Chapter 19 Organizational Change and Stress Management MULTIPLE CHOICE Forces For Change 1.

Which of the following is not a primary force for change in organizations? a. technology b. economic shocks c. decreasing skill sets d. social trends e. the nature of the workforce (c; Easy; Forces for Change; pp. 619-620) 2. An example of change in the nature of the work force is an increase in_____. a. college attendance b. mergers and consolidations c. capital equipment d. divorce rates e. more cultural diversity (e; Moderate; Nature of the Workforce; p. 619) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 3. Phrases such as “more cultural diversity,” “many new entrants with inadequate skills,” and “increase in aging workers” are all examples of what force for change? a. technology b. world politics c. nature of the work force d. social trends e. competition (c; Easy; Nature of the Workforce; p. 619) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 4. An example of change in competition is _____. a. growth of e-commerce b. collapse of Enron Corporation c. Iraq–U.S. war d. increased interest in urban living e. a decrease in interest rates (a; Easy; Competition; p. 619) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Planned Change 5. Change activities that are _____ and goal oriented are termed planned change. a. intentional b. discretionary c. random d. reflexive e. restorative (a; Moderate; Planned Change; p. 621)

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What is a goal of planned change? a. to change the forces of change b. to alter the agents of change c. to change employees’ responsibilities d. to improve the ability to adapt to the environment e. to alter the employees’ environment (d; Moderate; Goals of Planned Change; p. 621) Resistance to Change 7. Resistance to change can be positive because _____. a. it provides a degree of stability to behavior and productivity b. without some resistance, OB would take on characteristics of chaotic randomness c. resistance can be a source of functional conflict d. all of the above e. none of the above (d; Moderate; Resistance to Change; p. 622) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 8. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is _____. a. covert b. deferred c. passive d. implicit e. overt (e; Moderate; Resistance to Change; p. 622) 9. Managing resistance to change that is _____ is extremely challenging. a. passive b. resolute c. deferred d. explicit e. overt (c; Moderate; Resistance to Change; p. 622) 10. Which of the following is not a source of individual resistance to change? a. habit b. security c. fear of the unknown d. inertia e. economic factors (d; Moderate; Sources of Individual Resistance to Change; p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 11. An example of a source of individual resistance to change is _____. a. inertia b. structural inertia c. a habit d. threat to expertise e. a policy conflict (c; Moderate; Sources of Resistance to Change; p. 623)

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All of the following are sources of organizational resistance to change except _____. Moderate. Which tactic for overcoming resistance to change basically assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation? a. Education and Communication. p. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 16. Which of the following is not a source of individual resistance to change? a. 624) 146 . 623) 17. Manipulation. p. Moderate. Sources of Individual Resistance to Change. facilitation and support c. cooptation e. Security c. coercion e. fear of the unknown d. structural inertia b. Easy. a. p. negotiation b. Structural motion b. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 13. participation d. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 14. _____ is a source of organizational resistance. p. education and communication d. Support of established power relationships e. manipulation (e. habit b. Moderate. Moderate. training and development b. a. Threat to resource allocations (e. Using covert influence to overcome resistance to change is called _____. a. p. teaching and advancement e. economic factors (d. Moderate. security c. Unlimited focus of change d. threat to established power relationships e. p. security c. group inertia (b. inertia e. education (a. Which one of the following is not listed as a tactic for dealing with resistance to change? a. manipulation c. education d. 623) 15. Tactics for Dealing with Resistance to Change. cooptation c. acceleration b. Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change. Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change. limited focus of change d.12. cooptation and manipulation (c.

but may backfire if the targets become aware of the tactic? a. generally the impetus for change c. Coercion. managers slightly removed from the main power structure. none of the above (d. negotiation b. a. cooperation (c. p. manipulation d. Challenging. a. The application of direct threats or force upon resisters is called _____. conciliation c. 625) 22. movement. Moderate. Moderate. Moderate. Politics of Change. good change agents b. manipulation d. Lawrence Summers e. p. 624) 21. a. 625) Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 23. this approach is called _____. Politics of Change. John Kotter b. exploitation b. exploitation c. Managers who have spent their entire careers with an organization and are high in the hierarchy are _____. 625) 147 . cooptation c. Politics suggest that the impetus for change is more likely to come from _____. outside change agents b. cooptation b. 624) 19. none of the above (c. employees who are new to the organization c. p. Manipulation. Kurt Lewin (e. a. coercion e. Moderate. Cooptation. 624) 20. and refreezing? a. all of the above e. If individuals resisting change are included in making change decisions in an attempt to gain their support. often impediments to change d. manipulation d. Moderate. p. Which tactic to overcome resistance to change is a relatively easy way to gain the support of adversaries. Who developed a three-step model for change that included unfreezing. p. destruction (d. Lewin’s Three-Step Model. usually focused on radical change e.18. d. p. David McClelland c. Douglas Surber d. education (a. coercion e. coercion e.

Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change. organizational development d. Moderate. p. Stages of Action Research. Moderate. a. a. p. a. 628) 148 . p. _____ is one way to achieve unfreezing of an organization’s status quo. 627) 27. the scientific method c. The action research process closely resembles _____. Action Research. Organizational restructuring (b. Unfreezing. 626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 26. none of the above (a. all of the above e. Moderate. decreasing restraining b. p. Action Research. 628) 28. Planned change d. increasing compelling c. All of the following are steps in the process of action research except _____. diagnosis b. John Kotter b. Who built upon the three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change? a. forming c. Action research c. p. 626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 25. Process consultation e. To move from equilibrium. Increasing the driving forces directing behavior away from the status quo b. Decreasing the restraining forces which hinder movement from inequality c. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 29. Decreasing management’s investment in change e. Moderate. Increasing employee investment in the status quo d. Douglas Surber d. evaluation (b. p. decreasing driving d. action e. David McClelland c. Unfreezing. Lewin suggests _____ forces.24. Lawrence Summers e. a. Moderate. political research b. a. an economic paradigm (b. Challenging. Increasing the rigidity of the organizational hierarchy (a. feedback d. _____ is a change process based on systematic collection of data and selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. Organizational development b. appreciative inquiry e. Kurt Lewin (a.

Diagnosis Stage of Action Research. Problems should be condensed. confrontation c. a. 628) 32. c. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 33. trust (c. Underlying Values in Organizational Development. Action research e. evaluation e. _____ encompasses a collection of planned-change interventions built on humanistic-democratic values that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. b. evaluation c. The step in the action research process where information is gathered about problems. p. action e. Economic validity (a. a. Easy. Organizational development b. e. p. Effective organizations are characterized by trust. Reflected change c. Which of the following is considered a benefit of action research for an organization? a. It is problem focused. Underlying Values in Organizational Development. Process consultation d. action d. concerns. p. It has no financial costs associated with it. Which of the following is not considered an underlying value in organizational development? a. p. 628) 31. 629) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 35. feedback b. re-evaluation (b. Moderate. d. c. participation b. a. and needed changes is known as the _____ stage. Moderate. Problems should be openly confronted. Analysis Stage of Action Research. diagnosis d. implementation d. Organizational Development. b. feedback b. 628) 34. All of the above are true. Benefits of Action Research. (b. e. analysis c. diagnosis is followed by _____. prognosis (c. 629) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 149 .30. Employees can carry out the specific actions to correct the problems identified. respect e. It is solution centered. Moderate. p. (a. Moderate. People should be treated with dignity and respect. In the process of action research. It is simple to implement. d. Moderate. Which of the following is not true of organizational development? a. p.

p. The de-emphasis of hierarchical authority and control in organizational development is referred to as _____. p. action research e. T-groups are also known as _____. Team Building. participation b. power equalization c. p. 630) 40. p. Psychoanalysis (d. vertical blending (b. a change agent b. p. process consultation d. Moderate. survey feedback c. Process consultation d. Moderate. Power Equalization. Planned change c. 630) 41. Sensitivity Training. Survey feedback c. personal development c. Process Consultation. Sensitivity Training. Moderate. usually a manager. Action research b. focus groups (d. 629) 37. action research teams b. 631) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 150 . social reinforcement (c. Easy. a. a. a. appreciative inquiry training groups c. Sensitivity training b. Survey Feedback. The purpose of _____ is for an outside consultant to assist a client. Sensitivity training e. and solving these differences. and act upon process events with which the manager must deal. Moderate. The activities included in team building include all of the following except _____. MBWA (b. 629) 38. to perceive. understand. defining priorities (b. team building groups d. Process consultation d. _____ is a method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction. respect for people e. p. trust and support d. a. role analysis e. Easy. Intergroup development e. _____ is a tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members. a. 629) 39. sensitivity training groups e. identifying discrepancies among member perceptions. a.36. team process analysis d. goal setting b.

