ENERGY AUDIT

D.S. MALLICK

BACKGROUND….
1972 Acknowledgement of energy efficiency in “Fuel Policy Committee” Report.

1975 -

Formation of “Petroleum Conservation Research Association”. …..

Background [contd….]
1980–’90 – Agreement with : • International Development (UK) • German Federal Ministry • USAID to assist energy efficiency programme Indian Institutions to offer similar programme: TERI CII ICICI …..

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Background [contd….]

1984 –

“Energy Management Centre” created in the Power Ministry, now converted to “Bureau of Energy Efficiency”.

ENERGY MANAGEMENT
OBJECTIVES:
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Conservation of scarce & finite resources by enhancing efficiency of energy conversion and end use

RESULT

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Improve profitability Reduce GHG emission Reduce solid waste and thermal pollution

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Sectarian Share of Commercial Energy
Industry Agriculture Transport Domestic & Commercial : 35% : : 30% 20%

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15%

Present Energy Saving Potential in India
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Industry Agriculture Transport Domestic & Commercial

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25% : : 30% 20%

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20%

Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency

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Good house keeping Regulation/Standards Industrial Co-generation Fuel switching Fiscal policies like tax rebates/subsidies Benchmarking Energy audit Information dissemination &demonstration R&D

Energy Consumption & Scope for Energy Conservation in Energy Intensive Industries
Industry Energy cost as Scope for % of Mfg. cost energy consumption 40% 13% 35% 7% 60% 25% 20% 25% 15% 15% 10% 20% .....

Aluminium Textile Chloro Alkali Petrochemical Fertilizer Paper

Energy Consumption & Scope for Energy Conservation in Energy Intensive Industries [Contd..]
Industry Energy cost as Scope for % of Mfg. cost energy consumption 40% 30% 30% 10% 15% 15%

Cement Glass/Cermics Food Steel

25% 10% OVERALL SAVING POTENTIAL – 25%

AGRICULTURE

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Around 18 million pump sets 60% driven by electric motors, rest by diesel engines. About 0.6 million pump sets being added each year

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Strategy for energy conservation in Agriculture
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Conversion of diesel pump to electric pump Community Scheme Energy efficient tilting Development of Fertilizer Development of Bio-technology

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Commercial Sector

Major end users :
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Lighting HVAC

Scope of energy conservation - 15-20%

Domestic Sector

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Household sector consumes 20% of total electricity Scope of energy conservation - 15-20%

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TRANSPORT

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consumes 112 million te per year of oil in transportation out of 114 MT consumption. 75% imported at 1,20,000 crores. As per PCRA, 20% saving in oil can be achieved by following simple habits…. * good driving * check tyre pressure * avoiding spillage * check fuel filters * keep the engine well-tuned -- so on - -

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL ENERGY AUDIT?

It serves the purpose of identifying where energy conservation opportunities can be effected in a plant/building

Energy Conservation at Macro Level

Measure of Encon activities Reduction in specific energy consumption

Energy Conservation at Macro Level…

Three pronged approach Capacity utilisation Ø Fine-tuning Ø Technology upgradation
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Energy Conservation at Macro Level…

Excellent companies have tapped all three opportunities Separate teams with common objective

Energy Audit Methodology

Systematic approach Ask questions like :
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What? When? Why ? Where?

Macro Level - Methodology
Any process/unit operation Unavoidable losses (c) Energy Input (a) (d) Avoidable losses a= b+c+d Theoretical Requirement (b)

Macro Level Methodology….
Focus should be:

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To concentrate on avoidable losses Quantify the losses Identify ways & means for reduction Implementation

PUMPS

TYPES OF PUMPS

Centrifugal Moderate pressure (upto 6000 m wc) • Moderate Capacity (upto 10,000 m3/hr) - Upto 30,000 m3/hr in

LIFE CYCLE COST FOR A PUMP
Initial Cost 2% Maintenance Cost 8%

Energy Cost 90%

Energy Parameters

Major parameters are
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Capacity or flow Head or pressure Efficiency

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Efficiency

Pump  (%) = Pump output Input to pump[BHP(O)] Pump  (%) = Flow (lps) x Head (m) x Sp.Gr. 102 x (motor) x kw (I)

Actual Efficiencies
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Normal = 60-75% Best = 78-80% (upto 85% efficiency in case of horizontal split casing pumps) Worst = 30-60%

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Depends on Type of Impeller

Open : Best – 60% Semi-open : 65% Closed : 80%

Pumps Formulae..

