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mother tongue education and constitutional safeguards
omkar n. koul indian institute of language studies
language education the issues of mother tongue education are directly related to the main issues in education and cannot be studied or resolved in isolation. within the broad aims and objectives of education in general, the aims and objectives of language education need to be specified clearly. the use of language in education has two primary roles: (a) language as the subject of study; and (b) language as the medium of instruction. the study of language as a subject involves the teaching and learning of four basic language skills of understanding (or listening), speaking, reading and writing. proficiency in these skills will vary according to different language teaching or learning situations of mother tongue, first language, second language or foreign language. teaching of a language as a subject forms an essential part of any kind of education system. provision for the study of languages is made right from the elementary level to the university level in different kinds of educational systems. mother tongue education has lately attracted serious attention of educationists, language curriculum planners, and applied linguists. teaching of the mother tongue is considered essential for concept formation, and for building the communicative and creative ability of a child. besides the teaching of mother tongue as a compulsory subject, its use as the medium of instruction is considered important in early childhood education. mother tongue education- the role of government the primacy of the mother tongue teaching and its use as the medium of instruction has widely been accepted by educationists and linguists alike. the unesco press release on the
nuwera eliya conference (1953) states that on the educational grounds and in the interest of the cultural enrichment of the world, the medium of instruction in all countries should be the mother tongue. the report states...."it is axiomatic that the best medium for teaching a child is his mother tongue. psychologically it is the system of meaningful signs that in his mind work automatically for expression and understanding. sociologically, it is a means of identification among the members of the community to which he belongs. educationally, he learns more quickly through it than through an unfamiliar linguistic medium (koul 1983:10). in india after independence, the importance of adopting the mother tongue as a compulsory subject of teaching and as medium of instruction has been stressed by various committees and political parties. the congress working committee has adopted resolutions in 1949 and 1953 urging the government to make arrangements for providing instruction in the mother tongue at the primary level in all schools. the conference of education ministers of all the states of india in 1949, and the states reorganization commission appointed by the government of india, also made similar recommendations. it was on the recommendation of the commission, that article 350a was added to the constitution of india by the parliament. it reads "it should be the endeavor of every state and every local authority within the state to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups...." realizing some practical difficulties, the conference of chief ministers of all the states of india said in a joint statement in august 1961, that the mother tongue formula could not be fully applied for the use of medium of instruction at the secondary level of education. at this stage, more advanced education is imparted to enable students to follow a vocation after the school leaving age and also to prepare them for higher education in universities. the language used should be the modern indian language mentioned in the eighth schedule of the constitution, as well as english. it is true that there are bound to be problems in the use of all the mother tongues of minority groups in each state as the media of instruction for higher education. the children of the minority mother tongue groups are to be brought to the mainstream of the particular status educational system. the bilingual transfer model (pattanayak 1981) can be used, which would facilitate the children of minority language groups to switch over to the regional language as the medium for learning. a. the case of kashmiri recognizing the multilingual character of the country,
