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Department of Entomology
The American Museum of Natural History

Volume 124, article 7, pages 275-314, figures 1-88, tables 1, 2
Issued March 18, 1963

Price: $1.00 a copy

THE PRESENT REVIEW includes the species of localities given by these authors were limited
the genus Calosoma to be found in South and often referred to the country as a whole.
America, the Antilles, the Galapagos Islands, In the last 22 years a great deal of additional
and Central America south of Mexico. I have information about the distribution of the
provided keys for the identification of all species and the variations of local forms has
subgenera and species, and all taxa are rede- become available.
scribed with the exception of those that were A total of 1919 specimens has been ex-
redescribed in the paper on the Calosoma of amined, including the types in the Chaudoir
North America (Gidaspow, 1959). For a his- and Dejean collections, except for Calosoma
tory of the genus and a discussion of charac- bridgesi Chaudoir which I could not locate
ters, see my earlier report (Gidaspow, 1959). during my visit to Paris.
Although 69 species of Calosoma (in 12
subgenera) are known from North America, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
only 16 occur in South America, of which 11 I am greatly indebted to Mrs. Charles
species are found on the mainland, two on the Vaurie, Research Associate in the Depart-
Galapagos Islands, and three in the West ment of Entomology of the American Mu-
Indies. They belong to seven different sub- seum of Natural History, for numerous sug-
genera, but most are in the subgenus Castrida gestions and for the many hours that she has
(10 species). All the species of Castrida, ex- devoted to the critical reading of my paper.
cept sayi, live in South America. I am also grateful to Dr. Jerome G. Rozen,
A few northern species of Calosoma pene- Jr., Chairman of the Department of Ento-
trate to the West Indies and Central America, mology, the American Museum of Natural
or even to northern South America. Calosoma History, and to Dr. Mont A. Cazier, former
(Calodrepa) scrutator, for instance, which is Chairman of the department, for their kind
common in the United States, occurs in permission to study the collections of the
Guatemala and Venezuela, as does the Mex- Museum, and for aid that they have rendered.
ican species Calosoma (Carabosoma) angula- I wish to express my thanks to the follow-
tum. The range of Calosoma (Camegonia) ing people for permitting me to study the
marginalis extends from the southwestern collections in their care: Dr. P. J. Darlington,
United States to Mexico and Costa Rica, and Jr., of the Museum of Comparative Zo6logyof
Calosoma (Calodrepa) aurocinctum, a Mexican Harvard College; Mr. H. B. Leech of the
species, is found as far south as Nicaragua. California Academy of Sciences; Dr. S. H.
But only one South American species, alter- Dybas of the Chicago Natural History Mu-
nans, ranges northward as far as southern seum; Dr. G. E. Wallace of the Carnegie
Mexico. Museum in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Dr. H.
The species of Calosoma are well adapted to Freude of the Zoologische Sammlung des
different climates, for the same species are Bayerischen Staates in Munich, Germany;
found in the equatorial regions as in the cooler Dr. F. Lane of the Departamento de Zoologia
provinces of Argentina. Some species, such as in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Mr. J. W. McReynolds
argentinense and vagans, prefer cooler regions; of Nevada, Missouri; Dr. Fernando de Zayas
the latter extends southward to the Strait of of Cuba; Dr. W. W. Gibson, Rockefeller
Magellan and also lives in the Andes where Foundation Agricultural Program in Mexico;
the winters are quite severe. Most species of and Mr. R. Benard of the Museum National
the subgenus Castrida inhabit arid regions of d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Dr. E. B. Britton
brushwood and desert scrub. of the British Museum (Natural History),
Although the South American species of London, sent me the description and the
Calosoma were included in the works of drawings of the type of Calosoma galapage-
Breuning (1927) and Jeannel (1940), the 'um.

KEY TO THE SUBGENERA OF THE Carabosoma GEHIN, 1885, p. 32. Type: Calo-
GENUS Calosoma soma angulatum Chevrolat.

1. Metepisternum distinctly longer than wide KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF Calosoma

(figs. 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21); wings well (Carabosoma) angulatum CHEVROLAT
developed ............ . 2 Elytra with deep striae; interstices scaly from
Metepisternum not longer than wide (figs. apex to base; smaller, length, 24-29 mm. South
12, 17); wings rudimentary or absent. 6 America . . . angulatum angulicolle Chaudoir
2(1). Middle tibiae in both sexes straight; pro- Elytral interstices scaly at basal part, smoother
notum with angular sides, without basal toward apex; larger, length, 24-33 mm. Mex-
setae; color black or dark brown . . . 3 ico... . . angulatum angulatum Chevrolat
Middle tibiae arcuate, especially in male;
pronotum, although in some species Calosoma (Carabosoma) angulatum angulicolle
strongly arcuate, not angular on sides; Chaudoir
color usually different, but, if dark brown, Figure 1
then basal setae of pronotum present . 5
3(2). Elytra with deep striae and convex, scaly Calosoma angulicolle CHAUDOIR, 1869, p. 377.
interstices; pronotum with pointed side Type locality: Santa Marta, Colombia.
angles. . . . . . . . Carabosoma Gehin Although Jeannel (1940) considered anguli-
Elytra with shallow, punctate striae, or colle to be a distinct species, it is at most a
with sparse, large punctures connected by subspecies of Mexican angulatum. There is
deep creases; interstices flat; side angles some difference in size (average length of
of pronotum rounded ..... . . 4 angulicolle, 25.7 mm.; range, 24-27 mm.;
4(3). Elytra at base with sparse, large punctures average length of angulatum, 27.4 mm.;
and deep creases; head also with large
punctures; metatrochanter without seta range, 24-33 mm.). Further, the elytra of
........ .........Camegonia
Lapouge angulicolle are normally more scaly and in
Elytra at base scaly; head with fine, dense some specimens have deeper striae.
punctation; metatrochanter with seta The difference in the form of pronotum
.Camedula Motschulsky cited by Jeannel (1940, pp. 200, 201, 203,
5(2). Pronotum without basal setae, metallic figs. 160, 164) is an infrasubspecific variation.
green or navy blue, with golden margin; There is also no difference in the punctation
elytra green or brownish, with green lus- of the head or in the blue-green luster on the
ter . . . . . . . Calodrepa Motschulsky elytral margin. The majority of fresh South
Pronotum with basal setae, or, if absent, American specimens (angulicolle) have a shin-
then elytra either light brown or bluish ing luster on the elytral margin that is lost
green. . . Castrida Motschulsky (in part)
6(1). Metatrochanter with seta; elytra brown, on worn beetles, as is' true of the Mexican
without metallic luster, very smooth. forms.
Length, about 20 mm.. MATERIAL EXAMINED: Thirty specimens of
Neocalosoma Breuning angulicolle and 450 of angukltum.
Metatrochanter without seta; elytra cop-
pery or bronze, with metallic luster; SUBGENUS CAMEGONIA LAPOUGE
usually smaller than 20 mm.. . . . . 7 Camegonia LAPOUGE, 1924, p. 38. Type: Calo-
7(6). Metepisternum square (fig. 12), wingless; soma prominens LeConte.
pronotum without setae; elytra coppery
or yellow, with green tint . Calosoma (Camegonia) marginalis Casey
....... .......MicrocalosomaBreuning Calosoma marginalis CASEY, 1897, p. 340. Type
Metepisternum slightly longer than wide locality: "Arizona?"
(figs. 14, 17, 18) wings rudimentary; pro- Calosoma (Carabosoma) lecontei CSIKI, 1927, p.
notum with middle and often basal setae; 21; new name for lugubre LeConte, 1835, p. 400,
elytra black or brown, with green or blue preoccupied by lugubre Motschulsky. Type local-
luster. . Castrida Motschulsky (in part) ity: Braunfels, Texas.

FIG. 1. Distribution of Calosoma (Carabosoma) angulatum angulicolle Chaudoir,

C. (Camedula) glabratum Dejean, C. (Calodrepa) scrutator Fabricius, C. (Castrida)
rufipenne Dejean, and C. (Castrida) trapezipenne Chaudoir.

This is primarily a North American species with large punctures on the apex, bearing
of the western and southwestern United short hair as in peregrinator, but not on
States, but it also occurs in Mexico and, entire segment as in that species. Penis not
occasionally, in Costa Rica. From the last- so wide as that of peregrinator, but with same
named country I have seen two specimens. broadly rounded tip; hook on inner armature
with long neck (fig. 56); leaf-like process of
SUGBENUS CAMEDULA MOTSCHULSKY female genitalia not so pointed as that of
Camedula MOTSCHULSKY, 1865, p. 303. Type: peregrinator. Metatrochanter in both sexes
Calosoma glabratum Dejean. with rounded tip and seta; anterior tarsi of
Calosoma (Camedula) glabratum Dejean male dilated, and all three segments with
dense brush underneath; all tibiae straight,
Figures 1, 56 as usual in subgenus Camedula.
Calosoma glabratum DEJEAN, 1831, p. 565. Type Length, 18.5 mm.; width, 8-10.5 mm.
locality: Colombia. DISTRIBUTION: Northern South America,
Carabosoma bolivianum GEHIN, 1885, p. 65. around Bogota and Pandi in Colombia, on
Type locality: Bolivia. grassland and cultivated fields (fig. 1). Ac-
DESCRIPTION: Resembling peregrinator cording to Breuning (1927) and Jeannel
(United States and Mexico), but smaller and (1940), also in Panama, Peru, and Bolivia.
more brownish. Head moderately and finely Breuning (1927) regarded peregrinator as a
punctate and wrinkled, in some specimens subspecies of glabratum. Jeannel (1940) treated
only near eyes; labrum wrinkled and with them as different species, which I believe they
small notch; last segment of maxillary palpi are.
shorter and wider than preceding one; mandi- Gehin's bolivianum, treated by Breuning
bles rugose and punctate in creases; eyes (1927) as another subspecies of glabratum, is
feebly projecting, with one seta near each; apparently a synonym, as stated by Jeannel
third segment of antennae compressed, sec- (1940). The small size of bolivianum (11 mm.)
ond and base of fourth more feebly so; be- is considered by Jeannel to be a misprint.
ginning with fifth segment, antennae pubes- MATERIAL EXAMINED: Thirty-four speci-
cent, with indistinct glabrous spots on fifth mens.
and sixth segments, in some specimens also SUBGENUS CALODREPA MOTSCHULSKY
on following ones; tooth of mentum pointed,
without pore punctures. Calodrepa MOTSCHULSKY, 1865, p. 310. Type:
Pronotum twice as wide as long, angulated, Calosoma scrutator Fabricius.
but with rounded side angles as in peregrina- KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS
tor; lateral margin narrow from apex to base Calodrepa MOTSCHULSKY
and with middle setae only, basal ones absent; 1. Elytral margin of same color as elytra, green
hind angles small, pointed, hardly projecting or light brown, with green luster; tibiae
beyond basal line; disk very finely wrinkled, and tarsi brown. Length, 21-28 mm.
more so at base and sides. Greater Antilles (Cuba, Haiti, and Do-
Elytra with almost parallel sides, distinct minican Republic), and the United States
humeral angles and serrated margin near ..
splendidum Dejean
. . . . . . . . .

them; striae fine, with minute punctures; Elytral margin purple or golden green;
interstices flat; foveae on fourth, eighth, and tibiae and tarsi reddish brown or dark
twelfth interstices not present in all speci- brown ............. 2 .