_____ is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product. Moderate. An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change is termed a(n) _____. dreaming c. p. Appreciative Inquiry. 634) 46. double-loop learning organization e. Innovation. learning organization (e. a. a. Double-loop learning d. a. social reinforcement (a. Moderate. process consultation e. Innovation. p. p. process. structural variables c. discovery b. Moderate. maladapted mechanism b. Moderate. human resource factors d. Double-loop learning c. innovative organization d. cultural variables b. a. 635) 151 . Single-Loop Learning. Learning Organization. 632) 43. Process reengineering e. Organizational streaming (c. Process reengineering b. Steps of Appreciative Inquiry. p. or service. 635) 47. 633) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Creating a Culture for Change 44. Continuous improvement process e. Easy.42. _____ seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization. Organizational reaction (b. destiny e. continuous improvement process c. brainstorming (b. Innovation d. Single-loop learning c. p. A continuous improvement process b. _____ involves correcting errors using past routines and present policies. devising d. Which of the following is not a step in the appreciative inquiry process? a. Rather than looking for problems. which can then be built upon to improve performance. champions e. Moderate. action research c. Which of the following has been the most studied potential source of innovation? a. team building d. 634) 45. design (c. p. appreciative inquiry b.

Easy. think in terms of independent relationships e. Characteristics of Learning Organizations. group e. d. Which is not a strategy for managers to make their firms learning organizations? a. pursue projects of interest c. d. Family issues. role demands d. economic conditions b. and standard routines are part of _____. p. Moderate.48. Errors that are corrected by modifying the organization’s objectives. have standard ways of doing their jobs b. a. Systematically collect data and then select a change action based on the analyzed data. Redesign the organization’s structure by flattening the structure and increasing the use of cross-functional teams. Members integrate old ways of thinking with new ideas. task demands c. the continuous improvement process e. c. focus on breaking down barriers created by hierarchical levels d. (d. double-loop learning c. (c. a. economic uncertainties. policies. economic problems. Which of the following is a characteristic of a learning organization? Its employees _____. Moderate. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a learning organization? a. Moderate. e. Creating Learning Organizations. Make it clear that people high in the organization are behind any proposed change. Environmental Sources of Stress. Establish a strategy that makes management’s commitment to innovation explicit. p. and personality characteristics are examples of the _____ 152 . Moderate. 636) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 51. none of the above (a. Reshape the organization’s culture by emphasizing risk taking and openness. economic b. Challenging. People sublimate their personal self-interest to work together to achieve the organization’s shared vision. Organizational Sources of Stress. 636) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Work Stress and Its Management 52. tertiary continuance (b. Which of the following is not an organizational factor related to stress? a. 635) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 50. Double-Loop Learning. 639) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 53. e. p. have high levels of technical knowledge (c. organizational d. interpersonal demands e. c. There is a shared vision upon which everyone agrees. There is consensus on the direction of the organization. and technological change are examples of which category of potential sources of stress? a. single-loop learning b. p. Political uncertainties. 640) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 54. Learning Organization. 635) 49. b. process reengineering d. People openly communicate with each other. social (b. environmental c. p. b. p.

behavioral d. a. reverse-inverted c. psychological e. p. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 57.factor of potential stress. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 59. Psychological Symptoms of Stress. Easy. Easy. none of the above (d. Easy. psychological c. p. Increased blood pressure and increased heart rate are _____ symptoms of stress. a mood disorder (d. and appetite disorders are all examples of _____ symptoms of stress. accident proneness. single-loop (c. 640) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 55. physiological c. a. 643) 153 . inverted-U d. Easy. Excessive smoking. p. physiological b. Personal Sources of Stress. behavioral d. The most widely studied pattern in the stress-performance literature is the _____ relationship. low self-esteem c. a. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 58. self-efficacy b. Consequences of Stress. personal b. p. behavioral d. all of the above e. psychological c. personnel d. Moderate. Behavioral Symptoms of Stress. Which of the following is not a psychological symptom of stress? a. pathological (c. environmental c. psychological b. anxiety b. Consequences of stress can surface as _____ symptoms. double-loop e. frustration d. high blood pressure e. p. personal e. Inverted-U Relationship. personal (e. a. Moderate. substance abuse. physiological e. social b. a. p. 642) 56. Physiological Symptoms of Stress. reactive (b.

