The Drivers Behind Private Natural Forest Degradation in Uganda

. . .3 Key Findings . . . . made clear that these are not so much causes of deforestation as mechanisms by which the true underlying causes are transformed into actions that degrade the environment. . . The underlying causes in this case being the institutional and policy framework for forestry management. . On this backdrop a number of recommendations to bridge the gaps at both the national and district level are forwarded. mail@jakobchristensen. . The policy brief therefore reviews the gaps between the stated policies and the actual performance of the relevant institutions.6 Policy Gaps . . . stefanden@gmail. . . Uganda’s private natural forests are under immense pressure and are predicted to be extinct in 20 years. . . 2011 .Executive Summary This policy brief examines the drivers behind degradation of private natural forests in Uganda based on extensive fieldwork conducted in the Kibaale district in Western Uganda. . . It is. .8 Recommendations . 10 Written by: Stefan Steen. . however. . . . . . . . . .dk CARE International in Uganda September. . . . . . . CONTENT Introduction . .com Jakob Christensen. It is explained how the loss of forest cover is directly impacted by rapid population growth which in turn creates an increasing demand for farmland to the detriment of private natural forests. .

The current and potential impacts include increased floods.. this is a view shared by the majority of the 102 villagers in Kibaale district interviewed during this study.5 million ha) of the country’s total forest cover./". and estimates based upon the most recent biomass study (2008) suggest that within 20 years. medicinal herbs and other non-timber products. soil erosion. Degradation and extinction threaten Uganda’s private natural forests and they are increasingly being converted to settlements and farmland for food and cash crops. More than 70 % believe that the private natural forests will be completely depleted in 5 years in their locality. forests outside of protected areas will be almost extinct. The vast majority of Ugandans rely on woody biomass for domestic energy consumption. decline in water quantity and quality and reduced ground water recharge.-%*). changing and unpredictable seasons. loss of biodiversity..-%*0"12.")** Don't
 3 .3*+#"%).)*1(*4*5%. The forests also perform vital ecological functions and are vital for providing important ecosystem services by regulating global and local climatic conditions and acting as a carbon sink./)*#+*. !"#$%&'#()*#+*. they provide important safety-nets for many households at times when food and resources are scarce. poles. The most immediate impacts of deforestation occur at the local level and threaten the integrity and sustainability of this vital natural resource.%*(. shortage of medicinal herbs together with building and crafts materials. but they are declining rapidly. the district’s forests are under immense pressure and despite well-crafted regulations and policies. Private natural forests play a major role in the lives of the Ugandan people. In addition.. and the forests are for many the only source of products such as timber. fluctuation in water flow. As it is indicated below.. the district lost approximately half of its forest cover from 1990-2005 and at the current level of deforestation the forests will be depleted in the near future.IntROduCtIOn U ganda’s private forests make up around 70 % (2. The district of Kibaale in Western Uganda serves as a good example of the national scenario.

