UKMT 2004 Senior Maths Challenge Solutions

1. For the largest of the numbers to be as large as possible, the other two numbers must be as small as possible, that is 1 and 2.

2.

One million minus one thousand = 1 000 000 − 1000 = 999 000. So one million million minus one thousand million = 999 000 million = 999 000 000 000.

3.

1 x Let the fraction of her lolly that Milly has eaten be x. Then Molly has eaten 2 of her lolly. 1 (1 – x) 2 respectively. This means that the fractions they have left are (1 − x) and 1 4 1– x x= 2 = 3 (1 − x), that is 5x = 4, giving 5. So

4.

Simon needs to buy as many batches of 5 pies as possible. He buys 400 batches of 5, giving him 2000 pies at a cost of £16. The other 4 pies cost 1p each, making a total of £16.04.

5.

Let the weights of squares, triangles and circles be s, t, c respectively. Then c + 3t = 6s; and 4c + 2t = 8s, so 2c + t = 4s. Hence (c + 3t) + (2c + t) = 10s.

6.

From the information given, we can conclude only that Pat is either 23 or 29.

7.

The original height of 29 feet 3 inches is 351 inches. So after the first bounce the ball reaches a height of 234 inches; after the second bounce the height reached is 156 inches and after the third bounce it reaches a height of 104 inches, i.e. 8 feet 8 inches.

Latymer

1

that is 1 hour 20 minutes. 12. A x c m x c m C D E 9 c m 1 2 B c m ∠ ACB + ∠ ACE + ∠ DCE = 180° (angles on a straight line). Let the small circles have radius r. The hexagonal face has 6 vertices and each of these must be connected to at least one other vertex in a different plane from that of the hexagonal face. 9. There are eight 2-digit numbers which satisfy the required condition (12. 23. The unshaded area is 2 2 2 2 7πr . 6789) and one 5-digit number (12345). 11. So the required ratio is 7 : 2. 10. in the form of a pyramid on a hexagonal base. We now need to consider if such a polyhedron with 12 edges exists. ∠ CDE + ∠ CED + ∠ DCE = 180° (angle sum of a triangle). Hence x = 15. It does. Also. So ∠ CED = 90° − ∠ DCE Therefore ∠ ACB= ∠ CED and we can deduce that ABC triangles and CDE are congruent since they have two pairs of equal angles and one pair of equal sides (AC = CE). while the shaded area is π(3r) − 7πr = 2πr . . So BC has length 2 2 2 9 cm and we use Pythagoras’ Theorem to see that x = 12 + 9 = 225. six 4-digit numbers (1234. … . 234. 1 1 1 3 + + = In one hour the fraction of lawn which has been mowed is 3 4 6 4 . seven 3digit numbers (123. So this requires at least 6 edges. 2345. 789). So ∠ ACB = 90° − ∠ DCE. so the smallest number of edges the polyhedron could have is indeed 12. … . Also the hexagonal face itself contributes 6 edges to the polyhedron so the polyhedron has a minimum of 12 edges.8. Then the large circle has radius 3r. 89). So the time taken to 4 mow the lawn is 3 hours. … .

1 = 1 and 2004 the last digit of 5 is 5. is 1 and the last digit of (9 ) . 2004 2 1002 2004 2004 that is of 7 . together with the midpoints of three other edges of the cube. Let the side of the cube be of length 2.4 . (Alternatively. Assuming that the trunk is cylindrical. hence 2 with sides √2. as is the last digit of 7 and the 4 4 13. Then QT = (17 − r) cm and PU = (15 − r) cm. So the last digit of (3 ) . are the vertices of a regular hexagon. But. that is 9. So the units digit of the expression is 1 + 1 + 5 + 1 + 1. Thus cos∠ NLM = ∠ NLM = 30° = ∠ MNL. 2 2 2 2 2 Then LM = MN = 1 + 1 = 2 . The core of the trunk occupies 81% of the volume of the trunk. 14. this means that 81% of the cross-sectional area of the trunk is occupied by the core. Now √0. Similarly. √2. Latymer 3 .81 = 0. by Pythagoras’ Theorem: 2 2 (17 + 15)(17 – 15) QP = 17 – 15 cm = cm = 8 cm So 32 − 2r = 8. So the time taken to mow the lawn is 3 2 The last digit of 3 is 1. that is r = 12. LN = 1 + 1 + 2 = √6. so the diameter of the core is 90% of the diameter of the trunk. √6. it may be shown that L. that is 2 cm.9. that is 36 cm. so QP = (17 − r + 15 − r)cm = (32 − 2r)cm.) 15. So∠ LMN may be shown to be 120°. Now QS = QT (radii of arc ST) and PS = PU (radii of arc SU). So LMN is an isosceles triangle 6/2 3 = 2 . 16. 4 501 2004 4 501 last digit of 9 . is 1. is 1. that is of 9 . the last digit of (7 ) . Furthermore. that is of 3 . M and N. So ∠ LMN = 120°. Hence the thickness of the bark is 4 cm ÷ 2. Q T S P U r c m R r c m Let the radius of the arc with centre R be r cm.

