7/8/2009

Special Techniques
• Superposition Theorem • Source Transformation • Thevenin’s Theorem • Norton’s Theorem

Linear elements vs. linear circuits
• Linear element: passive element that has a linear voltage-current relationship, i.e. v(t)=R*i(t) • Linear dependent source: source whose output is proportional only to the first power, i.e., v1 = 0.6i1-14v2 • Linear circuit: composed of independent sources, linear dependent sources, and linear elements
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Superposition Theorem
• One of the properties of linearity • Definition: “…voltage across or current thru any resistor or source may be calculated by adding all the individual voltage or currents caused by the separate independent source acting alone…”

Implementation
• Other independent voltage sources give zero voltage, then act like short circuits. • Other independent current sources give zero current, then act like open circuits.
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7/8/2009 Example Example I1 = 1A I1 = 1A I2 = 0A I2 = 2A I total = 1+0 = 1A I total = 1+2 = 3A 5 6 Example Find voltage Vx Vx( 42V ) = = 9.333V (3 || 4) (12 / 7) × 42 = × 42 6 + (3 || 4) 6 + (12 / 7) 7 8 2 .

333 = 6V 9 10 Example 1 use superposition to find ix Example 1 (cont.7/8/2009 Vx(10V ) = − = −3.0 A 11 12 3 .8 A ix = 1.333V (6 || 3) 2 ×10 = − ×10 (6 || 3) + 4 2+ 4 Vx = Vx( 42V ) + Vx(10V ) = 9.333 − 3.) ' ix = 0.2 A ' i x' = 0.

7/8/2009 Special Techniques • Superposition Theorem • Source Transformation • Thevenin’s Theorem • Norton’s Theorem Practical voltage source v L = v s − Rs i L voc = v s iLsc = vs Rs 13 14 Practical current source i L = is − vL Rp Equivalent practical sources Head of current = + v Loc = R p is iLsc = is 15 RTH = RN VTH = I N × RTH 16 4 .

) “The two practical sources are equivalent only with respect to what transpires at the load terminals.7/8/2009 Equivalent practical sources (cont. they are not equivalent internally!” Note: goal is to have either all current sources or all voltage sources in the circuit—making nodal/mesh analysis easier Special Techniques • Superposition Theorem • Source Transformation • Thevenin’s Theorem • Norton’s Theorem 17 18 Thevenin’s Theorem Thevenin’s Equivalent Circuit Composed of VTH and RTH connected in series Equivalent circuit VTH = Voc (open-circuit voltage) RTH = equivalent R (total R) in the circuit 19 20 5 .

Example Find Thevenin’s equivalent circuit and the current passing thru RL given RL = 1 21 22 Find VTH Find RTH 10V 6V 6V 0V 0V 0V Short voltage source RTH = 10 + 2 || 3 + 2 = 10 + 2×3 +2 2+3 = 13. which is equivalent to VTH. short voltage source). and find Voc across the load.2Ω VTH = 3 ×10 = 6V 2+3 RTH 23 24 6 . • Open load and evaluate RTH by zeroing out every independent source (open current source.7/8/2009 A statement of Thevenin’s Theorem • Disconnect a load network from the circuit by substituting an open circuit.

2 + 1 25 26 Find VTH 5V 3V 3V Find RTH 0V 0V 0V Open circuit current source RTH = 10 + 3 + 2 = 15Ω VTH = 1× 3 = 3V RTH 27 28 7 .7/8/2009 Thevenin’s equivalent circuit Example Find Thevenin’s equivalent circuit The current thru RL = 1 is 6 = 0.423 A 13.

7/8/2009 Thevenin’s equivalent circuit Example: Bridge circuit Find Thevenin’s equivalent circuit 29 30 Find VTH 10V Find RTH RTH 8V 2V 0V VTH = 8-2 = 6V 31 32 8 .

4 K 33 34 9 .7/8/2009 Thevenin’s equivalent circuit RTH = 2 K || 8 K + 4 K || 1K = 1.6 K + 0.8 K = 2.