Briefing Note on VIET NAM AFTER 5 YEARS IMPLEMENTING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Prepared by the GSO Viet

Nam

In September 2000, Heads of the State and Governments of the United Nations together committed to implement the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with 8 goals (Annex 1) by 2015. Viet Nam has adapted the MDGs to the country’s specific conditions and integrated these goals into its socio-economic development strategies and programs. Based on the MDGs, Viet Nam has set up its own 12 developments goals (Annex 2) (referred to as Vietnam’s Development Goals (VDGs), which mainly focus on the social development and poverty reduction targets until 2010. The VDGs, being in line with the common progress and taking into account typical development features of Viet Nam, provide a basis to facilitate the implementation of MDGs in Viet Nam in a timely, reliable and effective manner. The important Achievements Poverty reduction by more than 50 percent. During the 5 years (2001-2005) Viet Nam has been successful in reducing poverty and alleviating hunger. According to international-standard definition poverty line (including both food and non-food poverty) the proportion of poor households in Viet Nam has dramatically decreased from 58.1% in 1993 to 24.1% in 2004, reducing the number of poor households by nearly 60% in more than a decade (Table 1). Table 1: Poverty rates (%) in Viet Nam 1993-2004 The whole country Urban/ Rural Urban Rural Sub-Regions North East North West Red River Delta North Central South Central Coast Central Highlands South East Mekong Delta Source: Vietnam Development Report, 2003 and GSO. 2005 1993 58.1 25.1 66.4 1993 86.1 81.0 62.7 74.5 47.2 70.0 37.0 47.1 2004 24.1 10.8 27.5 2004 31.7 54.4 21.1 41.4 21.3 32.7 6.7 19.5

From the table the proportion of poor households decreased in the whole country, in all urban and rural areas as well as in all regions, although at different rates. The most rapid reduction of poverty was in the North East, from 81.5% in 1993 to 31.7% in 2004; and slowest was in the North West, from 81% to 54.4%. Similarly the decreased rate of rural area was faster than that of urban area. Universal primary Education has been achieved in Viet Nam. Primary school enrolment increased from about 90% of the primary school age group in the early 1990s to 94.4% in the 2003-2004 school years. The repetition of classes and number of dropouts has been reduced at all grades in primary schools.

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Gender Equality and Woman status. Viet Nam has achieved notable results in promoting gender equality. The gender development indicator (GDI) increased from 0.668 in 1998 to 0.689 in 2004 among the best performances in the region. The ratio of literate women to men between ages 15 and 24 was 0.99 in 2002. The proportion of female representatives in the National Assembly is over 27%, among the highest in Asia. Child Health Care has been improved. The child mortality rate of under-five fell dramatically from 58 per thousand live births in 1990 to 31.4 per thousand in 2004. Similarly the infant mortality rate was 44 per thousand live births in 1990 to 18 per thousand in 2004. The rate of children getting vaccinated with 6 types of vaccines was 96.7%, relatively high in the region. Woman’s Reproductive Health has been significantly improved. The maternal mortality rate was reduced from 1.2 per thousand live births in the period 1989-1994 to 0.85 per thousand in 2004. Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases. The Government of Viet Nam has issued the National Strategy for HIV/AIDS prevention and established National Committee and Provincial Steering Committees on HIV/AIDS prevention. There are 41 testing labs in 34 provinces/cities to detect and monitor people affected with HIV/AIDS. Most of provinces have medical wards to treat HIV/AIDS patients. Malaria is also under effective control in Viet Nam. The proportion of malaria cases was reduced from 900 per 100,000 people in 1995 to less than 200 per 100,000 in 2004. Environmental Sustainability. The sustainable development strategy has been approved by the Government of Viet Nam. Natural preservation and protection has been focused and progressed. Forestation was increased from 27% in 1990 to 37% in 2004. The proportion of people with access to clean water increased from 26.2% in 1993 to 70% in 2004. Global Partnership for Development is promoted in the spirit of “making friends with all countries in the international community, striving for peace, independence and development”. Up to now Viet Nam has signed more than 80 bilateral trade and investment agreements and established economic relations with over 170 countries and territorial areas over the world. The Challenges Although Viet Nam has achieved remarkable results in implementing the MDGs, the country still faces some problems and challenges: • • • • • • • High poverty incidence still exists in rural, mountainous areas and Central Highlands, the poorest areas in Viet Nam. Education in remote areas is difficult. The number of repeaters and dropouts is high. The average working time of women is 13 hours a day while men work only 9 hours. Average income of women is 21% lower than that of men. The under –5 malnutrition rate is still very high (26.6%). The accessibility to maternal health care in the mountainous and remote areas is limited. The rate of abortion and menstrual extraction has again increased. There are many problems with treatment HIV/AIDS because of high cost, lack of funding and discrimination against HIV-infected people. Environmental pollution increases. Deforestation is problem.

