1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Ì am also grateful to Er. Sarvesh Chopra, training incharge for giving best
knowledge about my project. The way he instilled knowledge of the subject was
undoubtly praise worthy and valuable.

Ì am also thankful to CTÌEMT institute as a whole that is doing yeoman's service
by teaching the learner abreast with the computer, networking and hardware
knowledge that is the need of the day.
Last but not the least; Ì thank all my classmates at CTÌEMT for extending kind
Co-operation.























2






CONTENT

O Networking
O Types of routing
O Routers
O Router interface and port
O Sub netting
O Routing
O Telnet
O Lan switching
O Working of switching
O Project
















3








4


INDEX

TitIe Page No.
O Networking

O Types of routing

O Routers

O Router interface and port

O Sub netting

O Routing

O Telnet

O Lan switching

O Working of switching

O Project

















5


NETWORKING

Introduction to networking

Networking is a practice oI linking oI two or more computing devices such as PCs,
printers, Iaxes etc., with each other Connection between two devices is through physical
media or logical media to share inIormation, data and resources. Networks are made with
the hardware and soItware.



Cable/media

Computer network

Models of Networking

Model means the connectivity oI two computers. We have many types oI networking
models.

(i) Client Server Model
(ii) Peer to Peer Model (Workgroup Model)
(iii) Domain Model



6


i) Client -Server Model

n a Client server model we have one server and many clients. A Client can share the
resources oI server, but a server cannot share the resources on clients.
On the point oI view oI administrator it`s very easy to control the network
because we combine with the server also at security point oI view. t is very useIul
because it uses user level security in which users have to remember only one password to
share the resources.

ii) Peer to Peer Model Workgroup Model)

n Peer to Peer networking model all computers are in equal status, that is we cannot
manage centralization, administration secutity. n Peer to Perr networking client use
operating system like Window 98, Window XP, Window 2000, Window Vista.

ii) Domain Model

t is a mixture oI client server and peer-to-peer model. n this clients can share their
resources as peer-to-peer but with the permission oI the server as in client server model
thereIore it is commonly used model because in this security is more as we can put
restriction on both server and clients.









7


ROUTERS

Router Architecture and its Key Component


















ncomplete
OS
OS




Startup ConIiguration
Processor
Memory
Controller
BOS
ROM
NVRAM
RAM
Flash
RAM
O/S
/O
Controller
LAN
WAN
Ports


8





Processor

Speed: - 20 MHz to 1GHz
Architecture: - RSC(Reduce nstruction set computer)
ManuIacturers: - Motorola, BM, Power PC, Texas, Orion, ntel.


Flash RAM

Flash memory is just like a hard copy oI the computer. Flash RAM is the permanent
read/write memory. This memory is used to store one or more copies oI router O/S.
Router O/S is also called OS (nternetwork Operating System).The
size oI Flash RAM in the router is 4MB to 256MB. This memory is electrically
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM).


NVRAM

NVRAM is a 'Non Volatile Random Access Memory¨. t is used to store the startup
conIiguration oI the Router. t is on chip RAM, its size is 32kb.


RAM Random Access Memory)

t is a volatile memory. All the activities we do are stored in RAM this means that it
holds the running conIiguration. RAM oI the router is divided into two logical parts.



9


O Primary RAM
O Shared RAM

Primary RAM

Primary RAM is used Ior: -
(i) Running copy oI OS.
(ii) Running conIiguration
(iii) Routing table
(iv) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table (P address to MAC
address)
(v) Processor & other data structure

Shared RAM

Shared RAM is used as a buIIer memory to shared the data received Irom diIIerent
interIaces. Size oI RAM in a router may vary Irom 2 MB to 512 MB. The types oI
memory that may be present in a RAM are:
(i) DRAM -~ Dynamic RAM
(ii) EDORAM -~ Extended Data Out RAM
(iii) SDRAM -~ Synchronous Dynamic RAM


ROM Random Access Memory)

t has Iour components:
O POST (Power on SelI Test)
t perIorms hardware testing.


10


O BOOT Strap
Boot strap speciIies Irom where and which inter operating system is to be loaded.
O Mini OS
Cisco 2500, 1600
O ROM MOW

#outer Interfaces & Ports

nterIace is used to connect LAN networks or wan networks to the router. nterIace will
use protocol stacks to send/receive data. Ports are used Ior the conIiguration oI routers.
Ports are not used to connect diIIerent networks. The primary purpose oI port is the
management oI router.


Router Interface

Router interfaces and connectors

AU Attachment Unit nterIace
EPABX Electronic Private Automatic Branch
PSTN Public Services Telephone Network










11


Router Ports




Modes of #outer

When we access router command prompt the router will display diIIerent modes.
According to the modes, privileges and rights are assigned to the user.
User mode
Router>
n this mode, we can display basic parameter and status oI the router we can test
connectivity and perIorm telnet to other devices. n this mode we are not able to change
and save router conIiguration.