eighteen languages (seventeen modern indian languages and sanskrit) have been recognized as major languages of the country and have been listed in the eighth schedule of the constitution of india. the constitution provides for the use of all the modern regional indian languages in administration and education by the concerned states where these languages are spoken natively. besides the use of major modern indian languages in the use of education, the constitution protects the right of the native speakers of all the minority languages to learn their mother tongues as subjects as well as their use as the media of instruction in early childhood education. keeping in view the constitutional provisions, most of the states of the indian union have chosen languages of their regions as the official languages and have made provisions for their effective use in administration, mass media and education. kashmiri spoken as a mother tongue by 30,76,398 native speakers (as per 1981 census) in the kashmir valley of the state of jammu and kashmir is one of the major modern indian languages included in the eighth schedule of the constitution. it was due to some political reasons that the state of jammu and kashmir chose urdu instead of kashmiri as the official language in the state; and it was introduced as a compulsory subject of study and the medium of instruction in government schools. a simple unconvincing political reason put forth is that the state is divided into three regions. kashmiri is spoken primarily in the valley of kashmir, dogri (along with punchi, bhadarwahi etc.) in the jammu region, and ladhakhi (along with other minor languages) in the ladakh region. hence the need for a link language chosen as urdu, which is not spoken as a native language anywhere in the state. the kashmiri speakers form the largest linguistic group in the state. actually the linguistic situation in the state of jammu and kashmir is not very different from other states. keeping in view the similar multilingual character of all other states of the indian union and their successful choice of the main regional languages as the official languages, it would not have caused any problem in if the major regional language i.e. kashmiri was adopted as the official language at the lower levels of administration in the valley of kashmir; along with urdu at the higher levels of administration in the state. its use in administration, education and mass media would have been as successful, as is evident in other states using the regional languages for this purpose. kashmiri has been unnecessarily denied the right of an official language in its home state. it is also unfortunate that the children in the valley of kashmir have been mercilessly denied their fundamental right (protected by the constitution) of learning their mother tongue as a subject and, through their mother tongue, other school subjects. kashmiri was introduced as a school subject at the
primary level after independence and it continued to be taught up to the year 1953.it was suddenly scrapped from the school curriculum under the garb of reducing the language load of the children. the recent years have witnessed a language movement in favor of kashmiri in the valley of kashmir and in favour of dogri in the jammu province. a post-graduate department in kashmiri has been set up at the university of kashmir at srinagar. the department offers instructions in a post-graduate diploma and m.a. in kashmiri. kashmiri has recently been introduced as a subject of study in some colleges in the valley of kashmir. the board of secondary education kashmir has made a provision for its study as an optional subject in the two years of secondary education. a textbook has been prepared and published by the board for this purpose. but as long as kashmiri is not introduced as a subject of study right from the primary level, it will not serve any useful purpose. kashmiri also must be used as the medium of instruction in early childhood education. a sociolinguistic survey of kashmiri has overwhelmingly supported the use of kashmiri in education in the valley (koul and schmidt 1983). recently it is again introduced as a subject of study in the government primary schools in the vally. b. need for constitutional safeguards on the one hand, the constitution of india protects the use of minority languages as the subjects of study and their use as the media of instruction in the early childhood education, and on the other hand there are no constitutional safeguards if the children of a majority