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Competitiveness and high requirements of international trade make difficult and challenges to the Vietnamese economy.

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Updates on MDG Reporting: Statistics and the Process In Viet Nam so far 4 country MDG reports have been produced, namely: 2001: Progress Implementation of The Millennium Development Goals (IDT/MDG). 2002: Bringing MDGs Closer to The People. 2003: Millennium Development Goals Closing the Millennium Gaps. 2005: Viet Nam Achieving The Millennium Development Goals. The first three MDG reports were mainly prepared and written by UN Expert Country Team (UNCT.) with active participation of the Government of Viet Nam. The latest report of 2005 was prepared and produced by 12 different governmental agencies of Viet Nam with financial and technical support from UNDP and contributions of from many international and national experts and organizations. The Ministry of Panning and Investment (MPI) was taking lead on the MDGR process and consolidating the reports from the line ministries. The main source of data and figures were used from the General Statistics Office (GSO) of Viet Nam. So the GSO as a leading agency to coordinate the statistical activities according to the new Statistical Law 2004 provided the data and assured the statistical quality for the MDG report. The report also uses data provided by several international organizations and Vietnamese governmental agencies such as World Bank, UNICEF, Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Education and Training (MOET), Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA), Committee for Population, Family and Children (CPFC), etc. The assessment of data quality in the latest MDG report of Viet Nam can be seen from the Status of Statistics on MDGs in Viet Nam (Annex 3). The General Statistics Office, the MOH, MOET, CPFC and MOLISA successfully provided the most of data and indicators for MDG Report in relation with the poverty, education, gender equality, child mortality and maternal health of the Goal 1, 2,3,4 and Goal 5. Many indicators were not available for example the indicators relating to the Goals 6, 7 and 8, more specifically the HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases data, environmental data and especially the data about global partnership for development. No availability of these indicators is due to lack of perception of importance and meaning of indicators or/and budget, or right methodology of data collection. The other problem of data provision for MDG report is lack of effective coordination of statistical system and activities, although the General Statistics Office plays an important role in data coordination. Most ministries have their statistical apparatus and statistical units and they conduct specific surveys to collect data and information for producing their own statistics and purpose, sometime led to overlapping or inconsistency. Therefore the stronger and more unique statistical coordination system is needed in terms of setting up the National Statistical Indicators System for MDG and National Agenda, standardizing data with consistency and facilitating the dialogue between data producers and data users for identifying the data gap to be filled, improving the quality of data and better data availability for MDG report.

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Participation in the Two-week Sub-Regional Training Course on Statistics for MDG Indicators

Among the 76 participants from 28 countries in Asia and the Pacific who attended Two-week Sub-Regional Training Course on Statistics for MDG Indicators, there were 5 participants from Viet Nam of which 3 were from the General Statistics Office (GSO) and 2 from the Ministry of Panning and Investment (MPI). Usual responsibilities of staff member from the GSO (the Department of Integrated Statistics and Department of Social and Environmental Statistics) who participated in the course are collecting, compiling, analyzing and disseminating the data relating to the social and economic indicators such as population, labor, poverty, education, health statistics, etc., which are provided for the MDG and VDG reports. Now they are also involved in creating and updating a database by Devinfo software for MDG and VDG Indicators of Viet Nam. They have actively participated in preparation and production of the latest MDGR 2005 of Viet Nam Achieving The Millennium Development Goals. Although the Course was designed a ‘training for trainers’ on statistics for MDG indicators, up to now there no similar courses have been conducted in Viet Nam. However during the preparation of MDG Report 2005 a number of seminar/workshops were organized to gather comments and suggestions from experts from the international organizations in Hanoi and the governmental agencies for the report. There is an Action Plan for improving the statistical capability by conducting training courses on statistics for MDG Indicators and Evaluation, Monitoring and Preparation for the next MDGR of Viet Nam. The participants will be from line ministries, GSO and provinces, who are directly involved in the MDG reporting process. 3. Recommendation on issues to be discussed in the seminar/workshop