mens, usually shallow and small. 2(1). Pronotum metallic green, in some speci-
Ventral side dark brown; proepisternum mens with slightly lighter margin; femur
smooth; metepisternum, first, second, and bluish green. Length, 22-30 mm. Mexico,
part of third abdominal segments with large, Nicaragua. . . . aurocinctum Chaudoir
Pronotum navy blue or black, with purple
sparse punctures, which in some specimens or golden green margin; femur reddish
are present also on proepisternum and mesepi- brown, in a few darker, with blue or
sternum; fourth and fifth abdominal seg- purple luster. Length, 25-35 mm. United
ments finely wrinkled and punctate, sixth States, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela
one more densely punctate in females, and . . . . .
. . . . .
scrutator Fabricius
Calosoma (Calodrepa) scrutator Fabricius Microcalosoma, and Carabomimus, and it
Figure 1 would be better to leave it and Castrida as
Calosoma scrutator FABRICIUS, 1775, p. 239. separate subgenera of the genus Calosoma.
Type locality: Virginia. The main characters of the subgenus Neo-
calosoma are presented in the following de-
This species is very common in the United scription of its single species.
States, but it is rare in Mexico, Central
America, and northern South America. Calosoma (Neocalosoma) bridgesi Chaudoir
RECORDS (FIG. 1): Guatemala: Amatitlan; Calosoma bridgesi CHAUDOIR, 1869, p. 377. Type
Mauricio; Zaculeu near Huehuetenango. locality: Tucuman, Argentina.
Venezuela: Cumana. (For localities in Mexico I have not seen the type, but Mrs. Patricia
and the United States, see Gidaspow, 1959.) Vaurie examined the apparent cotype in the
The three males and two females from Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in
South America that I have examined are Paris and kindly sent me her notes and draw-
very much like typical scrutator of the United ings. There were four specimens: one male
States, but one male from Guatemala has with the label "Amer. Inter. (Musaeo A.
dark brown, not reddish, legs, although with Salle 1897)," one female from "S. Amer.
the same blue luster as in the typical forms. (Musaeo Fd. Brown)," another from "Chile
Calosoma (Calodrepa) splendidum Dejean (Musaeo Mniszech)," and the third from
Calosoma splendidum DEJEAN, 1831, p. 558. "Toluca, Mexico (collection J. B. Gehin,
Type locality: Santo Domingo, Dominican Re- 1869, An. Soc. Fr. 377)," The last-named is
public. apparently mislabeled, because bridgesi does
This species is from the Greater Antilles not occur in Mexico.
and southeastern United States. DESCRIPTION: The four specimens from
RECORDS: Cuba: Guantanamo; Jobabo. Bolivia' that I have examined are black, with
Dominican Republic: Santo Domingo; Santi- reddish brown elytra. Head stout as in laeve,
ago. United States: Florida: Chokoloskee; sparsely and finely wrinkled and often with
Key West. Georgia: Clarke County. minute punctures. Pronotum as wide as long,
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Twenty specimens. with side setae in middle of lateral margin and
basal ones, which are apparently not always
Calosoma (Calodrepa) aurocinctum Chaudoir present, near hind angles; hind angles not
Calosoma aurocinctum CHAUDOIR, 1850, p. 420; larger than those of laeve, rounded, hardly or
new name for splendidum Perbosc, 1839, p. 261, not at all projecting beyond basal line; disk
preoccupied by splendidum Dejean. Type locality: smooth, slightly wrinkled, more so on sides
Mexico. and base. Elytra oval, smooth, hardly wider
This primarily Mexican species extends as than pronotum, rather convex, shorter than
far as Nicaragua, and the specimens that I in laeve, with arcuate, not parallel sides, and
have examined from there are not different wider toward apex. Metepisternum not longer
from those from Mexico. than wide, as usual in apterous species; meta-
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Sixty-six speci- trochanter with seta; middle tibiae arcuate,
mens. especially in male. Penis more slender than
in laeve, with a thinner, slightly bent tip.
Female genitalia of the usual Calosoma type.
Neocalosoma BREUNING, 1927, p. 146; 1928, p. LENGTH, 19-20 mm.; width, 8-9 mm.
121. Type: Calosoma bridgesi Chaudoir. DISTRIBUTION: This rare species is appar-
The subgenus Neocalosoma was described ently localized in the mountains in northern
by Breuning for a single species, bridgesi Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia.
Chaudoir, which resembles Calosoma laeve of RECORDS: Argentina: Tucuman. Bolivia:
Mexico and, like it, is apterous. Cochabamba, Tiraque, at an altitude of 3200
Jeannel (1940) placed Neocalosoma as a meters. Chile.
subgenus of Castrida which he treated as a I This rare species was kindly sent to me by Mr.
genus. I believe that Neocalosoma has more in John W. McReynolds, whose collection of Calosoma is
common with the subgenera Blaptosoma, one of the best I had the opportunity to examine.
Although this species is similar to laeve, it first segment and basal part of fourth one
differs by having arcuate middle tibiae and distinctly compressed, beginning from fifth
slightly shorter elytra, which are wider to- segment antennae uniformly pubescent.
ward the apex. It is also similar to Castrida Pronotum narrow, not more than one and a
vagans, but the latter has well-developed half times as wide as long, narrowed poster-
wings and consequently longer metepister- iorly; hind angles obtuse, extending back-
num, while bridgesi is apterous. ward; basal line straight; lateral margin thin
from apex to base and without either basal or
middle setae; apical marginal bead distinct;
Microcalosoma BREUNING, 1927, p. 146; 1928, disk very smooth, shining, without puncta-
p. 123.Type: Calosoma linelli Mutchler. tion, but finely winkled.
This subgenus was proposed by Breuning Elytra round-oval, slightly convex; hum-
for one species, linelli, from the Galapagos eral angles distinct; elytral margin even;
Islands. Later Jennel (1940), who recognized striae regular, punctate; interstices of un-
Microcalosoma as a subgenus of the genus equal width, the fourth, eighth, and twelfth
Castrida, added galapageium to the same bearing foveae, being wider and more ele-
subgenus. Although both species live on the vated than adjacent ones (chain-like); foveae
Galapagos Islands and have a few characters shallow, with green luster and a little granule
in common, they are different and cannot inside; all interstices smooth or slightly
belong to the same subgenus. Calosoma wrinkled.
galapageium usually has well-developed wings Ventral side extremely smooth, a few shal-
and basal setae on the pronotum and is low punctures may be present on metepi-
spread over the entire archipelago, while sternum as well as on first and second abdom-
linelli is apterous, has no setae on the prono- inal segments; following segments finely
tum, and is localized on Chatham Island. wrinkled, last one with four setae on apex,
Therefore it seems better to leave Castrida without additional ones in second row; fourth
and Microcalosoma as separate subgenera, to and fifth segments with two setae each, first
place galapageium in the subgenus Castrida three abdominal segments apparently with-
together with the other winged species, and to out setae; metepisternum as long as wide, as
leave linelli in the subgenus Microcalosoma, usual in wingless species (fig. 12); prosternal
as was done by Breuning (1927). process flat, with round apex; legs compara-
The main characters of Microcalosoma are tively long; metatrochanter without setae,
given under the description of the species. and in both sexes with rounded tip; femur
Calosoma (Microcalosoma) linelli Mutchler smooth, with short, sparse setae; anterior
tibiae without longitudinal furrows, on tip
Figures 8, 12, 33, 36, 57, 58, 84 with short spines, as if they were broken;
Calosoma linelli MUTCHLER, 1925, p. 222; new middle tibiae arcuate, more so in male, the
name for Calosoma galapageium Linell, 1899, p. latter with a brush of red hair on inner, upper
250, preoccupied by galapageium Hope. Type side of middle tibiae; hind tibiae straight;
locality: Catham Island, Galipagos. anterior tarsi smooth and shining, in male
DESCRIPTION: One of the smallest species dilated and bearing a dense brush on ventral
of Calosoma, about 12-13 mm. in length. side of three segments; depression on dorsal
Light brown, elytra cupreous, with green side of second segment present; traces of
luster, antennae and legs much lighter. depression appearing on third segment; pos-
Head smooth and shining, with a few terior tarsi slender, second segment more
wrinkles near eyes; eyes hardly projecting, than three times as long as wide (fig. 33).
with one seta near each; occiput swollen; Penis with pecular tip, resembling a fish tail,
labrum almost bifurcate; mandibles strigose inner armature slender, hook long (figs. 57,
and with sparse punctures; last segment of 58). Gonapophyses also slender, leaf-like
maxillary palpi not shorter, but distinctly process slim and pointed, with elongated
wider than preceding one (fig. 36); tooth of furrow containing two tiny setae; basal
mentum pointed and without pore punctures; sclerites of genitalia convex, with large, sparse
antennae comparatively short; basal part of punctures bearing setae (fig. 84).
Length, 12-13 mm.; width, 5.5-6 mm. slightly, and in some species, as in alternans
DISTRIBUTION: Localized on Chatham and some invididuals of sayi, of unequal
Island, Galapagos. width; most species having scaly interstices,
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Three specimens. with transverse wrinkles connecting punc-
tures of adjacent striae; foveae on fourth,
eighth, and twelfth interstices present in all
Castrida MOTSCHULSKY, 1865, p. 300. Type: individuals often large and brilliant, and
Calosoma sayi Dejean. with granule inside.
DESCRIPTION: Body oblong; elytra usually Ventral side brown or black, in many with
convex, with distinct humeral angles, deep, metallic luster, more or less densely punctate
regular striae, and strongly or moderately on sides of thorax and abdomen; prosternal
convex interstices. Mostly shining species, process either short and wide, with strongly
with reddish, copper, or metallic green luster, elevated sides, as in trapezipenne (fig. 24), or
some species brown or black, and, like vagans, more slender, with less elevated sides, as in
without metallic luster. most other species (figs. 25-30). Metepi-
Front of head punctate and wrinkled, in sternum longer than wide and wings well
some species, such as argentinense and abbrevi- developed. However, in some forms of gal-
atum, quite densely so; labrum almost bifur- apageium, such as darwinia, metepisternum
cate or at least deeply curved; mandibles much shorter, only slightly longer than wide
rough, rugose, and punctate; antennae nor- (fig. 14), and, in forms from James Island,
mally long, reaching beyond humeri, with quite short, almost square, with consequently
third segment distinctly compressed, second reduced wings (figs. 17, 18). Legs normally
segment and base of fourth segment slightly long, metatrochanter without seta, except in
so; last segment of maxillary palpi either of trapezipenne and some specimens of gal-
same length as preceding one and only apageium; in females metatrochanter rounded
slightly wider, as in alternans, sayi, and or slightly pointed on tip, in males pointed,
fulgens, or shorter and distinctly wider than alternans, sayi, and fulgens noticeable for
preceding one, as in vagans, rufipenne, and their long, arcuate, and pointed metatro-
other species. Unfortunately this character is chanter, abbreviatum noticeable for truncate
not distinct in all cases, especially in argentin- one (figs. 40-52); metatrochanter of vagans
ense and retusum; tooth of mentum usually rounded in both sexes (fig. 42); middle tibiae
short and pointed, in some specimens blunt, strongly arcuate, more so in male, tip of
but this is an infraspecific variation; eyes middle tibiae in males with patch of red hair
more or less prominent, with one seta near on inner, upper side. This patch may be very
each. small, just between two spurs (as in alternans,
Pronotum wide, mostly two or more times sayi, and fulgens), or longer, like a brush (as
as wide as long, widest part in middle, rarely in trapezipenne, vagans, retusum, and argen-
being narrowed posteriorly; basal and middle tinense, and partly in abbreviatum and gal-
setae present (but in rufipenne basal setae apageium), or (as in rufipenne) like a fringe of
absent, as in many individuals of galapage- red hair on the whole upper part of the tibiae,
ium); sides usually slightly arcuate, in some becoming denser and wider toward the apex.
specimens straighter posteriorly; hind angles Some males of abbreviatum also have a fringe
either rounded, extending backward, as in of red hair, almost as long as in rufipenne.
retusum, or pointed, almost obliterated, as in Rarely, males of Castrida lack the patch, as
argentinense, abbreviatum, and some others; do females, or they may have patches on
basal dimples deep, with coarse punctures middle and hind tibiae; hind tibiae almost
and heavy wrinkles; disk seldom smooth as straight. Usually tibiae and tarsi finely,
in vagans, usually punctate and wrinkled, at sparsely punctate in addition to rows of
least slightly, as in retusum, or strongly so as punctures with setae, present in all Calosoma.
in argentinense and abbreviatum. Second segment of hind tarsi either three
Elytra oblong, humeri distinct, margin times as long as wide, and usually longer than
near them serrated or even; striae regular, one-half of first one, as in sayi, alternans, ful-
mostly deep, interstices convex, at least gens, and galapageium, or only twice, seldom
two and a half times, as long as wide, as in sides (fig. 24); mandibles with deep,
vagans, retusum, and argentinense. Front tarsi transverse creases (fig. 22); elytra hardly
of male with three segments dilated and bear- convex, usually wider toward apex; color
ing a dense brush on ventral side, except in coppery red, with brilliant green luster.
sayi in which first segment has incomplete length, 17-23 mm. Argentina .
.... .... trapezipenne Chaudoir
brush, and only second one fully covered Metepisternum distinctly longer than wide,
underneath. Dorsal side of second segment except in some small specimens of gala-
with more or less distinct depression, absent pageium (figs. 15, 16, 19-21); prosternal
in abbreviatum and rufipenne. Last abdominal process more elongated, with less ele-
segment with up to eight setae on apex and vated sides (figs. 25-30); mandibles
no additional ones in second row, as in many usually with longitudinal striae or
other subgenera (Chrysostigma, Carabomi- creases (fig. 23) ....... . . . 2
mus, and some others). Third, fourth, and 2(1). Elytra light brown, with green margin;
fifth abdominal segments with two to four head and pronotum black, with blue or
setae each. Penis stout, with straight tip, as in green luster; second segment of hind
retusum and vagans (figs. 78, 80), or more tarsi two and a half or three times as
long as wide (fig. 31); last segment of
slender, with slightly bent tip, as in galapage- maxillary palpi distinctly shorter and
ium, sayi, and alternans (figs. 62-74, 77), or, wider than preceding one (fig. 37).
as in fulgens, with strongly bent tip (fig. 75); Length, 22-24 mm. Peru, Chile . . .
inner armature in all specimens ending in .. ........ rufipenne Dejean
hook. Female genitalia not differing much Elytra of different color (reddish copper,
among species; leaf-like process in sayi, alter- bronze, brilliant green, or dark brown,
nans, and fulgens more rounded, more spoon- without metallic luster) . . . . . . 3
shaped, than in other species, and often with 3(2). Elytra, often head and pronotum, with
rounded, less elongated furrow (figs. 84-88). bluish green luster; last segment of max-
All species of this subgenus are relatively illary palpi shorter and distinctly wider
large, about 22 to 28 mm.; a few are 30 mm.; than preceding one; second segment of
hind tarsi three times as long as wide.
only galapageium is smaller, 16 to 22 mm. length, 16-22 mm. Gal'apagos Islands .
The subgenus Castrida has many charac-
ters in common with the subgenera Calosoma Elytra with coppery, golden, or green lus-
and Calodrepa; it differs from them, as well as ter, or brown without metallic luster;
from other subgenera of the genus Calosoma, last segment of maxillary palpi almost
in the presence of the basal setae on the as long as, and scarcely wider than, pre-
pronotum, the absence of a seta on the meta- ceding one, or if short and wide, as in
trochanter, and in having a depression on the galapagaeium, then second segment of
second segment of the front tarsi in the male. hind tarsi is stouter, not more than
The species of the subgenus Calosoma are twice as long as wide . . . . . . . 4
European and Asiatic, exceptfrigidum, which 4(3). Last segment of maxillary palpi almost as
lives in the United States. On the contrary long as, and hardly wider than, preced-
ing one (fig. 39); second segment of hind
the subgenus Calodrepa is distributed tarsi three times as long as wide (fig.
throughout the North American continent, 32); metatrochanter of male strongly
with splendidum found also on Haiti and arcuate and pointed (fig. 43) . . . . 5
Cuba, and scrutator in northern South Amer- Last segment of maxillary palpi usually
ica. The species of the subgenus Castrida are shorter and distinctly wider than pre-
South American, except sayi, which inhabits ceding one (fig. 38); second segment of
North and Central America and the Greater hind tarsi usually not more than twice,
Antilles. seldom two and a half times, as long as
wide (figs. 34, 35); metatrochanter of
KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF THE male not arcuate, with rounded or
SUBGENUS Castrida MOTSCHULSKY slightly pointed tip (figs. 45, 47, 49-51)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.
1. Metepisternum large and broad, only a 5(4). All elytral interstices of equal width, and
little longer than wide (fig. 13); proster- barely convex or flat, except the tenth
nal process wide, with strongly elevated which may be narrower than adjacent
ones; color brilliant coppery red, with dustier, with reddish bronze or green
green luster; tip of penis strongly bent luster . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
(fig. 75). Length, 24-26 mm. Colombia, 10(9). Metatrochanter truncate (figs. 49, 50, 51);
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay . . . color usually green; second segment of
......... ..........fulgens
Chaudoir anterior tarsi in male without depression
Second, sixth, and tenth elytral interstices on dorsal side; tip of penis short and
narrower than adjacent ones, strongly rounded, not arcuate (fig. 82). Length,
convex; if all interstices of equal width, 22-25 mm. Colombia, Ecuador, Peru,
then color dark and dull; tip of penis Bolivia ... abbreviatum Chaudoir
straight (fig. 77) ......... 6 . Metatrochanter with rounded tip (fig. 45);
6(5). Second, sixth, and tenth elytral interstices color reddish bronze or coppery, in only
either of equal width or slightly nar- a few with green luster; depression on
rower than adjacent ones; hind angles of dorsal side of anterior tarsi; tip of penis
pronotum obtuse; anterior tarsi of male thin, long, and slightly arcuate (fig. 83).
with two segments bearing dense brush Length, 20-25 mm. Argentina, Para-
on ventral side.... .. sayi Dejean guay, Bolivia, Brazil. argentinense Csiki
Second, sixth, and tenth elytral interstices
much narrower than adjacent ones; Calosoma (Castrida) trapezipenne Chaudoir
fourth, eighth, and twelfth interstices Figures 1, 9, 13, 22, 24, 40, 41, 53-55, 59, 60, 86
bearing foveae often narrower; anterior Calosoma trapezipenne CHAUDOIR, 1869, p. 369.
tarsi of male with three segments bear-
ing dense brush on ventral side . . . 7 Type locality: Mendoza, Argentina.
7(6). Darker beetles, less shining; fourth, eighth, DESCRIPTION: Coppery red, with green
and twelfth interstices bearing foveae, luster. Body shorter and flatter than that of
usually narrower than adjacent ones. argentinense and retusum which resemble
Length, 23-27 mm. Colombia, Ecuador, trapezipenne; elytra less convex and wider
Venezuela, northern Brazil, Panama, toward apex than those in other species of
Mexico, the Lesser Antilles. .....
. . alternanas alternans Fabricius
. .