35 key informants have been interviewed and 102 household interviews conducted. the FSSD is the only mandated organization to give out licenses for timber harvesting based on the information received from the District Forestry Services (DFS). and (c) support and develop agroforestry. knowledge and technology for profitable production. The massive deforestation in Kibaale does. The key informant interviews conducted includes LC1. supervision and training to local governments to enable them to carry out the delivery of forestry services. on behalf of the Ministry of Water and Environment. Policy Framework for Management of Private Natural Forests Several strides have been made to provide a framework for sustainable management of private natural forests in Uganda. agroforestry was intended to be a strategic enterprise as a means of poverty reduction. The Albertine Rift Valley is globally acknowledged as a major center of diversity and endemic species and ranks first out of the 119 distinct terrestrial eco-regions of continental Africa in terms of endemic species of birds. mandated to (a) inspect. support. but because they provide linkages or corridors between other larger forests. Nelson Turyahabwe from Makerere University. and improving agricultural output. The private forest areas in the Albertine Rift Valley have important conservation values. environmental and agricultural features and the study therefore serves as a good representation for much of the rural life in not only Kibaale but most of Uganda. to encourage private forest owners to set aside private forests as permanent forest land. however. After a turbulent reform period during the 1990s. the National Forest Plan also stipulates that NAADS should work together with the DFS in providing extension services to private forest owners. (b) support the management of private forests. (b) co-ordinate and advise persons and organizations in relation to forest projects. and Dr. In order to reach this goal. mammals. •  The National Agricultural Advisory Services’ (NAADS) main mission is to increase farmers’ access to information. and (c) provide technical advice. allowing connectivity which is important for species dispersal and gene flow between larger forests. (c) assist in the development and provision of advisory services relating to private forests. The Uganda Forestry Policy from 2001 stated that “The development and sustainable management of natural forests on private land will be promoted. During the study. a number of strategies were crafted. district and ministerial public officials. and halt the rapid deforestation experienced in the 1990s. The findings are based on a broad consultation process and in-depth field work in Kibaale district. and (d) ensure that any person willfully destroying any forest resources in contravention of the forestry laws is prosecuted. LC3 and LC5 chairpersons. (b) promote the planting of trees. it could have dramatic consequences for the flora and fauna of the Albertine Rift Valley. to (a) build the capacity of farmers to demand and use appropriate forestry advisory services. to support the capacities of individuals and user groups to manage the private natural forests sustainably. and provide advice and assistance. Should the corridor collapse. threaten the existence of this corridor. The purpose of this brief is to highlight the key drivers behind the private natural deforestation in Uganda and on this basis provide recommendations for further action to minimize the deforestation. The sub-counties have different geographical. However. not just on their species content. monitor and coordinate central government initiatives and policies in the districts.A vast majority of Uganda’s biodiversity is found in forests in the Albertine Rift Valley.” 4 . Among others. Furthermore. the responsibilities for the forest sector were finally settled in 2003 with the National Forestry and Tree Planting Act based on the Uganda Forestry Policy of 2001 and the National Forest Plan of 2002. reptiles and amphibians and second in terms of globally threatened species. which some of Kibaale’s forests are a part of. •  The District Forestry Services are working in each district on behalf of the district to (a) promote forestry awareness. The household interviews were undertaken in four villages in different sub-counties. Furthermore. The main responsibilities of implementing the policies belong to the following three actors: •  The Forestry Sector Support Department (FSSD) is. that is. A national Tree Fund was also envisioned to promote and support commercial and non-commercial tree planting and growing at local and national level. representatives from the Bunyoro Kingdom and WWF. halting environmental degradation.

a few weak spots in the legislation. and the forests are therefore subject to the whims of the owner. The owner is thus free to do whatever he pleases with his trees. however.There are. advice and training to private forest owners. but it is not required and thus occurs rarely. Furthermore. intended to promote sustainable forestry and institutions that should work together to provide support. because the use of the private forests is completely up to the owner of it. A review of the policy framework for the private forestry sector thus reveals a well-crafted system. 5 . the laws encourage private forest owners to register their forests in the districts.