Privileged mode

Router#
n this mode, we can display all inIormation, conIiguration, perIorm administration task,
debugging, testing and connectivity with other devices. We are not able to perIorm here
conIiguration editing oI the router.


12


The command to enter in this mode is enable`. We have to enter enable
password or enable secret password to enter in this mode. Enable secret has more priority
than enable password. I both passwords are conIigured then only enable secret will
work.

Global configuration

Routeconfig)#
This mode is used Ior the conIiguration oI global parameters in the router. Global
parameters applied to the entire router. All the changes are perIormed in this mode. But
here we cannot see and save the changes.
For e.g: - router hostname or access list oI router, password, Banner, Routing, Security.
The command to enter in this mode is conIigure terminal`

Line configuration mode

n this mode we can set the password oI the user mode, i.e to set user mode
password .This mode is used to conIigure lines like console, vty and auxiliary. There are
main types oI line that are conIigured.
(i) Console
Routerconfig)#line console 0
(ii) Auxiliary
Routerconfig)#line aux 0
(iii) Telnet or vty
Routerconfig)#line vty 0 4


13




Interface configuration mode
n this mode we can set ip addresses oI the interIaces. This mode is used to
conIigure router interIaces. For e.g:- Ethernet, Serial, BR etc.

Routerconfig)#interIace ·type~ ·number~
Routerconfig)#interIace serial 1
Routing configuration mode

This mode is used to conIigure routing protocol like RP, EGRP, OSPF etc.
Routerconfig)#router ·protocol~ |·option~|
Routerconfig)#router rip
Routerconfig)#router eigrp 10

Configuring Password

There are Iive types oI password available in a router

Console Password
router#conIigure terminal
router(conIig)#line console 0
router(conIig-line)#password ·word~
router(conIig-line)#login
router(conIig-line)#exit

To erase password do all steps with no command.



14


Vty Password
router~enable
router#conIigure terminal
router(conIig)#line vty 0 4
router(conIig-line)#password ·word~
router(conIig-line)#login
router(conIig-line)#exit

Auxiliary Password
router#conIigure terminal
router(conIig)#line Aux 0
router(conIig-line)#password ·word~
router(conIig-line)#login
router(conIig-line)#exit

Enable Password
router~enable
router#conIigure terminal
router(conIig)#enable password ·word~
router(conIig)#exit

Enable Secret Password
Enable Password is the clear text password. t is stored as clear text in
conIiguration where as enable secret password is the encrypted password.
Router~enable
Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#enable secret ·word~
Router(conIig)#exit



15


Configuring Host Name
Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#hostname ·name~
·name~#exit or end or /\z
Router#conIig terminal
Router(conIig)#hostname r1
R1(conIig)#

Configuration Interfaces

nterIaces conIiguration is one oI the most important part oI the router conIiguration. By
deIault, all interIaces oI Cisco router are in disabled mode. We have to use diIIerent
commands as our requirement to enable and conIigure the interIace.
Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#interIace ·type~ ·no~
Router(conIig-iI)#ip address ·ip~ ·mask~
Router(conIig-iI)#no shutdown
Router(conIig-iI)#exit


Configuring optional parameter on WAN interface
Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#interIac ·type~ ·no~
Router(conIig-iI)#encapsulation ·protocol~
Router(conIig-iI)#clock rate ·value~
Router(conIig-iI)#end






16


Command displaying history of Router

O To display commands present in history
Router#show history
O To display history size
Router#show terminal
O To change history size
Router#conIig terminal
Router(conIig)#line console 0
Router(conIig-iI)#history size ·value(0-256)~
Router(conIig-iI)#exit

Configuring Banners
Banners are just a message that can appear at diIIerent prompts according to the type.
DiIIerent banners are: -
O Message oI the day (motd)
This banner appear at every access method
O Login
Appear beIore login prompt
O Exec
Appear aIter we enter to the execution mode
O ncoming
Appear Ior incoming connections
Syntax:-
Router#conIig terminal
Router(conIig)#banner·type~·delimationchar~TextMassage
·delimation char~
Router(conIig)#


17


To set time in router
We can conIigure router clock with the help oI two methods:
(i) ConIigure clock locally
(ii) ConIigure clock on NTP server (Network Time Protocol)
Router does not have battery to save the clock setting. So that clock will reset to the
deIault on reboot.

To display clock
Router#show clock

To configure clock
Router#clock set hh:mm:ss day month year
Router#clock set 7:15:10 9 March 2011


SUBNETTING

Subnetting is a process or a technique to divide large and complex networks into smaller
parts or smaller networks and each network is called as subnet. Subnetting is done to
reduce the wastage oI P addresses ie instead oI having a single huge network Ior an
organization smaller networks are created within a given huge network. Subnetting
allows the user to create multiple logical networks within a single Class A, B or C based
networks.
n subnetting, the Pv4 address is broken into two parts; network id and host id.
This process borrows bits Irom the host id Iield. n this process, the network size does not
shrink but the size oI hosts per network shrinks in order to include sub-networks within
the network.