Shining beetles with green luster on head Head and pronotum finely, densely punc-
and pronotum and coppery elytra; tate and wrinkled; eyes slightly projecting,
fourth, eighth, and twelfth interstices, less so than in argentinense; mandibles with
bearing foveae, of equal width, in a few deep, transverse creases (fig. 22), not with
narrower than adjacent ones. Length, longitudinal striae or creases, as usual in the
24-30 mm. Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, subgenus Castrida and other subgenera of
Bolivia. . . alternans granulatum Perty Calosoma (fig. 23); labrum almost bifurcate,
8(4). Dark brown, without metallic luster; tooth of mentum usually blunt, although in
elytral interstices flat or slightly convex, some examples pointed (figs. 53-55); anten-
with fine, transverse wrinkles. Length, nae as in other species of Castrida.
20-25 mm. Chile, Argentina ..... Pronotum twice or more than twice as
......... ............vagans
Dejean wide as long, appearing very broad because of
Shining beetles, with green or reddish lus-
ter; elytral interstices convex, with deep, comparatively small head; widest place in
transverse wrinkles (scaly) . . . . . 9 most cases close to middle, not necessarily
9(8). Pronotum with slightly arcuate sides and anterior to it, as often described in the litera-
rounded hind angles extending back- ture (Breuning, 1927); hind angles obtuse,
ward; disk slightly wrinkled, coarsely extending backward, distinctly more promi-
punctate at base; head with sparse punc- nent than those of argentinense or abbreviatum,
tures (fig. 10); elytral striae with dis- and more pointed than those of retusum;
tinct punctures; brilliant green or cop- lateral margin narrow from apex to base and
pery, with metallic green luster. Length, bearing two setae, basal and middle ones;
25-30 mm. Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil disk finely, densely punctate and wrinkled
. retusum Fabricius
Pronotum with small, mostly pointed hind (fig. 9).
angles, extending backward slightly if Elytra hardly convex and usually wider
at all; punctation on head and pronotum toward apex; humeral angles distinct, with
dense (fig. 11); punctures on elytral even margin near them; striae regular and
striae inconspicuous; beetles less shining, deep, formed by imprinted lines and incon-
spicuous punctures, as in argentinense and Jeannel (1940) lefttrapezipennein Lapouge's
abbreviatum; interstices of equal width, subgenus Catastriga of the genus Castrida. I
slightly convex and scaly from apex to base; believe that Catastriga and Castrida are syn-
foveae large, but shallow, golden green or onyms.
reddish copper, lighter than elytra. In Csiki's (1927) and Blackwelder's (1944)
Ventral side dark brown, with metallic catalogues, trapezipenne is listed as a variety
luster; prosternal process broad, toward tip of granulatum. This is an error; trapezipenne
with elevated margin (fig. 24); however, some is a full species and is recognized as such by
specimens from Catamarca have less elevated Breuning (1927), Jeannel (1940), and other
side margin of prosternal process, although entomologists.
not so flat as in other species of Castrida. MATERIAL EXAMINED: Thirty specimens.
Proepisternum and mesepisternum smooth,
metepisternum large and wide, with sparse Calosoma (Castrida) rufipenne Dejean
punctures at base (fig. 13); abdominal seg- Figures 1, 31, 37, 61, 87
ments finely punctate and wrinkled, mostly
on sides, last segment entirely so, with four to Calosoma rufipenne DEJEAN, 1831, p. 566. Type
eight setae on apex; third, fourth, and fifth locality: San Lorenzo, Peru.
segments bearing two setae each; metatro- DESCRIPTION: Head and pronotum black,
chanter in both sexes barely pointed, and with green or blue luster, elytra light brown
usually with seta, yet 13 per cent of the or yellowish brown, with golden green mar-
beetles examined lacked it (figs. 40, 41); gin.
middle tibiae of male with brush of red hair Head moderately densely and not very
on tip; anterior tarsi of male strongly dilated, finely punctate, also deeply wrinkled at front;
bearing dense brush on ventral side, second tooth of mentum small, blunt, in only a few
segment with depression on dorsal side; sec- cases distinctly pointed; last segment of
ond segment of hind tarsi hardly more than maxillary palpi shorter and much stouter
twice as long as wide. Penis more or less than preceding one (fig. 37).
stout, with short, almost straight tip, hook of Pronotum with arcuate sides, straighter
inner armature short (figs. 59, 60); female posteriorly; lateral margin narrow and with
genitalia of usual type, tip of leaf-like process middle setae only; hind angles small, pointed,
obtuse or slightly pointed (fig. 86). extending a little beyond basal line; disk
Length, 17-23 mm.; width, 9-12 mm. finely wrinkled and very finely punctate,
DISTRIBUTION: This species is not common; more coarsely toward base.
it is found on the western plateau of Argen- Elytral margin near humeri slightly ser-
tina, on the elevations at San Juan and rated; striae with fine, inconspicuous punc-
Mendoza, in the xerophyte forests of the tures connected by thin lines; interstices
Sierra de Cordoba, and on the bare hills of the hardly convex, not scaly, but with fine, trans-
Rio Negro around dry bush and desert scrub. verse, and irregular wrinkles; foveae shallow,
According to Jeannel (1940), it extends south not distinct in all specimens, in some purple
to Patagonia. or bluish.
RECORDS (FIG. 1): Argentina: Catamarca: Ventral side brown, darker than elytra, and
Valle de Santa Maria. San Juan. Cordoba. with faint blue luster; proepisternum, mesepi-
Mendoza. Rio Negro: Cipolletti; Lamarque. sternum, and metepisternum very smooth,
Calosoma (Castrida) trapezipenne is similar the latter in a few individuals with a few
to argentinense but differs from it, as well as punctures and wrinkles; first abdominal seg-
from other species of Castrida, in the form of ment with fine, sparse punctures on sides;
the body, with its small head and wide following segments finely wrinkled, the last
pronotum, in the slightly convex elytra, one entirely so; metatrochanter in both sexes
which is wider toward the apex, the large and with round tip, mostly with seta (57% of the
broad metepisternum, and the wider proster- beetles examined); middle tibiae slightly
nal process with elevated sides. It resembles arcuate, in male with long fringe of red hair,
galapageium by having a seta on the metatro- almost as long as half of middle tibiae; second
chanter, but differs from it by having basal segment of hind tarsi two and a half to three
setae on the pronotum. times as long as wide (fig. 31); anterior tarsi
of male with three segments dilated and DESCRIPTION: Black or dark brown, with
bearing dense brush on ventral side; second bluish green luster.
segment without depression on dorsal side, Front of head sparsely, finely punctate and
while most of the species of this subgenus finely wrinkled, in a few cases almost smooth;
have it. Penis stouter than that of sayi, but last segment of maxillary palpi shorter and
more slender than that of retusum, hook of wider than preceding one.
inner armature also shorter (fig. 61); leaf-like Pronotum slightly narrowed posteriorly,
process of female genitalia of usual form, not one and a half times or a little less than twice
spoon-shaped like that of sayi, although tip as wide as long, smooth or finely wrinkled,
more rounded than usual (fig. 87). with sparse punctures at base; hind angles
Length, 22-24 mm.; width, 8.5-9.5 mm. small, pointed, slightly projecting beyond
DISTRIBUTION: This species is not com- basal line; lateral margin thin from apex to
mon. It is found in Peru and northern Chile, base, and in many cases lacking setae. Among
from the cultivated fields of Piura and Lima 288 specimens examined from the Galapagos,
provinces in Peru, through the pampas on the 50 per cent had no basal setae; they were
elevations of Arequipa and Mollendo, and, collected mostly on Chatham and Tower
following the pampas, into Tarapaca in Chile. Islands, although a few specimens came from
RECORDS (FIG. 1): Peru: Piura: Quiras Charles Island. Most of the examples from
River. Ancachs: Huacho. Lima: City of Albemarle, Indefatigable, James, and the
Lima. Cuzco: River Puacartambo. Arequipa: other islands had the middle and basal
Arequipa; Mollendo. Chile: Tacna; Azapa setae.
River near Arica. Taracapa: Pintados. Elytra with distinct humeral angles, more
This species is readily distinguished by the or less parallel sides, only in a few wider
light brown elytra, the black head and prono- toward apex; elytral margin even, without
tum, with green luster, and by the absence of slightest trace of serration; striae regular,
the basal setae on the pronotum. About half punctate; interstices convex, with fine, trans-
of the specimens of galapageium also lack verse wrinkles but not scaly, fourth, eighth,
setae. and twelfth interstices broken into chains by
As is the case with other species of Calo- shallow, golden green, or coppery foveae.
soma of South America, rufipenne has been Ventral side brown, with bluish luster,
shifted from one subgenus to another. Breun- proepisternum and mesepisternum smooth,
ing (1927) placed it in the subgenus Camedula metepisternum and first abdominal segment
Motschulsky. Jeannel (1940) described for it with large, sparse punctures, following seg-
a new subgenus, Caludema of the genus ments finely wrinkled on sides, last segment
Castrida. I do not think it is necessary to finely punctate and wrinkled, mostly with no
describe a new subgenus for this single spec- more than four or six setae on apex; meta-
ies, because rufipenne fits fairly well in the trochanter in both sexes with rounded or
subgenus Castrida, much better than in the barely pointed tip, and mostly without seta.
subgenus Camedula, where it was placed by It is always possible, however, to find ex-
Breuning. amples that have the seta, especially among
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Thirty-nine speci- the beetles from Albemarle Island. Middle
mens. tibiae of male with brush of red hair; anterior
Calosoma (Castrida) galapageium Hope tarsi of male with three segments dilated and
Figures 2, 14-19, 25, 62-74
having dense brush on ventral side; depres-
sion on dorsal side of second segment present;
Calosoma galapageium HOPE, 1837, p. 130. Type second segment of hind tarsi three times as
locality: Galapagos Islands. long as wide; punctation on tibiae and tarsi
Calosoma granatense GEHIN, 1885, p. 59. Type absent, except usual four rows of punctures
locality: South America (Colombia?).
Calosoma galapagoum? "Hope," LINELL, 1889, p. bearing setae on tibiae, whereas most of the
191. species of the subgenus Castrida have punc-
Calosoma howardi LINELL, 1899, p. 251. Type tate legs. Penis slender, in some specimens
locality: James Island, GalMpagos. very thin, with more or less pointed tip (figs.
Calosoma darwinia VAN DYKE, 1953, p. 10. Type 62-74). However, examples from Chatham,
locality: Villamil, Albemarle Island, Galipagos. Indefatigable, and Albemarle Islands have a