A token of this is the lacking political commitment to implement and enforce policies concerning the private natural forests which is e. they merely accelerate the pace of the deforestation. charcoal. The villagers in Kibaale are often poorly trained in the use of modern farming techniques. the benefits of letting the soil rest (fallow). Conversion of forests into farmland is therefore the main proximate cause of deforestation in Kibaale. because conservation offers few tangible benefits. They are e. Lack of Priority Even though the private forests constitute 70% of Uganda’s forests. Without incentives farmers are prone to continue the deforestation. Proximate causes are human activities (land uses) directly effecting the environment resulting in conversion of private natural forests to other types of land use. farmers would be able to increase their output considerably. Moreover. namely.g. which causes Kibaale’s population to double approximately every 12 years. An often unnoticed side-effect of the lacking commitment is the widespread apathy imbuing the staffmembers working with forestry matters at all levels. The following presents the drivers of deforestation identified at both of these levels. rather. chainsaws) are often mentioned as main drivers of deforestation. That is. whereas conversion to farmland or plantations offers almost immediate benefits. which could reduce the pressure on the forests. not significant drivers in themselves. which creates a high demand for farmland.g. In Kibaale these are. If there were no new markets. the case with the Tree Fund that was established with the National Forestry and Tree Planting Act of 2003. because they feel they are fighting a losing battle. and political interference and corruption. Underfunding and Understaffing The most apparent indicator of the lacking priority among the governing bodies in the central and local governments is the inadequate finances allocated for the forestry institutions overseeing the forests on private lands. The search for new farmland pressures people to move to hitherto untouched forested areas and clear the trees and shrubs for farming. With proper farming techniques in place. and their only avenue of additional income is expansion of farming activities. In addition. This lack of prioritization permeates the political system at both government and district-level. most often unaware of the proper ways of spacing their crops to boost the outtake. Access to markets. the private forestry sector is of little priority to the central government.KEY FIndIngs T he drivers behind degradation of private natural forests can be divided in two groups. and hereby producing a surplus of products to be sold. political and economic factors that shape the conditions under which human-environmental relations of structural character take place.g. The farming techniques presently employed cause the soil to get exhausted within few The Institutional Level The drivers of deforestation at the institutional level revolves around three general and intertwined problems. land owners who hold sufficiently land to feed their families are still prone to clear the remaining forests in search of improvements in livelihoods. or powertools the villagers would instead burn the trees or leave them to rot to make way for new farmland. The underlying factors transpire at the institutional level. proximate and underlying causes. but so far has not been operationalized. however. Both the DFS’ and 6 . years. a lack of priority of the forestry sector. or timber. The individual farmers have little economic incentive for conserving their forests. the complex social. The demand for land is further exacerbated by Kibaale’s population growth rate which ranks among the highest in Uganda with an alarming population increase of 5. both organizations are understaffed and lack means of transportation. and the leaders are ignoring and sometimes working against them. and the negative consequences of burning trees and shrubs to add soil fertility. the use of fertilizers is almost unheard of. poles. Another factor that accelerates the rate of deforestation is poor farming techniques. namely the DFS and FSSD.9% annually. when available. infrastructure expansion. the need for crop rotation. expansion of infrastructure. severe underfunding and understaffing. and the introduction of power-tools (e. and constitute the underlying reasons for the proximate causes. The villagers of Kibaale are often very poor. The Proximate Level Farming constitutes the only livelihood option for 90% of Kibaale’s population. and farmers therefore have to go to the forests in search of new farmland. As a consequence. This is a wasteful practice because the trees otherwise could have been used for firewood.

The political interference works in both formal and informal ways. and substantial amounts of money tend to evaporate on their way through the political system. whereas the FSSD employs 12 technical staff and eight field staff without any means of transportation.6 %. The formal interference is particularly outspoken in regards to the allocation of funds for the forestry sector . 7 There are also a few volunteering forest rangers who may have motorcycles. the forestry sector is consistently among those who receive less. The FSSD estimates that it would need a one-off payment of USH5. The FSSD was budgeted to receive USH160 million in the last financial year of which it only received around half. In comparison.especially to the DFS. Political Interference and Corruption Uganda’s forests constitute a great treasury for Uganda’s politicians and are therefore the object of much political attention and interference.7 %) in return. When budgets are made for Uganda’s many sectors. Kibaale’s DFS employs only three people and has one motorcycle with limited fuel. The LC5 council members are not implementing their own policies when it comes to the budget allocation. This financial year.4 billion and a significant boost of its annual allowances the coming financial years to get fully operational. The 1 money allocated to the forestry sector also suffers from informal political interference. Last financial year the DFS generated USH295 million from Kibaale’s private forests from permits and licenses. is budgeted to receive USH149 million. the agricultural sector (production) received more than 20 times as much amounting to 12. This is in spite of an adopted policy in Kibaale stating that 20% of the revenues gathered should be returned to the DFS. but they are outside of the local government structures.7 million compared to last financial year. but received less than USH20 million (6.59 % of Kibaale district’s budget – this is a decrease of USH5. this places severe constraints on FSSD’s ability to carry out its many responsibilities. The chart below illustrates the low priority of natural resources in Kibaale district’s budget. it has never been implemented. This manifests itself in the FSSD’s financial capabilities. to be shared with the rest of the Natural Resource Department. the Natural Resource Department.FSSD’s budgets and staffing are considered extremely inadequate to fulfill their mandates. but due to lacking commitment in the budgetary process. Obviously. amounting to 0. the larger part of the yearly allocated budget usually disappears despite being accounted for due to corruption by ”big people in the top of the system”. . which DFS is a part of.