Selection and placement b. considerable job experience b. p. 619) 64. 621) Resistance To Change 67. p. Which of the following characteristics is most likely to be associated with high stress? a. Moderate. Goal setting d. Moderate. Forces for Change. _____ is an example of an individual approach to stress reduction. a positive outlook (b.” (False. p. Competition. (False. Research demonstrates that any effort to resist change is dysfunctional in terms of organizational effectiveness. external locus of control c. Individual Approaches to Managing Stress. Change Agents. Easy. “Change or die” is the rallying cry among today’s managers worldwide. type B behavior e. 645) 61. Easy. 622) 68. 645) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 62. 645) TRUE/FALSE Forces For Change 63. (True. Moderate. 620) Planned Change 66. (True. all of the above (d. Relaxation techniques e. Managing Stress. a. p. p. There is a negative correlation between people’s need for security and their resistance to change.60. Wellness Programs. relaxation c. organizational development e. employee involvement d. Sources of Individual Resistance to Change. 623) 154 . “Change agent” is synonymous with “manager. Easy. job redesign b. a high sense of competence d. p. Resistance to Change. Technology is a force that acts as a catalyst for change. 619) 65. Redesigning jobs c. Easy. (False. p. Easy. Organizationally supported programs that focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition are called _____ programs. wellness (e. a. Forces for Change. (True. The global economy means that competitors are as likely to come from across the ocean as from across town. p. Easy. p.

p. Easy. Moderate. Cooptation is a form of both manipulation and participation. Steps of Action Research. In the process of action research. and evaluation. Action Research. Appreciative inquiry refers to a change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicates. not organizational. Internal Change Agents. According to Lewin’s model. 624) 72. p. Cooptation. Retention forces are those that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium. Sensitivity training emphasizes changing behavior through structured group interaction. Moderate. 628) 83. 625) 73. (False. Restraining Forces. 629) 155 . (False. Sensitivity Training. 625) 75. (False. (False. (False. Easy. (False. p.69. (False. (False. 628) 79. 626) 76. diagnosis. 622-623) 71. factors. p. p. p. 625) Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 74. feedback. 626) 77. (False. Moderate. An advantage of action research is that it is solution-centered. (False. You should expect that long-time career executives will be proponents of change. Action Research. Steps of Action Research. Moderate. Organizational behavior (OB) is not a readily definable concept. 628) 82. Moderate. 628) 80. p. 628) 78. Easy. p. (False. Moderate. Internal change agents typically are individuals high in the organization who have little to lose from the change. p. The diagnosis step of action research is analogous to the physician’s search to find the appropriate treatment. p. resistance will increase. refreezing is required if changes are to be permanent. p. action. Moderate. Moderate. Politics of Change. (False. (True. Sources of Individual Resistance to Change. (True. p. 628) 81. Moderate. (True. The steps of action research fall in this order: analysis. but a convenient term used to encompass a variety of activities for managing change. the gathering of information about problems occurs in the analysis stage. Change is caused by individual. Steps of Action Research. p. If an individual believes his/her income will be affected negatively by a particular change. Moderate. 623) 70. Driving Forces. Organizational Development. Inertia forces direct behavior away from the status quo. Lewin’s Three-Step Model. Sources of Resistance to Change. Moderate. pp. p. Moderate.

the initial diagnosis stage is followed by analysis. Double-loop learning is an error correction process that relies on past routines and present policies. and perceptions that groups have of each other. 635) 99. 632) 88. (True. Challenging. Moderate. 634) 92. 634) 97. stereotypes. Survey Feedback. p. Appreciative Inquiry. Idea champions display characteristics associated with transactional leadership. Moderate. Team Building. Easy. Idea Champions. p. p. Moderate. Appreciative Inquiry. Sources of Innovation. Easy. Moderate. All innovations involve change. energy. (False. p. persistence. 631) 87. Organic structures positively influence innovation. p. In appreciative inquiry. Moderate. (True. Innovation. 630) 85. Easy. Easy.84. Moderate. (False. (False. 634) 93. 634) 95. (True. (True. pp. Team building is applicable where group activities are interdependent. p. p. Intergroup Development. Sources of Innovation. Appreciative inquiry is problem-focused. (True. Process consultants work with the clients in jointly diagnosing what processes need improvement. Idea Champions. (True. 634) 96. p. Moderate. Intergroup development seeks to change attitudes. Innovation. Moderate. Moderate. Change is a specialized kind of innovation. 633) Creating a Culture for Change 91. Process Consultation. (False. 632) 89. Moderate. (False. 634) 94. Moderate. p. p. 632) 90. Appreciative inquiry is a collection of change techniques or interventions built on humanisticdemocratic values. Steps of Appreciative Inquiry. (False. p. (True. (False. (True. 630-631) 86. 635) 98. Double-Loop Learning. p. Sources of Innovation. p. Idea champions have extremely high self confidence. p. Sources of Innovation. Innovation is nurtured where there are slack resources. 635) 156 . p. Innovative organizations reward employees for failures. The objectives of survey feedback are to provide subjects with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others see them. Innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures. (True. and a tendency to take risks.

