You are on page 1of 49

Digital Controller in a Process Control Loop

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T

All the desirable features of a process controller (e.g. anti-integral wind-up, auto/manual modes of operation with bump-less transfer etc.) may be easily incorporated while maintaining the high accuracy and precision of digital systems.

No drift problem is encountered in a digital system.

In a processor based digital controller, rapid switching from one algorithm to another (e.g. a P controller to a PID controller) and automatic tuning of controller parameters are possible.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Digital Controller in a Process Control Loop

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Digital Controller in a Process Control Loop
+ r + Set point _ e Error

ADC

Final mn m Digital DAC Control Controller Element controller Error output Controller sequence sequence output en

Process

ADC equivalent

DAC equivalent

en

mn

Sampler

C (hold capacitor)

Sample & hold

mn

Error

Controller output sequence

0 en

time

0 1 2 3

Error sequence

DAC output m

0 1 2 3

0 2

time

Sampling interval

(ADC conversion time + computation time)

The error computation may be performed digitally if the set-point is available in digital form (say, from digital keyboard) and the measured variable is digitized with the ADC.
Digital System

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Digital Controller in a Process Control Loop
+ _

rn Set point sequence (digital)

en

Error sequence

Digital Controller

mn

DAC

Final Control Element

Process

Cn ADC output sequence

Proper selection of the sampling interval is necessary for satisfactory operation of the process control loop. A large may lead to unstable operation of the loop (because of the extra lag introduced in the loop), whereas a very small requires a high speed digital hardware (hence high cost) to implement the controller.

The analog controller output is

m = Kp e + b

The controller output at the nth instant is given by

mn = K pen + bn = mn + bn
where, Kp = proportional gain, bn = fixed bias.

Realization of the P controller:

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Proportional (P) Controller
bn en

Realization of Digital Controllers (through discrete approximation of analog controllers)

Kp

m'n

mn

The analog controller output is

Let the integration term be

The integration term at the nth instant is

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Proportional-Integral (PI) Controller

Realization of Digital Controllers (through discrete approximation of analog controllers)

1 t m = K p e + o e.dt + b Ti

= m + b, where Ti is the integral time and

I = o e.dt
t

1 t m = K p e + o e.dt Ti
where is the sampling interval
n

I n = o e.dt = o
n

Now,

n o

e.dt = o

( n 1)

e.dt = I n 1

e.dt + n e.dt

for n = 1,2,3,..

Then,

The second term of the above relation represents the area under the curve e for (n 1) t n.

This area may be approximated by the shaded rectangle (called the method of rectangular integration) as

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Pl Controller
e

e t =n

e t =( n1)

( n 1)

Thus,

n ( n1)

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T

Using the notation en for

e.dt e t =n
( n 1)

e t = n ,

e t=n

Pl Controller

e t=( n1)

In = In1 + en

Now, output m at the nth instant may be expressed as

Similarly the output at the (n 1)th instant may be expressed as

The difference between these two outputs is

1 mn mn1 = Kp en en1 + ( In In1 ) Ti

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Pl Controller
where

In = In1 + en

1 mn mn1 = K p en en1 + ( In In1 ) Ti en mn mn 1 = K p en en 1 + Ti


or,

Substituting the value of (In In-1 ) for rectangular integration, [(In In-1 ) = en ]

mn = en Kp 1+ Kpen1 + mn1 Ti = aoen + a1en1 + mn1, say


ao = K p 1+ Ti
and

where,

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Pl Controller

a1 = K p

Controller output at the nth instant: mn = mn + bn

mn= a0en + a1en-1 + mn-1


en-1

Problem: Develop a digital PI Controller using Trapezoidal rule for integration.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Realization of the PI Controller
a1
delay

bn (bias)

en error sequence

ao

m'n

delay

m'n-1

mn Controller output sequence

The controller output is proportional to the derivative of a standard PI controller and it may be expressed as (without bias):

mn = mn mn1 = mn mn1 = ao en + a1en1


Velocity form of controller is useful when the actuator is some kind of adder (integral action), like a stepping motor.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T