FIG. 2. Distribution of Calosoma (Castrida) galapageium Hope on the Galipagos Islands.

stouter penis (figs. 64-67); gonapophyses of Van Dyke's darwinia, of which I have
usual type for Calosoma. examined 91 specimens, including 30 para-
Length, 14.5-21 mm.; width, 6.5-9.5 mm. types from Villamil, Albemarle Island, is a
Most of the smallest specimens were found little smaller and more slender than most of
on Albemarle and Charles Islands; the larg- the forms from the other islands. The average
est, on Indefatigable, James, and Tower length of the male is 17 mm.; of the female,
Islands. 17.6 mm. Yet I found examples as large as 20
The variation in size on different islands is mm. The general color of the body is piceous,
presented in table 1. with a green luster, rather than black, with a
DISTRIBUTION: In the literature there are bluish green luster.
indications that galapageium is found not Basal setae were present on the pronotum
only on the Galapagos Islands but also on the in 90 per cent of the beetles that were ex-
neighboring coast of the mainland-in Co- amined. The metatrochanter had a seta in 32
lombia and Peru at Callao (Breuning, 1927; per cent of the specimens examined. The
Jeannel, 1940). I have seen examples only metepisternum is shorter than that of other
from the archipelago. forms, although not exactly square, and the
RECORDS (FIG. 2): Galdpagos: Culpepper wings are slightly reduced and, according to
Island (Darwin). Albemarle (Ilsa Isabela): Van Dyke (1953), not functional. However,
Tagos Cove; Banks Bay; Villamil. Indefatig- some specimens from Tagos Cove and Banks
able (Santa Cruz): Conway Bay; Academy Bay, Albemarle Island, normally have a long
Bay. South Seymour (Baltra). Barrington metepisternum (fig. 15). The tip of the penis
(Santa Fe). Chatham (San Cristobal). Tower is generally thin, in some specimens thicker,
(Genovesa): Darwin Bay. James (San Salva- closely resembling the beetles from Chatham
dor) Charles (Santa Maria). Hood (Espa- or Indefatigable Islands (figs. 62-64).
fiola). Although darwinia is slightly different
The species of Calosoma are generally found from the other forms of galapageium, it more
in the lowlands, although some forms are clearly resembles the type of galapagejum
restricted to higher altitudes. than most beetles from the other islands; it
As with such animals as finches and tor- also has a brownish color, as does the type, a
toises, galapageium beetles vary from island shorter metepisternum, and is small. As
to island but perhaps to a lesser degree than acknowledged by Van Dyke (1953), darwinia
the other forms. is an excellent example of the effect of isola-
Males Females
Locality No. of Size in Mm. No. of Size in Mm.
Specimens Range Average Specimens Range Average
Tagos Cove 6 18-19.5 18.5 15 17-20 19.3
Banks Bay 3 16-18 17.3 7 18.5-21 19.3
Villamil 65 15-20 17.0 26 16-20 17.6
Charles 19 14.5-20.5 17.5 5 19-19.5 19.0
Chatham 39 16-20 18.3 25 17-20 19.0
Indefatigable 5 18-21 19.6 9 18-21 19.5
Hood 1 17.5 5 16.5-20 18.7
James 3 18.5-21 19.5 3 16-19.5 18.3
South Seymour - 2 18-20 19.0
Tower - 13 19-21 20.0
Culpeppera - - - -
a Specimens broken, not measurable.

tion, but I think it does not warrant the also brown, with a bluish or purplish luster in
status of a species. Van Dyke thought that it the depressions and margin; it has no humeri,
had been derived from howardi stock and, an almost square metepisternum (fig. 18), and
being restricted to higher altitudes, was also consequently reduced wings, although they
isolated from howardi by seasonal occurrence, are slightly longer than those of the form
because it does not appear until late summer, from the summit of James Island. Also the
while howardi appears early in spring. penis of the type specimen has a short but
The dates of collection on the material that slightly stouter tip (fig. 74). I have not seen
I have examined cover most of the year. the type of galapageium, but Dr. Britton
Large series were gathered on Albemarle from the British Museum (Natural History)
Island at the end of March, the middle of examined it and kindly sent me the descrip-
April, and the end of August; on Charles and tion and drawings.
Indefatigable Islands in March; on Chatham In describing the type of galapagejum,
Island in October, January, and February; neither Hope (1837) nor Van Dyke (1953)
and on James Island in the beginning April.
of mentioned the genitalia or metepisternum,
I think it would be unreasonable to con- although Van Dyke said that the type has
sider darwinia a subspecies, because we must "much reduced humeri and as a result almost
then name all the other forms from every, or certainly even more reduced wings than
nearly every, island of the Galapagos, start- darwinia."
ing with the forms from Charles Island. Van Dyke compared the type of galapage-
The beetles from Charles Island are deep ium with the specimen collected on the sum-
black, with a navy blue luster, and the males mit of James Island, and he thought that the
are often as small as the smallest examples of type also originated from there because Dar-
darwinia. The penis is even more slender, win, who collected it, camped on James
with a long, thin tip, as in some extreme Island for several days.
examples from Albemarle Island (figs. 68- Linell's howardi, which was described from
70). The basal setae on the pronotum are the material collected by the "Albatross"
absent many specimens, and the metepi- expedition on different islands of the Galipa-
sternum is distinctly longer than wide (fig. gos, also inhabits the shores of James Island.
16). It has a longer metepisternum than does the
The forms from Chatham Island have type of galapageium and normal wings (fig.
almost completely lost the basal setae on the 19). However, as proved by Darlington
pronotum and the seta on the metatrochan- (1936), long- and short-winged individuals
ter. They have a bluish green luster, as in often occur together, irrespective of geo-
specimens from all other islands except graphical isolation.
Albemarle and Charles. The tip of the penis Breuning (1927) and Jeannel (1940) placed
is much thicker than that of males from the howardi as a synonym of galapageium. An-
above-mentioned islands, but in the slender drews, who compared the type of galapageium
forms it is the same as that of some stout with the cotype of howardi, also considered
forms from Albemarle Island (figs. 65, 66). them conspecific (Breuning, 1927). Yet Van
Examples from James Island do not differ Dyke (1953) was sure that howardi "is most
much from the specimens collected on Al- decidedly not a synonym of galapageium."
bemarle Island, except in color, which is With more material from the summit of
bluish, and in having a longer metepisternum. James Island, it may be possible to decide
But one specimen from the summit of the whether howardi is a subspecies of galapage-
island, which I have examined, is peculiar. It ium, which dwells in the interior of the island
has reduced wings, which are narrow and do and probably gradually diverged as a result
not exceed one-half of the length of the elytra, of isolation.
and a correspondingly shorter metepister- The forms from Indefatigable, South Sey-
num, without punctation (fig. 17); the humeri mour, Hood, and Tower Islands all have a
are more rounded; and the penis has a short, bluish green luster; they are neither deep blue
thin tip (fig. 72). This single specimen is very like the forms from Charles Island, nor green
much like the type of galapageium, which is like those from Albemarle. The males from

Number Basal Meta-

Setae on
Localities of
Color Pronotum
sternum Wings trochanter
wtSeaSeta Penisof

Albermarle 123 Greenish 90% Barely longer Slightly 32% Thin

than wide reduced
Charles 24 Bluish 33% Much longer Normal Seta absent Thin
than wide
Chatham 64 Bluish 7% Much longer Normal 1% Thick
green than wide
Indefatigable 14 Bluish 67% Much longer Normal 7% Thick
green than wide
Hood 6 Bluish Absent Much longer Normal Seta absent Thick
green than wide
Summit 1 Greenish Present As wide as Reduced Seta absent Thin
brown long
Shore 6 Bluish 86% Much longer Normal Seta absent Thin
green than wide
South Seymour 2 Bluish Present Much longer Normal Seta absent Not
green than wide examined
Tower 13 Bluish 8% Much longer Normal Not Not
green than wide examined examined