NAADS is well-funded and well-staffed compared to the FSSD and the DFS. however. the FSSD does not have any sanctioning powers because FSSD has not been equipped with the required authority and budget. only few land owners receive tree-seedlings. NAADS work on a demand-driven basis which means that the farmers themselves choose which enterprises they want.  NAADS has an impact on some farmers by supporting them with training and crops or livestock. The WWF-funded programme ‘Conservation of Biodiversity in the Albertine Rift Forests of Uganda’ has increased the knowledge in some subcounties. one staff member working with livestock. but the  procedure is without proper structures for supplying land owners with tree-seedlings through the lower local government system. NAADS is. •  There is limited knowledge about the need to conserve the biodiversity among the rural population in the district. •  Despite reports of favoritism and corruption. The DFS is therefore not being held accountable because the FSSD has no means of monitoring and sanctioning misconduct. however. it is equipped with very limited means of sanction. •  The lack of staff and means of transportation  render it difficult to reach the different districts to inspect and offer advice and training. Due to financial constraints. the FSSD struggles to carry out its many functions. Consequently. in possession of licenses issued at district-level without FSSD’s consent. Most pit sawyers are. collected by the DFS. but has been hesitant in reinvesting them in the DFS to provide for sustainable management of the private natural forests. NAADS has a budget of USH60-80 million and employs one coordinator. •  The district has prioritized reforestation. •  FSSD is mandated to take action against irregularities. however. and beans provided by NAADS. nor the means to take action against it. The unawareness result in reluctance to plant indigenous tree species that support biodiversity but have less commercial value for the land owners. but the larger part is still unaware of the importance of bio-diversity. •  In Kibaale. In case of misconduct. not working with forestry and is mainly educated in agriculture without training in forestry and agroforestry. and one working with crops in each sub-county. and those who do are offered little or no training resulting in a low survival rate of seedlings. political interference and understaffing. but without training and sensitization in sustainable forestry the farmers tend to choose the seemingly most profitable. FSSD’s authority is furthermore undermined because the DFS’ staff is employed and paid by and report to the District Chief Administrative Officers. but is not focusing on forestry matters. focusing primarily on agricultural expansion and commercialization without emphasis on biodiversity and sustainable forestry management. the forests are often cleared to plant crops such as maize. Agroforestry is therefore extremely rare. •  The limited budget and the lacking staff and transportation severely restrict the DFS’ ability to provide extension services and it is therefore not providing adequate training and sensitization to the private forest owners. The lacking interest and underfunding entail that the DFS is not supporting the private forest owners to manage their forests sustainably and struggles to provide them with training and assistance. A glaring example of this is that the FSSD has only endorsed one license for timber harvesting for the whole of Uganda. but even though the FSSD is aware of misconducts taking place in the districts. •  Even though FSSD acts as an extension of the Ministry of Water and Environment. 8 . Consequently. The staff is. it has neither the authority.POLICY gaPs T he political framework for the management of the forests vis-à-vis the problems inherent in the forestry sector create a gap between the stated policies and the actual performance of the relevant institutions. Therefore. rice. •  Kibaale enjoys high revenues from the private  forests. tree cutting is being licensed by DFS without the proper checks and balances that only the FSSD is capable of offering. effectively making all activities by pit sawyers on private land illegal.

which causes women to refrain from using them. and therefore political action is unnecessary. •  Family planning is not reaching the greater part of  the population. because this is a personal choice. there is little interest in funding the implementing institutions. •  It is difficult to legislate against how many children a family should have. the contraceptives dispersed have a reputation among the women interviewed at the household level of causing multiple side-effects. It is therefore struggling to make an impact. •  The Population Secretariat. and when efforts of family planning are being made. what is needed is a change in parents’ attitudes towards family sizes. Despite having a well-crafted policy framework for dealing with population growth. Consequently. but this is hampered by the central government’s lacking commitment to reduce the population growth. 9 . has very limited funding.The central government seems to have adopted the attitude that population growth is a problem that will and should solve itself. which is responsible  for sensitizing and campaigning against population growth. It only receives enough funds from the central government to cover wages and has to rely on donors for funding activities.