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Capacity : Head Power : :

(RPM) (RPM)2 (Capacity x Head) (RPM)3

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Pumps Formulae
If the RPM is reduced by say 10%, what will Happen to the

Capacity Head Power

: Reduce by 10% : Reduce by 19% : Reduce by 27%

Reasons for excess power consumption
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Wrong selection Over design Improper layout Old inefficient pumps Multiple smaller size pumps Ad-hoc decisions

Install Flow & Energy meters for all major pumps Ø Observe Flow & Power consumption pattern - Hourly, Shift & daily basis Ø Identify pumps having major power consumption Ø Explore Energy saving possibilities - Apply 80-20 rule

Approach to Energy Conservation in Pumps

Algorithm for Oversized Pumps…
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Major problem is over-sizing of pumps Indicated by valve control or recirculation Scan all pumps for valve control

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Concentrate on pumps with less than 40% valve opening Cross check design with actual requirements Look for alternatives - Impeller reduction - Correct size pump

Algorithm for Oversized Pumps

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Pump Capacity Control…
On/Off type Recirculation Valve control Pump speed control - RPM reduction (pulley) Mechanical systems - Variable fluid coupling - Variable gear boxes

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Ef f ec t of V ar i ou s Capa c it y Cont r ol s

k w in %

V FD

I d eal

Q in %

Use Gravit y Flow as Muc h as Possible

3.5 HP Hot w ell pum p Hot w ell

U s e Gr a v i t y Fl o w a s M u c h a s Po s s i b l e

U s e Gr a v i t y Fl o w a s M u c h a s Po s s i b l e

U s e Gr a v i t y Fl o w a s M u c h a s Po s s i b l e

Optimum Margins
Excessive margins – due to uncertainty Optimum margins required
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Head

- 10%

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Capacity - 10% Power - 10 to 20%

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FANS & BLOWERS
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Simple Definition * Machines to move gases (or) gases mixed with small solid particles Operation of fans similar to pumps Broad Classification * Centrifugal * Axial

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Difference Between Fans, Blowers and Compressors As per ASME Definition….
Equipment Specific Pressure* < 1.11 1.11 to 1.20 > 1.20 Pressure rise (mm WG) 1136 1136-2066

Fans Blowers Compressors

* Ratio of discharge pressure to suction pressure

Energy Saving Potential
Fans & Blowers – Major Energy Consumer • Cement • Paper • Power Plants • Sugar - Energy consumption – 10 to 25% depending on Type of Industry - Energy Saving Potential – about 25%

Fans & Blowers - Formulae

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Capacity : Head :

(RPM) (RPM)2

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Power : (Capacity x Head) : (RPM)3

Ef f ec t of V ar i ou s Capa c it y Cont r ol s

k w in %

V FD

I d eal

Q in %

Throttling of a Fan

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Suction / Delivery Why?

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Power Consumption – Oversized Fan

Fan designed . 1,20,000 m3/hr. . 650 mm Wg

Actual requirement . 90,000 m3/hr. . 510 mm Wg

Potential in oversized Fan
Energy saving potential in oversized fan
= P across damper x Power Cons. Total pressure rise = [(720 – 500)/(10 – (-720)] x 289 KW = (220/730) x 289 kw = 87 kw

Install VFD for Boiler ID Fan
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Control by Varying Speed Damper – 100% Open Power with damper = 53 kw Power with VFD = 29 kw Savings = 24 kw Annual Savings – Rs.7.76 Lakhs Investment – Rs.6.85 Lakhs Payback period – 11 Months

Replace AdvantagesCentrifugal Fans with Axial Fans
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High efficiency of 85% Lower weight Lower starting torque requirements for the motor Lesser foundation requirements Nearly same efficiency for a wide range of operation – part load & full load efficiencies are almost same

Replace Centrifugal Fans with Axial Fans Parameters Centrifugal Axial Capacity (m3/h) Pressure (WG) Power (KW) 181880 0.98” 22 120000 1” 12 80%

Efficiency () 41% Annual savings : Rs.2.9 Lakhs Investment : Rs.1.5 Lakhs Payback : 6 months

MOTORS

Watts Losses
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Stator & Rotor Losses – I2R Iron Loss Friction & Windage Losses Stray Load Losses

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Mot or Pow er Loss Model

Mot or

Load

Typic al range

Mot or Effic ienc y - Im provem ent

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Capac it y α Volt age 2

Energy Waste - Causes

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Use of less efficient motors Oversized/under loaded motors Improper supply voltage Voltage fluctuations Poor power factor Less efficient-driven equipment Idle running

