuate sub focar: q 6 = 0 η = 1 − (q 2 + q3 + q 4 + q5 + q6 ) = 1 − (0.04 ⋅ 1.251 = 0. α  .5 = 223 .Pierderea specifica de caldura prin ardere incompleta de natura chimica: q 3 = 0.Pierderile specifice de caldura prin entalpia gazelor de ardere evacuate la cos: q2 = 1 ⋅ (V g ⋅ c p g ⋅ t g cos − α cos ⋅ V0 ⋅ c p aer 0 ⋅ t aer o ) = Hi 1 = ⋅ (11 .6577 = 0.0203 + 0) = 0.Pierderea specifica de caldura prin ardere incompleta de natura mecanica: q 4 = 0 .597 ⋅ 1.106 + 0.8587 − 39983.3 ⋅10 .52 °C  I aer 0 = V0 ⋅ c p aer 0 ⋅ t aer 0 = 10.251 kg D p = (0.886 kJ c p aer = 1.297 ⋅ 20 = 274.251 ⋅ (2703.278 ⋅ 4.4643⋅ 10 −2 ⋅ (4.8587 = 85 .3→ I cos = 4622 .5) −0.597 ⋅1.5 = 1.52 + 50 + 50 4.106 39983 .6577 = 5.1 α cos = 1.225 cpg = I cos 4622 .3 kJ  kg  ANEXA Ps = 4.t cos ≅ t s + 50 + 50 Dh = 149 .3 − 38 0.1°C ANEXA 4 Ps = 4.05) ⋅ D = 0.Pierderea specifica de caldura catre mediul exterior prin suprafetele exterioare ale cazanului: q5 = 5.297 kJ kgK .0203 .

5 = 387.085 ⋅ (1 − 0.97 = 262 .225 + 1.213 −1048 .015 − 0 − 0.085 ⋅ (1 − 0.182 kJ diagramat=→ t sfcII = 190.597 ⋅ 1.17 °C   diagrama Temperatura la sfarsitul focarului: t f = 1000 °C diagrama I −t=→ I f = 29674.297 ⋅ 20 ⇒ I t = 38874 .827 kJ kg 0.754 kJ I sfcII diagramat=→ t sfcI = 360.2 5 1 B Q ' Q • Bilantul partial pe suprafete I t = (1 − q3 − q 4 − q5 ) ⋅ H i + α f ⋅ V0 ⋅ iaer 0 = = (1 − 0.i0 = c p ⋅ t 0 = 4.0 1 5 1.3 kg Eroarea de inchidere a bilantului pertial pe suprafete: .1 1 Entalpia teoretica: Temperatura teoretica: I t = 3874 .2 −19674 .186⋅ 92.36 − 1048 .80 ⋅1311 .2   →t t = 1839 .857 = 1311 .857 kW Fluxul de caldura preluat prin radiatie in focar este: QC = Qut − Q R = 2910 .687 kJ kg 0.314 °C   I − .07 −1598 .2 kg = 17049.827 − I sfcI = 7003.1 t f = 900 ÷1100 °C kg Q R = B ⋅ (1 − q5 ) ⋅ ( I t − I f ) = 0.97 = 7077 .36 kJ    . α 1.0203 ) I sfcII = I sfcI − = 7077 .36 ) = 1598 .213 = 1048 .186kj kgK kg . α 1. α = .213 kW Fluxul de caldura preluat in sistemul convectiv este: QsfcI = (0.205kJ x = 0.2 kJ kg I −t .0203 ) ⋅ 39983 .98 .243 = 3928 .0 8 5 0. t 0 = 92.0203 ) ⋅ (38874 . c p = 4.085 ⋅ (1 − 0.85 ) ⋅ Qsfc = 0.5 °C • Bilantul termic direct al cazanului Bilantul de ansamblu al cazanului de abur Q Q " Q ' V0 Qu t 0.0203 ) 262 .97 kW QsfcII = Qsfc − QsfcI = 1311 .1 ⋅ 10.61°C   I − . α 1.75 ÷ 0.243 kW Entalpia gazelor de ardere la sfarsitul sistemului fierbator convectiv I sfcI = I f − QsfcI B ⋅ (1 − q 5 ) QsfcII B ⋅ (1 − q5 ) = 19674 .