Learning Organization. Easy. A person’s basic disposition is a major private factor that influences stress. Easy. (False. A learning organization is an ideal rather than an organizational reality. Environmental Sources of Stress. p. p. Idea Champions and Culture. Learning Organization. Easy. Conditions that cause stress are universal in effect. 645) 111. 641) 109. Stress and Culture. Easy. Easy. Wellness Programs. p. p. The organizational factors that cause stress include: task demands. p. The potential payoff from wellness programs has not been documented. Organizational Approaches to Managing Stress. Stress. p. 640) 105. 637) 103. Moderate. Moderators of Stress. An idea champion in Germany will be more effective by ignoring budgets and procedures. p. p. 639) 104. (False. p. (True. Organizational Sources of Stress. role demands. Experience on the job tends to be positively related to work stress. p. Easy. Easy. To help manage stress. Moderate. among others. Personal Sources of Stress. 647) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 113. (True. organizations can use the techniques of goal setting and redesigning jobs. 648) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 157 . An excellent illustration of a learning organization is Merck. p. Easy. (False. Social support can buffer the impact of stress. p. (True. (False. (False. Moderate. (True. Moderate. p. Moderate. Moderators of Stress. 641) 108. (False. (True. 645) Global Implications 112. Organizational Approaches to Managing Stress. (True.100. (True. Financial stressors created by overextending are an example of the environmental stress category. Stress may offer the opportunity for potential gain. 645) 110. 635) 101. Few of the factors that cause stress are controlled by management. 640) 106. Easy. and interpersonal demands. p. Computers are an example of individual stress factors. 637) Work Stress and Its Management 102. Personal Sources of Stress. 640) 107. (False.

habit b. Sources of Individual Resistance to Change. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 115. p. Sources of Individual Resistance to Change. security d. fear of the unknown e. your division has had trouble filling the open positions with appropriate candidates. threat to established power relationships (a. The source of Doug’s resistance is _____. This problem is an example of which kind of resistance to change? a. group inertia d. Doug dislikes uncertainty and has developed a negative attitude. economic c. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 117. a. p. limited focus of change c. structural inertia b. none of the above (b. his pay might be reduced. Moderate. group inertia e. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 158 . none of the above (c. a. p. security d. p. Moderate. Tony is afraid that his job may be in jeopardy and he may be laid off. The selection processes used by human resources have not yet adjusted to the new criteria required for the restructured job positions. Sources of Individual Resistance to Change. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 116. selective information processing c. Since the restructuring. threat to expertise e. none of the above (d. structural inertia e. The source of Tony’s resistance is _____. Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change. Moderate. a. Don is concerned that he will not be able to perform the new tasks. economic c. habit b. habit b. Since he is paid by the amount he produces. selective information processing d. Moderate. The source of Don’s resistance is _____.SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS Application of Sources of Resistance To Change Your supervisor has restructured the jobs within your division and some of your colleagues are not pleased. 114.

participation c. p. Their accusation is ________. Manipulation. a. inaccurate. pp. participation c. accurate. building support and commitment (d. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is _____. coercion (a. Education and Communication. You have decided to involve the sales personnel in planning for the change and in stocking appropriate new items to sell to gardeners. 118. inaccurate. In reaction to your threat to close down the company. This change is not met with enthusiasm by the sales personnel who have had good long-term relationships with area farmers. has decided to expand its traditional business serving farm owners in order to include home gardeners in its customer base. education and communication b. because you fully intend to follow through on your threat if the sales team refuses to support the new customer focus b. 623-624) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 120. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen may be _____. Participation. manipulation and cooptation e. education and communication b. Manipulation. accurate. Easy. manipulation and cooptation e. negotiation d. p. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is _____. because you fully intend to follow through on your threat if the sales team refuses to support the new customer focus e. because you plan to eliminate many sales positions regardless of whether your sales force accepts the new customer focus c. negotiation d. a. a. because your threat to eliminate positions and close down the company is simply a ruse to gain employees’ compliance d. Challenging. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 119. p. negotiation d. You know that the change will be difficult if you cannot overcome the resistance of the sales personnel and obtain their cooperation. education and communication b. Easy. manipulation e. your employees accuse you of manipulating them to gain their cooperation with the new sales approach. You have brought in the local extension agent to explain demographics and the changing nature of the area in which you live. 624) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 121. coercion (b. a. You have threatened to eliminate positions and even to close down the company if your employees don’t change their attitudes. accurate. Johnson Farm Products.Application of Overcoming Resistance to Change Your company. Easy. 624) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 159 . because your threat to eliminate positions and close down the company is simply a ruse to gain employees’ compliance (e. participation c.

