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Under the guidance of Prof.Azad. D
Submitted By Sunil Kumar G III Sem, M.Arch C.P.M U.V.C.E
and we often weigh the preservation of historically significant buildings against the desire for the development of newer. . and unfortunately the flow is not in the right direction for evolving a sustainable future. If architecture misrepresents one of these concepts problems can occur. There are two concepts which underlie the market place of development. sometimes also in the direction of sustainability. Below is a list of thirteen principles of sustainable architecture that can guide you in your housing choices. One of the most momentous choices that any of us will make is the kind of house we live in. Today nearly every human activity. however human activity is only environmentally sustainable when it can be performed and maintained without depleting the earth’s natural resources or degrading the natural environment. There are a few choices in this life that can make a big difference in what the quality of life will be for those who follow us. As “consumers” we are frequently confronted with life style decisions that can impact our environment. which uses up resources and is energy intensive. in some way. the concept of ‘needs’ which are the conditions needed for maintaining acceptable living standards for all people. In terms of architecture. This is more sustainable because methods used in organic farming use natural fertilizers and pesticides instead of chemical ones extracted from the earth. Construction projects typically consume large amounts of materials. produce tons of waste. The recent boom in organic produce is due to public demand for more natural products with fewer chemicals in them. results in the consumption of energy. which need to drive the future of design? Other areas of the market place show an increased interest in personal health and environmental issues. the majority of which is produced from nonrenewable sources. The other is. Not only is this exhausting our supply of resources for future generations but it is also polluting the atmosphere and effectively choking the world. such as fossil fuels. Going with the flow of our culture is hard to avoid. Architecture presents a unique challenge in the field of sustainability. the concept of limits. which is the carrying capacity of a certain environment to sustain the needs for the present and future. the first being.SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE The idea of sustainability is to leave the earth in as good or better shape for the future generations than we found it for ourselves. is it these factors instead of previous focuses on the optimization of functionality and space utilization. more modern designs.
because proper design is crucial to the comfort of such a house. Using the sun. I say “good”. they don't fit with a sustainable life style. Good passive solar design will provide just enough sunlight into the rooms to be absorbed by the surrounding thermal mass (usually masonry materials). absorbing it to keep the room from getting too hot during the day. There is much more to be said about solar design. Keep your cool. you can take advantage of this. and there are many good books on the topic. As I suggested above. you will be forced to be careful in the way you use your electricity because it is limited. The part of the house that is under ground needs to be well insulated. Whether you get your electricity from alternative sources or from the grid. You may have gone into a solar house and felt stifled by the glaring heat. Frontloading clothes washers. or perhaps you shivered from the lack of it. or else they will just bleed that warmth right back out. you can use the stability of the earth's temperature to moderate the thermal fluctuations of the house. If you dig into a north-facing hillside to build. Also. depleting these resources and emitting greenhouse gases and pollutants into the air. The key is efficient use of space.) might be too cool for general living comfort. Be energy efficient. and keeping possessions to a manageable level. and cool when you want it. the larger the house. water and soap than the top- . a well designed solar house is both warm when you want it. Nothing can be more comfortable for body and mind than living in a good solar-heated house.Small is beautiful. but be uncomfortably cold because of this energy bleed. Thermal mass materials need to be insulated from the outside. While these might fit the egos of those who purchase them. If you choose to do this. or water to produce electricity is one. or the earth will continually suck warmth out of the house. A home should be just the right size for its occupants and their activities. While this temperature (about 10-13 degrees C. materials which may have their own environmental consequences. So a good solar design will utilize materials of the right type in the right places. If you dig about six feet into the earth. There are many ways to conserve the use of fossil fuel. the more materials go into its construction. Large houses generally use a tremendous amount of energy to heat and cool. The trend lately has been toward huge mansion-style houses. that is to say. A rock house might have tons of mass. or berm the south part of the house with soil. Heat with the sun. it pays to choose energy efficient appliances. use much less electricity. for instance. the temperature tends to stay fairly even. you will find that the temperature there varies by only a few degrees year round. wind. Equally important to thermal mass is insulation (such as straw bales or crushed volcanic rock) that will keep that heat inside. This energy usually comes from the combustion of fossil fuels. good organization. The thermal mass is a kind of “heat battery” that stores the warmth. A good way to keep your cool is to dig into the earth. so that the heat will be given back into the room when the sun goes down. blending thermal dynamics with utilitarian design.
they naturally fit into the “feeling” of the place. Use masonry. natural materials are much less likely to adversely affect your health. Use natural materials. You might also be keeping them out of the landfill. Unfortunately it is difficult to get away from lumber in making a roof. We're using old metal wagon wheels to support the window openings in our earthbag home. Use wood as decoration. Wood that is kept dry does not degrade much. Again. straw bales. And then there is the matter of your health. bags of volcanic rock. nor does glass. because by doing so you are not promoting the creation of more of them. because of shoddy construction or poor .loaders. an equal amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air. For one. There is an attitude in this throw-away society that an old house might as well be replaced by a new one. The use of low water capacity toilets. catching rain water from roofs and paved areas for domestic use and switching to composting toilets. These can be very effective and safe means of water conservation if done carefully to avoid bacterial infestation. you might as well use them. A conventional straw bale house only diminishes the amount of wood used by about 15%! Recycle materials. Save the forests. etc. clothes washing and bathroom sinks to watering plants. If the materials already exist. be sure to avoid this. There are several benefits to using local. adobe. When you step onto an adobe floor. you feel the resilient mother earth beneath your feet. naturally occurring materials often “feel” better to live with. The average person in South Africa uses between 380 and 1000 liter of water a day. for instance. Use local materials. I know it is possible to get by just fine on one tenth that amount. A major reason for choosing natural materials over industrial ones is that the pollution often associated with their manufacture is minimized. rocks. All kinds of things can be used in a house. so consider making a dome from materials that can be stacked. Conserve water. Domes are also more energy efficient and use less materials for the same space as a box. While wood is ostensibly a renewable resource. they don't burn as much fossil fuel to transport them. indigenous materials. Compact florescent lights use about a third of the electricity of standard bulbs. Many appliances use electricity by just being plugged in (known as phantom load). Landscaping with drought tolerant. Cull dead trees for structural supports. More radical conservation approaches include diverting gray water from bathing. we have gone way beyond sustainable harvesting and have ruined enormous ecosystems. For every ton of portland cement that is manufactured.. indigenous plants can save an enormous amount of water. flow restrictors at shower heads and faucet aerators are fairly common now. cob. and they are likely to be less processed by industry. Unfortunately this is often true. or keeping them from being transported for further processing. instead of wood. Build to last. For another.
Doing this can diminish the need for unnecessary duplication of facilities. but at the same time they can have available a greater variety of these facilities. What a pleasure! Share Facilities. and it is hard to avoid this. whether from the outside environment or from condensation from within. Why not ask your house to help nourish you? With all of that north-facing glass. Moisture getting into a building can lead to ruin. you might as well devote some of it to a greenhouse. or lack of maintenance. Herbs and salad greens can be grown year round. Grow your food. A well made house can last for centuries. and it should.choice of materials. . In this way a group of people can not only have fewer tools or appliances or functional areas. A basic tenet of sustainability is to share what you have with others. This benefits both the environment (through less industrial activity) and the individual (by providing more options for living.
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