Voltage Optimisation
Impact on motor operating parameters
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Reduction in voltage dependent lossesDrop in Magnetization current Capacity reduces PF improves Load current drops Load factor improves Efficiency improves

Optimisation of Lightly Loaded Motors
Options – Lightly loaded motors
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Delta to permanent star – Steady load applications Automatic star-delta-star converters – for shock loads Soft starter cum energy savers – high starting starting torque applications Down sizing Overall voltage optimization

Optimisation of Lightly Loaded Motors

Option based on

Nature of load Load factor Economic option

Convert Delta to Star Connection At Lightly Loaded Motors

Motor  and power factor varies with % loading For lightly loaded motors (38%) v Voltage related losses – high v Power factor is very low v More copper losses v Motor operates in less efficiency range

Convert Delta to Star Connection At Lightly Loaded Motors
Motors normally operated in delta mode Lightly loaded motors can be operated in star mode Effect on motor performance operating in star mode
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Reduction in voltage related loses § Operates with improved P.F. § Reduction copper losses § Motor efficiency improves

CASE STUDY Convert Delta to Star Connection at Exhaust Blower Motors
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Rated kw – 39 kw (4 nos.) Actual load
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Delta mode = 10.5 kw Star mode = 8.0 kw % Load = 35% Savings in kw = 2.5 kw Annual Saving = Rs.3.0 Lakhs

Automatic Star-delta-star
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Application – motors with shock loads Automatic star-delta-star converter has load sensor & Timer Capacity  V2 Principle of voltage optimisation

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CASE STUDY Install Automatic Star Delta Star Starter for Coal Crushers
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Most of the time lightly loaded Subject to heavy load
Rated KW = 90.0 kw (3 nos.) Actual load = 35.0 kw In star mode consumes = 33.0 kw Savings in kw = 6.0 kw Annual Savings : Rs.4.78 Lakhs Investment : Rs.1.00 Lakhs

Payback period: 3 months

Soft Start Cum Energy Saver..
Continuously senses the load Applies voltage automatically in accordance with the load factor-close loop control system Supplies energy needed to perform work task Smooth accelerating facility Ideal for belt conveyors and fluctuating loads

Soft Start Cum Energy Saver..
Applications
Centrifuges Crushers Chippers Extruders Agitators

CASE STUDY Install Soft Starter Cum Energy Saver For Identified Simplex Machines
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Rated kw of the motor Actual load = Loading = Type of load = Total no. of machines in operation =

= 15.0 kw 6.5 kw 43% Varying 10 Nos.

Annual Saving = Rs.5.50 Lakhs Investment = Rs.5.00 Lakhs Payback period = 11 months

Optimise the plant operating Voltage - Overall

Plant operating voltage plays a critical role in energy conservation Suggested to have on line voltage optimising devices to regulate the operating voltage as required Magnetization losses vary exponentially with the voltage

Optimise the plant operating Voltage – Overall..

Capacity  V2 Torque  V2 Voltage optimisation will vary the capacity of the motor Implemented after analysing the loading pattern of all motors

CASE STUDY Voltage Optimisation - Overall
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Engineering industry – operated with OLTC Transformer Majority of the motors are loaded less than 50% Voltage before optimisation = 425v Kw load at 425v = 2800 kw Optimised voltage = 400v Kw reduction at 400v = 45kw Annual Savings = Rs.13.80 Lakhs

Role of Frequency in Process Industry
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Pumps, fans & compressors are major loads 50 – 60% power consumption Majority of loads are centrifugal in nature Power cons.  Rpm3 10 – 20% over design is common Excess head & capacity controlled

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Role of Frequency in Process Industry

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Controlled using valves/dampers/recirculation Energy inefficient methods of control Variable frequency drives are ideal choice Majority of case low frequency is helpful – reduce energy cons.

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Energy Management Based on Frequency

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Operate captive power plant (DG set & TG set) at lesser frequency incase of process industry Speed correction (pulley size adjustment) in case of textile & engineering industry Optimise system voltage based on frequency

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Optimise the TG Set Operating Frequency – 16.0 MW
Case study from Paper Industry Operating frequency = 50 hz Respective mw consumption = 12 mw Majority of the equipment loading= 50 – 80% Reduced operating frequency to = 49 hz Reduction in frequency = 1 hz Reduction in kw = 300 kw Annual Savings achieved = Rs.72.0 Lakhs

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More Cu wire in stator and rotor to cut resistance losses Longer stator and rotor cores to reduce magnetic losses Precision air gaps to reduce current requirements Improved windings and lamination designs to maximise energy consumption Special steel processing in stator to minimise core losses

Energy Efficient Motor

Improved fan design
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Energy Efficient Motor..