language speakers, like that of kashmiri, are denied the right to study their mother tongue as a subject in schools; and also to learn other school subjects through their mother tongue. it is suggested that union of india must ensure that the constitutional provisions related to the use of mother tongue education must be safeguarded and implemented by all the states. language education is to be given a prominent role in the education policy. it would be in the national interest to safeguard the uniform policy as far as language education is concerned. references 1) koul, omkar n, 1983. language in education. patiala : iils 2) koul, omkar n. and ruth laila schmidt 1983. kashmiri: a sociolinguistics survey. patiala : iils. 3) pattanayak, d.p. 1981. multilingualism and mother tongue education. new delhi: oxford university press.
contrastive analysis of kashmiri and hindi omkar n. koul
towards a contrastive analysis of kashmiri and hindi no detailed contrastive analysis of kashmiri and hindi has been attempted so far. it is important to carry out a detailed contrastive analysis of these two languages at different linguistic levels which would help in the teaching of hindi to kashmiri speakers and vice versa. in this paper, an attempt will be made to make some remarks on the contrastive linguistic features of kashmiri and hindi at different linguistic levels of phonology, gender-system and semantics from pedagogical point of view with a bias for teaching of hindi to native speakers of kashmiri. phonetics and phonology in a contrastive study of phonology for a pedagogical purpose, it is not enough to list the presence and absence of particular speech sounds in two different languages (i.e. source language and the target language). the actual functional and oppositional interrelation-ships of these sounds in a particular language must also be explained. while comparing the speech sounds of any two languages, it may appear easy to indicate their similarities and dissimilarities. it is to be noted that the physical similarities of particular speech sounds may prove to be deceptive and misleading when studied in depth. however, seeping in view the language learners' requirements, some general remarks need to be made on the similarities or dissimilarities of speech sounds of the source language and those of the target language. a learner has to make conscious efforts in acquiring the near perfect or acceptable pronunciation of those speeches sounds and sequences therefore, in the target language, which he or she is unfamiliar with. similarly, unfamiliar extra vowel sounds of kashmiri result in the errors committed by hindi speakers in learning kashmiri. the errors are of the following types: 1) the vowels /i/, /i/and /a:/ are substituted by /u/, /u:/, /a/ and /a:/ respectively: k /i/ hk /u/
bati /i:/ ti:r /a/ ach /a/ a:s
batu /u:/ tu:r /a/ ach a:/ a:s
`food' `cold' `eye' `mouth'
2) the hindi speakers are unable to make distinction in the following minimal pairs showing the contrast between rounded and unrounded back vowels in kashmiri:
/u/ shur(m) child' gur `mare' budi `old woman' /u:/ gu:r `milkman' gua:r `milk woman' tsu:r(m) `thief'’ /o/ mot(m) `fat' tshot(m) short stature' got(m) dim'
/ui/ shuir(f) `horse' `oldman' /u:a/ guir buid
tsu:r(f) /oa/ moat(m) tshoat(f) goat(f)
the hindi speakers normally use familiar back rounded vowels in all cases. in kashmiri /o:/ occurs in the word final position only and /o:a/ is used in word initial and medial position. the hindi speaker uses /o:/ at all positions, or substitute it with />:/ in cognate words: e.g., k /o:a/ hk /o:/
o:al tso:ar /o:a/ mo:ar
o:l tso:r /au/ maur
`nest' `four' `peacock'
a hindi speaker also to lengthen the short vowels /e/ and /o/ in kashmiri lexical terms. e. g., k /e/ tre /o/ hol distribution the front vowels /i/ and /e/ and back vowels /u/ and /o and their longer counterparts do not occur in the word initial position in kashmiri (except in the pronunciation of a few borrowed words by educated speakers). the vowel /o:/ occurs in and medial positions only. it is common to find following deviant forms in khu speech due to the contrastive features of the distribution of speech sounds: hu inka:r ehsa:n u:n guru: consonant phonemes stops p ph b bh t th d dh t th d dh k kh g gh q kashmiri: + + + - + + + - + + + - + + + - hindi: + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + urdu: + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + affricates lateral trill flaps c ch j jh ts tsh irrh khu (y)inka:r (y)ehsa:n (v)u:n guru `denial' `kindness' `wool' `teacher' hk /e:/ tre: /o:/ ho:l `three' `twisted'