Indefatigable and Hood Islands have a type of galapagejum and placed it as a syn-
stouter penis, although it is more slender than onym. Breuning, who possessed a specimen
that of some examples from Chatham Island from the west coast of South America, com-
(figs. 67, 71). pared it with the cotype of howardi and was
Most of the beetles fron Indefatigable and positive that they were identical.
South Seymour Islands have basal setae on MATERIAL EXAMINED: Two hundred and
the pronotum; those from Hood and Tower eighty-eight specimens.
Islands have not.
The variation in characters is presented Calosoma (Castrida) fulgens Chaudoir
in table 2. In spite of these differences, I Figures 3, 75, 76
believe that they represent only variations of
the same species, galapageium. The differ- Calosomafulgens CHAUDOIR, 1869, p. 370. Type
ences are not always distinct or constant, the locality: Paraguay.
characters often intergrade, and I have found DESCRIPTION: Reddish bronze, with green
examples that appear exactly similar, al- luster, some specimens brilliant green. Head
though they come from different islands. finely, moderately, densely punctate and
From other species of the same subgenus, wrinkled; last segment of maxillary palpi
galapageium is distinguished by the blue lus- shorter and only a little wider than preceding
ter and its smaller size. It often lacks the one; tooth of mentum small and pointed.
setae on the pronotum, especially the basal Pronotum twice as wide as long, with sides
ones, which other species of the subgenus slightly arcuate; lateral margin narrow and
Castrida, except rufipenne, possess. bearing basal and middle setae; hind angles
Gehin's granatense, according to Roeschke obtuse or pointed, in some specimens more
(1900), Breuning (1927), and Jeannel (1940), rounded, and hardly projecting beyond basal
is a synonym of galapageium. Roeschke com- line; disk wrinkled and finely punctate, more
pared granatense from the mainland with the so toward base.

FIG. 3. Distribution of Calosoma (Castrida) fulgens Chaudoir and C. (Castrida)

argentinense Csiki.
Elytra oblong oval, with almost parallel hind angles of the pronotum which are
sides; elytral margin near humeri serrated; pointed infulgens and rounded in retusum.
striae regular, deep, with large punctures; MATERIAL EXAMINED: Nineteen speci-
interstices normally scaly (punctures of each mens.
stria connected transversely with adjacent
striae by arcuate lines), less convex than Calosoma (Castrida) alternans Fabricius
those of alternans or sayi and usually of equal Figures 4, 6, 20, 27, 43, 44, 85
width; foveae large and of same color as
elytra. I have not seen the type of Fabricius'
Ventral side smooth, mesepisternum in alternans ("American Islands"), now in Zoo-
some specimens with a few large punctures, logiske Museum in Copenhagen, but Mrs.
metepisternum sparsely punctate at base, as Patricia Vaurie, who examined it, said that in
well as first abdominal segment and sides of respect to size and the elytra it resembles a
second one; following segments finely punc- specimen of Motschulsky's coxale (northern
tate, more so on sides; legs like those of sayi South America and the Lesser Antilles).
and alternans; metatrochanter arcuate and Breuning (1927), who examined what he
pointed in male, rounded in female; middle thought to be the type of alternans, which was
tibiae of male bearing small patch of red hair at that time in Kiel, said that it is like the
close to tip; all tibiae and tarsi finely punc- South American form granulatum Perty, con-
tate; second segment of hind tarsi two and a specific with coxale Motschulsky. Jeannel
half to three times as long as wide; anterior (1940) saw a cotype of alternans and con-
tarsi of male with three segments dilated and sidered it and coxale synonyms.
bearing dense brush on ventral side. Penis In my previous work (Gidaspow, 1959)
arcuate, with strongly bent tip (fig. 75). This I attributed the name of alternans to the
is the best character for separating fulgens species from the Greater Antilles, as Breu-
from alternans, which resemble each other. ning did (1927), because the beetles from there
Gonapophyses like those of sayi and alter- were known under that name for more than a
nans, with same rounded, leaf-like process, hundred years.
but with sides less arcuate than in alternans. One cannot make a definite distinction
Length, 24-27 mm.;width 10-11 mm. between sayi or alternans on the sole basis of
DISTRIBUTION: From Colombia to Uru- Fabricius' original description (1792) of al-
guay, but not common. ternans, because the majority of the beetles of
RECORDS (FIG. 3): Colombia: Cali. Ecuador: sayi also have the elytral interstices of un-
Posorja; Guayaquil; Punta Santa Elena; equal width. The difference between the two
Chin-Chan Pass. Peru: Tumbes. Uruguay: is that the second and sixth interstices of sayi
San Carlos. Paraguay (no locality given). Ac- are only slightly narrower than the adjacent
cording to Breuning (1927) and Jeannel ones, and in alternans they are very distinctly
(1940), the species occurs also in Bolivia. narrower. There are also other differences,
It seems that fulgens prefers lowlands, such but they are not mentioned in the original
as the plains of Cali, with thickets of bushes description. Yet, since all entomologists who
and prairies, or grassland of savanna type, have seen the type of alternans agree that it
and fields with herbaceous vegetation. definitely resembles Motschulsky's coxale or
This species is very like alternans granula- Petry's granulatum, I have no choice, no
tum, the most important difference being in matter how much I might wish to have the
the male genitalia; the tip of the penis in name alternans used for the species from the
fulgens is strongly bent (fig. 75), while in Greater Antilles.
alternans it is almost straight (fig. 77). Also Because granulatum is more shining with
the elytral interstices in fulgens are less con- brilliant green luster on the head and prono-
vex, and usually of equal width, while in tum and with coppery elytra, and because
alternans they are strongly convex, with the coxale is dustier, like the type, I think it
second, sixth, and tenth much narrower than would be better to place coxale and not
the adjacent ones. The females of fulgens also granulatum as a synonym of alternans, as was
resemble those of retusum but differ in the done by Jeannel (1940).


VOL. 124

Calosoma (Costrido) % 1 1 g

B alt ern a n s

FIG. 4. Distribution of Calosoma (Castrida) alternans Fabricius, and C. (Castrida) sayi Dejean.
The forms from the central and southern shaped, furrow near tip of process rounded or
parts of South America, known under the oval, bearing two tiny setae (fig. 85).
name of granulatum, are definitely conspecific Length, 23-30 mm.; width, 10-12 mm.
with alternans (synonym coxale) and should Calosoma alternans is a polytypic species
be left as subspecies. with two subspecies: alternans alternans, in-
DESCRIPTION: Calosoma (Castrida) alter- habiting northern and northwestern South
nans is dark, with coppery bronze elytra, and America (Venezuela, Colombia, northern
often has green luster on the head, pronotum, Brazil, British Guiana) and Central America,
and elytral margin (subspecies granulatum). including southern Mexico, and the Lesser
Head finely wrinkled and moderately or more Antilles; and alternans granulatum, occupying
sparsely punctate, rugose near eyes; last seg- central and southern South America, except
ment of maxillary palpi a little shorter and the extreme south (Brazil, south of the river
not much wider than preceding one; tooth Amazon, Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, and
of mentum short, pointed, and with pore Argentina).
punctures. This species is apparently well adapted to
Pronotum twice as wide as long; lateral humid climates. It inhabits regions with
margin narrow, with basal and middle setae; dense forests, such as the lowlands of the
hind angles pointed, small, almost obliter- states of Amazonas and Minas Geraes, but it
ated, not extending beyond basal line; disk is found also in the drier deciduous scrub
wrinkled, in some specimens also punctate, at forests with tropical and subtropical scrub
base and sides rugose. and thorns, such as Rio Grande do Norte in
Elytra oblong, with nearly parallel sides; Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia, on the
margin near humeri normally serrated, rarely grass plains of Argentina, and on sugar-cane
even or with traces of serration; striae deep, plantations or other cultivated fields.
punctate, interstices convex and of unequal Apparently there is not much difference in
width, second, sixth, and tenth being much the habits of the two subspecies. Although
narrower than adjacent ones (in subspecies alternans alternans lives in northern South
alternans alternans fourth, eighth, and twelfth America, it occurs, as does alternans granula-
interstices also often narrower); punctures of tum, in the regions of evergreen forests, in the
adjacent striae connected by transverse, area of savanna where the grass is mixed with
arcuate lines, making elytra scaly; foveae bushes (Caracas Valley), on pastures (Mara-
large, golden, or coppery. cay), and on plantations (Caracas and
Ventral side dark brown, in some speci- Georgetown).
mens with green luster (mostly in subspecies The species alternans and sayi undoubtedly
granulatum); proepisternum smooth or finely originate from the same stock. The most dis-
wrinkled; mesepisternum, metepisternum, tinct difference between them is in the width
and first abdominal segment with large, of the elytral interstices, the second, sixth,
sparse punctures, second and third segments and tenth being much narrower than the
with smaller punctures, following ones finely adjacent ones in alternans and only slightly
punctate on sides or entirely; metatrochanter narrower, or are of equal width, in sayi. Only
without setae, in male strongly arcuate and the tenth elytral interstice of sayi is normally
pointed on tip, in female straight and slightly distinctly narrower than the adjacent inter-
pointed (figs. 43, 44); middle tibiae in both stice. The elytral margin in alternans is, in
sexes distinctly arcuate and in male with most specimens, serrated near the humeri,
small patch of red hair; second segment of and is not, or barely so, serrated in sayi. The
hind tarsi almost three times as long as wide; hind angles of the pronotum are in most in-
anterior tarsi of male with three segments stances more pointed in alternans. The ante-
dilated and bearing dense brush on ventral rior tarsi of males of alternans are more dilated,
side; second segment with depression on dor- and all three segments have a dense brush on
sal side. Penis slender, with thin, straight tip, the ventral side, while in sayi only two seg-
inner armature ending in long hook, as in sayi ments have a brush, and the first one is partly
(fig. 77); female genitalia like those of sayi, glabrous. In some males of sayi all three seg-
but leaf-like process somewhat less spoon- ments are glabrous on the ventral side, as




0 Calosoma sayi

FIG. 5. Distribution of Calosoma (Castrida) sayi Dejean on the Greater Antilles.

they normally are in females. However, in Yet this character is not constant; it almost
large series of alternans I have seen a few disappears in the forms from Colombia but
specimens with the first segment partly or is more distinct in specimens from Venezuela.
entirely glabrous. At the same time the subspecies granulatum
from Pernambuco, Brazil, has the same form
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans alternans of pronotum as does alternans from Ven-
Fabricius ezuela.
Carabus alternans FABRICIUS, 1792, p. 146. Type DISTRIBUTION: The subspecies alternans
locality: "American Islands." alternans inhabits northern South America
Callistriga coxale MOTSCHULSKY, 1865, p. 307; and the Lesser Antilles and occurs as far
new name for Calosoma armatum Reiche, 1842, p. north as southern Mexico.
377, preoccupied by armatum Castelnau (1835), RECORDS (FIG. 6): Mexico: Cordoba. Pan-
a synonym of sayi Dejean. Type locality: Vene-
ama: Chiriqui. Colombia: La Garita. Ven-
ezuela: Distrito Federal: Caracas Valley;
The notable difference between the two Turmero. Carabobo: Las Trincheras; Mara-
subspecies alternans and granulatum is the cay. Falcon: Paraiso. Bolivar. Bermudes:
dustier color of alternans, which lacks the Caripito. El Valle on Isla Margarita (Nueva
brilliancy and green luster of granulatum. In Esparta). San Fernando de Apure on Apure
addition, the elytral interstices of alternans, River. La Vuelta (not found on the map).
which bear foveae, are narrower than the British Guiana: Georgetown; Upper Rupu-
adjacent ones. However, in many specimens nuni. Brazil: Santarem? Lesser Antilles: St.
from Venezuela these interstices are of the Croix; St. Barthelemy; Dominica; Marti-
same width, as usual in the subspecies granu- nique; Trinidad. According to Breuning
latum. The pronotum in alternans is a little (1927), the species occurs also in Ecuador and
smaller and has more pointed side angles. Peru, but I have seen no material to confirm

