44 views

Uploaded by api-3829767

- BAR CHART
- Mrunal [Aptitude] Data Interpretation (DI)_ Bar and Pie Chart Practice Questions With Explanation - Mrunal
- Chart Types and Their Uses
- Chapter 2 bluman statistics pdf
- 2 Summarising Data
- BBA104
- integrated lesson plan
- 11grphd
- data and graphs project advanced math
- hieu.docx
- 08_Tables and Graphics (Ch7)
- Process+Capability
- RapidMiner-5.2-Advanced-Charts.pdf
- Graphs
- Statistical Data Analysis Undergrad Course
- How to Write Chapter 3
- 7 QC Tools
- Pentaho Quickstart Guide to Data Visualization Dashboard Projects
- Walker, H. Fred_ Gupta, Bhisham C.-applied Statistics for the Six Sigma Green Belt-American Society for Quality (ASQ) (2005)
- stats poster project 1

You are on page 1of 12

Data

Chapter Goals

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

Construct a frequency distribution both manually and with a

computer

Construct and interpret a histogram

Create and interpret bar charts, pie charts, and stem-and-leaf

diagrams

Present and interpret data in line charts and scatter diagrams

Frequency Distributions

What is a Frequency Distribution?

A frequency distribution is a list or a table …

containing the values of a variable (or a set of ranges within

which the data fall) ...

and the corresponding frequencies with which each value occurs

(or frequencies with which data fall within each range)

Why Use Frequency Distributions?

A frequency distribution is a way to summarize data

The distribution condenses the raw data into a more useful

form...

and allows for a quick visual interpretation of the data

Frequency Distribution: Discrete Data

Number of days

Example: An read

Frequency

advertiser asks 0 44

200 customers 1 24

how many days 2 18

per week they 3 16

read the daily 4 20

newspaper. 5 22

6 26

7 30

Total 200

Relative Frequency

Number of days Relative

Frequency

read Frequency

44

0 44 .22 = .22

1 24 .12 200

2 18 .09 22% of the

3 16 .08 people in the

4 20 .10 sample report

5 22 .11

6 26 .13

that they read

7 30 .15 the newspaper

Total 200 1.00

Continuous Data: may take on any value in some interval

and records the daily high temperature

24, 35, 17, 21, 24, 37, 26, 46, 58, 30,

32, 13, 12, 38, 41, 43, 44, 27, 53, 27

be measured to any degree of precision desired)

Sort raw data in ascending order:

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44,

46, 53, 58

Find range: 58 - 12 = 46

Select number of classes: 5 (usually between 5 and 20)

Compute class width: 10 (46/5 then round off)

Determine class boundaries:10, 20, 30, 40, 50

Compute class midpoints: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55

Count observations & assign to classes

Frequency Distribution Example

Data in ordered array:

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Frequency Distribution

Frequency

20 but under 30 6 .30

30 but under 40 5 .25

40 but under 50 4 .20

50 but under 60 2 .10

Total 20 1.00

Histograms

The classes or intervals are shown on the horizontal axis

frequency is measured on the vertical axis

number of observations within each class

Histogram Example

Histogram

7 6

6 5

Frequency

5 4 No gaps

4 3 between

3 2 bars, since

2

continuous

1 0 0 data

0

5 15 25 36 45 55 More

Class Midpoints

Questions for Grouping Data into Classes

1. How wide should each interval be?

(How many classes should be used?)

2. How should the endpoints of the intervals be

determined?

Often answered by trial and error, subject to user

judgment

The goal is to create a distribution that is neither too

"jagged" nor too "blocky”

Goal is to appropriately show the pattern of variation

in the data

How Many Class Intervals?

3.5

Many (Narrow class intervals) 3

Frequency

with gaps from empty classes 2

1.5

Can give a poor indication of how

1

frequency varies across classes

0.5

0

4

8

28

36

56

12

16

20

24

32

40

44

48

52

60

More

Few (Wide class intervals)

Temperature

may compress variation too much

12

and yield a blocky distribution

10

can obscure important patterns of

8

variation.