kashmiri: + + + - + + ++ hindi/urdu: + + + + - - ++ + fricatives naals semi-vowels f s z s x g h dzm n n n yv ++-+ hindi: urdu: kashmiri: - + + + - - + ++ - + - + - - + -+ + + + + + + + + + + + + ++ + - + + +
it may be seen that kashmiri does not have voiced aspirate sounds: /bh/, /dh/, /dh/, /gh/, /rh/; and fricatives /ts/ and /tsh/ which are not found in hu. note that the fricatives /f/, /x/, /g/ and /dz/ and uvular stop /o/ are found only in urdu. these sounds occur in borrowed lexical items from perso-arabic sources. a kashmiri speakers of hindi normally substitutes the voiced aspirated consonant phonemes: /bh/, dh/, dh/, gh/, jh/ and /rh/ by their inspirited counterparts /b/, /d/, /d/, /g/, /j/ and /r/ respectively. e.g. hu bha:bhi: dhan dho:l jhanda: ghar parhna: khu ba:bi: dan do:l janda: gar parna: `brother's wife' `wealth' `a drum' `flag' `house' `to read'
the uvular /q/ in perso-arabic borrowed words in urdu is substituted by /k/ as in hindi. u qad muqa:m raqam khu/h kad muka:m rakam `height' `place' `amount'
the fricatives of urdu /f/, /x/, /g/ and /dz/ are substituted by /ph/, /kh/, /g/ and /j/ respectively in khu as well as in hindi:
u fa:sla lifa:fa: xara:b sha:x gam ba:g dza:dz clusters and geminates
khu/h pha:sla: lipha:pha: khara:b sha:kh gam ba:g ja:j `distance' `envelope' `bad' `branch' `sorrow' `garden' `a kind of shrub'
kashmiri allows only those consonant clusters in the word initial position where the second member consonant is /r/ and in the final position only those where the first member consonant is a nasal consonant. all other types of consonant clusters in hu are broken by inserting a vowel between them. examples: hu sharm rasm krishn khu sharim rasim krishin `shyness' `tradition' `krishna'
similar kashmiri does not have geminates. the geminates in hu are therefore reduced to single consonants. examples: hu bacca: sacca pakka: kutta: lajja: voiceless stops voiceless stops /t/, /t/ and /k/ in the word final position are generally aspirated in khu. example: hu ra:t pa:p ja:t khu ra:th pa:ph ja:th `night' `sin' `caste' khu baca: saca: paka: kuta: laja: `a child' `true' `ripe' `dog' `shame'
sa:p ja:t pa:k su:t adrak
sa:ph ja:th pa:kh su:th adrakh
`snake' `a jet' `pure' `suit' `ginger'
the absence of /ts/, /tsh/ and /z/ in result in the mispronunciation of words in kashmiri by hindi speakers. they mostly substitute these sounds by /c/, /ch/ and /j/ respectively. k /ts/ tsa:man /tsh/ tsha:vul /z/ zu:n palatalization all the consonants in kashmiri (except the palatal consonants) can be palatalized. the palatalization of kashmiri in word final position results in problems for the hindi speakers in kashmiri. they normally substitute it by /i/. k bu:n' nat' thad' as' gender nouns in kashmiri and hu are inflected for gender, number and case. kashmiri and hu nouns are divided into two major classes: masculine and feminine. it is important to know the gender of the nouns for syntactic correlation and correct usage. a number of nouns in kashmiri and hu which have been borrowed from common sources have different genders. native speakers of kashmiri commit errors in gender usage frequently in their spoken hu as a result of interference by their native language. a partial list of such items which have different genders in the two linguistic systems-kashmiri and hu is given below: hk bu:ni nati thadi asii `a maple tree' `earthen pitchers' `tall' `we' khu /c/ ca:man /ch/ cha:vul /j/ ju:n `cheese' `he goat' `moon'
a number of nouns are feminine in hu and used as masculine in kashmir hu(f) a:rzu: a:tma: a:dat angri:zii ija:zath qalam urdu: kamar >:la:d i:ja:d ki:mat qasam kanti:n kala:s qo:m qismat qism qura:n xata: xura:k ga:s gazal ci:z giza: ja:ida:d co:t jhi:l je:l jurat janat ja:n zami:r zaru:rat zi:n ti:m ta:ki:d ta:kat tsfsi:l tamanna: k(m) a:rzu: a:tma: a:dath angri:zii yija:zath kalam urdu: kamar avla:d yi:ja:d ki:math kasam kanti:n kala:s kom kismath kisim q>raan khata: kh>ra:kh ga:si gazil ci:z giza: ja:yda:d co:th ji:l je:l jurath janath ja:n zami:r zaru:rath zi:n ti:m taaki:d ta:kath taphsi:l tamana: gloss `desire' `soul' `habit' `english' `permission' `a pen' `urdu' `waist' `offspring' `invention' `price' `oath' `canteen' `class' `community' `luck' `kind, type' `curran' `fault, error `diet' `grass' `ghazal' `a thing' `diet' `property' `injury' `a pond' `prison' `courage' `paradise' `life' `conscience' `need' `saddle' `a teem' `instruction' `power; `details' `ambition'
