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Edward CY YIU Department of Real Estate and Construction January 2007
• Design of Drainage System
– – Sanitary Fitments Above ground drainage systems
• • • • One-pipe and two-pipe systems Drainage Installation Requirements Drainage systems for soil, waste, rain water and grease Vent pipe and anti-siphonage system Manholes and last manhole Vent
Below ground (Sewage) drainage systems
Maintenance of Drainage System
– – Survey Repair
– Buildings Ordinance, Laws of Hong Kong Chapter 123 http://www.justice.gov.hk/
• • CAP 123I: Building (Standards of Sanitary Fitments, Plumbing, Drainage Works and Latrines) Regulations Guidelines on Maintenance and Repair of Drainage System and Sanitary Fitments Flood prevention Sewage strategy and facilities
Drainage Services Department (DSD), Hong Kong http://www.info.gov.hk/dsd/
Environmental Protection Department (EPD), Hong Kong http://www.infor.gov/hk/epd/ 2
• “Everyday, the people of Hong Kong produce some 2.6 million cubic metres of sewage, enough to fill up more than 1,400 Olympic-size swimming pools. • This sewerage system includes a sewerage network of over 1,525 kilometres in total length and around 260 plants ranging from preliminary treatment (screening) plants to secondary treatment (biological) plants treating sewage from residential, commercial and industrial premises in the territory prior to disposal to the sea for dilution and dispersion through submarine outfalls.”
 Drainage and Sewerage Systems refers to liquid waste disposal systems, solid waste disposal will be separately discussed. http://www.dsd.gov.hk/sewerage/sewerage_strategy/index.htm
• Building (Standards of Sanitary Fitments, Plumbing, Drainage Works and Latrines) Regulations [B(SSF)R]
OTTV Air Out – MVAC System Fire out – Fire Safety System Light out – Lighting System (blinds) Sound out – Acoustics System 5 Drainage Connections Plumbing system Faucet Above ground drainage system Underground drainage system Sewerage system 6 3 .Building Services Framework Water in – Plumbing System Water out – Drainage System People out – Transportation System People / Goods in – Transportation System (Lifts and Escalators) Energy in – Electricity Supply Systems Air in – MVAC System Fire in – Gas Supply System Light in – Lighting System Sound in – Acoustics System Waste out – Waste Disposal System Energy out .
) Urinals Basins Bath Tubs Showers Sinks 7 Disabled Toilet Source: BD (1997) Design Manual .Barrier Free Access http://www.Sanitary Fitments • • • • • • Water Closet (W.gov.pdf 8 4 .hk/english/documents/code/BFA-E07.bd.C.
6(3)(b) and 7(3)(b) 5 . of Sanitary Fitments • Males to Females Ratio It is recommended that the ratio of male person to female person be taken – as 1:1 for office accommodation.25 for places of public entertainment and cinemas – see table for shopping arcades.Nos. of Sanitary Fitments (Cont’d) 10 PNAP 297 and B(SSF)R s5(5)(c). 6(3)(b) and 7(3)(b) 9 Nos. and department stores. – as 1:1. • in the assessment of populations for the provision of sanitary fitments for both male and female persons PNAP 297 and B(SSF)R s5(5)(c).
12 6 .Types of Vertical Drainage Stacks • • • • • Waste pipe (WP) Soil pipe (SP) Vent pipe (VP) Rainwater pipe (RWP) A/C condensation drainage pipe 11 One-pipe System • Soil and waste fittings are discharged into one common stack. with a common vent pipe.
One-pipe Sys WC Vent pipe S&W Stack Floor drain (toilet) Basin Bath sink 13 Floor drain (kitchen) NOT SHOWN Two-pipe System • Soil and waste stacks are separately provided. • Advantages? 14 7 . with its own vent.
2-pipe system Soil stack Vent pipe for soil stack External u-traps Waste stack 15 One-pipe Drainage System in an Ageing Building Elevation Vent Pipe (VP) – for what purposes? Soil and Waste Pipe (S&WP) in a One-pipe System Rain Water Pipe (RWP) Cleaning eye Sufficient fall 16 8 .