There are several points, which are suggested to be discussed in the seminar/workshop:

Continuing to improve the data quality for MDG Indicators, identifying the difficulties and challenges for indicators being not available and how to address these problems for statistical availability of MDG indicators. Continuing to improve the statistical capacity and capability for statistical staff who are directly involved in MDG reporting process. Similar two-week sub-regional course workshops on statistics for MDG Indicators be conducted with more detail and practical contents. Guidance for conducting in-country training course on statistics for MDG indicators be discussed in the workshop. Strengthening the statistical coordination for MDG report with line ministries in statistical activities. How to manage data with consistency and availability. Continuing to build and update the National statistical database for MDG report. Integrating the MDG indicators into the National Statistical Indicators System (NSIS).

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Annex 1. SUMMARY OF MDGs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Achieve Universal Primary Education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development.

Annex 2. VIETNAM’S SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY REDUCTION GOALS (VDGs) UNTIL 2010 1. Reduce the percentage of poor households (1) Reduce by 50% the percentage of people living an international accepted poverty line between 2001 and 2010 that means from 32% in 2000 to 15-16% in 2010. (2) Reduce by 75% the number of people living under an internationally accepted food poverty line by 2010, i.e. from 12% in 2000 to 2-3% in 2010. (3) Reduce by 60% the number of households living below the poverty line provided in the National Targeted Programs on Poverty Reduction and Job Creation 2. Universalize education and improve education quality (1) Increase net enrolment in primary education to 97% by 2005 and to 99% by 2010. (2) By 2010 have improved the quality of education and increase full-day schooling at primary level. (3) Increase net enrolment rate in junior secondary school to 90% by 2010. (4) Increase net enrolment rate in upper secondary school to 50% by 2010. (5) Eliminate illiteracy for 100% of illiterate under-40-year-old women by 2010. 3. Promote gender quality and women empowerment (1) Eliminate the gender gap in primary and secondary education among ethnic minorities by 2010. (2) Increase the number of women in elective bodies at all levels. (3) Increase the participation of women in agencies and sectors (includes ministries, central agencies and enterprises) at all levels by 3-5% in the next 10 years. (4) Ensure that the names of both husband and wife appear on the land-use-right certificates. (5) Reduce the vulnerability of women to domestic violence. 4. Reduce birth rate, child mortality and child malnutrition (1) Reduce birth rate to achieve the natural average substitution rate in the whole country no later than 2005; and in remote, isolated and poor areas no later than 2010. (2) Reduce the infant mortality rate to 20 per 1,000 live births by 2010. (3) Reduce the under – five mortality rate to 27 per 1,000 live births by 2010. (4) Reduce the under – five malnutrition rate to less than 20% by 2010. (5) Reduce the underweight (under 2.5 kg) birth rate to 5% by 2010. 5. Improve maternal health (1) Reduce, by 2010, the maternal mortality rate to 70 per 10,000 live births with special attention to disadvantaged areas.