Velocity or incremental form of PI controller

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Software Realization of the PI Controller
e1

a1

a0

mp

# include < studio.h> void main (void) { float e = 0, e1, m, mp = 0; float a0, a1, b; float adc (void) ; // digitized error void dac (float m ) ; // analog output a0 = - - - - - - - - ; // Kp [1 + /Ti ] a1 = - - - - -- - - ; // -Kp b = - - - - - - - - - ; // bias

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Software Realization of the PI Controller
e1

a1

a0

mp

for (;;) // continuous loop { // loop time is the sampling interval e1 = e; e = adc (); mp = mp + a0*e + a1*e1; m = mp + b; // provision for saturation if (m < 0) m = 0; if (m > 100) m = 100; dac (m); } }

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Software Realization of the PI Controller
e1

a1

a0

mp

float adc (void) // Analog-to-digital conversion { float v; scanf (%f, &v); // for (keyboard) simulation return v; // (to be replaced for actual } // realization) void dac (float m) // Digital-to-analog conversion { printf (%f\n, m); // for (VDU) simulation } // (to be replaced for actual realization)

The analog controller output is

Let the derivative of error e at the nth instant be

Dn may be approximated using the backward difference algorithm as


e slope = Dn

Dn

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Proportional-Derivative (PD) Controller

Realization of Digital Controllers (through discrete approximation of analog controllers)

de m = K p e + Td + b dt

where Td is the derivative time.

de Dn = dt t = n

en en1

en

en-1

approximate slope

(n-1) n time

Thus the controller output at the nth instant is

K p Td Td or m n = K p 1 + e n e n 1 + b n = a o e n + a1 e n 1 + b n
Td ao = K p 1 +

where

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
PD Controller

e n e n 1 m n = K p e n + Td

+ bn

and

a1 =

K pTd

Problem: Develop a c program for software realization of the PD Controller.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Realization of the PD Controller
en-1

a1

delay

bn (bias)

en (error)

ao

mn Controller output

To avoid derivative action from a sudden change in set-point, the derivative action is generally derived from the measured output. Now, e = r c then,

Thus, the controller output may be expressed as,

dc m = K p e Td +b dt

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
PD Controller
Provision for anti-derivative kick

de dr dc = , dt dt dt dc = , assuming set-point r is constant. dt

dc m = K p e Td +b dt

using backward difference algorithm, the controller output at the nth instant is

c n c n 1 m n = K p e n Td + bn K p Td K p Td or m n = K p en cn + c n 1 + bn

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
PD Controller
Provision for anti-derivative kick

ao = K p po = p1 = K pTd

= a o en + p o c n + p1c n 1 + bn

where

= po

K pTd

Realization of PD Controller with anti-derivative kick

Problem: Develop a c program for software realization of the PD Controller with anti-derivative kick

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
en error

ao

bn (bias)

cn (process output) cn-1

po

mn (Controller output)

delay

p1

The analog controller output is

1 t de m = K p e + o edt + Td +b dt Ti = m '+ b (say)


where

The controller output (without bias) at the nth instant, using backward difference algorithm, is

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller

Realization of Digital Controllers (through discrete approximation of analog controllers)

1 t de m ' = K p e + o edt + Td dt Ti

In en en 1 mn = K p en + + Td Ti

The controller output (without bias) at the nth instant is

In en en 1 mn = K p en + + Td Ti
The controller output at the (n-1)th instant is

I n1 en1 en2 + Td mn1 = K p en1 + Ti


Subtracting,

I I T mn1 = Kp en en1 + n n1 + d ( en + en2 2en1 ) mn Ti

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
PID Controller

Using rectangular integration algorithm,

then,

or,

or,

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
PID Controller

I I T mn1 = Kp en en1 + n n1 + d ( en + en2 2en1 ) mn Ti

I n I n 1 = en

Td mn mn1 = K p en en1 + en + ( en 2en1 + en2 ) Ti

Td K pTd 2Td +1 K p + en2 mn = en 1+ + K p en1 + mn1 Ti


mn = ao en + a1en 1 + a2 en 2 + mn 1

mn = ao en + a1en 1 + a2 en 2 + mn 1
where,

and

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
PID Controller

Td ao = K p 1 + + Ti 2T a1 = K p d + 1
K pTd

a2 =

and

en

en-2

en-1

a1

a2

mn = mn + bn

ao

m'n

mn = ao en + a1en 1 + a2 en 2 + mn 1

Realization of the PID Controller

m'n-1

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
+
bn (bias) mn

Problems:

1. Develop a digital PID controller using trapezoidal rule for integration 2. Develop a program in C for software realization of the PID controller 3. Modify the above controller to provide anti-derivative kick feature

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
PID Controller

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Techniques used for anti-integral windup
By saturating or limiting the integral value By resetting the integral value to zero By omitting the integral term By adaptive adjustment of controller parameters

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Some anti-integral windup schemes
Saturation 100 r

Stop integration when PI/PID controller internal output (prior to the saturation block) exceeds the saturation limits

+ +
_

Kp

0 100

Process

Multiplier

Kp sTi

hard switching Scheme

1/0

Stop integration if saturated

Scheme for PI Controller

PI control without anti-integral windup

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Saturation 100 r +

Performance of anti-integral windup scheme


e n C

Kp

0 100

Process

Multiplier

Kp sTi

hard switching Scheme

1/0

Stop integration if saturated

Scheme for PI Controller

PI control with anti-integral windup

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Some anti-integral windup schemes
Saturation 100

Reduce integration gradually as PI/PID controller internal output exceeds the saturation limits

+ +
_

Kp

0 100

Process

Kp Ti

1 s

soft switching Scheme

G : a constant

Clegg integrator the integrator is set to zero (reset) when the error crosses zero

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Some anti-integral windup schemes
reset control reset SW C R error _ +

integrator output

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Automatic/Manual modes of Operations
Manual mode means open loop manual control
Manual input or commnd Man e Controller m error Auto Final Control element v

Automatic mode means automatic closed loop operation

Process

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Automatic/Manual modes of Operations
Manual input or commnd Man e Controller m error Auto Final Control element

Process

If there is any difference between the controller output and the manual command, a bump occurs in the process output when the switch position is altered. To provide bump-less transfer from auto-to-manual change over, special arrangements may be made for set-point initialization. The manual command is driven to equal the controller output when the loop is in AUTO mode.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Automatic/Manual modes of Operations
Manual input or commnd Man e Controller m error Auto Final Control element

Process

When the loop is in MANual mode, if there is a steady error existing due to any difference between the set-point of the controller and the process output (under manual control), integral term, in case of PI and PID controllers, may wind-up to a large value, and consequently anti-integral wind-up is necessary for such situations. To provide bump-less transfer for all the operating modes, incremental or velocity from of controller is used with an additional integrator.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Automatic/Manual modes of Operations
Scheme for bump-less transfer
Incremental manual command Man Digital incremental controller m'n Auto Integrator m'n

bn (bias) mn

en

The incremental controller output (without bias) at the nth instant may be expressed as

mn = mn mn 1

K pTd Td 2Td = en K p 1 + + en 1 K p + 1 + en 2 Ti = ao en + a1en 1 + a2en 2

for a PID controller

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Automatic/Manual modes of Operations
Scheme for bump-less transfer
Incremental manual command Man Digital incremental controller m'n Auto Integrator m'n

bn (bias) mn

en

The integrator may be represented as

m'n

Integrator

m'n

The integrator output may be represented as

m n = m n m n 1 + m n 1 = m n + m n 1

m'n

m'n

m'n-1

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Automatic/Manual modes of Operations
Scheme for bump-less transfer
Incremental manual command Man Digital incremental controller m'n Auto Integrator m'n

bn (bias) mn

en

The presence of integrator at the output ensures a smooth output variation even when the actual manual command is different from the actual controller output under closed-loop control.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
en-2

Realization of the incremental type PID Controller

a2

en-1

a1

Incremental manual Command MAN

bn

en

ao

m'n

AUTO

m'n

mn

Incremental or Velocity Controller

m'n-1

Integrator

Automatic tuning of PID Controllers the Relay autotuner


Suitable for processes with non-zero dead-time.