FIG. 6. Distribution of Calosoma (Castrida) alternans alternans Fabricius and

C. (Castrida) alternans granulatum Perty.
this. Jeannel (1940) supposed that alternans Norte: Jaguariba River. Mato Grosso: Co-
was also found in the Greater Antilles (Puerto rumba River; Salobro. Pernambuco: Recife.
Rico), but it does not occur farther north Alagoas: Pedro. Bahia: Joaseiro; San Antonio
than the islands of St. Croix and St. Barthel- de Barra; Villa Victoria; Bomfin. Goyaz.
emy. The single specimen that I have seen Minas Geraes: Passa Quarta; Lavras. Pa-
from Santarem, Brazil, is either a stray (car- rana: Rolandia; Rio Deodoro. Rio de Janeiro:
ried by wind or otherwise), or was mislabeled, City of Rio de Janeiro; Alto de Serra. Sao
because Santarem is the locality of the sub- Paulo: City of Sao Paulo; Angatuba; Ypi-
species granulatum. However, northern Bra- ranga River; Piracicaba Mountains. Santa
zil is inhabited by alternans alternans.1 Catarina: Lanca; Cauna; Joinville; Nova
MATERIAL EXAMINED: Ninety-three speci- Teutonia; Rio Negrinho; Hansa Humboldt.
mens. Rio Grande do Sul: Pelotas; Porto Alegre.
Calosoma (Castrida) alternans granulatum
Bolivia: Province del Sara; Santa Cruz;
Perty Buena Vista. Paraguay: Paso Yobay; Alto
Parana; Villarica; Tucuara. Argentina: Mis-
Calosoma granulatum PERTY, 1830, p. 9, pl. 2, siones; Corrientes; La Plata; Buenos Aires;
fig. 9; new name for Calosoma laterale Dejean, Bahia Blanca; Patagonia. Uruguay: Mon-
1826, p. 199, preoccupied by laterale Kirby, 1818, tevideo.
p. 379, a synonym of retusum. Type locality: Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil. The area between the two subspecies is not
Calamata rugata MOTSCHULSKY, 1865, p. 308. exactly known, although granulatum appar-
Type locality: South America. ently does not occur farther north than the
Calosoma orbignyi GEHIN, 1885, p. 59; new Amazon River (southern part of Amazonas
name for Calosoma imbricatum Brulle, 1838, pre- and Para states). The southern limit of its
occupied by imbricatum Klug, 1832. Type locality: distribution is probably in northern Pata-
Patagonia, Argentina. gonia, because the form described by Brull6
The subspecies granulatum differs from (1838) as imbricatum, a synonym of granula-
alternans alternans in its more shining, reddish tum, was collected there.
coppery elytra with green margin and its Roeschke (1900) considered granulatum (as
brilliant green luster on the head and prono- laterale) a South American form from Brazil
tum, the latter with more rounded side angles. and Argentina. He recognized the variety
Also the interstices bearing foveae are nor- coxale from Venezuela and Colombia. The
mally of the same width as the adjacent ones form alternans, according to him, inhabits
in granulatum and a little narrower in the North America and the Antilles.
subspecies alternans. Unfortunately these Breuning (1927) said that the type of
characters, except for the color, are not con- Fabricius' alternans, which he had seen, was
stant, and I have found individuals that are more like granulatum; nevertheless he did not
not distinguishable by the form of the pro- rename the forms from the Greater Antilles
notum or by the width of the elytral inter- but followed Roeschke. However, Jeannel
stices. (1940), who examined the cotype of Fabri-
DISTRIBUTION: Common in most of Brazil, cius' alternans, considered coxale to be a
except the northern part, and in the eastern synonym of it, and granulatum a subspecies.
regions of Argentina; occurring also in Bo- MATERIAL EXAMINED: One hundred and
livia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. forty-one specimens.
RECORDS (FIG. 6): Brazil: Amazonas: Calosoma (Castrida) sayi Dejean
Manaos: Manicore. Para: Santarem; Tejuco Figures 4, 5, 28, 32, 39, 77
River. Maranhao: Jussural. Rio Grande do Calosoma sayi DEJEAN, 1826, p. 198. Type
1 Since the time of submission of the present paper, I
locality: Mexico.
have seen five more specimens from Santarem, Brazil, Calosoma armata CASTELNAU, 1835, p. 156.
which more closely resemble alternans alternans than Type locality: Mexico.
alternans granulatum, which has cast doubt on the Calosoma sayi abdominale GEHIN, 1885, p. 58.
taxonomic status of granulatum and alternans as sub- Type locality: Mexico.
species. With more material available from the zone of Calosoma sayi virginica CASEY, 1897, p. 344.
intergradation their status could be decided. Type locality: Norfolk, Virginia.
Calosoma cuprascens ROESCHKE, 1900, p. 71. MATERIAL EXAMINED: Two hundred and
Type locality undetermined. sixty-eight specimens, of which 90 are from
This North American species is abundant the Greater Antilles.
in the United States and occurs southward as
far as Guatemala and the Greater Antilles. Calosoma (Castida) vagans Dejean
It resembles alternans but differs in the Figures 7, 30, 34, 38, 42, 80, 81
width of the elytral interstices, the second Calosoma vagans DEJEAN, 1831, p. 564. Type
and sixth being either slightly narrower than locality: Chile.
the adjacent ones or all of equal width, while
in alternans they are distinctly narrower. Also DESCRIPTION: This is the only species of
the anterior tarsi of the males of sayi have the subgenus Castrida without metallic lus-
only two segments with a dense brush on the ter; it is dark brown, with elytra that are
ventral side, whereas alternans males have slightly lighter, often reddish, but darker
three. than in rufipenne.
RECORDS (FIG. 5): (For localities in the Front of the head finely wrinkled and
United States and Mexico, see Gidaspow, finely, sparsely punctate, rarely more densely
1959.) Guatemala: Tiquisate. Greater Antilles: punctate, near occiput and clypeus smooth;
Cuba: Guanahacabibes Peninsula; Cienfue- last segment of maxillary palpi shorter and
gos; Holguin; Jobabo; Guantanamo. Ja- distinctly wider than preceding one (fig. 38);
maica: Montego Bay; Claremont; Old Har- tooth of mentum very short, in specimens
bour; Saint Andrew; Port Antonio. Haiti: from Argentina almost blunt, more pointed
Port au Prince. Dominican Republic: San- in examples from Peru and Chile (about 40%
tiago. Puerto Rico: Mayaguez; Anasco; De- of the beetles examined had a pointed tooth).
sengano; Ponce. Pronotum twice or nearly twice as wide as
There is little difference between the forms long, widest shortly before middle; sides
living on the mainland and those on the slightly arcuate, lateral margin narrow, with
islands, but a typical form from the Greater basal and middle setae; hind angles obtuse,
Antilles is slightly smaller and brighter. The projecting beyond basal line; disk almost
average size of 90 specimens examined from smooth, finely wrinkled, sparsely punctate
the islands is 24 mm. (range, 19-28 mm.), and rugose at base.
while the average size of 100 specimens from Elytra with regular, punctate striae, inter-
the mainland is 27 mm. (range, 22-30 mm.). stices less convex than in other species of
There is considerable overlap; also, large and Castrida, seldom flat, with fine, transverse
dark examples, like typical forms from the wrinkles, deeper toward sides; foveae small,
mainland, are found on the islands, many on not occupying the width of one interstice, but
Puerto Rico, a few on Haiti. distinct, in some specimens with faint metallic
Therefore it seems best not to recognize luster; elytral margin near humeri even or
any subspecies. with traces of serration.
The specimens collected on different islands Ventral side black or brown, proepisternum
also do not differ much, except that, as is smooth, mesepisternum, metepisternum, and
stated above, darker forms are found on first abdominal segment with large, sparse
Puerto Rico and Haiti, and beetles from punctures, following segments with finer
Jamaica have a light serration on the elytral punctation, in most cases on sides, last one
margin that is absent in the specimens from wrinkled and bearing from four to six setae
the other islands. on apex instead of usual eight; third, fourth,
The history of sayi, as well as of alternans, and fifth segments with two setae each; meta-
is very confusing. Dejean (1826) considered trochanter without seta, in both sexes with
that sayi was a full species, different from rounded or barely pointed tip (fig. 42); mid-
alternans auctorum, and was found on the dle tibiae of male with brush of red hair;
mainland. Roeschke (1900), Breuning (1927), front tibiae smooth, without fine punctures,
and Gidaspow (1959) placed it as a subspecies so common in other members of subgenus
of alternans auctorum. Jeannel (1940) rec- Castrida; in males all three segments of
ognized it as a separate species. anterior tarsi dilated and with dense brush on