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(2) Improve mother’s health condition after giving birth. Reduce HIV/AIDS infection and eradicate other major diseases (1) Slow the increase in the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2005 and have the rate of increase by 2010. (2) Maintain the achievement of polio eradication; minimize the incidence and death of cholera, typhoid, petechial fever, malaria, and plague, etc. (3) Extend prevention of accidents, injury and harm reduction of smoking. 7. Ensure environmental sustainability (1) Plant trees on bare land and bald hills; increase the percentage of forest cover to 43% by 2010; increase trees in urban areas. (2) Introduce step-by-step environmental friendly technologies into socio-economic sectors; ensure that 100% of new factories use such technologies or are equipped with less polluted devices; ensure that all wastes are treated by standardized processes; 50% of factories are granted environmental protection certificates. (3) Basically have achieved the improved and upgraded water sewerage systems in all cities, industrial parks and export processing zones have access to standardized waste water treatment systems, 80-90% of solid waste collected, 60% hazardous waste and 100% hospital waste treated; environmental problems in all rivers are basically addressed. (4) Ensure that 85% of the rural population and 95% of the urban population have access to clean and safe water by 2010. 8. Ensure pro-poor infrastructure development (1) Improve, upgrade, expand and build essential infrastructure constructions (e.g. small irrigation works, schools, health clinics, rural roads, lighting power, clean water, market places, post offices, and community meeting houses…); ensure that 100% of poor communes have access to essential infrastructures. (2) Ensure that, by 2010, 85% of the rural population has access to safe water with the amount of 60 liters/person/day; and 75% of rural families have sanitary latrines. 9. Job creation (1) Provide jobs to 1.6 million people per annum, achieving the total of 8 million jobs in 5 years. Increase the proportion of women to 50% in total new jobs by 2010. (2) Increase the share of trained workers in the total workforce to 40% by 2010. (3) Reduce the share of urban unemployed among the total number of people of working age to less than 5% by 2010. 10. Develop culture and information to improve spiritual life of people; preserve culture of ethnic minority groups (1) Increase radio and television broadcasting time and programs in ethnic languages. (2) Raise public cultural awareness to preserve and develop the ethnic minority traditional cultural values. Preserve and develop the literacy of ethnic languages in areas where ethnic minorities become majority. (3) Support the greater participation of ethnic minority people in public administrative organizations. (4) Ensure that the land use rights are given to communities or individuals living in ethnic mountainous areas. Strengthen and expand activities of health care, culture, and information down to grassroots levels and serve ethnic people. 11. Reduce vulnerability and develop social safety nets to support the poor and the disadvantaged (1) Improve income of the poor, especially the female-headed poor households. (2) Ensure that, by 2010, all families living in urban areas are granted land use right certificates and ownership certificates of the houses built on lawful land. (3) Reform insurance policies and mechanism to encourage people’s participation in volunteering insurances. (4) Improve jobs in terms of quality and quantity; ensure job security for the poor and for those with extreme disadvantages. (5) Protect juvenile children and well address the child labor at early ages. (6) Develop natural disaster prevention and mitigation strategies. By 2010, have the rate of poor people falling back to poverty due to natural disasters and other risks. 12. Promote further public administration reform and legal information provision for the poor (1) Improve accessibility of the poor to a transparent government with accountability and people’s participation. 6.

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(2) Continue reform and improvement of policies that have impacts on the poor; identify better targets and budget allocation of the programs that benefit the poor. (3) Finalize the formulation of all reform strategies related to public sectors, governance and financial management for better support to the poor. (4) Reduce bureaucracy, push back corruption and realize the participatory public administration.

Annex 3:

Status of statistics on MDGs in Vietnam Year Source of data available Goal 1: Eradicate extremely poverty and hunger: Indicators Disaggregat ed Assessment of data

Target 1: Halve, between 1990 to 2015 the proportion of people whose income is less than 1 dollar a day, and proportion of people who suffer from hunger 1. Proportion of population below $1 per day (WB) The indicator is produced by The World bank’s Development Research Group, based on data obtained from government statistical office and WB country department. The indicator is collected from Ministry of Labor, Invalid and Social Affairs and GSO. By Urban, Rural, not possible by gender.

1b. Poverty head count ratio

1998-2003 1993-1997

By Urban/rural and 8 region

Data has calculated from reliable routine reports of MOLISA and VLSS report of GSO

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2. Poverty gap ratio (incidence x depth of poverty)

1992-1993, 1997-1998, 2001-2002

This indicator is calculated from Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys. In addition, the indicator is calculated by collaboration between GSO and MOLISA

By Urban, rural and 8 regions.