18


Advantages of subnetting

O Size oI the physical networks is reduced and hence easy to manage.
O Reduce network traIIic.
O Easy to troubleshoot.
O Reduce the wastage oI P address.

Subnet Mask

A subnet mask speciIies the part oI P address that is to be used Ior identiIying a sub
network. A subnet mask when logically ANDed with Paddress provides a 32- bit
network address. This binary address gives the Iirst address in the subnet block speciIied
in the large network.

Default Mask
ClassIull addresses consists oI three classes; Class A, Class B, Class C used Ior subnet.
Each class has a deIault subnet mask C lass A consists oI eight 1s in the network address
Iield and 24 0s in remaining Iield, Class B consists oI 16 1s in network address Iield and
16 0s in remaining Iield, and Class C contains 24 1s in the network address Iield and
remaining 8 bytes as 0s. the deIault address mask in binary and dotted-decimal is shown
in the table.



19






To Calculate the Subnet Mask

1. dentiIy the class oI address assigned. For this example the class oI P address
is Class B.
2. check the deIault address mask Ior the appropriate class and convert it to
binary Iormat .Ior this example the deIault address mask is 255.255.0.0 and
the equivalent binary Iormat is; 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
3. check the no. oI 1s in the deIault mask. E.g this address contains 16 1s in class
B, 16 bits 2 octat are Ior net id and the last 16 bits 2 octates are Ior host id.
4. now iI we need 9 subnets. This no. 9 is not a power oI 2. the next no. that is
power oI 2 and greater than 2 is 16. So, we require 4 extra 4 extra 1s in the
network Iield which has to be borrowed Irom the host id Iield.


20


5. the total no. oI 1s is 16¹4÷20, as 16 1s are Irom network id and 4 1s are oI
additional bits required Ior subnetwork. The no. oI 0s in the n/w is 32-20÷12.
which deIines whole address.
6. hence address is given as 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000 and in
decimal Iormat can be given as 255.255.240.0


Decimal and binary values of subnet mask




















Decimal



Binary

0
128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255


00000000
10000000
11000000
11100000
11110000
11111000
11111100
11111110
11111111



21


Types of Subnetting

O Fixed Length Subnet Mask (FLSM)
O Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)


Steps of Subnetting for FLSM

For P address 192.168.10.0 (Class C)
Step 1:
O dentiIy the total no. oI subnets 2`n ÷ no.oI subnets
O Where n are the no.s and borrowed bytes Irom host D portion. Let we are given
that we have to make 4 subnets. ThereIore 2`n ÷4 i.e n÷2

Step 2:
O To idettiIy the total no. oI the valid hosts Ior each subnet.
O 2`m-2÷ no.oI valid hosts. Where m are the remaining no. oI bits in host D 2`6-
2÷62
Step 3:
O Calculate the subnet mask and range
O SubnetmaskIorn/w192.168.10.0/26 is 11111111.11111111.11111111.1100000000
ie 255.255.255.192
O range÷~ 256-192÷64
step 4:
O dentiIy the total no oI subnets, no. oI valid hosts and the broadcast address.






22


Showing subnet mask, valid hosts, broadcast address


Subnetwork

Valid Host

Broadcast Address

192.168.10.0


192.168.10.64


192.168.10.128


192.168.10.192

192.168.10.1 to
192.168.10.63

192.168.10.65 to
192.168.10.126

192.168.10.129 to
192.168.10.190

192.168.10.193 to
192.168.10.254


192.168.10.63


192.168.10.127


192.168.10.191


192.168.10.255



VLSM

n VLSM to allocate P addresses to subnets depending upon the no. oI hosts. The
network having more no oI hosts is given priority and the one having least no oI host
comes at last and Ior each network the subnet is assigned separately. As in the scenario
given:




23



;ariabIe subnet mask


TELNET

Telnet stands Ior terminal network, telephone network, terminal encapsulation on the
network. Purpose oI Telnet is to access the remote device in order to conIigure it. t
provides textual access oI the remote device. t uses the services oI TCP. Telnet service is
used where small bandwidth is low. t provides textual access oI the remote device. Port
number oI Telnet is 23.