Cooler operation Increases motor insulation life

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1.15 service factor
Greater flexibility in handling voltage variations and imbalances
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High power factor
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Eliminate need for PF correction

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Better quality bearings are used

Replace Conventional Old Motors With Energy Efficient Motors

It has been implemented in many industries Case study is from one of the textiles industry Ring frames are vital and continuously operating equipment in textile industry Total number of RF machines – 30 Nos.

Replace Conventional Old Motors With Energy Efficient Motors Continuous operation Results: Motors Old motor Energy efficient motor Difference in consumption Annual Savings Investment Pay back period Rated kw 15.0 15.0 No Load kw 23.2 1.56 0.76 : Rs.23.0 lakhs : Rs.12.0 lakhs : 7 months Load kw 9.92 7.36 2.56

Rewound Motors
Motor Burning
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Quality of insulation between stampings deteriorated Eddy current losses increase Magnetic property deteriorated Magnetic losses increase Causes drop in efficiency

Rewound Motors
Bearing failure
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Rotor scratches stator Air gap becomes uneven Torque induced not uniform Net torque developed is low Causes drop in efficiency

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Motors replacement should be analysed case to case basis Maximum 3 times motor can undergo rewinding – normal failure

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Electrical Distribution System

Voltage Drop Measurement

In a large complex distribution system, voltage drops are very common Acceptable limit in a 3Ph. System is 4-5v/phase

More than 5v/phase indicates energy loss in the distribution

Voltage Drop Measuring Procedure

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Measuring instruments should be calibrated Simultaneous measurement of voltage in the feeding and receiving end of the feeder Measure P.F. & current Note the capacity of the power cable used

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Reasons for Voltage Drop

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Poor power factor Inadequate cable size laid Poor contact surface at
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Cable termination Cable joints Contactors/Switches

Case Study – Voltage Drops
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From Engineering Industry Measurements

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Voltage at sub station = 415V Voltage at LT panel = 398V Load current = 180-200A Power factor = 0.4 Lag Cable size = 1R x 3C x 300Sq.mm

Case Study – Voltage Drops
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Relocate 90KVAR Capacitor bank from SS to LT panel Reduced 50% of energy loss (Approx. 1Kw/Ph.)

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Annual Savings = Rs.0.60 Lakhs

TRANSFORMERS

Losses in Transformer
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Efficient Transformer – 1% loss § Substantial at higher ratings Losses contributed by
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Core – Noload loss Conductor – Depends on load

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To Reduce Iron Loss
Various core metals designed

Alloying steel with silicon Hot rolled grain oriented silicon steel Cold rolled grain oriented silicon steel Latest - amorphous

Transformers

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Transformer efficiency = 98 - 99% Optimum efficiency occurs, where Iron losses = Copper losses

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Three Phase Transformer – Typical Loss Chart
KVA Rating 500 750 1000 1250 Iron Loss 1030 1420 1770 1820 * Loss in watts FL copper loss 6868 9500 11820 12000

Types of Power Transformers
Distribution Transformer

Normal Efficiency - 98% to 99% Iron losses is 10% to 15% of full load copper losses Optimum efficiency occurs between 40% to 60% of loading

Types of Power Transformers
Power transformer

Normal efficiency - 99% to 99.5% Iron losses is 20% to 25% of full load copper losses Optimum efficiency occurs between 60% to 80% of loading

POWER CAPACITORS
How poor operating power factor cost money?
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Maximum demand increases for the same load Draws more current for the same load More distribution voltage drop i.e. loss in the distribution cable increase Copper loss in the transformer increase

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POWER CAPACITORS…
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Capacitor banks install to improve power factor Allowable power loss = 3-5 w/Kvar

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Reasons for failure
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Ageing Input voltage and frequency fluctuation Harmonics present in the system Temperature around the bank Poor quality capacitors use in the construction

Replace Faulty Capacitor Banks
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Power measurement taken with digital power meter

Indication:
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Power consumption above the permissible level Temperature on the body is above ambient temperature

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Replace Faulty Capacitor Banks….
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Identified 10 Nos. of 50 kvar faulty banks