17 Provision of Cleaning Eye Cleaning eye How to indicate drainage arrangement on a plan? Find one example yourself 18 9 . • Covered with a wire cage 馬騮頭. • is up to a height > 1m above roof.Vent Pipe • preventing loss of water seals in traps.
Two-pipe System. why? Hopper VP Soil Stack 19 Traps Why trap? P-Trap Bottle-Trap (Anti-siphonage – how?) Require minimum water seal of •50mm (for soil fitments) and •40mm (for waste fitments) S-Trap 20 10 . Stacks on External Wall • A common arrangement of Waste Stack piping in ageing buildings in Hong Kong. • Pros and Cons? • Any vent pipe for waste stack? • Is it still allowed for new developments. Hoppers for Waste Stack.
• How to prevent? – – – – Anti-siphonage pipes and traps Back-filling arrangement (figure) W-trap (being trying by the HKHA) Self-refilling function 22 11 . – Compression or back pressure occurred at the lowest floors where the stack change direction. – Induced siphonage where the water running down the stacks created a partial vacuum behind it thereby ‘drag’ the water in the trap away.Functions of a Trap •SARS is the result of lacking water in the U-traps of the drainage system?! 21 Proposed New Traps • Why lossing water seal in traps? – Self-siphonage where the discharge of waste water created a partial vacuum in the branch pipe thereby ‘drag’ the water in the trap away. – Natural evaporation.
pdf Why U-traps are missing? 23 External U-Trap 50AFFL Floor drain 200AFFL Shower tray 24 12 .bd.gov.Source: http://www.hk/english/documents/code/dsg/DrainagePipeMaintenance.
Disposal of A/C condensation – required to indicate on plan 26 13 . smooth internal surface and impervious – Protected against rust – Galvanized mild steel – UPVC (Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride) 25 Why UPVC is nowadays the most common used one? PNAPs • PNAP 157 .Test of Drain (BSSF.P.Planning and Design of Drainage Works – BO 28(1) : all common underground drains shall run in COMMON AREA or alternative provisions made for easy access • PNAP 238 .DW&L)R 73) – Cert on completion of drain test is required w/in 7 days of drain test (What is the test?) – BD may not attend the test • PNAP 211 .Materials of Above Ground Drainage Pipe • S.44 B(SSF)R – Cast iron or approved – True bore.
• Air test • Smoke test 28 14 .000 if the offence is proved to be continued. for connection to the public sewer when one is available. – Loss of water over 30 minutes to be measured by adding water at 10 minutes intervals. – Allow for initial absorption.000 and a daily fine of $5. • It is an offence not to comply with the requirements in a notice. the terminal manhole.5m head at high end. The maximum penalty is a fine of $100. – Fill system with water to produce 1. 27 Acceptance Test(s) of Drainage System • Water test (the most commonly used for underground drains in HK) – Temporarily seal ends of drains and connections with approved plugs.Underground Drainage • Authority: Water Pollution Control Ordinance • Departments: Environmental Protection Department • requiring that all waste water produced from the premises be conveyed to a specified location.
PNAP 124 Petro-interceptor (BSSF)R 90) – Assume flatted factory will discharge noxious effluent.gov. no connection to storm-water drainage – Servicing and parking of vehicles requires petrol interceptor 29 http://www.gov.epd.epd.pdf 15 .hk/epd/english/resources_pub/publications/files/pn93_5.Petrol Interceptor • EPD PN 5/93.hk/epd/english/resources_pub/publications/files/pn93_5.pdf Grease Trap • EPD PN 5/93 – Grease Trap (BSSF)R 90) 30 http://www.
concrete. uPVC Diameter (mm) 100 150 225 300 Fall 1:40 1:70 1:100 1:150 • • Foul sewers should be designed so that the velocity of the flow will exceed the self-cleansing velocity on a regular basis.winnipeg. uPVC – (ii) Storm water drain . Revision (April 2000) 32 16 . As a general guide. the minimum fall of foul sewers is as follows :- Source: B(SSF)R and Works Bureau (2000) Practitioner's Guidelines on Drainage Connection. ductile iron.stm Materials and Size of Underground Drainage Pipe • Drainage pipes shall have a minimum diameter of 150mm and be of the following materials or other materials approved by DSD :– (i) Foul sewer . ductile iron.ca/WaterAndWaste/sewage/systemOperation.Systems of Underground Drainage • Separate system: – Foul water (soil and waste water) -> foul sewer – Rainwater/surface water -> storm water sewer • Combined system: – Foul water and rainwater are drained to the foul sewer 31 Source of figure: http://www.vitrified clay.