taqri:r ta:ri:x tasvi:r tabiyatt tassali: teti:lt da:k dasta:r dava duniya: duva: duka:n patang pensal po:sa:k patlu:n pu:ri pho:tu: fa:rsi: bandu:k fo:j/pho:j bulbul baha:r madat marz mura:d me:z m>:t mo:thar mo:m muba:rak miskil ya:d rabid sa:m sa:l sabnam sara:b sigre:t sarat subah ser saykal harta:l hava:
takri:r ta:ri:kh tasvi:r abiyath tasleh a:ti:l da:kh dasta:r dava:h duniya:h duva:h duka:n patang pensal p>sa:kh patlu:n pu:r pho:tu: pha:rsi: bondu:kh pho:j bulbul baha:r madath mariz mura:d me:z mo:th mo:tar mo:m muba:rakh muskil ya:d rabid sa:m sa:l sabnam sara:b sigre:th sarath subuh sar saykal harta:l hava:h
`a lecture' `a date' `picture' `temperament' `consolation `holiday' `mail' `turban' `medicine' `world' `good wishes' `shop' `a kite' `a pencil' `dress' `pants' `purl' `a photo' `persian' `gun' `army' `a bird' `spring' `help' disease' `desire' `a table' `death` `a motor' `wax' `greetings' `difficulty' `memory' `rubber' `evening' `shawl' `dew' `liquor' `cigarette' `condition' `morning' `walk' `a bicycle' `strike' `air'
similarly, a number of nouns borrowed from the same sources are masculine in hu and feminine in kashmiri. hu(m) a:m ka:m zikir cak ta:r thapar pa:rk para:tha: bread’ rupaya: ruma:l liha:f sarbat sabun hu k a:g(f) ci:ni:(f) kala:yi: titli:(f) je:b(f) ro:sni: ba:ris(f) `rain' sugand(f) barph(f) `show' ki:ma:(m) mutton' ca~:d patthar(m) pe:t(m) maka:n(m) ruma:l(m) pani:r(m) satha:n(m) zu:n(f) kab'(f) yad(f) lar(m) daj(f) tsa:man ja:y(f) `house' `hand`cheese' `place' `moon' `stone' `belly' matsh(f) `ground musuk(m) `smell' si:n(m) r>pay ruma:l le:ph sarbath sa:ban gloss ku k `rupee' `handkerchief' `quilt' `squash' `soap' gloss h(f) amb ka:m zikir cak ta:r tha:pir pa:rak hu(m)k(f) `a mangoes' `work' `mention' `a cheque' `a telegram' `a slap' `a park' p>ra:th `kind of a
na:r(m) `fire' madre:r(m) `sugar' (f)hots(m) `wrist' panipo:pur `butter-fly' candi(m) `pocket' ga:s(m) `light' ru:d(m)
the names of the weekdays in kashmiri and hu, either
derived from the same sources or different ones, have different genders: hu so:mva:r(m) mangalva:r(m) buhva:r(m) gurva:r(m) skukurva:r/ sani:va:r/ raviva:r/ k tsandirva:r bomva:r b>vdva:r(f) brasva:r shokiva:r(f) sani:carva:r a:thiva:r(f) gloss `monday' `tuesday' `wednesday' `thursday' `friday ' `saturday' `sunday'
the native speakers of kashmiri face a great difficulty in remembering lexical items, which have different genders in hu from kashmiri. grammatical errors are usually committed as a result of the interference of internalized gender distinction of the native language. examples: 1. de:kha:? 2. 3. 4. acchi: he 3. semantic level it is not uncommon to find the transfer of semantic structure of the native language kashmiri into khu. there are two primary reasons for this: (a) similarity in the shape of certain vocabulary items in k and hu with different meaning, and (b) transfer of the l1 meanings to l2 vocabulary items and phrases thus resulting in deviant constructions. lexical items similar in shape but different in meaning following is a partial list of those lexical items which are similar in shape but are assigned different meanings in the two linguistic systems: hu gloss gloss kashmiri vah ruma:l acchi he. us din so:mva:r thi:. uska kismat accha he. vah ruma:l accha: he. us din so:mva:r tha: uski: quismat khu hu a:pne ca~:d de:khi:? a:pne ca~:d
ati `there' az `today' a:s came' ambar `heap' a:y `long life' o:s `he was' kal `wait' ga:l `shyness' gur `horse' ca:r `pressure' ja:nvar `bird' tar `(you) ta:b `patience' nam `nail' nas `nose' nya:y `dispute' pana:h `width' ma:s `mother's sister' rab `mud' lab `wall' sa:l `wife's sister'
`more' `from' `hope' `sky' `income' `dew' `yesterday' `cheek' `device' `four' `animal' `wet' heat' `moist' `vein' `justice' `shelter' `month' `god' `lip' `year'
ati az a:s ambar a:y o:s kal ga:l gur ca:r ja:nvar tar ta:b nam nas nya:y pana:h ma:s rab lab sa:l `i
it is likely that a native speaker of kashmiri while listening the above items may interpret them differently from the original meaning intended. also, he may use these items in different meaning. transfer of l1 meanings to l2 items/phrases a kashmiri native speaker attempts to transfer the meaning of various lexical items and/or phrases from kashmiri into his hu speech by translating the items/phrases word for word from kashmiri into hu. this results in common errors. a partial list of such errors committed are given below: k khu
