Q-meters how to use

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Q-meters how to use

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Capacitance Measurements

I= Voltage source V = V (2 fC ) XC

C I

Example: C = 10 pF, V = 10 V (limited by breakdown voltage of the capacitance), I = 100 mA; give f = 1600 MHz parasitic components are dominate the measurements

Residual components

1 Z = R + j L C

Capacitance dominate

Impedance ()

Inductance dominate

Frequency (Hz)

AC amplifier Voltage source

C R

AC voltmeter

V =A

RVin

2 R2 + X C

=A

RVin 1 R2 + 2 fC

2

Where A = Amplifier gain Non-linear relationship between V and C It is hard to keep the amplifier gain constant over the large input voltage

Limiting amplifier Voltage source

C R

In this scheme, we measure the phase difference between the input voltage, Vin and the voltage across the series resistance.

Here, the magnitude of the amplifier is not a critical factor, its gain should be large enough to give an output that can be detected by the phase detector. V=A jX CVin X ( X + jR)Vin = A C 2C 2 R + jX C R + XC R = arctan XC = arctan(2 fRC )

Example: to cover C from 0-100 pF with a source frequency of 1 MHz; how can we select the series resistance. Solve for R: 0.1 = 2 fRC = 2 1 MHz R 100 pF 0.1 R= = 1590 2 104

Limiting amplifier

Inductance Measurements

V=A

phase detector

RVin R( R jX L )Vin =A 2 R + jX L R2 + X L

L

Voltage source

DC voltmeter

2 fL X = arctan L = arctan( ) R R

If 2fL/R < 0.1; that gives ~ 2fL/R within 0.3 % error 2 fL / R Example: to cover L from 0-1H with a source frequency of 1 MHz; the series resistance for full scale deflection is 62.8

Source of Errors

Parasitic components in the instruments

Generator resisance Lead inductatnce

Limiting amplifier

Voltage source

R C

R

Voltage source ESR Limiting amplifier phase detector DC voltmeter

Therefore, This type of measurement is suitable for High Q inductance and Low D capacitance

Q Meter

Q-meter is an instrument designed to measure the Q factor of a coil and for measuring inductance, capacitance, and resistance at RF.

The basic operation based on the well-known characteristics of series resonant circuits.

R

Coil

VL VL IR IXL V VC VC

At resonance:

X L = XC VC = VL = IX C = IX L V = IR

XL XC

By the definition of Q:

Q=

X L X C VC = = R R V

Therefore, if V is a known constant, a voltmeter connected across the capacitor can be calibrated in term of the circuit Q

Q Meter

25 20 VC (Volt) 15

VC =

E sin10t

R=5

L = 10H

VC

10 5 0 .0001

( RC )

+ ( LC 1)

2

.001

.01

.1

Capacitance (F)

Q Meter

Example: when the below circuit is in the resonance, V = 100 mV, R = 5 , and XL= XC = 100 (a) Calculate the coil Q and the voltmeter indication. (b) Determine the Q factor and voltmeter indication for another coil that R = 10 , and XL= XC = 100 at resonance

Unknown coil

Solution (a)

I=

V 100 mV = = 20 mA R 5

Signal generator

Multiply Q by

Tuning capacitor

V Q meter

Circuit

VL = VC = IX C = 20 mA 100 = 2 V Q= VC 2V = = 20 V 100 mV

I=

V 100 mV = = 10 mA R 10

VL = VC = IX C = 10 mA 100 = 1 V Q= VC 1V = = 10 V 100 mV

Unknown coil

The circuit can be adjusted to the resonance by Preset the source frequency, and then vary the tuning capacitor Preset the tuning capacitor and then adjust the source frequency X L = X C and L =

V

Signal generator

Multiply Q by

Tuning capacitor

V Q meter

Circuit

Practical Q meter:

VC

( 2 f )

Henry

1 10

0

2 20 Q

3 30

0

50

150

50 20 0

100 100

pF 200 H 50

mV

For low-impedance components: low value resistors, small coils, and large capacitors

Shorting strap

Z

Signal generator Low impedance

R

Work coil Tuning capaitor

V Q meter

Circuit

1 C1

C1,C2

Thus

Q1 =

L 1 = R C1 R

For the second measurement: The capacitor is tuned again to the new resonance point. X S = X C 2 - X L or X S = 1 1 C2 C1 XS = C1 C2 C1C2

The resistive components of the unknown impedance Z. R1 = RS = R2 R1 = 1 1 C1Q1 C2Q2 X1 X and R2 = 2 Q1 Q2 Thus RS = R2 R1 = RS = R2 R1 = C1 C2 2C1C2 C1C2 C2 C1 C1Q1 C2Q2 C1Q1C2Q2

LS =

QS =

For high-impedance components: high value resistors, Large coils, and small capacitors L R

Work coil Signal generator

Circuit

High impedance

XP

RP

C1,C2

V Q meter

X L = X C or L = Thus Q1 =

1 C1

For the second measurement: The capacitor is tuned again to the new resonance point. XC2 X P XL = XC2 + X P If the unknown is inductive, XP = LP; If the unknown is capacitive, XP = 1/CP; XP = 1 ( C1 C2 ) 1 LP = 2 ( C1 C2 ) CP = C1 C2

L 1 = R C1 R

In a parallel resonant circuit, the total resistance at resonance: Q2 = RT/XL While X2 = XC1 , Therefore RT = Q2XL=Q2XC1 = Q2/C1 1 1 1 = + RT RP RLP

Where

RLP =

R R 2 + 2 L2

Source of Error

Distributed capacitance

L R

Signal generator

Multiply Q by

Cd

f1, f2

Tuning capacitor

V Q meter

Circuit

One simple method of finding the distributed capacitance (Cd) is to make two measurements at different frequencies f = At first measurement: f1 At first measurement: f2 If we set f2 =2 f1 1 2 L ( C2 + Cd ) f1 = f2 = 1 2 LC 1

2 L ( C1 + Cd ) 1 2 L ( C2 + Cd ) = 2 2 L ( C1 + Cd ) Cd = C1 -4C2 3

Source of Error

The effective Q of a coil with distributed capacitance is less than the true Q

C + Cd True Q = Qe C

Residual or insertion resistance: in the Q meter circuit can be an important source of error when the signal generator voltage is not metered.

If RS is the source resistance, the circuit current resonance is

I=

V R + Rs

Instead of

I= Q=

V R L R + Rs L R

Also, the indicated Q factor of the coil is Instead of the actual coil Q, which is Thus Rs must be kept minimized.

Q=

Source of Error

Example The self-capacitance of a coil is to be measured by using the procedure just outlined. The first measurement is at f1 = 2 MHz, and C1 = 460 pF. The second measurement, at f2 = 4 MHz, yields a new value of tuning capacitor, C2 = 100 pF. Find the distributed capacitance, Cd. Solution

Cd =

Example A coil with a resistance of 10 is connected in the direction-measurement mode. Resonance occurs when the oscillator frequency is 1.0 MHz, and the resonating capacitor is set at 65 pF. Calculate the percentage error in trounced in the calculated value of Q by the 0.02 insertion resistance. Solution The effective Q of the coil equals

1 1 = = 245 CR 2 106 65 10-12 10 1 Qe = = 244.5 The indicated Q of the coil equals C ( R + 0.02 ) Qe =

The percentage error is then

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