To Access the Device Remotely

For this purpose we have to assign the P addresses to the PCs and the interIaces. For
Telnet the Routers are to be conIigured with RP version1 , so that the device can ping
each other. Also DCE cable is used to connect the Routers. The serial link should have


24


the speed oI 64K also apply vty password and enable secret password. Set up the Routers
so that they can manage via Telnet.
First oI all select the PCs and the routers connect the ports to the router, double
click on router, switch oII the router iI it is on. Then select the serial port according to the
routers, switch on the router. Select the cable to connect the Routers. Router to Router
connections are made by the serial cable, so go on Iirst Router select the serial port as
s0/1/0 in the scenario, then go to the other Router and connect the serial cable at interIace
s1/0. Accordingly connect the third Router with interIaces s1/1 and s1/2.
Now connect the PCs to the routers, to do this Iirst select the console cable, click on the
PC select RS232 option, then connect it on the Router and select console cable. Now
select cross- over cable on the PC select Fast Ethernet option and on the Router select
I0/0 option now as the PCs and Routers are connected to each other assign P addresses
to the PCs and the Routers. According to the Iig set the P addresses oI the PCs÷ double
click on the PC÷ choose the option oI desktop÷ P conIiguration. Now set the P
address, subnet mask, and the deIault gateway. Like wise set the P address oI all the
PCs. Now set the P address oI the interIaces oI router.

To Telnet a device from Router
At all the Routers use these commands
Router(conIig)#line vty 0 4
Router(conIig-line)#password cobra
Router(conIig-line)#login
Router(conIig)#enable password cobra
Router(conIig)#enable secret cobra1
To telnet a device from router
Router#telnet ·P~
Or
Router~telnet ·P~


25


To exit from telnet session
Router#exit

To exit from a hanged telnet session
Ctrl¹shIt¹6
Or
Router#disconnect
To display connected session
Router#show sessions
This command shows those sessions, which are created or connected by us.
I we want anyone can telnet our router without password then on the line vty type
command 'No Login¨.


ROUTING

Routing is a process or technique to identiIy the path Irom one network to another.
Routers don`t really care about hoststhey only care about networks and the best path to
each network.

To route the packet the router must know the Iollowing things:
O Destination network
O Neighbour device Irom witch it can learn about remote Networking.
O Possible number oI routers to reach the destination.
O Best route to reach the destination.
O How to maintain & veriIy the routing inIormation.




26


TYPES OF ROUTING
O Static routing.
O DeIault routing.
O Dynamic routing.

STATIC ROUTING

n static routing an administrator speciIies all the routes to reach the destination.
Static routing occurs when you manually add routes in each router`s routing table.By deIault,
Static routes have an Administrative Distance (AD) oI 1

Features
There is no overhead on the router CPU.
There is no bandwidth usage between routers.
t adds security, because the administrator can choose to allow routing access to certain
networks only.

Advantages of static routing
(1) Fast and eIIicient.
(2) More control over selected path.
(3) Less overhead Ior router.
(4) Bandwidth oI interIaces is not consumed in routing updates.
Disad;antages of static routing
(1) More overheads on administrator.
(2) Load balancing is not easily possible.
(3) n case oI topology change routing table has to be change manually.




27


Syntax for Static Routing
Router (conIig)# ip route ·destination N/w~ ·Subnet mask~ ·Next
Hope- address or exit interIace~ |·administrative distance~Permanent|.

DEFAULT ROUTING

DeIault routing is used to send packets with a remote destination network not in the
routing table to the next-hop route.
DeIault routing is also a type oI static routing which reduces the routing overhead &
deIault routing is also used with stub networks. Stub networks are those having a single
exit interIace. DeIault routing is also used Ior unknown destination.
A special address is used to perIorm the deIault routing ie 0.0.0.0
The scenario Ior deIault routing is same and but the commands used at the routers having
single exit interIace like R1 and R3 have diIIerent commands.

At Router (R1)
Router(conIig)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 40.0.0.2
Router#show ip route
At Router (R3)
Router(conIig)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 50.0.0.1
Router#show ip route









28


DYNAMIC ROUTING

Dynamic routing is when protocols are used to Iind networks and update routing table on
routers.
A routing protocol deIines the set oI rules used by router when it communicates routing
inIormation between neighbor routers. n dynamic routing, we will enable a routing
protocol on router. This protocol will send its routing inIormation to the neighbor router.
The neighbors will analyze the inIormation and write new routes to the routing table.
The routers will pass routing inIormation receive Irom one router to other router also. I
there are more than one path available then routes are compared and best path is selected.
Some examples oI dynamic protocol are: -

RP, GRP, EGRP, OSPF
There are two type oI routing protocols used in internetwors:
O nterior Gateway Protocols (GPs)
GPs are used to exchange routing inIormation with routers in the same
Autonomous System(AS) number. Routing which is perIormed within a single
autonomous system is known as interior routing. The protocol that are used to perIorm
this type oI routing are known as GP(nterior Gateway Protocol).
These protocols are:-

(i) RPv1 (Routing nIormation Protocol Version 1)
(ii) RPv2 (Routing nIormation Protocol Version 2)
(iii) EGRP (Enhanced nterior Gateway Routing Protocol)
(iv) OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
(v) S-S (ntermediate System to ntermediate System)

O Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGPs)
EGPs are used to communicate between diIIerent Autonomous System.


