Persidangan Pembangunan Pelajar Peringkat Kebangsaan 2008 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 22-23Oktober 2008

ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM: USM PERPECTIVES

Anwar Al Mofleh & Soib Taib School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering USM Engineering Campus Seri Ampangan, Pulau Pinang Email: soibtaib@eng.usm.my Abstract This paper emphasized on major impacts on energy efficiency practices among students and staff at the engineering campus of USM, Penang. Through this research, the level of awareness of test subjects can be analyzed, in order to check their general useful energy efficiency (EE) practices. By obtaining this information, the system is designed to fill the gap and to increase awareness on theses subjects. This is made possible by the documentation of the whole system as an EE training module. Another purpose of this survey is to measure the depth of knowledge of EE among students and staff. A majority of them have at least a basic knowledge on EE subject, but not to the extent where every single person has a satisfying level of knowledge. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the level of understanding in the EE field. Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Energy Management, Energy Conservation

(2 empty lines) 1. Introduction The focus on energy is related to the ability to do work and it forms the driving force for the development of industries and organizations. Energy use in Malaysia is primarily from fossil fuels, some of which (oil and coal) will have to be imported in the next few years. Electricity pricing is therefore a critical aspect that deserves attention by industries and organizations (Abdurrahman and Keat, 2006). As such, industries and organizations should make conscious decisions to initiate energy awareness and energy efficiency programmes which would reduce the real costs of energy consumed. Optimal energy efficiency will certainly help to not only reduce the annual fuel bill, but in turn lower the demand of fossil fuels and restrict its consequences on the environment. In the case of USM, it is significant to note that huge amounts of financial resources are spent annually on energy costs mainly on electricity bills. In the year 2007, electricity costs for USM’s main campus reached almost RM 7 million. Besides disclosing this alarming figure, USM has also forecasted that the increasing student population and expanding school infrastructure and equipment would mean that the utilization of electricity may increase to RM 10 million in the next 5 years (http://www.usm.com.my). Moving towards energy awareness and efficiency will spur growth and prosperity for the university, as it will lead to monetary savings and improvement in the university’s activities. It is therefore crucial for 1 USM to assess its electricity consumption so that it can enhance the development of the university and contribute to wealth creation as well as preserve a clean and healthy environment. The objectives of this thesis are a) To develop a system that can determine the current Electrical energy demand of all schools and offices. b) To monitor the current usage and figure out different kind of losses and suggest remedies and c) To promote the energy efficiency awareness among staff members and students. 2. Methodology A few steps were required to complete this thesis. Basically, the thesis started with literature reviews on energy efficiency and building energy efficiency. Knowledge of the causes and of energy efficiency is essential in order to examine the final consequences. Understanding every aspect of energy efficiency is much needed. The methodology of the thesis is described by the following flow chart as shown in Figure 1. 3. Data Analysis Knowledge, attitude and a practiced approach are used to elicit information about the views of staff and students and their perception on energy efficiency. This is aimed at assisting the policy makers to implement policies in a better and more effective manner. Knowledge is the first stage when an individual is exposed to an idea or concept. Knowledge on energy efficiency is vital to form

Persidangan Pembangunan Pelajar Peringkat Kebangsaan 2008 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 22-23Oktober 2008

the attitude and the practice of the people. So, assessing the level of knowledge of the people on the concept helps to evaluate the understanding and exposure on the concept.

laboratories, the awareness of saving energy and the definition of energy efficiency. Figure 2 depicts that a majority of people know the unit used to measure electricity while only a third of the correspondents failed. While the majority of 67.4% gave the correct answer; 16.8% answered kilowatt, 12.4% answered Volts and 2.5% answered Amps, as units to measure electricity.
Missing System Volts Amp

Kilowatts

Kilowatthour

Figure 2: Pie graph for the answers to electricity unit Figure 3 depicts the result based on Electricity cost. Knowledge of electricity pricing is very important, because it helps us to evaluate the expenditure of electricity bills. In Malaysia the electricity cost per unit is 20.8 cents for the first 100 units used. As shown in Figure 3., the majority of correspondent’s i.e. 49.7% know the correct tariff and the rest are not familiar with the tariff.
40Cent Missing System

Figure 1: Project methodology flowchart A survey was conducted in order to gather information from the staff and students regarding their knowledge, attitude and practice on energy efficiency. This engages the research-listening strategy that involves the bringing of opinions, ideas, attitudes and practices to determine the level of awareness regarding energy efficiency. The objectives of the survey are to determine: a. The knowledge of staff and students on energy efficency, energy consumption and conservation b. The attitude of staff and students on energy efficency and energy conservation c. The practice/behavior of people regarding energy efficency and energy consumption . In order to gather basic knowledge from the coresspondent a survey ,Energy Efficiency Survey is conducted. 4 Survey Analyses This section will discuss the results of the survey conducted in engineering campus USM about awareness of energy efficiency among staff and students. The survey was conducted in February 2007 and it involved around 350 correspondents. The aim of the survey was to investigate the properties of energy efficiency practices and applications in many aspects such as renewable energy (solar) applications in 2

5 Cent

10.8 Cent 20.8 Cent

Figure 3: Cost of electricity tariff Figure 4 shows the results of a survey question that was asked to the study group. The query was “What application is the largest consumer of energy in USM engineering campus?” Knowing the largest consumer of energy in the university is very useful to build a strategic policy in the future, and to implement the appropriate and effective solutions. As shown in Figure 4, a majority of the people responded that air conditioning is the highest energy consumer (76.4%) followed by computers (17.7%), lightings (4.7%), and fridges (1.2%).