This is based on a special technique for determining the critical gain Kc and critical time period Tc of the process loop. Kc is the gain margin of the process loop.

Controller parameters Kp, Ti and Td are calculated according to Ziegler Nichols (Z-N) rule for a stable time response. Z-N settings

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Controller Kp Ti Td P Controller 0.5 K c PI Controller 0.45 K c 0.6 K c Tc/1.2 Tc/2 PID Controller Tc/8

gain margin: 2

Automatic tuning of PID Controllers the Relay autotuner


The critical gain Kc and critical time period Tc are determined from an experiment with relay (switching element) feedback.

set point r=0

The relay control provides ON / OFF control of the process. The input r is set to zero.

The output c oscillates around a mean value of zero (limit-cycle oscillations). The process is driven by a square wave of amplitude D.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
+ e D

0 -D

Process

Relay

Automatic tuning of PID Controllers the Relay autotuner

set point r=0

Assuming the process to be a low-pass system, the process output c contains mainly the fundamental component.

Thus the error signal e becomes sinusoidal,

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
+ e D

0 -D

Process

Relay

e = A sin t

Automatic tuning of PID Controllers the Relay autotuner


set point r=0 e D v

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
+

0 -D

Process

e = A sin t

Relay

The relay output v may be found out as follows:


v v D

-D

time

-D

time

-A

Automatic tuning of PID Controllers the Relay autotuner


v
set point r=0 e D v

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
+

0 -D

Process

Relay

time

-D

The Fourier series of the relay output (v) may be expressed as:

4D 1 1 v= sin t + sin 3t + sin 5t + ....... 3 5

The process practically attenuates all higher harmonics other than the fundamental. Then the process gain at frequency becomes

output amplitude A A G ( ) = = = 4D 4D input amplitude

Automatic tuning of PID Controllers the Relay autotuner


set point r=0 e D v

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
+

0 -D

Process

Process gain at frequency :

G ( ) =

Relay

output amplitude A A = = 4D 4D input amplitude

Now, to maintain steady oscillations at = c, the loop gain is 1 (considering negative feedback). Thus the gain of the relay controller (i.e. the critical gain) at = c is

Kc =

G ( c )

4D A

as K c . G ( c ) = 1

Also G (c) = , as relay phase shift is zero.

Automatic tuning of PID Controllers the Relay autotuner


set point r=0 e D v

Thus by knowing the relay amplitude D and by measuring the amplitude A of the process output c, critical gain Kc may be determined K c =

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
+

0 -D

Process

Relay

4D . A

Tc may be estimated by measuring the frequency of the output oscillation Tc =

2 . c

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Block diagram of the Relay autotuner
(The Satt Control Autotuner by Satt Control, Sweden)
Manual command M r + + _ e PID Controller A v Process D T Mode switch 0 D Relay

M A T

Manual position Auto position Tune position

At first, the process is brought to equilibrium state ( zero error), by setting a constant control signal in manual mode. The tuning is then activated by pushing the mode switch to tune position.

Modified relay characteristic for a non-zero set-point


v v Controller output for zero error

The relay amplitude D is initially set to 10% of the controller output-range.

This amplitude is adjusted after one and a half period to give oscillation of 2% of the mean output. This ensures minimum disturbance at the process output due to tuning.

This adjustment is done by measuring the change in output during the first one and a half period. The modified relay amplitude is stored for the next tuning operation.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
D = 0.1vmax e 0 0 t Manual setting

The system is automatically switched to Auto mode after estimating the critical gain Kc and critical time period Tc during first 5 period of oscillation. The parameters of PID controller (viz. Kp, Ti and Td ) are determined from Kc and Tc according to Z-N rule.

AN EL JAN EC R TR AK IC SH JA AL IT D E an KO AV NG d A LK PU INE MI AT R U ER TA A, NI IN VA IN VE G C D R DE HA IA S P T IT A T Y R E TM RJ E N EE T
Satt Control Autotuner
Manual command M r + _

PID Controller

Process

T Mode switch

0 D

Relay

M A T

Manual position Auto position Tune position