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to diagnostic testing of samples from human beings. Samples may be blood, urine, feces, secretions, serous fluids, spinal fluid, seminal fluid, stone, skin, nail, hair, bone or tissue. Testing may be quantitative, semiquantitative, qualitative or descriptive physical or chemical analyses. CLS uses many of the tools and instruments used throughout all science. It uses simple to complex analytical and measurement devices - simple tools such as rulers, hydrometers, thermometers; complex instruments such as microscopes, photometers, fluorometers and chromatograms. CLS measures components such as blood glucose, serum cholesterol, red and white blood cell counts, serum iron, urine protein and fecal fat. Microbiology detects and identifies pathogenic microorganisms and identifies specific antibiotics effective in combating infections. Immunohematology identifies immunological antibodies and antigens and provides compatible blood for transfusion. These and a host of other tests are performed in thousands of clinical laboratories on a routine or emergency basis 365 days per year. The people who perform these tests and procedures are specialists in their disciplines and are certified and liscensed by government or independent agencies. Additionally, the labs in which these tests are performed are certified and regulated by government agencies to perform standard methods with quality results, so that tests results from Seattle, WA are comparable to those from Miami, FL. CLS is applied in a variety of laboratories. Labs are found in out-patient clinics, hospitals, medical centers, reference laboratories and state health departments. The CDC in Atlanta, GA has one of the worlds largest laboratories with thousands of specialists. A urinalysis is simply an analysis of the urine. It is a very common test that can be performed in many healthcare settings including doctors' offices, urgent care facilities, laboratories, and hospitals. It is performed by collecting a urine sample from the patient in a specimen cup. Usually only small amounts (3060 ml's) may be required for urinalysis testing. The sample can be either analyzed in the medical clinic or sent to a laboratory to perform the tests. Urinalysis is abbreviated UA. Urine can be evaluated by its physical appearance (color, cloudiness, odor, clarity), or macroscopic analysis. It can be also analyzed based on its chemical and molecular properties or microscopic assessment. Urinalysis is ordered by doctors for a number of reasons, as follows:
Routine medical evaluation: general yearly screening, assessment before surgery (pre-operative assessment), admission to hospital, screening for kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension (high blood pressure), liver disease, etc.
Assessing particular symptoms: abdominal pain, painful urination, flank pain,fever, blood in the urine, or other urinary symptoms. Diagnosing medical conditions: urinary tract infection, kidney infection,kidney stones, uncontrolled diabetes (high blood sugars), kidney impairment, muscle breakdown (rhabdomyolysis), protein in urine, kidney inflammation (glomerulonephritis).
Monitoring disease progression and response to therapy:diabetes related kidney disease, kidney impairment, lupus related kidney disease, blood pressure related kidney disease, kidney infection, protein in urine, blood in urine.
for example: air. and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. and between individuals. to evaluate causes of kidney failure. and changes as they relate the chemical reactions. environmental microbiology (i. metabolism. or life too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microbiology can be defined as the biology of microscopic organisms. Atom is the basic unit of chemistry. especially its chemical reactions. industrial fermentation. alloys. coordination number. elements or compounds and elements is not a chemical substance. Each of these disciplines may include but is not limited to studies of infectious disease-causing microorganisms. biomass. industrial microbiology (i.g. structure. Water accounts for 73% of this ‘lean body mass’.. microbial growth. Most of the substances we encounter in our daily life are some kind of mixture. fermentation). and parasitology (study of parasites). preferred oxidation state(s). In both sexes. and. A chemical element is specifically a substance which is composed of a single type of atom. microbial genetics and evolution. ionic. behavior. The difference is due to the fact that women generally have more fat (adipose tissue) than men. the body water content stays remarkably constant from day to day. metallic. about 63% of the body weight is water. Microbiology covers several disciplines.e. covalent). including virology (study of viruses). in any individual. but it may be called a chemical.e. Water is the main component of the human body. The atom is also the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element. a mixture of compounds.. Chemistry is the science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements). A chemical element is characterized by a particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. Body fluids consist of the water of the body and substances dissolved in it. but also including its properties. structure). Substance is a kind of matter with a definite composition and set of properties.. so the TBW is about 38 litres. Chemistry is centrally concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms. use of microbes for food production. It consists of a positively charged core (the atomic nucleus) which contains protons and neutrons. This number is known as the atomic number of the element. mycology (study of fungi). .e.Urinalysis is commonly used to diagnose a urinary tract or kidney infection. bacteriology (study of bacteria). such as electronegativity. the proportion of the body weight that is water tends to decrease with increasing age. and there is very little water in the adipose tissues. The functional tissue of the body can be regarded as fat-free. and preferred types of bonds to form (e.e. and the percentage of water in the fat-free tissue is very constant in any one individual from day to day. specialties within microbiology may include microbial physiology (i. and which maintains a number of electrons to balance the positive charge in the nucleus. to screen for progression of some chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure (hypertension). wastewater treatment). Strictly speaking.. typically only about 54% is water. and food microbiology (i. In a woman of the same weight. and hence the total body water (TBW) amounts to 45 litres. In a 70 kg (154 lbs or 11 stone) man of average build.. composition. For example. microbial ecology). etc.ionization potential.
its potential to undergo a certain set of chemical reactions with other substances. The phase of matter is defined by the phase transition. that is. such as pressure or temperature. such as density and refractive index tend to fall within values characteristic of the phase. Phase is a set of states of a chemical system that have similar bulk structural properties. Molecules are typically a set of atoms bound together by covalent bonds. over a range of conditions.Molecule is the smallest indivisible portion of a pure chemical substance that has its unique set of chemical properties. instead of changing the bulk conditions. Molecules can exist as electrically neutral units unlike ions. . such that the structure is electrically neutral and all valence electrons are paired with other electrons either in bonds or in lone pairs. Physical properties. which is when energy put into or taken out of the system goes into rearranging the structure of the system.
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