01 % ⋅100 = 2.765 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 0. 3 – Samotare. se obtine o suprafata preliminara de schimb de caldura a focarului: ' SR = QR 4 4  T f   T   P C O ⋅ a 'f ⋅   100  −  100           − 3 kW C O = 5.717 38874 .52 + 22 + 273 = 444.95 m 3 4 4 4 4 Suprafata peretilor: S p = π ⋅ [ D ⋅ LR + Ds ⋅ Ls ] + 2 ⋅π ⋅ D2 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 0.8 ⋅ + 0.041 % ⋅100 = 3928 .8 + 0.75 ⋅   −    100   100     T f = t f + 273° = 1000 + 273 = 1273 K T p = t p + 273° = (t fl + ∆t p ) + 273° = (t s + ∆t p ) + 273° = 149.76 2 = π ⋅ [0.35 mm LR = ' SR − π ⋅ D2 π ⋅ 0.765 ⋅ 10 m2 K 4 a 'f = 0.3 m 2 4 4  1273   444.7] + = 16.76 2 π ⋅ 0.εt = εI = t sfcII − t cos t t − t cos I sfcII − I cos I t − I cos ⋅100 = 190 .717 Calculul focarului • Predimensionarea focarului prin calcul aproximativ Aplicand relatia de schimb de caldura prin radiatie (Stefan – Boltzmann) – metoda empirica.42 m 2 4 4 • Calculul final al focarului cu metoda aplicarii invariantului de modelare .2 − 4627 .7 ⋅ = 2. Ds = D − 2.8 m π ⋅D π ⋅ 0.762 14.65 = 757.76 ⋅ 5.52   5.1 1839 .65 = 760 − 2.17 − 223 .76 Volumul focarului: V f = LR ⋅ Ls = 600 ÷ 1200 = 700mm π ⋅ Ds2 π ⋅ D2 π ⋅ 0.867 = 14.5 t → D = 700 ÷ 1400= 760mm flacara: h Focar tub de flacara 1 – Tub de flacara.1 ⋅100 = 2. 4 – Arzator.757352 + Ls ⋅ = 5 .75735 ⋅ 0.3 − 4 = 4 = 5.52 K ∆t p = 15 ÷ 30 °C = 22 °C In functie de debitul de abur Dh se alege diametrul tubului de Dh = 4.687 − 4627 .61 − 223 . 2 – Ecran la cutia de intoarcere.75 = 1598.

0978 ) = 0.42 Coeficientul de absorbtie al focarului af = a 0.95 = 0.7865 PH 2O = ⋅ Pg = 2.254 ) ⋅ 0.7 Suprafata de radiatie .254 pentru flacara autocarbur ata de combustibi l gazos β = 0.63 + (1 − 0.358 a + (1 − a ) ⋅ Ψ⋅ ξ 0.7 ξ = 0.647 ] Coeficientul de absorbtie in focar a f =1− e − K g ⋅l = 1 − e −0.1966 1273 ⋅ (1 − 0.38 ⋅ ) ⋅ (0.5 = 1.5 = 1.27 ⋅0.5 ⋅ (1 − 0.5 1000 [( 0.647 = 0.1525 + 0 ⋅ 1 = 0.317 ⋅1 = 0.2 Radiatia partilor samotate ale focarului S' 14 .6 ⋅ 0.8 + 1.9 ⋅ 4 ⋅V f Sp = 0.16 = 0.63 Ponderea absorbtiei flacarii cu cea a mediului radiant de gaze de ardere a = β ⋅ a fl + (1 − β ) ⋅ a g = 0.0978 ) ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 2.2 ⋅ 0.6 ⋅ PH 2O [( PH 2O + PCO2 ) ⋅ l ] 0 .16 Constanta de radiatie a flacarii K fl = 1.1966 + 0.254 = = 0.1966 + 0.8 + 1.27 0 .PRO2 = VCO2 + VSO2 Vg Pg = 1bar V H 2O Vg ⋅ Pg = 1.6368 ⋅0.1966 bar 11 .2) ⋅ 0.6 ⋅ 1273 − 0.6 ⋅ Tf 1000 − 0.254 + (1 − 0.5368 1000 Coeficientul de absorbtie al flacarii a fl = 1 − e − K fl ⋅l = 1 − e −1.42 Constanta de radiatie a gazelor din focar Kg = = 0.647 m 16 .871 ⋅ 0.647 = 0.1966 bar 11 .3 ψ= R = = 0.7865 PRO2 − presiunea partiala a gazelor CO 2 si SO 2 in gazele de ardere PH 2O − presiunea partiala a apei Grosimea stratului radiant de gaze de ardere l = 0.871 S p 16 .38 ⋅ Tf 1000 ) ⋅ ( PH 2O + PCO2 ) = 0.