49.56 B(SSF)R – – – – – 215 thick brickwork in cement mortar or 125 thick 1:2:4 reinforced concrete or other approved Benching 1:2 Inside surface cement rendered Cast iron cover (double-sealed airtight cover if inside or under a building) 33 Manhole Plan 34 17 .Manholes • S. s.55 B(SSF)R requires manhole provision when – Change in direction >45 degree – Change in gradient – Interval > 60m • S.
Manhole Standard Drws 35 Source: DSD standard drws Terminal Manhole • Characteristics: – Trapped – Rodding arm for cleaning – Opening for FAI – Steps for maintenance 36 Source: DSD standard drws 18 .
FAI for Terminal Manhole 37 Double-sealed Airtight Cover 38 Source: DSD standard drws 19 .
I.geberit. (by N.nsf/Pages/serv-clau-1 39 Maintenance of Drainage System • Lack of maintenance resulted in tragedies – Kwun Lung Lau landslip on 23 July 1994 – See Report on the Kwun Lung Lau Landslide of 23 July 1994 (2000).gov.PDF 20 . Source: http://www.G) Use of BITG for collection of surface water and connection to foul water drain (combined system).Back Inlet Trapped Gully (B. 365 p.R.hk/english/documents/code/dsg/Drainage-System-Guideline-Eng.uk/geberit/inet/uk/wcmsuk. Morgenstern & Geotechnical Engineering Office) • Survey – Water leakage detection system • Maintenance – High pressure water jetting for cleansing – Annual CCTV inspection – Buildings Department’s Guidelines • Repair – Sewer rehabilitation technology – In-situ internal lining method 40 http://www.co.T.bd.
c-products.htm 21 .com.Water Leakage Detection System • For Pressurized Services – – – – – – – – – – Visual inspection Pipe locator survey (Sonde Method) Leak Noise Correlation (LNC) Direct / Surface Sounding Hydrogen Leak Detection Aqualog 80 Leak Localization Manhole survey CCTV inspection Man Entry Inspection AMS-4 Leak Detection (Sonde Method) 41 • For non-pressurized services In-situ internal lining method • Trenchless Drain Liner 42 Source: http://www.hk/LandUtilities/CCTV.
– British Standards Institution (1985) BS8301: 1985.1 H17 p] – Hall. (1996) The Construction of Buildings. Longman Scientific & Technical. Essex [696 B94] – Chadderton. BSI. Essex.4 S61] Books: – Barry. Codes of Practice: – British Standards Institution (1978) BS5572: 1978. Building Services Engineering. E & FN Spon. Chps.. Newes. UK. Code of Practice for Building Drainage. [696. Code of Practice for Sanitary Pipework.] [AV 628. UK. – Buildings Department (2004) What you need to know about Drainage Maintenance (1 page guidelines). F.5 min. London [690 B281] – Burberry. V. R. P.. Oxford [696 H17e] – Morgenstern. 7-9. Blackwell Science. – Buildings Department (2005) Guidelines on Maintenance and Repair of Drainage System and Sanitary Fitments (1 page guidelines). Drainage and Sanitation. please send email to Edward CY YIU Department of Real Estate and Construction The University of Hong Kong ecyyiu@hkucc.References • • Video Presentation: – "Simplified drainage systems for large buildings" [8. Hong Kong. and Geotechnical Engineering Office (2000) Report on the Kwun Lung Lau Landslide of 23 July 1994. Hong Kong Government. F. London & New York.. Addison Wesley Longman. Hong Kong. 43 • The End For enquiries. Hong Kong Government. Cold Water Supplies.. 3rd ed. 5-9. Chps. Hong Kong Government. 3rd ed.hk 44 22 . (1995) Essential Building Services and Equipment. Plumbing. 1994. BSI.R. 2000. [696 C43] – Hall.hku. (1997) Environment and Services. D. Hong Kong. N.
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