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Inductance and Capacitance Measurements

Capacitance Measurements
I= Voltage source V = V (2 fC ) XC

C I

Example: C = 10 pF, V = 10 V (limited by breakdown voltage of the capacitance), I = 100 mA; give f = 1600 MHz parasitic components are dominate the measurements

Simple Not practical in the real applications

Residual components

1 Z = R + j L C

Equivalent circuit of a capacitor at high frequency

Capacitance dominate

Impedance ()

Inductance dominate

Ideal capacitor 0.1 F 0.01 F 0.001 F

Frequency (Hz)

Inductance and Capacitance Measurements


AC amplifier Voltage source

C R
AC voltmeter

V =A

RVin
2 R2 + X C

=A

RVin 1 R2 + 2 fC
2

Where A = Amplifier gain Non-linear relationship between V and C It is hard to keep the amplifier gain constant over the large input voltage

Inductance and Capacitance Measurements


Limiting amplifier Voltage source

C R

phase detector DC voltmeter

In this scheme, we measure the phase difference between the input voltage, Vin and the voltage across the series resistance.

Here, the magnitude of the amplifier is not a critical factor, its gain should be large enough to give an output that can be detected by the phase detector. V=A jX CVin X ( X + jR)Vin = A C 2C 2 R + jX C R + XC R = arctan XC = arctan(2 fRC )

Taylors Series: = arctan(2 fRC ) = 2 fRC

1 1 3 5 ( 2 fRC ) + ( 2 fRC ) 3 5 2 fRC

If 2fRC < 0.1; that gives ~ 2fRC within 0.3 % error

Inductance and Capacitance Measurements


Example: to cover C from 0-100 pF with a source frequency of 1 MHz; how can we select the series resistance. Solve for R: 0.1 = 2 fRC = 2 1 MHz R 100 pF 0.1 R= = 1590 2 104
Limiting amplifier

Inductance Measurements
V=A
phase detector

RVin R( R jX L )Vin =A 2 R + jX L R2 + X L

L
Voltage source

DC voltmeter

2 fL X = arctan L = arctan( ) R R

If 2fL/R < 0.1; that gives ~ 2fL/R within 0.3 % error 2 fL / R Example: to cover L from 0-1H with a source frequency of 1 MHz; the series resistance for full scale deflection is 62.8

Source of Errors
Parasitic components in the instruments
Generator resisance Lead inductatnce

Limiting amplifier

Voltage source

R C

phase detector DC voltmeter

Amplifier Input capacitance

Non-ideal characteristic of the device under test


R
Voltage source ESR Limiting amplifier phase detector DC voltmeter

Therefore, This type of measurement is suitable for High Q inductance and Low D capacitance

Harmonic distortion of the signal source

Q Meter
Q-meter is an instrument designed to measure the Q factor of a coil and for measuring inductance, capacitance, and resistance at RF.

Basic Q-meter Circuit


The basic operation based on the well-known characteristics of series resonant circuits.

R
Coil

VL VL IR IXL V VC VC

At resonance:

X L = XC VC = VL = IX C = IX L V = IR

XL XC

By the definition of Q:

Q=

X L X C VC = = R R V

Series resonant circuit

Therefore, if V is a known constant, a voltmeter connected across the capacitor can be calibrated in term of the circuit Q

Q Meter

25 20 VC (Volt) 15
VC =
E sin10t

R=5

L = 10H

VC

10 5 0 .0001

( RC )

+ ( LC 1)
2

.001

.01

.1

Capacitance (F)

Q Meter
Example: when the below circuit is in the resonance, V = 100 mV, R = 5 , and XL= XC = 100 (a) Calculate the coil Q and the voltmeter indication. (b) Determine the Q factor and voltmeter indication for another coil that R = 10 , and XL= XC = 100 at resonance

Unknown coil

Solution (a)

I=

V 100 mV = = 20 mA R 5

Signal generator

Multiply Q by

Tuning capacitor

V Q meter

Circuit

VL = VC = IX C = 20 mA 100 = 2 V Q= VC 2V = = 20 V 100 mV

(b) For the second coil:

I=

V 100 mV = = 10 mA R 10

VL = VC = IX C = 10 mA 100 = 1 V Q= VC 1V = = 10 V 100 mV

Measurement Method: Direct Connection


Unknown coil

The circuit can be adjusted to the resonance by Preset the source frequency, and then vary the tuning capacitor Preset the tuning capacitor and then adjust the source frequency X L = X C and L =
V

Signal generator

Multiply Q by

Tuning capacitor

V Q meter

Circuit

Practical Q meter:
VC

( 2 f )

Henry

1 10
0

2 20 Q

3 30
0

50

100 1 0.6 2 7 Multi-Q-by

150
50 20 0

100 100

pF 200 H 50

mV

(a) Capacitor voltmeter calibrated to monitor Q

(b) Supply voltmeter calibrated as a multiply-Q-by meter

(c) Capacitance dial calibrated to indicate coil inductance

Measurement Method: Series Connection


For low-impedance components: low value resistors, small coils, and large capacitors
Shorting strap