The Population Secretariat should be better funded and have political backing from the government to implement the policies on population growth. it should be considered if some of the institutions 10 . A development that – if things are not changed – will probably continue until there are no private natural forests left in Uganda. The Tree fund should be operationalized according to the National Forestry and Tree Planting Act as fast as possible. together with the fragile flora and fauna the forests host. Consider re-centralizing DFS. districts like Kibaale will soon face extinction of their private natural forests and exhaustion of their farmland. Take action against corruption and political interference. More transparency and accountability in funds should be implemented to ensure the allocated funds are not misused. At the current level of corruption and informal political interference. could benefit from being merged or working closely together. Investment in natural resources and sustainable forestry should be encouraged. Districts should be encouraged to invest in natural resource management and sustainable forestry. In addition. This is currently being hampered because natural resource management is not a priority area in the National Development Plan which is the foundation for the districts’ distribution of funds. The current policies should be implemented and the forestry organizations at local and central level strengthened. b. f. Sensitization on family planning should be upscaled and better methods of birth control should be introduced. but be based on a thorough review of the forestry sector. Commit to a forestry sector with strong. DFOs who are paid and monitored by the FSSD may be more able to stay clear of local political interference. c. This could – among other things -help to develop agricultural practices with less destructive impact on the forests. Such a development will force future generations to migrate to new districts where they will soon face the same problems. If evasive action is not taken immediately. e. If they worked closer together. E. Central and local governments should take a firm stand in the question of population growth. who relies on their critical ecological functions. d. Misconduct and corruption in the forestry sector should be investigated by the Inspector General of Government. and supervised by the districts. The institutional landscape in Uganda’s forest sector is vast and confusing which causes unnecessary uncertainty about responsibilities. and well-staffed local and central organizations.g. The DFS is supposed to be supervised by the FSSD. To the Central Government a. wellfunded. it has its allegiances there. The health sector has made considerable improvement by a similar maneuver. If not addressed. low budgets and under-staffing. even a well-funded forestry sector would be unable to preclude preventable deforestation due to the failure of government institutions to function effectively. paid. Political will and a substantial increase in funding for the sector is needed to implement the policies.RECOmmEndatIOns T his policy brief has been prepared to bring to the attention of leaders and development partners recommendations that can help conserve Uganda’s remaining private natural forests. Make a thorough review of the institutional setup. a possibility could be to recentralize DFS to be under FSSD. NAADS and FSSD work with two important and immensely interlinked areas but they work completely autonomously of each other and sometimes undermine each other’s efforts. Such a decision should not be taken lightly. Take evasive action against the population growth. Efforts should be made to strengthen the lines of command so that it is clear who is responsible for what. Civil society watchdogs could be of assistance to the investigation. FSSD’s knowledge about forestry could be put together with NAADS’ knowledge about agriculture to provide a strong partnership capable of grasping the crosscutting and interlinked problems that deforestation presents in a collective effort. Another source of funding could come from operationalizing the Tree Fund which could be a sustainable source of funds for planting and growing indigenous trees. In order to increase the monitoring and supervision of the DFS by the FSSD. the misconducts may obstruct any headway made in the forestry sector. The policy framework for sustainable private natural forestry in Uganda is well-crafted but is not implemented due to little interest. but because it is employed. This is for the benefit of both the humans living in their vicinities and the global community.

Ring-fence revenues from charcoal and timber licenses. and agroforestry. b. stakeholders and selected private forest owners could provide a boost in the sharing of knowledge. But the DFS should be more visible in the district and organize trainings in better farming methods and sustainable management of forests. it could make a significant impact. WWF to conserve their forests in hope of receiving tangible benefits which the implementation of the REDD programme could provide. however. The annual national performances assessment of local governments’ budget processes should include incentives to ensure that policies of forest conservation and sustainable forestry are promoted and implemented. The process should therefore be accelerated. Support to private forest owners to register their forests should be provided so that they are ready to enter the programme. If NAADS supported private forest owners to manage their forests and were to embark on forest conservation. The REDD programme’s economic incentives for forest conservation should be implemented as soon as possible. Meetings between stakeholders at the different government-levels should be promoted to facilitate sharing of knowledge and enthusiasm about forest conservation. In order to implement this. The performance level should have an impact on future budget allocations. unlikely to conserve their forests for many years to come without receiving any incentives. To the Districts a. i. sustainable management. The FSSD is already mandated to facilitate this. FSSD estimates that the programme will be ready for implementation in 2014. The DFO in Kibaale has a radio programme a few Saturdays each month which does have an impact. This should provide incentives for local governments to improve their performance. Alternative livelihood options such as bee-hives. Incentives for promoting and implementing policies at district-level. c. If this is not possible. In order to finance the increased activities of the DFS. and ecotourism should be made available for private forest owners. Provide sustainable livelihoods options. This should be corrected. At present most timberlicenses in Uganda are given without the approval of the FSSD and are therefore technically illegal. Hiring a trained forestry official with adequate funding for activities in each forested sub-county would help to conduct regular training sessions and support the private forest owners. Increase the budget and hire more qualified staff for the DFS. agroforestry. This renders it urgent to implement the REDD programme as soon as possible. NAADS should recruit staff-members educated in forestry and train the current staff in forestry matters.g. 11 .g. but lacks funds. Fast-track the REDD programme. h. Kibaale’s policy of using 20% of the DFS’ revenues for natural resource management should at least be implemented. Promote sharing of best-practices and knowledge sharing. Many farmers in Uganda have been facilitated by e. Because of poverty and a lack of alternative livelihoods the farmers are. all or the greater part of the revenues generated annually from timber and charcoal licenses could be ring-fenced for forestry activities. but at the current rate of deforestation that may be too late in some districts. An annual conference for management of private forests with attendance of all DFOs.