Frequency

2

0

0 30 60 More

Temperature

General Guidelines

Class widths can typically be reduced as the number of

observations increases

Distributions with numerous observations are more likely to

be smooth and have gaps filled since data are plentiful

under 50 5- 7

50 – 100 6 - 10

100 – 250 7 - 12

over 250 10 - 20

Class Width

The class width is the distance between the lowest possible value and

the highest possible value for a frequency class

W = Number of Classes

Histograms in Excel

1

Select

Tools/Data Analysis

2

Choose Histogram

3

Input data and bin ranges

Stem and Leaf Diagram

A simple way to see distribution details in a data set

into leading digits (the stem) and

the trailing digits (the leaves)

Example:

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Stem Leaf

12 is shown as 1 2

35 is shown as 3 5

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Stem Leaves

1 2 3 7

2 1 4 4 6 7 8

3 0 2 5 7 8

4 1 3 4 6

5 3 8

Using other stem units

Round off the 10’s digit to form the leaves

Stem Leaf

613 would become 6 1

776 would become 7 8

...

1224 becomes 12 2

Graphing Categorical Data

Categorical

Data

Bar and Pie Charts

Charts Charts Diagram

Bar charts and Pie charts are often used for qualitative (category)

data

percentage for each category

Investor's Portfolio

Savings

CD

Bonds

Stocks

0 10 20 30 40 50

Amount in $1000's

Pie Chart Example

Investment Amount Percentage Savings

Type (in thousands $)

15%

Stocks 46.5 42.27 Stocks

Bonds 32.0 29.09 42%

CD

CD 15.5 14.09 14%

Savings 16.0 14.55

Total 110 100

Bonds Percentages

(Variables are Qualitative) are rounded to

Pareto Diagram Example 29% the nearest

percent

45% 100%

40% 90%

% invested in each category

80%

cumulative % invested

35%

70%

30%

(bar graph)

(line graph)

60%

25%

50%

20%

40%

15%

30%

10%

20%

Number of Frequency

5%

days read 10%

0

Bar 44 Example

Chart

0%

Stocks Bonds Savings CD

0%

1 24

2 18

3 16

4 20

5 22

6 26

7 30

Total 200

Newspaper readership per week

50

40

Freuency

30

20

10

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Number of days newspaper is read per week

Investment in thousands of dollars

Investment Investor A Investor B Investor C Total

Category

Bonds 32.0 44 19.0 95

CD 15.5 20 13.5 49

Savings 16.0 28 7.0 51

Side byTotal

side charts 110.0 147 67.0 324

Comparing Investors

Savings

CD

Bonds

Stocks

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

East 20.4 27.4 59 20.4

West 30.6 38.6 34.6 31.6

North 45.9 46.9 45 43.9

60

50

40

East

30 West

North

20

10

0

1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

Line charts show values of one variable vs. time

Time is traditionally shown on the horizontal axis

one variable is measured on the vertical axis and the other

variable is measured on the horizontal axis

Line Chart Example

U.S. Inflation Rate

6

5

0

1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

Year

250

200

Cost per Day

150

100

50

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Volume per Day

Chapter Summary

Data in raw form are usually not easy to use for decision making

-- Some type of organization is needed:

♦ Table ♦ Graph

Techniques reviewed in this chapter:

Frequency Distributions and Histograms

Bar Charts and Pie Charts

Stem and Leaf Diagrams

Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams

- BAR CHARTUploaded byRavish
- Mrunal [Aptitude] Data Interpretation (DI)_ Bar and Pie Chart Practice Questions With Explanation - MrunalUploaded bySaitejaTallapelly
- Chart Types and Their UsesUploaded byRokan Zaman
- Chapter 2 bluman statistics pdfUploaded byAnonymous IlzpPFI
- 2 Summarising DataUploaded byPrasanna Kumar
- BBA104Uploaded byAnonymous DfZxg1NZud
- integrated lesson planUploaded byapi-251650189
- 11grphdUploaded byAz Lan
- data and graphs project advanced mathUploaded byapi-169858360
- hieu.docxUploaded byTran Pham Quoc Thuy
- 08_Tables and Graphics (Ch7)Uploaded byAhmad Shdifat
- Process+CapabilityUploaded byRaphael Mobile Cardoso
- RapidMiner-5.2-Advanced-Charts.pdfUploaded bydvdmx
- GraphsUploaded bySam
- Statistical Data Analysis Undergrad CourseUploaded byGiulia Bergamaschi
- How to Write Chapter 3Uploaded bychristine_sy_2
- 7 QC ToolsUploaded byravikpandey
- Pentaho Quickstart Guide to Data Visualization Dashboard ProjectsUploaded byAlex Nesterov
- Walker, H. Fred_ Gupta, Bhisham C.-applied Statistics for the Six Sigma Green Belt-American Society for Quality (ASQ) (2005)Uploaded bydhanu
- stats poster project 1Uploaded byapi-173705871
- How to Produce Graphs Using Excel 2Uploaded bykhayat
- A Computer Simulation of DraftingUploaded byKoc Dokuz
- Experimentation G7Uploaded byRyanVGarcia
- Charting Primer IIUploaded bysunil_vrv
- Lecture 3Uploaded bySundas Imran
- generallabreportrubric docxUploaded byapi-295048585
- Technote Bam ViewtypesUploaded byltgomes
- 7 QC TOOLS Banner (English)[1]Uploaded bykumar_ami8
- Lecture 2Uploaded byreddypd
- GraphsUploaded byLaurentiu Stefan Repta

- Chapter 7 ReviewUploaded byapi-3829767
- Homework Chapter 4+5+6 NcuUploaded byapi-3829767
- Chapter 8 ReviewUploaded byapi-3829767
- Khách sạnUploaded byapi-3829767
- List PresentUploaded byapi-3829767
- Bai Tap Dieu Tra Chon Mau Va Uoc LuongUploaded byapi-3829767
- Chapter 3 ReviewUploaded byapi-3829767
- Bai Tap On_ Chuong Mo Ta Du Lieu Bang Cac Dac Trung Do LuongUploaded byapi-3829767
- ExerciseUploaded byapi-3829767

- 236. International Corporate Bank v GuecoUploaded byBenedict Alvarez
- How to Find Funding NowUploaded byFundica.com
- Samenvatting Accounting 2Uploaded byguusjuh2
- GMI Consolidated FS Q3 2017Uploaded byDiego Brandeau
- Fuqua Mba Employment Report 2016-2017Uploaded byamazinguyy
- pantos-visionpaperUploaded byAlex Alexis
- SENATE HEARING, 114TH CONGRESS - HELPING AMERICANS PREPARE FOR RETIREMENT: INCREASING ACCESS, PARTICIPATION, AND COVERAGE IN RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANSUploaded byScribd Government Docs
- SampleUploaded byRehan Siddiqui
- Strong. Modelling Abnormal Returns a ReviewUploaded byMurtaza Khan
- G.R. No. 175490Uploaded byjstin_jstin
- CCAR - Methodology and ResultUploaded byrunawayyy
- Krispy Kreme Case Study_ReymarrHijaraUploaded byReymarr Hijara
- Tax 1 Case Digests 1st WeekUploaded byMarianne Therese Malan
- Financial Peroformance of Transcom Electronics LtdUploaded bySharifMahmud
- Senator Rand Paul 5 Year Balanced BudgetUploaded bySenator Rand Paul
- Proforma of a Reconciliation StatementUploaded byAtul Mumbarkar
- ASEAN Economic Bulletin Vol.26, No.1, April 2009 - Banking and Financial Sector Reform in VietnamUploaded byintasma
- Taxation - Rene CallantaUploaded byJeszel Marie Nengskie
- Public Private Equity Partnerships and Climate ChangeUploaded byInternational Finance Corporation (IFC)
- MBA Shipping & Logistics SyllabusUploaded bysujathalavi
- MMS Final AccountsUploaded bynileshnavi88
- bel 312Uploaded byMazwahidah Shah Bani
- 365 Daily Empowering Quotes.pdfUploaded byAnthony Lym
- CARTILLA 1 SIIGOUploaded bykiniborgs
- ct-w4Uploaded byDorothy Rogers
- IMF _Country Report on Tunisia _ 2014Uploaded byAbderrazak Rezgui
- Counterparty default – the legal issues_Habib MotaniUploaded bykrystle_blue121335
- IFS RKSUploaded byUrvashi Sharma
- FMUploaded byDebottam Khan
- BSCE 3BUploaded byrex tanong