your employees are still resistant to the relocation. you are offering a $2. Challenging. Mintz would like for its mechanics to move with the company but realizes that there will be some hardships associated with the move. you are attempting to _____. convenes a large-group meeting of your employees over a 2 day time period e. 625-626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 123. a. 632) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 160 . You decide to put more effort into planning the relocation effort. Challenging. unfreeze the status quo b. 122. p. creating a set of strategies for the move and sticking with them at all costs c. Unfreezing. none of the above (c. providing employees with a list of compelling reasons for the move (e. removing restraining forces d. none of the above (a. refreeze the change d. move the process along c. You have implemented a permanent upward adjustment of salaries for employees who relocate. As a manager in charge of the relocation effort. refreeze the change d. a. You are attempting to _____. Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change. In Lewin’s terms. brainwashing e. limiting your discussion of your vision for the move to employees with the highest rankings d. 626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 125. p. Challenging. removing driving forces b. and you choose to institute an appreciative inquiry (AI) to increase employee investment in the change. 626) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 124. Challenging. p. a.000 moving bonus for any employee who will go to the new location.Application of Approaches to Managing Organizational Change Mintz’s Motor Repair is moving its location to a larger community 100 miles away. emphasizing the importance of short-term wins by discouraging risk taking b. focuses on identifying the problems of your organization d. none of the above (c. Mintz has decided to use Lewin’s three-step model in order to make the change. Unfreezing. focuses on reviewing past mistakes and avoiding shortcomings b. bribe your employees e. Challenging. Despite your attempts to unfreeze the status quo at Mintz. 627) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 126. Appreciative Inquiry. unfreeze the status quo b. According to Kotter’s model. This is an example of _____. Refreezing. To coordinate the AI. pp. move the process along c. demonstrates to your employees that you are at fault for not planning the relocation properly c. which of the following would most likely help to overcome this problem? a. You counsel each employee individually. increasing driving forces c. an outside consultant is hired who does which of the following? a. trying to lessen each person’s fears about the move. postponing the moving deadline since it isn’t critical that the move occur immediately e. change a driving force e. none of the above (c. p.

none of the above (a. a. environmental c. organizational b. diagnosis (c. One of your employees is very stressed out as a result of being asked to assume too many roles in his job. a.Application of Action Research You have decided to use action research to manage a planned change in your department. analysis (b. In which stage of the process do you synthesize the information into primary concerns. Analysis Stage of Action Research. individual d. p. You ask questions and interview your employees in which step of the process? a. Moderate. and hard working. 127. action c. 639) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 131. organizational b. and possible actions? a. 130. Moderate. action b. industrial e. Moderate. analysis d. Moderate. evaluation d. This source of stress is _____. action e. individual d. feedback d. problem areas. evaluation b. Diagnosis Stage of Action Research. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 128. Moderate. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 129. environmental c. analysis c. feedback e. diagnosis c. The technological change that employees are dealing with is a(n) _____ stress-producing factor. Environmental Sources of Stress. feedback e. industrial e. You have carefully mapped out the five steps of the process. well educated. p. Your employees are highly trained. They are under a great deal of stress and TNT Net is concerned that productivity and job satisfaction will decline. Organizational Sources of Stress. p. In which stage do you share with employees what you have found and develop action plans? a. none of the above (b. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of Understanding Stress and Its Consequences TNT Net is a company that you have established within the computer industry. diagnosis (c. 640) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 161 . p. where innovations are common. Feedback Stage of Action Research. p. evaluation b.