Z
Signal generator Low impedance

R
Work coil Tuning capaitor

For the first measurement: short Z X L = X C or L =


V Q meter
Circuit

1 C1

C1,C2

Thus

Q1 =

L 1 = R C1 R

Q meter for a low-impedance component


For the second measurement: The capacitor is tuned again to the new resonance point. X S = X C 2 - X L or X S = 1 1 C2 C1 XS = C1 C2 C1C2

Xs is inductive if C1 > C2 and capacitive if C2 > C1

Measurement Method: Series Connection


The resistive components of the unknown impedance Z. R1 = RS = R2 R1 = 1 1 C1Q1 C2Q2 X1 X and R2 = 2 Q1 Q2 Thus RS = R2 R1 = RS = R2 R1 = C1 C2 2C1C2 C1C2 C2 C1 C1Q1 C2Q2 C1Q1C2Q2

Case I: Z = purely resistive, C1 = C2

Q1 Q2 Q = C1Q1Q2 C1Q1Q2 X s ( C1 C2 ) Q1Q2 = RS C1Q1 C2Q2

Case II: Z = inductive, C1 > C2

LS =

QS =

Case III: Z = capacitive, C1 < C2 CS =

X s ( C1 C2 ) Q1Q2 = QS = RS C1Q1 C2Q2

Measurement Method: Parallel Connection


For high-impedance components: high value resistors, Large coils, and small capacitors L R
Work coil Signal generator

For the first measurement: open switch


Circuit

High impedance

XP

RP

C1,C2

V Q meter

X L = X C or L = Thus Q1 =

1 C1

Q meter for a high-impedance component


For the second measurement: The capacitor is tuned again to the new resonance point. XC2 X P XL = XC2 + X P If the unknown is inductive, XP = LP; If the unknown is capacitive, XP = 1/CP; XP = 1 ( C1 C2 ) 1 LP = 2 ( C1 C2 ) CP = C1 C2

L 1 = R C1 R

Measurement Method: Parallel Connection


In a parallel resonant circuit, the total resistance at resonance: Q2 = RT/XL While X2 = XC1 , Therefore RT = Q2XL=Q2XC1 = Q2/C1 1 1 1 = + RT RP RLP

Where

RLP =

R R 2 + 2 L2

1 1 1 C1 R = = 2 RP RT RLP Q2 R + 2 L2 C1 1 C1 1 1 1 = RP Q2 R 1 + 2 L2 / R 2 Q2 RQ12 since Q1 = 1/ C1 R 1 C1 C1 = RP Q2 Q1 QP = RP = Q1Q2 QQ = 1 2 C1 (Q1 Q2 ) C1Q

RP (C1 C2 )Q1Q2 (C C2 )Q1Q2 = = 1 XP C1 (Q1 Q2 ) C1Q

Source of Error
Distributed capacitance
L R

Signal generator

Multiply Q by

Cd

f1, f2

Tuning capacitor

V Q meter

Circuit

One simple method of finding the distributed capacitance (Cd) is to make two measurements at different frequencies f = At first measurement: f1 At first measurement: f2 If we set f2 =2 f1 1 2 L ( C2 + Cd ) f1 = f2 = 1 2 LC 1

2 L ( C1 + Cd ) 1 2 L ( C2 + Cd ) = 2 2 L ( C1 + Cd ) Cd = C1 -4C2 3

Source of Error
The effective Q of a coil with distributed capacitance is less than the true Q

C + Cd True Q = Qe C

Residual or insertion resistance: in the Q meter circuit can be an important source of error when the signal generator voltage is not metered.
If RS is the source resistance, the circuit current resonance is

I=

V R + Rs

Instead of

I= Q=

V R L R + Rs L R

Also, the indicated Q factor of the coil is Instead of the actual coil Q, which is Thus Rs must be kept minimized.

Q=

Source of Error
Example The self-capacitance of a coil is to be measured by using the procedure just outlined. The first measurement is at f1 = 2 MHz, and C1 = 460 pF. The second measurement, at f2 = 4 MHz, yields a new value of tuning capacitor, C2 = 100 pF. Find the distributed capacitance, Cd. Solution

Cd =

C1 4C2 460 4 100 = = 20 pF 3 3

Example A coil with a resistance of 10 is connected in the direction-measurement mode. Resonance occurs when the oscillator frequency is 1.0 MHz, and the resonating capacitor is set at 65 pF. Calculate the percentage error in trounced in the calculated value of Q by the 0.02 insertion resistance. Solution The effective Q of the coil equals

1 1 = = 245 CR 2 106 65 10-12 10 1 Qe = = 244.5 The indicated Q of the coil equals C ( R + 0.02 ) Qe =
The percentage error is then

245 244.5 100% = 0.2% 245