054 2   92 ⋅   n⋅    4  4     2 i S0 = 0.087 m 2 < S R = 14 .48 0.43 m 2 −3 3 2  5.206 m 2 20 Numarul necesar de tevi in focar n' = = 90.857 ⋅10 3 1  2112 .2 − 1) ⋅ 10.9 ⋅ S R = 12 .206 • Determinarea coeficientilor de transfer de caldura .127 m s 273 273 3 V g = V g 0 + (α − 1) ⋅ V0 = 11.773 m 2 Calculul termic al sistemelor convective ale cazanului • Determinarea sectiunii de trecere pentru convectiv Pentru cazanul cu 3 drumuri ABA.054 2      4     4     Dg 4. Asezarea drumurilor dedesubtul si lateral de tubul de flacara 1 – tub de flacara 2 – convectiv I 3 – convectiv II Convectiv I t f + t sfc I 2 Temperatura medie a gazelor de ardere = 1000 + 360 .127 = 0.17 ⋅ 0.17  ⋅3 ⋅ − 1 = 13 .358 ⋅1273 ⋅ 2112 .314 = 680 .085 ⋅ 13.157 + 273) = 4.1 ⋅ S R = 14 .7 ⋅ 0.597 = 13.906 ⋅ (680.17 K 2 ' 0.7865 + (1.Q R ⋅10 3 1 SR = ⋅3 2 C O ⋅ ξ ⋅ a f ⋅ T f ⋅ Tt ⋅ M M2 = T  ⋅  t − 1 T   f  2 1598 .765 ⋅10 ⋅ 0.17 + 273 = 2112 .157 °C 2 tg m = Debitul de gaze mediu care circula prin tevi Dg = B ⋅ V g ⋅ (t g m + 273) 3 0. cu Dh > 4 t/h vom folosi tevi de 60 x 3 mm pentru convectiv.906 Nm = Nm3 Viteza de circulatie a gazelor de erdere: wg = 15÷ 20 m s Sectiunea necesara de trecere a gazelor de ardere S0 = Dg wg = 4.587 m 2 s  π ⋅ di   π ⋅ 0.48  1273  Tt = t t + 273 ° = 1839 .127 wg = = = 19.1 ⇒ n = 92 tevi  π ⋅ d   π ⋅ 0.3 m 2 < 1.

0 5 4 3 0.8 8 7  6 0 5 R e< 1 0 0 0 ⇒ ε R e = (1 − 6 ⋅ 1 05 ⋅ R e− 1.157 ⋅ (1 − 0.9 6 1= 3 0.8 + 1. s   t g m = 6 8 01 5 7° C →  λ ⋅ 1 02 = 8.7 = 6.0 5 4 R e= = = 9 8 4 .8 ⋅ P r0.4 = 0.8 + 1.υ ⋅ 1 06 = 1 0 83 5m 2 . mK   P r = 0. 0 5 4 2 2 Presiunile gazelor triatomice PRO 2 = PH 2O = V RO 2 Vg V H 2O Vg ⋅ Pg = 1.054 = 0. d 3 N u = 0.8 ) = (1 − 6 ⋅ 1 05 ⋅ 9 8 4 .1666 ) = 1.0834 Coeficientul de transfer de caldura prin radiatia gazelor de ardere .6 ⋅ PH 2O [( PH 2O + PRO2 ) ⋅ l ] 0.5 ⋅ (1 − 0.6 1 2 ⋅ 0.0486 m Grosimea stratului radiant Constanta de absorbtie K = = 0.9 6 1 0 0 − L = L f = LR + Ls = 5.317 ⋅1 = 0.8 + 0.9 ⋅ 0.792 0.0828 + 0.8 8 5 ⋅ 0.792 ⋅0.0828 ) ⋅ 0.0828 bar 13 .6 ⋅ 0.4 ⋅ ε R e =  L  0.1 0⋅ 1 0− 2 αc = = = 4 6.5 1000 [( 0.0 2 4⋅ [1 +   ] ⋅ R e0.1666 bar 13 .0 2 4⋅ [1 +  0 0.8 8 7⋅ 8.906 2.1525 ⋅1 = 0.38 ⋅ Tg m 1000 ) ⋅ ( PH 2O + PRO2 ) = 0.1666 680 .3 3W 2 mK d 0.8 8 51.1666 + 0.8  ] ⋅ 9 8 4 .38 ⋅ ) ⋅ (0.8 8 5> 2 3 0 0 0 ⇒ υ 1 0 83 5 .0486 ] Coeficientul de absorbtie a gazelor de ardere a g = 1 − e −K ⋅l = 1 − e −1.906 ⋅ Pg = l = 0.5 8 7⋅ 1 06 ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ d i = 0.0486 = 0.1 0W . 6 1 2  w ⋅ d i 1 9.8 ) = 0.5 m N u⋅ λ 3 0.