p. Consequences of Stress. Double-loop learning challenges deep-rooted assumptions and norms within an organization. What is a learning organization? A learning organization is an organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change. What are the three steps in Lewin’s model for change? Kurt Lewin argued that successful change in organizations should follow three steps: unfreezing the status quo. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 135. 635) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 162 . 635) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 137. but not all changes necessarily involve new ideas or lead to significant improvements. Action Research. p. So all innovations involve change. p. psychological c. or service. and refreezing the new change to make it permanent. Just as individuals learn. physiological b. Lewin’s Three-Step Model. p. It is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product. action. 634) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 136. the correction process relies on past routines and present policies. p. What is innovation? Innovation is a more specialized kind of change. The process of action research consists of five steps: diagnosis. Moderate. behavioral d. analysis. p. It provides opportunities for radically different solutions to problems and dramatic jumps in improvement. What is action research? Action research refers to a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change agent based on what the analyzed data indicate.132. In an attempt to recognize stress early. Single-Loop Learning and Double-Loop Learning. learning organizations use double-loop learning. policies. Innovation. (Easy. What is the difference between single-loop learning and double-loop learning? Most organizations engage in what has been called single-loop learning. it is corrected in ways that involve the modification of the organization’s objectives. Learning Organization. When an error is detected. feedback. none of the above (d. In contrast. (Easy. a. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 133. The importance of this approach lies in providing a scientific methodology for managing planned change. These steps closely parallel the scientific method. (Easy. movement to a new state. When errors are detected. so too do organizations. you should be aware that symptoms may be _____. (Moderate. 625) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 134. process. and standard routines. (Easy. and evaluation. all of the above e.

Stress. Psychological Symptoms of Stress. relaxation training. a) The nature of the workforce includes more cultural diversity. boredom. and many new entrants with inadequate skills. and the collapse of Enron Corporation. The six specific forces for change are: the nature of the workforce. What can managers do to make their firms learning organizations? Managers can make their firms learning organizations through a number of suggestions. Forces for Change. the opening of markets in China. technology. (Moderate. the retirement of Baby Boomers. increase in professionals. Other psychological states include tension. they can reshape the organization’s culture. p. pp. Stress can cause dissatisfaction. and the growth of e-commerce. p. and world politics. and the war on terrorism. Management might also redesign the organization’s structure. (Easy. 637) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 140. competition. or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. new mobile communication devices.138. What are some individual approaches to managing stress? Individual strategies that have proven effective include implementing time management techniques. 619-620) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 163 . Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. What is stress? Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity. mergers and consolidations. Discuss some of the psychological consequences of stress. and deciphering of the human genetic code. anxiety. p. (Easy. b) Technology includes faster and cheaper computers. Individual Approaches to Managing Stress.com stocks. In addition. social trends. f) World politics includes the escalation of hostilities in the Middle East. Management can establish a strategy. e) Social trends include Internet chat rooms. irritability. List the six specific forces for change. and procrastination. c) Economic shocks include the rise and fall of dot. d) Competition includes global competitors. the decline in the value of the Euro. (Easy. p. 645) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 142. constraint. Job-related stress can cause job-related dissatisfaction. economic shocks. 636) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 139. (Easy. Creating Learning Organizations. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 141. increasing physical exercise. and the increased interest in urban living. and expanding the social support network.

Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. feedback. group norms may act as a constraint. and listens to the concerns of employees. They tend to be content with the way things are. c) Feedback requires sharing with employees what has been found from steps one and two. c) Group Inertia. p. e) Threat to Established Power Relationships. reviews records. f) Threat to Established Resource Allocations. d) Threat to Expertise. 628) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS 144. the change agent synthesizes this information into primary concerns. rules. Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization. (Challenging. e) The final step is evaluation of the action plan’s effectiveness. p. Organizations are made up of a number of interdependent subsystems. b) Action research includes extensive involvement of the change targets. You can’t change one without affecting the others. develop action plans for bringing about any needed change. action. b) Limited Focus of Change. 623) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 164 . and needed changes from members of the organization. concerns. Discuss resistance to change in term of its organizational sources. Even if individuals want to change their behavior. The employees. d) The employees and the change agent carry out the specific actions to correct the problems that have been identified. There are six major sources of organizational resistance to change. analysis.143. and procedures for employees to follow. The change agent begins by gathering information about problems. The change agent asks questions. (Moderate. Stages of Action Research. a) Structural Inertia. Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. Sources of Resistance to Change. and possible actions. Formalization provides job descriptions. problem areas. a) In the diagnosis stage. What are the five steps of the action research process? The process of action research consists of five steps: diagnosis. Organizations have built-in mechanisms to produce stability. with the help of the change agent. interviews employees. and evaluation.