This indicator is calculated from Vietnam living standard surveys (1992-1993, 1997-1998, 20012002). The indicator shows the changes of living standard overtime compared to trend of poverty rate. For instance, if the poverty rate over years remains unchanged but Poverty gap ratio decreases, which mean people’s lives have been improved.

3. Share of poorest quintile in national income.

By Urban, It is replaced by indicator: Share rural and 8 of poorest quintile in national regions. consumption. Since 2002, this indicator is divided into province/city. Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. 4. Prevalence of underweight children. 1993-2003 Now, this indicator is calculated by GSO from Vietnam living standard surveys (1998), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (1996, 1999), Multi purpose, survey (1995), routine reports of GSO and MOH (2000-2003) Data are derived from Multiple Purpose Survey and Household Living Standard Surveys, GSO By Urban, rural and 8 regions. Since 1999, the indicator has disaggregate d by provinces/cit ies By Urban, rural, 8 regions Data of this indicator have been collected rather adequately for 1999-2003, and from reliable routine reports of MOH, sampling surveys were designed and conducted scientifically by MOH and GSO.

1995, 1996, 1999

This indicator is calculated from Household Surveys of GSO

5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

1995, 1996, 1999, 2001-2002

Data of this indicator were calculated of surveys that sampling survey were designed and conducted scientifically by GSO.

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. 6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education 1994-1995, This indicator is 1999-2000, collected from routine 2000-2001, reports of Ministry Of 2001Education and Training 2002, and General Statistical 20002Office (GSO) 2003. 7. Proportion of pupils who enrolment in grade 5 By National, Urban, rural, 8 regions and provinces The indicator has been collected from reliable routine report of MOET and GSO.

NOT AVAILABLE

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8. Adult literacy rate (literacy rate of 15-24 years olds)

1989, 1999

The population censuses, GSO.

By Urban, rural, 8 regions, provinces

This indicator was replaced by indicator: Adult literacy rate of 1529 years- old. The indicator is calculated from population censuses of GSO. It was disaggregated to reach province.

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity primary and education, preferably by 2005, and to all levels of education no later than 2015 9. Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education From 1990 to 2003 Now, data of this indicator are collected from routine report of Ministry of Education and Training, and General Statistical Office (GSO) The population censuses, GSO. By Urban, rural, 8 regions, province-s Now, data of this indicator are updated annual from routine report of MOET and GSO

10. Ratio of literate females to males of 15 to 24 years-olds

1989, 1999

By Urban, rural, 8 regions, province-s

This indicator is calculated from population censuses of GSO. This indicator was replaced by indicator: Adult literacy rate of 1529 years- old Now, Data are not available

11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

1992-1997, 1997-2002, 2002-2007

This indicator is calculated from reports of national parliament and updated after an election.

By Urban, rural, 8 regions, province-s

Data of this indicator have derived from administrative report of national assembly following tenure. So, the quality data are exactly. In the next years data of the indicator remains updating

Goal 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate 13. Under-five mortality rate 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000 This indicator is calculated from population censuses (1999), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (2000), Multi Purpose Survey (1995, 1996), GSO. Nationwide Data of this indicator have been calculated from surveys, so it is reliable data.

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14. Infant mortality rate

From 2000 to 2003

Now the indicator is calculated from, Population Changes and Family Planning Surveys, GSO.

15. Proportion of 1 year old children immunized against measles

Data of indicator are collected from routine report of Ministry of Health and General Statistical Office (GSO). Goal 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH

From 1992 to 2003

By Urban/rural, 8 regions, and province, data in 2000 is not disaggregate d by provinces. By urban, rural, 8 region and provinces.

This is measure from the result of The Population Censuses, but because the population censuses is conducted every 10 years. Currently, Population Changes and Family Planning Surveys is good source for this indicator

Now, in Vietnam this indicator is calculated according to international standard of calculation is based on a source of data: administrative report.

Target 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio 16. Maternal mortality ratio 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003 Data of indicator are collected from routine report of Ministry of Health (MOH) and General Statistical Office (GSO). Data source: Multi Indicators Cluster Survey (2000), routine report of MOH and GSO (2001-2003) Whole country In Vietnam, annually, data of this indicator are often updated following routine report. It helps user can compare between years. Recently year, data of the indicator reflected reduced tendency. This indicator also reflects access to reproductive health services although strictly speaking it is measured directly in many courtiers at present.