972 m π ⋅ d i ⋅ N π ⋅ 0.52  3.0834 ⋅ m K  2  442 .794 = = 458 .6  1 −  P     Tg m   a p +1  a r = 5.955 = 49.82 T p = t fl + 20 + 273 = t s + 20 + 273 = 149 .314 −149 .157 + 273 = 953 .312 ⋅ 458 .97 ⋅10 3 = = 46 .82 + 1   953 .395 m K s W • Determinarea diferentei medie de temperatura ∆t m = ∆t max − ∆t min 850 .583 °C ∆t max 850 .625 W 2 = 5.52 = 850 .52 = 210 .625 = 52.583 S 46 .52 K Tg m = t g m + 273 = 680 .955W 2 m K ω =1 • Determinarea coeficientului global de transfer de caldura K= αf 1 + ε ⋅α f = 52.794 ∆t min ∆t max = t f − t s = 1000 −149 .157   ⋅ 953 .52      1−  953 .386 m 2 K ⋅ ∆t m 49 .955 2 wg = 19.  T  3.48 − 210 .157      a p = 0.765 ⋅10 −8 ⋅ ⋅ ag ⋅    ⋅ Tg m = 2  TP       1−T    gm        442 .175 K Coeficiemtul de schimb de caldura prin convectie si radiatie de la gazele de ardere α f = ω ⋅ α c + α r = 1 ⋅ 46.157 = 6.6    1 −  −8 0.386 = = 2.312 W 2 m K 1 + 1.33 + 6.48 ln ln 210 .765 ⋅10 ⋅ ⋅ 0.395 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 52.587 m ⇒ ε ⋅ 10 3 = 1.794 °C • Determinarea suprafetei de schimb de caldura S= L= Q 1048 .054 ⋅ 92 Convectiv II Temperatura medie a gazelor de ardere .48 °C ∆t min = t sfc I − t s = 360 .52 + 20 + 273 = 442 .

556 wg = = = 19.8 9 5> 2 3 0 0 9 ⇒ υ 4 6.314 + 190 .6 5 5 ⋅ 1 = 6 2.556 m s 273 273 3 V g = V g 0 + (α − 1) ⋅ V0 = 11.462 + 273) = 2.0 5 4 3 0. ° mK   P r = 0.8 ⋅ P r0.8 ) = (1 − 6 ⋅ 1 05 ⋅ 2 3 0 8.6 4 4⋅ 1 0− 2 ⋅ W = = 5 4.054 2   56 ⋅   n⋅    4  4     2 i S0 = 0.597 = 14.8 5 1 4.8 + 0.054 2        4   4     Dg 2.9 3⋅ 1 06 ⋅ 0.8 5 1  6 0 5 R e< 1 0 0 0 ⇒ ε R e = (1 − 6 ⋅ 1 05 ⋅ R e− 1.7865 + (1.61 = 275 .556 = 0.tg m = t sfc I + t sfc II 2 = 360 .0 5 4 R e= = = 2 3 0 8.6 4 4 .4 ⋅ ε R e =  L  0.966 Nm = Nm3 Viteza de circulatie a gazelor de erdere: wg = 15÷ 20 m s Sectiunea necesara de trecere a gazelor de ardere S0 = Dg wg = 2.085 ⋅ 14.6 5 5  w ⋅ d i 1 9.0 2 4⋅ [1 +  9 0.8  ] ⋅ 2 3 0 8.4 = 0.7 = 6.93 m 2 s  π ⋅ di   π ⋅ 0.8 9 51.6 1 d 3 N u= 0.796 ⇒ n = 56 tevi  π ⋅ d   π ⋅ 0.8 9 5 ⋅ 0.966 ⋅ (275.462 °C 2 Debitul de gaze mediu care circula prin tevi Dg = B ⋅ V g ⋅ (t g m + 273) 3 0.0 5 4 2 2 αc = Presiunile gazelor triatomice .6 1m 2 s   2 W t g m = 2 7 54 6 2 C →  λ ⋅ 1 0 = 4.128 m 2 20 Numarul necesar de tevi in focar n' = = 55.3 − 1) ⋅ 10.5 m N u⋅ λ 6 2.0 5 2 2 mK d 0.8 ) = 1 0 9 − L = L f = LR + Ls = 5.128 • Determinarea coeficientilor de transfer de caldura υ ⋅ 1 06 = 4 6.0 2 4⋅ [1 +   ] ⋅ R e0.