Although research on challenge and hindrance stress is just starting to accumulate. This demands–resources model has received increasing support in the literature. and time urgency—operates quite differently from hindrance stressors —or stressors that keep you from reaching your goals (red tape. stereotypes. Resources are things within an individual’s control that can be used to resolve the demands. e) Intergroup development seeks to change the attitudes. and formal communication channels. confusion over job responsibilities). b) One tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members. pp. In short. or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. and perceptions that groups have of each other. Members are brought together in a free and open environment in which participants discuss themselves and their interactive processes. (Challenging. a) Sensitivity training refers to a method of changing behavior through unstructured group interaction. and even uncertainties that individuals face in the workplace. researchers have argued that challenge stressors—or stressors associated with work load. pressure to complete tasks. Stress and Sources of Stress. Describe the potential sources of stress. pressures. b) Organizational sources of stress include: task demands. f) Appreciative inquiry seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization. informal relationships among unit members. and personality.145. These might include work flow. it also has a positive value. some stress can be good. financial problems. Interventions for Bringing about Change. Discuss stress and the types of stress. and an organization’s life cycle. Pages 629-632) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 146. identifying discrepancies among member perceptions. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity. and some can be bad. 637-641) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 165 . stress is associated with demands and resources. office politics. and personal. loosely directed by a professional behavioral scientist. interpersonal demands. and act upon process events with which he or she must deal. and technological uncertainty. List six interventions that change agents might consider using. understand. obligations. c) Personal factors include family problems. early evidence suggests that challenge stressors are less harmful (produce less strain) than hindrance stressors. organizational. More typically. Demands are responsibilities. d) Team building utilizes high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members. That is. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. (Challenging. role demands. which can then be built upon to improve performance. organizational structure. c) The purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a client to perceive. political uncertainty. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context. Recently. There are three categories of potential stressors: environmental. a) Environmental sources of stress include economic uncertainty. it focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems. constraint. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain. organizational leadership. and solving these differences is the survey feedback approach.

and project a cynical mistrust of others are at increased risk of experiencing stress in situations. The research led to the conclusion that stress could create changes in metabolism. is “the simplest and most obvious psychological effect” of stress. Type A—particularly that aspect of Type A that manifests itself in hostility and anger—is associated with increased levels of stress and risk for heart disease. p. some evidence suggests that stress may have harmful physiological effects. therefore. (Challenging. mitigating the negative effects of even high-strain jobs. significance. The link between stress and particular physiological symptoms is not clear. Behavior-related stress symptoms include changes in productivity. d) Personality also affects the degree to which people experience stress and how they cope with it. boredom. increase heart and breathing rates. Perception. tension. feedback. irritability. Explain individual difference variables that moderate the stress-outcome relationship. More recently.147. Voluntary turnover is more probable among people who experience more stress. and personality—have been found to be relevant moderators of stress. bring on headaches. c) Behavioral Symptoms. a) Physiological Symptoms. Similarly. Although more research is needed to clarify the relationship. Traditionally. Individual Differences. absence. 642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 166 . Therefore. (Challenging. and procrastination. increase blood pressure. people who are quick to anger. So stress potential doesn’t lie in objective conditions. and turnover. anxiety. authority. The logic underlying this moderating variable is that social support acts as a palliative. Most of the early concern with stress was directed at physiological symptoms. as well as changes in eating habits. both stress and dissatisfaction are increased. people who remain with the organization longer are those with more stress-resistant traits or those who are more resistant to the stress characteristics of their organization. will moderate the relationship between a potential stress condition and an employee’s reaction to it. The evidence indicates that when people are placed in jobs that make multiple and conflicting demands or in which there is a lack of clarity about the incumbent’s duties. Stress can cause dissatisfaction. b) Psychological Symptoms. people eventually develop coping mechanisms to deal with stress. and responsibilities. increased smoking or consumption of alcohol. the evidence suggests that jobs that provide a low level of variety. But stress shows itself in other psychological states—for instance. Job-related stress can cause job-related dissatisfaction. b) The evidence indicates that experience on the job tends to be negatively related to work stress. c) There is increasing evidence that social support—that is. At least four variables—perception. in fact. fidgeting. a) Employees react in response to their perception of reality rather than to reality itself. social support. consistent relationships. and induce heart attacks. the less control people have over the pace of their work. if any. rapid speech. it lies in an employee’s interpretation of those conditions. More specifically. the greater the stress and dissatisfaction. 641-642) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 148. researchers concluded that there were few. Job dissatisfaction. job experience. Consequences of Stress. and sleep disorders. collegial relationships with co-workers or supervisors—can buffer the impact of stress. senior members of the organization are more likely to be fully adapted and should experience less stress. maintain a persistently hostile outlook. Perhaps the most widely studied personality trait in stress is Type A personality. This is attributed to the complexity of the symptoms and the difficulty of objectively measuring them. autonomy. Explain the three consequences of stress. Second. and identity to incumbents create stress and reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job. pp. Because this takes time.

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