Multiplying the equation S + M × C = 64 by S gives S + S × M × C = 64S. Therefore the lowest positive 2 integer by which it must be multiplied to make a perfect cube is 2 × 3 × 11 . since LM = LN. or the reflection of this portion in the x-axis. Expressed as the product of prime factors. Also. If M = 40 then S × C = 6. so C = 40 / 60 or 40 / 4. that is (S − 60)(S − 4) = 0.17. If M = 6 then S × C = 40. 396 = 2 × 3 × 11. Multiplying the equation S × C + M = 46 by 2 2 M gives M × S × C + M = 46M. then o o ∠ LNM = ∠ LMN = θ . M = 6. so the number of different graphs of y = f(x) which would give this graph of f (x) y= is 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 is that is 16. 2 2 20. Hence the only whole number solutions of the equations are S = 4. The same is true for the other three portions. A y D B O C x Consider the four portions AB. OC and CD of the graph shown. that is (M − 40) (M − 6) = 0. so o o o ∠ LRP = ∠ LMN −∠ RNM = θ − (180 − 2θ) = (3θ − 180) 19. neither of which is a whole number. 18. So ∠ RNM = (180 − 2θ) (angles on a straight line). The graph of y = f(x) contains either portion AB as shown. so C = 6 / 60 or 6 / 4. 2 2 . So M = 40 or M = 6. Using the alternate segment theorem: ∠ LMN = ∠ PNL = θ°. So S = 60 or S = 4. Therefore 240 + M = 46M. C = 10. Now ∠ LMN = ∠ RNM + ∠ LRP (exterior angle theorem). BO. Therefore S + 240 = 64S. that is 726.

Applying a similar argument to triangles BYE and BCD. as is the 2004-digit number 222…229 since it differs from 222…222 by 7. So the length XY is 9 cm. Note. Triangles ABE and CDE are similar since ∠ ABE = ∠ CDE (alternate angles) and ∠ AEB = ∠ CED (vertically opposite angles). Furthermore. So any number in which all the digits are the same is divisible by 7 if the number of digits is a multiple of 6.5 cm also.21. 11111 are not divisible by 7 but that 111111 = 15873 × 7.5 cm. First note that 1. that ∠ PRQ = ∠ RPQ = 45 . hence XE = 4. 1111. the 2004-digit number 222…22n is not a multiple of 7 if n is 2004 any digit other than 2 or 9. Latymer 5 . o o o o and to ΔSPQ: RS SP o = sin 30 o . SQ RS o Applying the Sine Rule to: ΔSRQ : sin 60 = sin 45 SQ SP o = o sin 30 sin 45 . Therefore the 2004-digit number 888…888 is a multiple of 7. Triangles AXE and ADC are similar since ∠ XAE is the same angle as ∠ DAC XE AE 1 = = and ∠ AXE = ∠ ADC (corresponding angles). 11. 23. we find that YE = 4. so RS : SP = sin60o : sin30o = √3 : 1. ∠ RQS = 60 . A X 6 c m B Y E 1 8 c m D C Let the vertices of the trapezium be A. C. the 2004digit number 222…222 is a multiple of 7. D and let AC meet BD at E. Hence sin 60 22. by a similar argument. as shown. BD = 4BE. B. from the information given. So DC AC 4 . Now N = 222…22n × 10 + 888…888. so if N is divisible by 7 then 222…22n is divisible by 7 and we deduce that n = 2 or 9. So CE CD 18 = = =3 AE AB 6 . Similarly. ∠ PQS = 30 . 111. Hence AC = 4AE and.

AC = 105 + 14 = 119 – CD = 14 + r. Then AB = 105. (105 + r) = 105 + (42 − r) . . Let the radius of this circle be r. This leads to the equation 2 294r = 42 . B the point where the two large circles touch.e. So BD = 42 − r. AD = 105 + r. C the centre of the small circle and D the centre of the largest circle which can be placed in the shaded region. that is r = 6. 2 2 2 Similarly. the circle which touches all three of the given circles. Applying Pythagoras’ Theorem to triangle ABC we find that 2 2 BC = 119 – 105 = 224 × 14 = 56 . i.24. B 1 0 1 0 5 A 5r + 1 1 9 D 1 4 r + C Let A be the centre of one of the large circles.

2 x2 – 1 y 4 . We now need to confirm that 1 1 2+ 7 – 2– 7 2 2 does indeed equal 1 rather than –1. So y must be 1 less than a multiple of 4. 2 that is 2x − 1 = 2 1 y Therefore 4x − 4x + 1 = 4 (x − 4 ). 2 2 1 1 1 y – 2 x2 – y + x – y =1 4 2 Therefore x + 2 . which we are able to do since it is clear that 2+ 1 7 2 is greater than 2– 1 7 2 . satisfy the second equation in the above solution. Of the values offered. Latymer 7 . This gives x = 2.25. y = 7. that is y = 4x − 1. the only possibility is 7. It is not difficult to show that x = 2. but it is necessary to check that these values are solutions of the original equation since they were derived from an argument which involved squaring equations. x+ 1 1 y – x– y = 1.

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