29


Protocol that used to do this type oI routing are called exterior gateway protocols.
Autonomous System:- An autonomous system is a collection oI networks under a
common administrative domain, which basically means that all routers sharing the same
routing table inIormation are in the same AS.

Routing Protocol Basics
(i) Administrative Distances
(ii) Routing protocol
(iii) Routing Loops

Administrative Distances
The Administrative Distance (AD) is used to rate the trustworthiness oI routing
inIormation received on a router Irom a neighbor router. An Administrative Distance is
an integer Irom 0 to 255, where 0 is the most trusted and 255 means no traIIic will be
passed via this route.
I a router receives two updates listing he sane remote network, the Iirst thing the router
checks is the AD. I one oI the advertised routes has lower AD than the other, then the
route with the lowest AD will be placed in the routing table.I both advertised routes to
the same network have the same AD, then routing protocol metrics (such as hop count or
bandwidth oI the lines) will be used to Iind the best path to the remote network. The
advertised route with the lowest metric will be placed in the routing table.
But iI both advertised routes have the same AD as well as the same metrics, then the
routing protocol will load-balance in the remote network.









30





Classes of Routing Protocols

There are three classes oI Routing Protocol
(i) Distance vector protocol
(ii) Link state protocol
(iii) Hybrid protocol.

O Distance vector protocol

The Distance-vector protocols Iind the best path to remote network by judging
distance. Each time a packet goes through a router, that`s called a hop. The route with
the least number oI hops to the network is determined to be the best route. The vector
indicates the direction to the remote network. They send the entire routing table to
directly connected neighbors.
Ex: RP, GRP

Route Source Default AD
Connected interIace 0
Static Route 1
EGRP 90
GRP 100
OSPF 110
RP 120
External EGRP 170
Unknown 255 This route will never be used


31


The distance-vector routing algorithm passes complete routing table contents to
neighboring routers.
A router receiving an update Irom a neighbor router believes the inIormation
about remote networks without actually Iinding out Ior itselI.
t`s possible to have network that has multiple links to the same remote network,
and iI that`s the case, the administrative distance is checked Iirst. I the AD is the
same, the protocol will have to use other metrics to determine the best path to use
to that remote network.





Routing table







32


RIP Routing Information Protocol)

Routing nIormation Protocol is a true distance-vector routing protocol. t is an GB
(nter Gateway Protocol). t sends the complete routing table out to all active interIaces
every 30 seconds to its immediate neighbour. This is slow convergence means that one
router sends a request to other about its route or network get networks which are not
assigned to it aIter all thee three routers have same networks, this process is repeated to
send and receive request so it is called slow convergence
RP only uses hop count to determine the best way to remote network, but it has a
maximum allowable hop count oI 0-15 by deIault, meaning that 16 is deemed
unreachable.
RP version 1 uses only class Iull routing, which means that all devices in the network
must use the same subnet mask.
RP version 2 provides something called preIix routing, and does send subnet mask
inIormation with the route updates. This is called classless routing.

O Hop Count
t is a way oI measurement. Hop count limit is15.This routing supports only 15
routers, iI there is one more router in the network then this routing will Iails.

O Default administrative distance )

Timers of RIP
(i) Update timers.
(ii) Hold timers.
(iii) nvalid timers.
(iv) Flush out timers.




33


Route update timer

Router update timer sets the interval 3 seconds between periodic routing updates, in
which the router sends a complete copy oI its routing table out to all neighbors.

Router invalid timers

A router invalid timer determines the length oI time that must elapse seconds beIore
a router determines that a route has become invalid. t will come to this conclusion iI it
hasn`t heard any updates about a particular route Ior that period. When that happens, thee
router will send out updates to all its neighbors letting them know that the route is
invalid.

Hold-down timer

This sets the amount oI time during which routing inIormation is suppressed. Routers will
enter into the hold-down state when an update packet is received that indicated the route
is unreachable. This continues until entire an update packet is received with a better
metric or until the hold-down timer expires. The deIault is seconds

Route flush timer
Route Ilush timers` sets the time between a route becoming invalid and its interval Irom
the routing table seconds. BeIore it`s removed Irom the table, the router notiIies its
neighbors oI that route`s impending demise. The value oI the route invalid timer must be
less than that oI the route Ilush timers.





34


Difference between RIPV & RIPV



IGRP Interior Gateway Protocol)

nterior Gateway Routing Protocol (GRP) is a Cisco-proprietary distance-vector routing
protocol. To use GRP, all your routers must be Cisco routers. GRP has a maximum hop
count oI 255 with a deIault oI 100. GRP uses bandwidth and delay oI the line by deIault
as a metric Ior determining the best route to an internetwork. Reliability, load, and
maximum transmission unit (MTU) can also be used, although they are not used by
deIault.