17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

From 2000 to 2003

Urban/rural, 8 regions and provinces

Goal 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES Target 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 18. HIV prevalence among 15-24 year-olds pregnant women Data NOT AVAILABLE

19. Contraceptive prevalence rate

Data of this indicator are updated from routine report of Ministry Of Health and General Statistical Office (1993-2003), GSO. 20. Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS

1994, 1996, 1998, 2003

By urban, rural, 8 regions, and provinces.

This indicator has only been calculated for females from 15-49 years old. Data was collected from reliable routine reports of MOH and GSO. Data are not available

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21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria

Data of this indicator By are updated from nationwide, routine report of provinces Ministry Of Health and General Statistical Office (1993-2003), GSO 22. Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures

From 1993 to 2003

Data of this indicator have been collected adequately from 19932003 of routine reports of GSO and MOH.

Data are Not Available

23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis 24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS, WHO)

From 1993 to 2003

Periodical reports of MOH and GSO

By Nationwide, provinces By urban, rural, 8 regions and provinces

Data of this indicator have been collected from reliable periodical reports of MOH and GSO. Similarly assessment of data of above indicator

1993-2003

Now, data of this indicator is collected from routine report of MOH and GSO (19932003).

Goals7. Ensure environment sustainability Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environment resources 25. Proportion of land area covered by forest 1990, 1995, 200 2, 2003 From Yearbook of GSO and Ministry Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD). By nationwide, 8 regions, and provinces Data of this indicator have been collected from reliable periodical reports of MARD and Yearbook of GSO. Data are not available

26. Land area protected to maintain biological diversity

27. GDP per unit of energy use 28. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons per capita) From 1994 to 2000 From Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment By nationwide

Data are not available This indicator is only collected from Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Now, Data are not available

29. Proportion of population using solid fuels

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30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source

1993, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2002

This indicator of Vietnam is calculated to derive from household surveys (1993, 1998, and 2002) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (19941995), GSO

Urban, rural, 8 regions

Data have been calculated from surveys of GSO that sampling surveys were designed and conducted scientifically by GSO. Sampling

Target 11. By 2020 to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives at least 100 million slum dwellers 31. Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation 1993, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2002 This indicator of Vietnam is calculated to derive from household surveys (1993, 1998, and 2002) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (19941995), GSO. This indicator of Vietnam is calculated to derive from household surveys (1993, 1998, and 2002) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (19941995), GSO. Urban, rural, 8 regions Data have been calculated from surveys of GSO that sampling surveys were designed and conducted scientifically by GSO.

32. Proportion of people with access to secure tenure

1994, 1998, 2002

Urban, rural, 8 regions. In 1994, 2002 data were disaggregate d by provinces.

Data have been calculated from surveys of GSO that sampling surveys were designed and conducted scientifically by GSO.

Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for development (no data) Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction- both nationally and internationally 33. Net ODA, total and to LDCs , as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income (OECD) - Not available 34. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC countries to basic social services - Not available Target 13. Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes: tariff and quota free access for least developed countries’ export; enhance programme of debt relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction 35. Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied (OECD) - Not available 36. ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs (OECD) - Not available 37. ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs (OECD) - Not available 38. Proportion of total development country imports from developing countries (by value and excluding arms) and from LDCs, admitted free of duties (WTO, UNCTAD, World Bank, IMF) - Not available Target 14. Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development for Small island Development States and the outcome of the twenty-second special section of the General Assembly)

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39. Average tariff impose by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries - Not available 40. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP - Not available 41. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity - Not available Target 15. Deal comprehensively with debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term 42. Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) - - Not available 43. Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative, US$ - Not available 44. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services - Not available Target 16. In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth 45. Unemployment rate of 15-24 year olds, each sex and total - Not available 46. Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis - Not available 47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population 48. Personal computers in use per 100 population and internet users per 100 population 1995, 1998, 2002 GSO 8 regions and provinces

Available (48a) 1997, 1998, 2002

VLSS - GSO

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