FIG. 7. Distribution of Calosoma (Castrida) vagans Dejean, C. (Castrida) retusum

Fabricius, and C. (Castrida) abbreviatum Chaudoir.
ventral side; second segment of anterior tarsi, Calosoma patagoniense HOPE, 1837, p. 129.
and in some specimens also the third one, Type locality: Patagonia.
with slight depression on dorsal side, not DESCRIPTION: Metallic green or bronze,
conspicuous in every case; second segment with bright green luster, specimens from
of hind tarsi not more than twice as long as southern Brazil reddish bronze. Head sparsely
wide (fig. 34). Penis wide, with round, slightly or more densely punctate and deeply wrin-
bent tip, recalling that of peregrinator (fig. kled, rugose near eyes; punctures larger and
80). Gonapophyses of usual type, leaf-like sparser than those of argentinense and abbrevi-
process narrowly rounded on tip, with elon- atum, which this species resembles; tooth of
gated furrow bearing two tiny setae. mentum pointed. In specimens from Rio de
Length, 19-25 mm.; width, 8.5-10.5 mm. Janeiro, Brazil, and some individuals from
DISTRIBUTION: Southern South America, Montevideo, Uruguay, the tooth of the men-
common in Chile, occasional in Peru and tum is blunt and the body is less shining than
Argentina, mostly in mountainous regions in forms from Argentina. Last segment of
and on plateau covered by brushwood, or in maxillary palpi as long as, though distinctly
cultivated fields, as in the provinces of Acon- wider than, preceding one.
cagua and Bio Bio, in the dry areas of Con-
cepcion, Maule, and Coquimbo, and in the Pronotum twice or more than twice as
regions with rather cold winters, such as wide as long, widest in middle; sides slightly
Carrizal, and other places on high mountains. arcuate; hind angles rounded, projecting be-
RECORDS (FIG. 7): Peru: No special locality yond basal line; disk lightly wrinkled and
given. Argentina: Neuquen: Teilen. Rio finely, sparsely punctate, toward base rugose;
Negro. Patagonia. Chile: Atacama: Carrizal. lateral margin slightly wider at base; middle
Coquimbo: Guampulla; Higuera; La Serena; and basal setae present.
Los Loros. Aconcagua: Casablanca. Val- Sides of elytra parallel; margin near humeri
paraiso. Santiago: City of Santiago; Ciperes. slightly serrated; striae deep, punctate, punc-
Curico: Vichuquen. Maule: Negueeha. Nuble: tures connected by lines; punctures of adja-
San Fabian de Alico; Recinto. Concepcion: cent striae connected by transverse arcuate
Pangal; Caudal River. Malleco: Angol. Bio lines, making elytra scaly; interstices convex
Bio: City of Bio Bio; Bayo. Cautin: Temuco; and of equal width, but tenth one often
Quepe. Valdivia: Panguipulli Lake; Ronco narrower; foveae large.
Lake; Pufnirre; Villarrica; Valdivia. Yunque Ventral side dark brown, with light metal-
Island. lic luster; proepisternum smooth, mesepi-
This species differs from others of the sub- sternum, metepisternum, first and second
genus Castrida in its uniform brown color abdominal segments slightly wrinkled and in
without metallic luster. It more clearly re- some specimens also punctate on sides, last
sembles glabratum, but the latter has the segment more coarsely punctate, and bearing
sides of the pronotum angulated and without from four to eight setae on apex; third, fourth,
basal setae, the middle tibiae in both sexes and fifth segments with two to four setae
straight, the metatrochanter with a seta, and each; metatrochanter without seta, in female
different genitalia. It also belongs to a differ- with rounded tip, in male not truncate as in
ent subgenus, Camedula. abbreviatum but slightly curved and more or
MATERIAL EXAMINED: One hundred and less pointed at lower end (figs. 47, 48); middle
thirty-eight specimens. tibiae and middle tarsi usually finely, sparsely
punctate; anterior tarsi of male with three
Calosoma (Castrida) retusum Fabricius segments broadly dilated, second one twice
Figures 7, 10, 26, 35, 47, 48, 78, 79, 88 as wide as long, depression on dorsal side
Carabus retusum FABRICIUS, 1775, p. 237. Type present, all three segments having brush on
locality: Patagonia. ventral side; second segment of hind tarsi
Calosoma laterale KIRBY, 1818, p. 379. Type rarely more than twice as long as wide (fig.
locality: undetermined. 35). Tip of penis rounded, slightly bent, inner
Calosoma bonariense DEJEAN, 1831, p. 560. armature with long hook, as in argentinense
Type locality: Buenos Aires, Argentina. (figs. 78, 79). Gonapophyses of usual type, tip
of leaf-like process less pointed than that of In granulatum, the second, sixth, and tenth
argentinense (fig. 88). elytral interstices are narrower than the
DISTRIBUTION: Southern South America, adjacent ones, the metatrochanter is arcuate
very abundant in Argentina, where it is and pointed in the male and slightly pointed
found from Salta and Tucuman to Rio Negro; in the female, the last segment of the maxil-
apparently absent in Chile. lary palpi is barely shorter and barely wider
Although retusum can be found in the for- than the preceding one, the male genitalia
ests of southern Brazil, it seems to prefer have an almost straight tip, and the leaf-like
drier regions with sparse vegetation, such as process of the female is rounded and spoon-
the plains with dry brush and desert scrub in shaped, as in sayi (Gidaspow, 1959, p. 339,
Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, and Pampa. fig. 175).
It is also found on grassland, alfalfa, and As proved by Breuning (1927) and Jeannel
pastures of Mendoza, San Lusi, and Buenos (1940), Calosoma laterale Kirby, bonariense
Aires. Dejean, and patagoniense Hope are synonyms
RECORDS (FIG. 7): Brazil: Rio de Janeiro. of retusum. The bonariense which was men-
Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia. Rio Grande tioned by Campos (1921) is apparently not
do Sul: Pelotas. Uruguay: Santa Lucia; Mon- the same as Dejean's bonariense. The Campos
tevideo. Argentina: Jujuy: East Yoto. Salta: specimen was collected in Ecuador, where
Rosario. Tucuman: Zelaya. Santiago del retusum (synonym bonariense) does not occur.
Estero. Santa Fe: Rio Salado; Rio Parana; Breuning (1927) thought that Campos mis-
La Hersilia. Cordoba: Capilla del Monte. took abbreviatum for bonariense.
Mendoza: San Rafael. San Luis: Lago del MATERIAL EXAMINED: Eighty-eight speci-
Peje. Buenos Aires: City of Buenos Aires; mens.
Olivos; La Plata; Tandil. Pampa: Rio Colo-
rado. Rio Negro: Cipolletti; Lamarque. Ac- Calosoma (Castrida) abbreviatum Chaudoir
cording to Breuning (1927), also in Bolivia. Figures 7, 23, 49-52, 82
Calosoma retusum, although it resembles
argentinense and abbreviatum, is easily dis- Calosoma abbreviatum CHAUDOIR, 1869, p. 371.
tinguished from them. The sides of the pro- Type locality: Peru or Bolivia.
notum are more rounded, with rounded hind DESCRIPTION: Dark metallic green or dark
angles that extend backward. It also has a reddish bronze, with green luster. Head wrin-
smoother head and pronotum with sparse kled and densely or moderately punctate;
punctures. Its elytral striae have distinct last segment of maxillary palpi shorter and
punctures, and the interstices are less convex wider than preceding one; tooth of mentum
and not scaly. Its color is brighter, with bril- small and pointed.
liant green luster. The other two species have Pronotum twice or more than twice as wide
the pronotum narrowed posteriorly, the hind as long, narrowed posteriorly, widest before
angles almost obliterated and more pointed, middle; hind angles pointed and extending
the head and pronotum densely punctate, the barely if at all beyond basal line; lateral
elytral striae with inconspicuous punctures, margin with basal and middle setae; disk
the interstices more convex, more scaly, and densely wrinkled and punctate.
are of a dustier color. Elytra with more or less parallel sides, in
The specimens of retusum collected in some slightly wider toward apex; margin near
southern Brazil (Nova Teutonia and Pelotas) humeri serrated; foveae large, normally
resemble alternans granulatum and could be bright; striae deep, imprinted lines, with fine
easily mistaken for the latter. Yet in retusum or inconspicuous punctures, interstices con-
the elytral interstices are of equal width, the vex and of equal width, scaly from base to
metatrochanter of the male is not arcuate and apex.
in the female more rounded, the last segment Ventral side brown, proepisternum and
of the maxillary palpi is shorter and stouter mesepisternum smooth, metepisternum with
than the preceding, the male genitalia have a a few large punctures; abdominal segments
slightly bent tip, and the leaf-like process of finely, sparsely punctate, finely wrinkled and
the female has arcuate sides (figs. 78, 88). with larger punctures on sides; last abdom-
inal segment bearing eight setae on apex; occupied by antiquum Fourcroy, 1785, synonym of
third, fourth, and fifth segments with two to inquisitor. Type locality: Cordoba, Argentina.
four setae each; metatrochanter truncate, es- DESCRIPTION: Coppery or bronze, with
pecially in males, slightly pointed at lower green elytral margin and sides of pronotum,
end, usually without seta (figs. 49-52); mid- some specimens with the same green luster as
dle tibiae of male with brush of red hair which in abbreviatum, which it resembles. Head and
may be as long as in rufipenne, and in some pronotum as densely punctate and wrinkled
individuals as thin as a row of sparse setae; as those of abbreviatum; last segment of
anterior tarsi of male with three segments maxillary palpi also shorter and wider than
dilated and having dense brush on ventral preceding one; tooth of mentum small and
side, first segment half glabrous, second one pointed.
without depression on dorsal side, which is Pronotum less narrowed posteriorly than
usual for the subgenus Castrida; second seg- that of abbreviatum, with sides less arcuate,
ment of hind tarsi not more than twice as long and lateral margin slightly wider at base;
as wide. Penis moderately wide, with short, hind angles almost obliterated, obtuse, less
rounded, and straight tip (fig. 82); gonapoph- pointed than those of abbreviatum; basal and
yses like those of retusum. middle setae also present.
Length, 22-25 mm.; width, 8.5-10 mm. Elytra a little more elongated than those of
DISTRIBUTION: Northwestern South Amer- abbreviatum, although this character is not so
ica, in cotton-growing regions of Piura and distinct as is usually represented in the litera-
Ica valleys in Peru, on the brush-covered ture; striae imprinted lines with very fine, in
plains of Colombia (Cali), and other regions some cases inconspicuous, punctures, as in
where cultivated fields must be protected abbreviatum; interstices as scaly, but the
from the moving dunes, and sand reaches the tenth interstice in some narrower than adja-
foothills of the oak forests, as in Libertad and cent ones, while in abbreviatum it is not;
parts of Piura and Ica. elytral margin near humeri serrated.
RECORDS (FIG. 7): Colombia: Cali. Ecuador:
Santa Helena. Peru: Piura. Tumbez: Quiroz Last abdominal segment bearing more
on the Paucartambo River. Libertad: Car- setae than does that of abbreviatum, up to 12
tavio. Lima. Huancavelica: Ica. Bolivia on apex; metatrochanter not truncate,
(Chaudoir, 1869). rounded in female, slightly pointed in male
This species resembles retusum and argen- (figs. 45, 46); depression on dorsal side of
tinense but differs from them in the dustier second segment of anterior tarsi in male con-
color, in the truncate, not rounded, meta- spicuous. Penis with slender, bent tip (fig. 83),
trochanter, in the absence of a depression on while that of abbreviatum is short, stout, and
the second segment of the anterior tarsi of the straight (fig. 82). Female genitalia like those
male, and in the stouter penis with shorter of abbreviatum.
tip. From retusum it differs also in the form Length, 20-25 mm.; width, 8-11 mm.
of the pronotum, with its almost obliterated DISTRIBUTION: Southern South America,
hind angles, and in the inconspicuous punc- from southern Brazil and Bolivia to northern
tures on the elytral striae. Patagonia, but mostly in the northern and
Except for slight color variations, there is central provinces of Argentina. Apparently,
not much difference in the specimens of argentinense prefers drier regions. It is found
abbreviatum from various places. Most forms in Sierra Cordoba, which is covered by
from Cartavio have reddish bronze elytra, xerophyte forests, in the sparse woods of the
with only faint green luster. Salto Mountains, in the dry regions of Salado
MATERIAL EXAMINED: One hundred and River, in the dry valleys of Pampa, with
thirteen specimens. brush and desert scrub or isolated grass
bushes on barren soil, and in the pastures of
Calosoma (Castrida) argentinense Csiki La Rioja and plantations in Jujuy and Tucu-
Figures 3, 11, 21, 29, 45, 46, 83 man. In these regions it is very common.
Calosoma argentinense CSIKI, 1927, p. 11; new RECORDS (FIG. 3): Brazil: Rio de Janeiro.
name for antiquum Dejean, 1831, p. 561, pre- Argentina: Jujuy. Alta: Metan. Chaco. Cata-
marca. Tucuman: City of Tucuman; Campo; Although argentinense resembles abbrevia-
Tabia. Santiago del Estero: Rio Salado; tum, it is not difficult to distinguish them.
Santiago. La Rioja: Agua Colorada. San Luis. Calosoma argentinense is slightly reddish; ab-
Cordoba: City of Cordoba; Agua del Oro; Del breviatum is greenish. Also the form of the
Monte; Rio Cuarto. Santa Fe: Las Garzas; metatrochanter is different, in argentinense
Rosario. Buenos Aires: City of Buenos Aires; pointed, in abbreviatum truncate. A depression
Estacion Albarino; Paia; Tablillo. Pampa: on the dorsal side of the second segment of the
Santa Rosa. Neuquen: Lake Nahuel Huapi. front tarsi in the male of argentinense is
According to Breuning (1927), it also occurs absent in abbreviatum.
in La Paz, Bolivia, and, according to Jeannel MATERIAL EXAMINED: Eighty-eight speci-
(1940), in San Antonio, Paraguay. mens.


9 10


14 15 16 19
16 17

20 21 22 23
FIGS. 8-11. Dorsal views. 8. Calosoma (Microcalosoma) linelli Mutchler. 9-11. Head, pro-
notum, and part of elytra. 9. Calosoma (Castrida) trapezipenne Chaudoir. 10. C. (Castrida)
retusum Fabricius. 11. C. (Castrida) argentinense Csiki.
FIGS. 12-21. Metepisterna, ventral views. 14-19. Left metepisterna. 12, 13, 20, 21. Right
metepisterna. 12. Calosoma (Microcalosoma) linelli Mutchler. 13. C. (Castrida) trapezipenne
Chaudoir. 14-19. Calosoma (Castrida) galapageium Hope. 14. From Albemarle Island, Villamil.
15. From Albemarle Island, Banks Bay. 16. From Charles Island. 17. From James Island,
summit. 18. Type of galapageium Hope. 19. From James Island, shore. 20. C. (Castrida)
alternans granulatum Perty. 21. C. (Castrida) argentinense Csiki.
FIGS. 22, 23. Mandibles, dorsal view. 22. Calosoma (Castrida) trapezipenne Chaudoir. 23.
C. (Castrida) abbreviatum Chaudoir.
24 25
26 27 28 29

013 y
30 31 32ii q 1t 35
33 34

2 (7... (f

36 37 38 39 40 41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48

54 55
49 50 51 52 53
FIGS. 24-30. Prosternal process, ventral view. 24. Calosoma (Castrida) trapezi-
penne Chaudoir. 25. C. (Castrida) galapageium Hope. 26. C. (Castrida) retusum
Fabricius. 27. C. (Castrida) alternans Fabricius (from South America). 28. C.
(Castrida) sayi Dejean (from the Greater Antilles). 29. C. (Castrida) argentinense
Csiki. 30. C. (Castrida) vagans Dejean.
FIGS. 31-35. Hind tarsi. 31, 32, 35. First and second segments. 33, 34. All five
segments. 31. Calosoma (Castrida) rufipenne Dejean. 32. C. (Castrida) sayi Dejean.
33. C. (Microcalosoma) linelli Mutchler. 34. C. (Castrida) vagans Dejean. 35.
C. (Castrida) retusum Fabricius.
FIGS. 36-39. Palpi maxillary. 36. Calosoma (Microcalosoma) linelli Mutchler.
37. C. (Castrida) rufipenne Dejean. 38. C. (Castrida) vagans Dejean. 39. C. (Castri-
da) sayi Dejean.
FIGS. 40-52. Metatrochanter, ventral view. 40, 41. Calosoma (Castrida) trapezi-
penne Chaudoir. 40. Male. 41. Female. 42. C. (Castrida) vagans Dejean, male.
43, 44. C. (Castrida) alternans Fabricius. 43. Male. 44. Female, 45, 46. C. (Castrida)
argentinense Csiki. 45. Male. 46. Female. 47, 48. C. (Castrida) retusum Fabricius.
47. Male. 48. Female. 49-52. C. (Castrida) abbreviatum Chaudoir. 49-51. Males.
52. Female.
FIGS. 53-55. Calosoma (Castrida) trapezipenne Chaudoir. 53. Mentum and tooth
of mentum. 54, 55. Individual variations of tooth of mentum.