35


Difference between IGRP and RIP

IGRP RIP
Can be used in large internetworks Works best in smaller networks
Uses an autonomous system number Ior
activation
Does not yse aytibiniys system numbers
Gives a Iull route table update every 90
seconds
Gives Iull route table update every 30
seconds
Has an administrative distance oI 100 Has an administrative distance oI 120
Uses bandwidth and delay oI the line as
metric (lowest composite metric),with a
maximum hop count oI 255
Uses only hop count to determine the best
path to a remote network, with 15 hops
being the maximum


IGRP Timers
To control perIormance, GRP includes the Iollowing timers with deIault settings:

O Update timers
These speciIy how Irequently routing-update messages should be sent. The
deIault is 90 seconds.

O Invalid timers
These speciIy how long a router should wait beIore declaring a route invalid iI it
doesn`t receive a speciIic update about it. The deIault is three times the update period.

O Hold down timers
These speciIy the hold down period. The deIault is three times the update timer
period plus 10 seconds.


36


O Flush timers
These indicate how much time should pass beIore a route should be Ilushed Irom
the routing table. The deIault is seven times the routing update period. I the update timer
is 90 seconds by deIault, then 7 × 90 ÷ 630 seconds elapse beIore a route will be Ilushed
Irom the route table.


EIGRPEnhanced Interior Routing Protocol)

Enhanced GRP (EGRP) is a classless, enhanced distance-vector protocol that gives
us a real edge over GRP. Like GRP, EGRP uses the concept oI an autonomous
system to describe the set oI contiguous routers that run the same routing protocol and
share routing inIormation. But unlike GRP, EGRP includes the subnet mask in its
route updates. The advertisement oI subnet inIormation allows us to use VLSM and
summarization when designing our networks.
EGRP is sometimes reIerred to as a hybrid routing protocol because it has
characteristics oI both distance-vector and link-state protocols. t sends traditional
distance-vector updates containing inIormation about networks plus the cost oI
reaching them Irom the perspective oI the adverting router. EGRP has a maximum
hop count oI 255.

Powerful features that make EIGRP a real standout from IGRP

O Support Ior P, PX, and AppleTalk via protocol-dependent modules Considered
classless (same as RPv2 and OSP
O Support Ior VLSM/CDR
O Support Ior summaries and discontiguous networks
O EIIicient neighbor discovery
O Communication via Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)


37


O Best path selection via DiIIusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)

Cisco calls EGRP a distance vector routing protocol, or sometimes an
advanced distance vector or even a hybrid routing protocol. EGRP supports diIIerent
Network layer protocols through the use oI protocol-dependent modules (PDMs). Each
EGRP PDM will maintain a separate series oI tables containing the routing inIormation
that applies to a speciIic protocol. t means that there will be P/EGRP tables,
PX/EGRP tables, and AppleTalk/EGRP tables.

Neighbor Discovery

BeIore EGRP routers are willing to exchange routes with each other, they must become
neighbors. There are three conditions that must be met Ior neighborship establishment:
Hello or ACK received
AS numbers match
dentical metrics (K values)

To maintain the neighborship relationship, EGRP routers must also continue receiving
Hellos Irom their neighbors. EGRP routers that belong to diIIerent autonomous systems
(ASes) don`t automatically share routing inIormation and they don`t become neighbors.
The only time EGRP advertises its entire routing table is when it discovers a new
neighbor and Iorms an adjacency with it through the exchange oI Hello packets. When
this happens, both neighbors advertise their entire routing tables to one another. AIter
each has learned its neighbor`s routes, only changes to the routing table are propagated
Irom then on.







38


EGRP maintains three tables containing inIormation about the internetworks.

(i) Neighbor Table
Records inIormation about routers with whom neighborship relationships have
been Iormed.
(ii) Topology Table
Stores the route advertisements about every route in the internetwork received
Irom each neighbor.

EIGRP Metrics

Another really sweet thing about EGRP is that unlike many other protocols that use a
single Iactor to compare routes and select the best possible path, EGRP can use a
combination oI Iour:

O Bandwidth
O Delay
O Load
O Reliability

OSPF Open Shortest Path First)

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an open standards routing protocol that`s been
implemented by a wide variety oI network vendors, including Cisco. This works by using
the Dijkstra algorithm. First, a shortest path tree is constructed, and then the routing table
is populated with the resulting best paths. OSPF converges quickly, although perhaps not
as quickly as EGRP, and it supports multiple, equal-cost routes to the same destination.
But unlike EGRP, it only supports P routing.


39


OSPF is an GP protocol. t is a link state routing protocol. t is supported by
many operating systems. ts deIault AD is 110, hop count limit is unlimited.
t is classless routing protocol, supports VLSM/CDR. By deIault the highest P address
oI interIace will be elected as Router id.