ne~ndir karin' ni~:d karna:(sona:) `to sleep' ne~ndir khasin' ni~:d carhna:(a:na:) `to fell sleepy' vath yin' ra:sta: a:na:(milna:) `to find way’ pho:tu: tulun pho:tu: utha:na(khi~:cna:) `to take a picture' bistar tra:vun bistara: cho:rna:(bicha:na) `to face' buthi lagun a:mne lagna:(sa:mna: karna) `to turn' tu:p' din' to:pi: de:na:(band karna:) `to put one cap' darva:zi d'un darva:za: de:na:(band karna: `to close the door' da:r din' khirki: de:na:(band karna:) `to close widow' kan d'un ka:n de:na:(laga:na:) `to listen' kru:d khasun kro:dh carhna:(a:na:) `to be angry' zu:n khasin' ca~:d carhna (urgna:) `appearing of moon' taph khasun bukha:r carhna:(ugna:) `to get fever' bu:th la:gun ju:ta: langa:na:(pahanna:) `to put on shoes' it is not uncommon to find the following types of khu constructions using literary translations of phrases from kashmiri:khu k
me~ne~ ni~:d ki: me kar nendir tumh~e ra:sta: a:ya: tse a:yiy vath way'
`i slept' `you found
usne bistara: cho:ra: tam' tro:v bistar `he made the bed' ca~:d carhi zu:n khars `the moon appeared' me~ne:ju:ta laga:ya: me lo:g bu:th `i put on my shoes' usne:pho:tu: utha:yi: em' tul pho:tu: `he took a picture' there are other instances of the construction of sentences in khu by word-for-word translations of certain lexical items. examples khu k kha:na: mat kha:na: he? bati ma: chuy kh'on `would you like to eat your meals? bistara: or mat ca:yiye? bistar ma: gatshiy beyi? `do you require more bedding? >r mat ca:yiye kuch? bayi ma: gatshiy ke~h `do you need any thing else? it is easy to notice a large number of similar constructions used in spoken hu by k speakers. in most of these cases, speakers at tempt to translate lexical items, phrases and sentences from kashmiri into hu. such deviant constructions are understood in a particular context only. educated native speakers of kashmiri who have learnt hu in their formal education have contributed to hu by their creative writings and/or translations of kashmiri literary works into hu. it is obvious that there is less interference of their native language in their spoken and/or written hu because they make conscious efforts in keeping the two linguistic structures apart. however, it is interesting to note a number of grammatical deviations in their creative writings and/or translations of kashmiri works into hu. a number of such examples and/or have been cited in koul (1979-80). keeping in view the salient contrastive linguistic of kashmiri and hindi and the problems of learning hindi by the native & speakers of kashmiri, it is suggested as follows: 1. a detailed contrastive linguistic analysis of kashmiri and hindi may be undertaken which would identify the linguistic areas of problems in learning of hindi by the native speakers of kashmiri. it should be possible to conduct error analysis using varied samples of actual use of hindi by the native speakers of kashmiri in both
spoke n as well as in written form. 2. it is equally important to prepare need based supplementary instructional materials including a pedagogical grammar for teaching hindi to native speakers of kashmiri at different stages of their learning. note: following abbreviations are used in this paper: k= kashmiri, h-hindi, u- urdu, khu= kashmiri. hindi-urdu as spoken or written by native speakers of kashmiri), hk= hindi kashmiri (kashmiri spoken or written by native speakers of hindi), m= masculine, f= feminine. references chaturvedi, m.g.1973. a contrastive study of hindi and english phonology. new delhi: national. dulai, narinder k. 1984. teaching of punjabi to hindi speakers. ph.d. dissertation, university of kurukshetra (unpublished) handoo, j.l.1973. kashmiri phonetic reader. mysore: ciil. handoo, j.l. and l. handoo 1975. hindi kashmiri common vocabulary, mysore: ciil. hassan, nazir and omkar n. koul. 1980. urdu phonetic reader. mysore: ciil kalkar, ashok r.1968.studies in hindi-urdu: introduction and word phonology. poona: deccan college. koul, omkar n. 1979- 80 kashmiri- hindi urdu: a study in bilingualism. in language forum vol. v, no.3-4. also in to greater heights vol.11, mysore: ciil 1983. koul, omkar n. 1977 linguistic studies in kashmiri. new delhi: behri publications. koul, omkar n. and peter edwin hook (eds.)1984. aspects of kashmiri linguistics. new delhi: bahri publications. koul, omkar n. 1985. an intensive course in kashmiri. mysore: ciil raina, s.n. 1985. teaching of kashmiri to hindi speakers. ph.d. dissertation. kurukshetra university (unpublished).
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