243 ⋅10 3 = = 50 .155 bar 14 .38 ⋅ Tg m 1000 ) ⋅ ( PH 2O + PRO2 ) = 0.0486 ] Tg m = t g m + 273 ° = 275 .6 ⋅ PH 2O [( PH 2O + PRO2 ) ⋅ l ] 0.499 m 2 K ⋅ ∆t m 50 .155 ) = 1.8 + 1.036 W 2 m K 1 + 1.966 2.8 + 1.462 K Coeficientul de absorbtie a gazelor de ardere a g = 1 − e −K ⋅l = 1 − e −1.38 ⋅ ) ⋅ (0.93 m ⇒ ε ⋅ 10 3 = 1.787 S 50 .462 + 273 = 548 .036 ⋅103 .09 ∆t min ∆t max = t sfc I − t s = 360 .155 + 0.9 ⋅ 0.812 0.52 = 41 .499 = = 4.794 ln ln 41 .6 ⋅ 0.317 ⋅1 = 0.395 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 57.052 = 50.5 1000 [( 0.052 = 54.794 °C ∆t min = t sfc II − t s = 190 .54 2 w g = 19.077 ) ⋅ 0.395 m K s W • Determinarea diferentei medie de temperatura ∆t m = ∆t max − ∆t min 210 .794 − 41 .052W 2 m K ω =1 • Determinarea coeficientului global de transfer de caldura K= αf 1 + ε ⋅α f = 54.PRO 2 = PH 2O = V RO 2 Vg V H 2O Vg ⋅ Pg = 1.1525 ⋅1 = 0.9 ⋅ d i = 0.054 ⋅ 56 Echilibrarea suprafetelor .09 °C • Determinarea suprafetei de schimb de caldura S= L= Q 262 .314 − 149 .728 m π ⋅ d i ⋅ N π ⋅ 0.966 ⋅ Pg = l = 0.155 548 .077 + 0.812 ⋅0.077 bar 14 .787 °C ∆t max 210 .61 − 149 .0486 = 0.054 = 0.462 ⋅ (1 − 0.52 = 210 .0843 Coeficiemtul de schimb de caldura prin convectie si radiatie de la gazele de ardere α f = ω ⋅ α c = 1 ⋅ 54.5 ⋅ (1 − 0.0486 m Grosimea stratului radiant Constanta de absorbtie K = = 0.09 = = 103 .

614 ⋅10 3 + 56 ⋅ 5.05 ⋅ 10 3 + π ⋅ 0.43 Qcv I S cv I Qcv II S cv II = 1048 .193 ⋅10 3 ) .386 262 .05 ⋅ 10 3 ) + 1048 .97 ⋅10 3 + 262 .499 = π ⋅ D2 f ⋅ q R ) + Qcv I + Qcv II 4 L= = π ⋅ D f ⋅ q R + π ⋅ d i ⋅ (ncv I ⋅ q cv I + ncv II ⋅ q cv II ) (QR − = (1598 .857 ⋅ 10 3 = = 119 .q rad = q cv I = q cv II = QR 1598 .857 ⋅ 10 3 − π ⋅ 0.243 ⋅ 10 3 4 = 3.76 2 ⋅119 .05 ⋅10 3 SR 13 .76 ⋅119 .193 ⋅10 3 50 .243 ⋅10 3 = 5.054 ⋅ (92 ⋅ 22 .95 m π ⋅ 0.614 ⋅10 3 46 .97 ⋅10 3 = 22 .

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