OSPF provides the following features

Consists oI areas and autonomous systems
Minimizes routing update traIIic
Allows scalability
Supports VLSM/CDR
Has unlimited hop count
Allows multi-vendor deployment (open standard)

OSPF is supposed to be designed in a hierarchical Iashion, which basically means that
you can separate the larger internetwork into smaller internetworks called areas. This is
the best design Ior OSPF.

The reasons Ior creating OSPF in a hierarchical design include:
O To decrease routing overhead
O To speed up convergence
O To conIine network instability to single areas oI the network

Each router in the network connects to the backbone called area , or the backbone
area. OSPF must have an area , and all routers should connect to this area iI at all
possible. But routers that connect other areas to the backbone within an AS are called
Area Border Routers ABRs) Still, at least one interIace must be in area 0.
OSPF runs inside an autonomous system, but can also connect multiple autonomous
systems together. The router that connects these ASes together is called an Autonomous
System Boundary Router ASBR)


40


OSPF Terminology

O Link
A link is a network or router interIace assigned to any given network. When an
interIace is added to the OSPF process, it`s considered by OSPF to be a link.

O Router ID
The Router D (RD) is an P address used to identiIy the router. Cisco chooses
the Router D by using the highest P address oI all conIigured loopback interIaces. I no
loopback interIaces are conIigured with addresses, OSPF will choose the highest P
address oI all active physical interIaces.

O Neighbors
Neighbors are two or more routers that have an interIace on a common
network,such as two routers connected on a point-to-point serial link.

O Adjacency
An adjacency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits the direct
exchange oI route updates. OSPF is really picky about sharing routing inIormation
unlike EGRP, which directly shares routes with all oI its neighbors. nstead, OSPF
directly shares routes only with neighbors that have also established adjacencies. And not
all neighbors will become adjacentthis depends upon both the type oI network and the
conIiguration oI the routers.








41


OSPF Topologies database

The topology database contains inIormation Irom all oI the Link State Advertisement
packets that have been received Ior an area. The router uses the inIormation Irom the
topology database as input into the Dijkstra algorithm that computes the shortest path to
every network. LSA packets are used to update and maintain the topology database.
A Link State Advertisement (LSA) is an OSPF data packet containing link-state and
routing inIormation that`s shared among OSPF routers. There are diIIerent types oI LSA
packets. An OSPF router will exchange LSA packets only with routers to which it has
established adjacencies.
A designated router (DR) is elected whenever OSPF routers are connected to the same
multi-access network. A prime example is an Ethernet LAN.
A backup designated router (BDR)is a hot standby Ior the DR on multi-access links The
BDR receives all routing updates Irom OSPF adjacent routers, but doesn`t Ilood LSA
updates.

OSPF areas
An OSPF area is a grouping oI contiguous networks and routers. All routers in the same
area share a common Area D.

Broadcast multi-access)
Broadcast (multi-access) networkssuch as Ethernet allow multiple devices to connect to
(or access) the same network, as well as provide a -74,/.,89 ability in which a single
packet is delivered to all nodes on the network. n OSPF, a DR and a BDR must be
elected Ior each broadcast multi-access network.

Non-broadcast multi-access
Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) networks are types such as Frame Relay, X.25,
and Asynchronous TransIer Mode (ATM). These networks allow Ior multi-access, but


42


have no broadcast ability like Ethernet. So, NBMA networks require special OSPF
conIiguration to Iunction properly and neighbor relationships must be deIined.

O Point-to-point
Point-to-point reIers to a type oI network topology consisting oI a direct
connection between two routers that provides a single communication path. The point-to-
point connection can be physical, as in a serial cable directly connecting two routers, or it
can be logical.

O Point-to-multipoint
Point-to-multipoint reIers to a type oI network topology consisting oI a series oI
connections between a single interIace on one router and multiple destination routers. All
oI the interIaces on all oI the routers sharing the point-to-multipoint connection belong to
the same network. As with point-to-point, no DRs or BDRs are needed.

SPF Tree Calculation

Within an area, each router calculates the best/shortest path to every network in that same
area. This calculation is based upon the inIormation collected in the topology database
and an algorithm called shortest path Iirst (SPF)
OSPF uses a metric reIerred to as .489. A cost is associated with every outgoing interIace
included in an SPF tree. The cost oI the entire path is the sum oI costs oI the outgoing
interIaces along the path.
Cisco uses a simple equation oI 10
8
/ bandwidth. The bandwidth is the conIigured
bandwidth Ior the interIace. Using this rule, a 100Mbps Fast Ethernet interIace would
have a deIault OSPF cost oI 1 and a 10Mbps Ethernet interIace would have a cost oI 10.
An interIace set with a bandwidth oI 64,000 would have a deIault cost oI 1563.