Annual savings Investment Payback

= Rs.1.8 Lakhs = Rs.2.2 Lakhs = 14 months

LIGHTING SYSTEM

Lighting

Essential for any working environment

Power consumption - 2 to 10% for different industries

Terminologies
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Flux emitted by lamp – lumens Luminous Efficacy – Lumens / watt Illuminance = Lumens / sq. meter (Lux) Colour Rendering Index – Colours of surfaces illuminated by a given light source

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Types Of Lamps
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Incandescent lamps (GLS) Gas Discharge Lamps
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Fluorescent Lamps (FTL) Compact Fluorescent Lamps Mercury Vapour Lamps Sodium Vapour Lamps Metal Halide Lamps

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LED Lamps

Comparison of Various Lamps
Type GLS Fluorescent . Slim . Conventional Colour-80 series HPMV HPSV Metal halide CFL Watt 100 36 40 36 250 250 250 20 Lumens 1380 2450 2770 3250 13500 27000 17000 1200 Efficiency 14 68 69 90 54 108 68 60

CFL Compact Fluorescent Lamps
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High efficiency lamp Low Wattage – Less heat dissipation Excellent colour rendering Long life – 8000-10000 glowing hours Highly suitable – living rooms, lounges, corridors, hotels and canteens

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Comparison of GLS & CFL
GLS Watts Lumens CFL Watts Lumens 40 425 9 400 60 720 15 900 100 1380 20 1200

Case Study Replacing GLS Lamps with CFL
Automobile Unit
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Corridors & Canteen – 100 Nos. of 60 watts GLS lamps Replaced with 15 watts CFL Annual Savings : Rs.0.56 lakhs Investment : Rs.0.40 lakhs Payback period : 9 months

Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lamps

Tri-phosphor fluorescent powder technology High colour rendering Ra-85 (conventional FL Ra-65) High luminuous efficacy Conventional : 68 lumens/w Energy efficient : 90 lumens/w

Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lamps..

40% more lumens Ideal choice – new projects and Places where existing lighting is poor Paint shops, assembly bays, printing press, Inspection areas

Case Study Replace Conventional Lamps with EE Fluorescent Lamps
Engineering Unit Assembly & Inspection area – 1600 nos. of 36 Watts EE Fl. Lamps – at design stage Annual Savings : Rs.1.20 lakhs

HPSV Lamps
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High efficiency - 108 Lumens/watt Colour rendering – Fair Godowns, storage yards, ware house, highways, flood lighting and street lighting Comparison of HPMV & HPSV HPMV Watts Lumens HPSV Watts Lumens 80 3500 70 5800 125 6250 150 13500 250 13500 250 27000 400 23000 400 47500

Case Study Replace HPMV Lamps with HPSV Lams Cement Plant
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Street lighting, yard lighting and some plant area . 120 Nos. 250 watts HPMV Replaced by 120 Nos. 150 watts HPSV Power Savings : 12 KW Annual Savings : Rs.1.60 lakhs Investment : Rs.2.00 laksh Payback period : 15 months

Metal Halide Lamps
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Gas discharge lamps – iodide additives Excellent colour rendering (Ra-69) Highlight output Suitable for colour critical areas Uses HPMV ballast – additional igniter

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LED Lamps
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More suitable for panel indication Power consumption of the filament panel indication lamps = 14-15 w/lamp Power consumption of the LED panel indication lamps = 0.5 – 1.0 w/lamp Power savings = 14 W/lamp

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LED Lamps..
Advantages
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More life – 10000 hrs. Withstand for +/- 25% voltage fluctuation Energy efficient Cannot be used for illumination purpose

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LED Lamps..
Applications Panel indication Tower lighting Textile machines post lamps Signature Board display lighting

LED Lamps..
Case study from textile unit
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No. of filament lamps installed = 4000 nos. No. of lamps glowing = 2000 nos. Total power savings achieved = 28 KW Annual Savings = Rs.8.0 lakhs Investment = Rs.8.0 lakhs Payback period = 12 months

Lighting Control
Voltage Reduction – Discharge Lighting Optimum voltage for discharge lighting – 205 – 210 volts Reduction in voltage by – 15%

Proportional drop in power consumption – 15% Insignificant drop in illumination level Only digital lux meters – measure the drop (1-2%)

Options – Voltage Reduction
Dedicated Lighting Transformer – different tap settings – Ideal at Design stage Automatic voltage regulation - servo stabilizer Advantages * Reduction in power consumption * Increases – life of lamp