Persidangan Pembangunan Pelajar Peringkat Kebangsaan 2008 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 22-23Oktober 2008

Computer

Fridges

Missing System

To save money To save resources To slow down green house

Light

Air
conditione

All of them

Figure 4: Energy consumer at USM The analysis on the question about the responsibility for energy use in the school is also done. Reducing energy consumption, whether at school, the office, or home, is something that everyone can perform in various ways. We can all work together in making our lives more energy efficient thereby contributing to a better world. As shown in Figure 5 the majority of respondents (77.3%) answered that every one should be responsible for energy use while according to 15.8%, the development center, 5.3% were of the opinion that the staff and a few (0.9%) responded that students should be responsible for energy use.
Missing System Developmet department Staff

Figure 6: Why should not waste energy?
Rarely Some times Missing System

Always

Majority of the time

Figure 7: How often they turn off the light? The analysis of the results based on the question “How important is it for USM reduce its energy usage?” had also been conducted In the case of USM, it is significant to note that a huge amount is spent as annual energy costs mainly on electricity bills. USM electricity costs in the main campus amounts to the staggering figure of RM 7 million. USM has also forecasted that the increasing student population and expansion of its infrastructure would cause the utilization of electricity to increase up to RM 10 million in the next 5 years. As shown in Figure 8, 52.5% of the respondents answered ‘very important’ while 36.3% answered somewhat important, 3.1% replied ‘not important’ and 7.5% said they didn’t care.
Not all Missing System

Student

every one

Figure 5: Energy responsibility Figure 6 depicts the analysis of results based on the question “Why shouldn’t we waste energy?” There are a few consequences of wasting energy; firstly the energy will eventually run out after some time. Secondly wasting available energy would create messy surroundings, for instance, keeping the lights on for a long time affects their durability, which results in early replacement cycles. It’s pretty logical that if we keep on using something, it'll eventually wear out. As shown in Figure 6, 14.0% of the respondents answered that they prefer to save money. 10.9% said to save resources and 1.6% to slow down green house effect. 73.3% of them however, answered that they wanted to do them all. Another survey was done on how often one turns the lights off when they leave the room. The cost effectiveness in using equipment includes switching off the lights when leaving the place. It is extremely essential for us to stop wasting energy; hence we need to switch off the unwanted lights wherever possible. As shown in Figure 7 that 47.2% of the respondents answered ‘always’ while 28.0% answered ‘most of the time’, 16.1% ‘some times’ and 8.4% ‘rarely’. 3

Unsure

Yes No

Figure 8: How important for USM to reduce it energy usage? The last survey that was done is based on the query “What is your estimation of USM engineering campus’s electricity bill in Malaysian Ringgit?” Estimation of electricity bills may help to save the costs and provide a scope to plan the expenditure. The cost of electricity depends on the location of

Persidangan Pembangunan Pelajar Peringkat Kebangsaan 2008 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 22-23Oktober 2008

living, the amount of energy used, and possibly the time of use. As shown in Figure 9, 10.2% answered <100K, 28.9%, around 100-150K, 34.8% answered 150-200K and 25.2% answered >250K.
>250K Missing System <100K 100-150K

person has a satisfying level of knowledge. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the level of understanding in the energy efficiency and also energy conservation field.

Acknowledgements The research is conducted through USM internal grant.

References
150-200K

Figure 9: USM Engineering Campus bill 5. Result of the Finding According to the results of user functionality testing and the analysis of results in the preceding sections, University Sains Malaysia campus is committed to energy efficiency and management as part of an overall future strategy. By energy efficiency and management the university aims to minimize: i. Energy use ii. Energy costs iii. Depletion of fossil fuels iv. Environmental impact of harmful emissions 6. Conclusions This survey emphasized on major impacts on energy efficiency practices among students and staff at the engineering campus of USM, Penang. Through this survey, the level of awareness of test subjects can be analyzed, in order to check their general useful energy efficiency practices. By obtaining this information, a monitoring system can be designed to fill the gap and to increase awareness on theses subjects. This is made possible by the documentation of the whole system as an EE training module. Designed to be very user-friendly, the program can be used by almost everybody, without specific requirement of knowledge in the related field. Another purpose of this survey is to measure the depth of knowledge of EE among students and staff. A majority of them have at least a basic knowledge on energy efficiency (EE) subject, but not to the extent where every single

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