43


Benefits of OSPF

(i) Minimum routing updates.
(ii) Priorities on all the CSCO routers the priority is 1.
(iii) The routers having highest P address become BRD(Border Destination
Router)

LAN SWITCHING
SWITCH

Switches are generally used to segment a large LAN smaller segments. Smaller switches
such as the Cisco Catalyst 2924XL have 24 ports capable oI oI creating 24 diIIerent
network segment Ior the LAN. Larger switches such as the Cisco Catalyst 6500 can have
hundreds oI ports. Switches can also be used to connect LANs with diIIerent media, Ior
example, a 10 Mbps Ethernet LAN and 100 Mbps Ethernet LAN can be connected using
a switch. Some switches support cut through switching, witch reduces latency and delays
in the network, while bridges support only store-and-Iorward traIIic switching. Finally
switches reduce collision on network segment . A switch is a networking device which
Iilters and Iorward packets through the network. t is a layer 2 device. t is more advanced
then hub but not as advanced as router. The basic Iunction oI a switch is to manage the
signal Ilow. When the switch is open, it allows the signal to Ilow through it and when it is
closed, it stops the signal to Ilow. Switch connects separate LAN segment. t allows
multiple system to transmit simultaneously. A switch is a hardware device that Iilters and
Iorward data packets between network segments. Ethernet switches are used in LAN to
create Ethernet networks. Switches Iorward the traIIic on the basis oI MAC address.
Switches maintain a switching table in which MAC addresses and port numbers are used
to perIorm switching decision.



44


WORKING OF SWITCH

When switches receives data Irom one oI connected devices, it Iorward data only to the
port on which the destination system is connected. t use the media access Control
(MAC) address oI the device to determine the correct port. The MAC address is a unique
number that is programmed in to every Network nterIace Card (NC). Consider, device
A wants to send data to device B. When device A passes the data, switch receives it.
Switch than checks` the MAC address oI the destination system. t then transIer data to
device B only instead oI broadcasting to all the devices. By Iorwarding data only to the
system to witch the data is addressed, switch decreases the amount oI traIIic on each
network link.


VLAN Virtual LAN)

VLAN provides Virtual Segmentation oI Broadcast Domain in the network. The devices,
which are member oI same Vlan, are able to communicate with each other. The devices
oI diIIerent Vlan may communicate with each other with routing. So that diIIerent Vlan
devices will use diIIerent n/w addresses.
Vlan provides Iollowing advantages: -

O Logical Segmentation oI network
O Enhance network security
Creating port based Vlan

n port based Vlan, Iirst we have to create a Vlan on manageable switch then we have to
add ports to the Vlan. A Virtual LAN (VLAN) is a broadcast domain created based on
the Iunctional, security, or other requirements, instead oI the physical locations oI the


45


devices, on a switch or across switches. With VLANs, a switch can group diIIerent
interIaces into diIIerent broadcast domains. Without VLANs, all interIaces oI a switch
are in the same broadcast domain; switches connected with each other are also in the
same broadcast domain, unless there is a router in between. DiIIerent ports oI a switch
can be assigned to diIIerent VLANs. A VLAN can also span multiple switches.

The advantages of implementing VLAN are
O t can group devices based on the requirements other than their physical
locations.
O t breaks broadcast domains and increases network throughput.
O t provides better security by separating devices into diIIerent VLANs.
O Since each VLAN is a separate broadcast domain, devices in diIIerent VLANs
cannot listen or respond to the broadcast traIIic oI each other.
O nter-VLAN communication can be controlled by conIiguring access control
lists on the router or Layer 3 switch connecting the VLANs.














46


Pro]ect scenario:




Configuration of router delhi:

Router~
Router~enable
Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#interIace I0/0
Router(conIig-iI)#ip address 172.24.0.129 255.255.255.192
Router(conIig-iI)#no shutdown

Router~


47


Router~enable
Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#interIace s1/1
Router(conIig-iI)#ip address 200.200.200.10 255.255.255.252




At router jaipur:

Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#interIace I0/0
Router(conIig-iI)#ip address172.24.0.193 255.255.255.192
Router(conIig-iI)#no shutdown
Router#
Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#interIace s1/2
Router(conIig-iI)#ip address 200.00.200.9 255.255.255.252
Router(conIig-iI)#no shutdown

Router#conIigure terminal
Router(conIig)#interIace s1/2
Router(conIig-iI)#clock rate 64000
Router(conIig-iI)#no shutdown








48


Then similarly we conIigure other router serial and Iastethernet interIace.

Web server : Website is a collection oI documents. The protocol HTTP (Hyper Text
TransIer Protocol) is used to access websites by the clients Irom the Web Server.









We can use the DNS to solve this problem because DNS is convert host name to
IP address and IP address to host name, .

49


  

   

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