56 57 59 60

62 63 64

67 68
65 66

69 70 71


73 74 75 .76 77
FIGS. 56-77. Male genitalia with inner armature exposed. 58, 60, 76. Inner armature, side
views. 56. Calosoma (Camedula) glabratum Dejean. 57, 58. C. (Microcalosoma) linelli Mutchler.
59, 60. C. (Castrida) trapezipenne Chaudoir. 61. C. (Castrida) rufipenne Dejean. 62-74. C. (Cas-
trida) galapageium Hope. 62. From Albemarle Island, Banks Bay. 63, 64. From Albemarle Island,
Villamil. 65, 66. From Chatham Island. 67. From Indefatigable Island. 68, 69, 70. From Charles
Island. 71. From Hood Island. 72, 73. From James Island. 72. From summit of island. 73. From
shore. 74. Type of galapageium Hope. 75, 76. C. (Castrida) fulgens Chaudoir. 77. C. (Castrida)
sayi Dejean (from the Greater Antilles).

78 79
's~~ '
80 81

82 83

a i

... I. . zI I
t',I:. (I
.,." (Is
1, .,% Ai .: I
..\,.. 41 C.

84 85 86

87 88
FIGS. 78-83. Male genitalia, with inner armature exposed. 79, 81. Inner armature,
side views. 78, 79. Calosoma (Castrida) retusum Fabricius. 80, 81. C. (Castrida) vagans
Dejean. 82. C. (Castrida) abbreviatum Chaudoir. 83. C. (Castrida) argentinense Csiki.
FIGS. 84-88. Female genitalia, ventral views. 84. Calosoma (Microcalosoma) linelli
Mutchler. 85. C. (Castrida) alternans granulatum Perty. 86. C. (Castrida) trapezipenne
Chaudoir. 87. C. (Castrida) rufipenne Dejean. 88. C. (Castrida) retusum Fabricius.
1902. Observations sur quelques calosomes du 1826. Species general des col6opteres de la col-
Perou (Col.). Bull. Soc. Ent. France, lection de M. le Comte Dejean. Paris,
pp. 83-85. vol. 2, pp. 1-502.
BATES, HENRY W. 1831. [Same title.] Paris, vol. 5, pp. 1-883.
1881-1884. Biologia Centrali-Americana, In- FABRICIUS, JOHANN
secta Coleoptera. London, vol. 1, pt. 1, 1775. Systema entomologiae sistens insec-
pp. 1-316, pls. 1-13. torum classes, ordinens, genera, species.
BLACKWELDER, RICHARD E. Flensburg and Leipzig, pp. 1-832.
1944. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of 1792. Entomologia sytematica. Copenhagen,
Mexico, Central America, the West vol. 1, pp. 1-330.
Indies, and South America. Part 1. Bull. FOURCROY, ANTOINE FRANVOIS
U. S. Natl. Mus., no. 185, pp. 1-188. 1785. Entomologia Parisiensis, sive catalogus
BREUNING, STEPHAN insectorum quae in agro Parisiensi re-
1927. Monographie der Gattung Calosoma perintur. Paris, 2 vols., pp. 1-544 (from
Weber. Koleopt. Rundschau, vol. 13, Blackwelder).
1928. [Same title.] Wiener Ent. Zeitg., vol. 44, 1885. Catalogue synonymique et syste.
pp. 81-141. matique des col6opteres de la tribu
BRULLE, GASPARD A. carabides. Remiremont, pp. 1-104.
1838. Insectes dans l'Amerique meridionale GIDASPOW, TATIANA
receuillis par Alcide d'Orbigny. Paris, 1959. North American caterpillar hunters of
vol. 6, pt. 2, pp. 1-222, pls. 1-52. the genera Calosoma and Callisthenes
CAMPOS, R. FRANCISCO (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Bull. Amer.
1921. Estudios sobre la fauna entomologica Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 116, art. 3, pp.
del Ecuador. Rev. Colegio Nac. Vic. 225-344, figs. 1-201.
Rocafuerto, Guayaquil, vol. 6, pp. 24- HOPE, FREDERIC WILLIAM
100, pls. 1-3. 1837. Description of some species of Carabi-
CASEY, THOMAS L. dae collected by Charles Darwin, Esq.,
1897. Coleopterological notices 5. Ann. New in his late voyage. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lon-
York Acad. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 285-683. don, vol. 2, pp. 128-131.
1835. ttudes entomologiques, ou description JEANNEL, RENE
d'insectes nouveaux et observation sur 1940. Les calosomes. M6m. Mus. Natl. Hist.
la synonymie. Paris, pp. 1-159. Nat., vol. 13, pp. 1-240.
1850. M6moire sur la famille des carabiques. 1818. A century of insects, including several
Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, vol. 23, new genera described from his cabinet.
pp. 349-460. Trans. Linnean Soc. London, vol. 12,
1869. Description de Calosoma nouveaux de pp. 375-453.
la collection de M. M. Chaudoir et LAPOUGE, GEORGE VACHER DE
Salle. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, ser. 4, vol. 1920. Sous-tribu des Calasomina. Misc. Ent.,
9, pp. 367-378. vol. 32, pp. 1-10.
CHEVROLAT, L. A. AUGUSTE 1924. Calosomes nouveaux ou mal connus
1863. Col6opteres de l'Ile de Cuba. Ann. Soc. (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Ibid., vol. 28,
Ent. France, ser. 4, vol. 3, pp. 183-210. no. 4-5, pp. 37-44.
CSIKI, ERNST 1930. Genera insectorum, Coleoptera, fam.
1927. Carabidae. In Junk, W., Coleopterorum Carabidae, subfam. Carabinae. Ter-
catalogus. Paris, vol. 1, pt. 91, pp. vueren, no. 2, fasc. 192A, pp. 155-291.
DARLINGTON, PHILIP JACKSON, JR. 1835. Notes on the classification of the Cara-
1936. Variation and atrophy of flying wings of bidae of the United States. Trans.
some carabid beetles (Coleoptera). Ann. Amer. Phil. Soc., vol. 10, pp. 363-403.
Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 29, pp. 136-179, LINDROTH, CARL H.
pls. 1-3. 1961. The ground beetles (Carabidae, excl.

Cicindelinae) of Canada and Alaska. PERBOSC

Part 2. Ent. Sa.llskapet Lund, no. 1, pp. 1839. Insectes nouveaux decouverts au Mex-
1-200. ique. Rev. Zool., vol. 2, pp. 261-264.
1889. In Howard, L. O., Scientific results of 1830. Insecta Brasiliensia. In Delectus ani-
exploration by the U. S. Fish Commis- malium articulatorum quae in itinere
sion Steamer Albatross. Proc. U. S. per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-
Natl. Mus., vol. 12, pp. 185-216. MDCCCXX jussu et auspiciis Maxi-
1899. On the coleopterous insects of Gal'a- miliani Josephi I. Bavariae regis au-
pagos Islands. Ibid., vol. 21, pp. 249- gustissimi peracto. Munich, (fasc. 1),
267. pp. 1-60, illus.
1865. tnum6ration des nouvelles especes de 1842. Col6opteres de Colombie. Rev. Zool.,
coleopteres rapport6s de ses voyages. pp. 238-378.
Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, vol. 38, ROESCHKE, HANS VON
pp. 227-313. 1900. Carabologische Notizen 4. Ent. Nachr.,
vol. 26, pp. 68-72.
1925. Coleoptera from Williams' Galipagos 1953. The Coleoptera of the Galipagos Islands.
expedition. Zoologica, vol. 5, no. 20, Occas. Papers California Acad. Sci.,
pp. 219-240. vol. 22, pp. 1-181.
1954. New records for Calosoma galapageium 1959. Las especies argentinas del genero
Hope (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Bull. Castrida Motschulsky. Notas Mus.,
Southern California Acad. Sci., vol. 53, Univ. Nac. de La Plata, Zool., no. 184,
pt. 3, pp. 169-173. vol. 19, pp. 285-299, figs. 1-26.
Valid names are itaficized.
abbreviatum Chaudoir, Calosoma (Castrida), 304 glabratum Dejean, Calosoma (Camedula), 282
abdominale G6hin, Calosoma sayi, 300 granatense G6hin, Calosoma, 289
alternans Fabricius, Calosoma (Castrida) alternans, granulatum Perty, Calosoma (Castrida) alternans,
298 300
angulatum Chevrolat, Calosoma (Carabosoma) an-
gulatum, 280 howardi Linell, Calosoma, 289
angulicolle Chaudoir, Calosoma (Carabosoma) an-
gulatum, 280 imbricatum Bru1l6, Calosoma, 300
antiquum Dejean, Calosoma, 305
argentinense Csiki, Calosoma (Castrida), 305 laeve Dejean, Calosoma (Blaptosoma), 283
armata Castelnau, Calosoma, 300 laterale Dejean, Calosoma, 300
armatum Reiche, Calosoma, 298 laterale Kirby, Calosoma, 303
aurocinctum Chaudoir, Calosoma (Calodrepa), 283 lecontei Csiki, Calosoma (Camegonia) 280
linelli Mutchler, Calosoma (Microcalosoma), 284
Blaptosoma Gehin, 283 lugubre LeConte, Calosoma, 280
bolivianum G&hin, Carabosoma, 282
bonariense Dejean, Calosoma, 303 marginalis Casey, Calosoma (Camegonia), 280
bridgesi Chaudoir, Calosoma (Neocalosoma), 283 Microcalosoma Breuning, 284
Calamata Motschulsky, 300 Neocalosoma Breuning, 283
Callistriga Motschulsky, 298
Calodrepa Motschulsky, 282 orbignyi Gehin, Calosoma, 300
Calosoma Weber, 280
Caludema Jeannel, 289 patagoniense Hope, Calosoma, 303
Camedula Motschulsky, 282 peregrinator Gu6rin M6neville, Calosoma (Came-
Camegonia Lapouge, 280 dula), 282
Carabomimus Kolbe, 283
Carabosoma G6hin, 280 retusum Fabricius, Calosoma (Castrida), 303
Carabus Fabricius, 298 rufipenne Dejean, Calosoma (Castrida), 288
Castrida Motschulsky, 285 rugata Motschulsky, Calamata, 300
Catastriga Lapouge, 288
coxale Motschulsky, Callistriga, 298 sayi Dejean, Calosoma (Castrida), 300
cuprascens Roeschke, Calosoma, 301 scrutator Fabricius, Calosoma (Calodrepa), 283
splendidum Dejean, Calosoma (Calodrepa), 283
darwinia Van Dyke, Calosoma, 289 splendidum Perbosc, Calosoma, 283
fulgens Chaudoir, Calosoma (Castrida), 293 trapezipenne Chaudoir, Calosoma (Castrida), 287
galapageium Hope, Calosoma (Castrida), 289 vagans Dejean, Calosoma (Castrida), 301
galapagoum Hope, Calosoma, 289 virginica Casey, Calosoma sayi, 300


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