Case Study Install Automatic Servo Voltage Stabilizer in Lighting Feeder
Engineering Unit Lighting load : 240 kw Operating lighting voltage : 240 volts Auto voltage stabilizer (300kv)-installed Optimum voltage : 205 – 210 volts Power savings : 30 kw (12.5%) Annual Savings : Rs.4.40 lakhs Investment : Rs.3.00 lakhs Payback period : 9 months

Installation of HF Electronic Ballast
Conventional ballast – Inherent losses 14 – 15 watts / choke HF Ballast – operates at high frequency – 20 kHz to 22 kHz . Low loss – 1 to 2 watts/choke . High power factor . Instant start-up . Operates at low voltage . Low heat dissipation – less load on air conditioners

Installation of Electronic Ballast..
Case study from Engineering Unit
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No. of lamps installed No. of lamps glowing

= 2500 nos. = 1800 nos.

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Total power savings achieved = 25 kw Annual Savings = Rs.6.7 lakhs Investment = Rs.7.2 lakhs Payback period = 13 months

Summary Recommendations
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Maximum utilisation of natural light Select energy efficient lamps Installation of mirror-optic luminaries Fixing lights at optimum height Optimum voltage for lighting system Use energy efficient HF Ballast ....

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Summary Recommendations [contd..]

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Use timer control switches for outside lighting system Use movement sensor and dimmer control system, wherever required. Proper grouping of lights and proper control system

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ENERGY CONSERVATION IN STEAM SYSTEM

Importance of Steam System
Steam as heat transfer medium
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High specific heat capacity High latent heat Cheap and easily available Non toxic and inert High heat transfer coefficient

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Steam System
Considerable savings can be achieved by systematic steam system audit. Audit should cover:
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Steam Balance Steam turbine performance Condensate recovery Steam traps Co-generation Recycling waste heat

CO-GENERATION

WHAT IS COGENERATION?

COMBINED GENERATION OF HEAT AND POWER

WHY IT IS ECONOMIC ?
1. The conventional method of power generation in a fossil fired power station has to reject about 60 - 70% of input energy. This is law of nature and can never be reversed.

2.Co-generation

scheme uses this reject energy as process heat input and hence, efficiency can reach 100%.

COGEN ROUTES

1. High pressure steam - back pressure or condensing-cum -extraction turbine extraction steam to process. 2. Gas turbine - exhaust heat - waste heat recovery boiler - process steam

CENTRAL POWER STATION ENERGY SCENARIO

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INPUT : 100% TURBINE OUTPUT : 35% CONDENSER LOSS : 55% STACK LOSS : 9% MISC. LOSS : 1%

STEAM TURBINE CO-GEN PLANT WITH BACK PRESSURE TURBINE A TYPICAL ENGERY DISTRIBUTION SCENARIO
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FUEL INPUT : 100% STEAM TURBINE OUTPUT : 10% PROCESS STEAM : 74% STACK LOSS : 15% MISC. LOSS : 1%

EXTRACTION CONDENSING TURBINE CO-GEN PLANT A TYPICAL ENGERY DISTRIBUTION SCENARIO
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FUEL INPUT : 100% STEAM TURBINE OUTPUT : 20% PROCESS STEAM : 25% CONDENSER LOSS : 39% STACK LOSS : 15% MISC. LOSS : 1%

GAS TURBINE WITH WASTE HEAT RECOVERY A TYPICAL ENGERY DISTRIBUTION SCENARIO
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FUEL INPUT : 100% GAS TURBINE POWER : 30% PROCESS STEAM : 44% STACK LOSS : 25% MISC. LOSS : 1%

HOW TO SELECT OPTIMUM ROUTE OF CO-GEN ALTERNATIVE
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To study the process and energy fluctuation Review the impact of process fluctuation Select design power : steam ratio Select the optimum cycle configuration - energywise Study and work out the cost effectiveness of the selected option Sometimes, the most energy efficient option is not the most cost effective one

TYPICAL APPLICATION OF CO-GENERATION

A Typical Integrated Pulp & Paper Mill Consumes:

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1300 Kwh/Te of Paper of Electricity 10 Te/Hr. of Steam as Heat Input

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Alternate 1

Electricity from Grid

To Paper Plant Steam as Heat Input

Boiler

Alternate 2

High Pr./Temp. Boiler As Heat Output

TG

Steam

Alternate 2 has a Payback Typically Less than 2 Years..

Such Opportunity Exists in

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Textile Plant Sugar Mill Rice Mill Chemical Plant

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Power : Steam Ratio – The most important criterion to select the most cost-effective configuration

THANKS