The DFS should take a leadership position on this issue with support from FSSD. c. Strengthen and expand private forest owner organizations. There is a perceived influence by the international financing institutions in the process of setting these priorities. The donations are seldom unconditional and the International Financial Institutions therefore play an indirect role on the priorities of Uganda’s government. Government members and the relevant institutions seem to disclaim their responsibility and blame everybody else. There are certain countries like Rwanda that have managed to turn the negative trends of deforestation. To the Civil Society a. For instance. Civil society should therefore gain deeper insight in the process of setting these ceilings and advocate for raising or removing them so that more money can be invested in the forestry sector. Explore opportunities for eco-tourism. and passion fruits? This data could help to promote enterprises that are beneficial for simultaneous forest conservation and income generation at the local level. This causes certain problems for the forest sector. Certain NGOs like ACODE have already been successful in targeting individuals in the government and the institutions and take them to court. tea. Registration of private forests currently transpires on a voluntary basis which has led to very few registrations. Efforts should be made to facilitate the registration of a bigger part of the private forests and hereby mobilize the owners in strong local organizations that can advocate the interest of forest owners at both district and government-level. they must be persuaded by economic incentives. Farmers’ land use is often driven by economic incentives.g. For a successful implementation of the REDD programme. but they are disappearing rapidly so swift action is necessary. An international perspective should also be adopted. They grow what is most profitable. b. in the area around the Muziizi River in Kibaale there are still forests with rich biodiversity and a great potential for ecotourism. and pine and eucalyptus plantations compared to enrichment strategies such as herbal medicine. Monitor the implementation of the REDD programme. and it should be explored if these countries’ positive experiences could be helpful for Uganda. which the programme is built upon. d. As a result of the budget ceilings. who are conserving their forest. The government has so far not been held accountable for the massive deforestation and the poor performance of the institutions mandated to deal with this. Civil society should explore good and bad practices in other countries in order to advocate for the government to learn from them. could be fruitful. Civil society should be aggressive and hold the government accountable. More knowledge about private forests should be generated. A negative consequence of this is that the government and districts will refrain from channeling extra money into the forest sector because it is not a priority. Advocate for more focus on forest conservation in the International Financial Institutions. This makes it significant to understand the return of investments in agriculture compared to sustainable enterprises. beans. E. To ensure that the government and its institutions live up to their mandated responsibility civil society should not take part in this blame game but instead adopt a more aggressive approach. economic sanctions are likely to occur. Hence. Eco-tourism could work as an incentive to conserve the forests for the adjacent communities. 12 . and reward them with economic incentives for continuing this work. who are working in the area already. because forest conservation is not one of the top priorities of the financing institutions. e. Mobilizing the private forest owners would also make the implementation of the REDD programme easier. Uganda’s government annually sets ceilings for how much money can be invested into the different sectors according to the priorities. If the incentives do not reach the poor rural land owners. because the owners would already have registered their forests and adopted management plans. civil society needs to advocate for a system that ensures that the economic incentives. the programme is unlikely to facilitate conservation of the private natural forests. If budgets exceed these ceilings. A partnership with NFA and relevant NGOs. Although this influence cannot be proved it is widely believed that the International Financial Institutions do support and encourage this policy. A large part of Uganda’s budget is financed by the International Financial Institutions. reach the relevant farmers.d. bee hives. government and district spending on the forest sector has been curtailed. the IMF and the World Bank. what are the returns from maize. for farmers to change their land use. There are still large patches of forest left with great biodiversity that has possibilities for ecotourism.

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