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Participant Kit - Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Version 1.2; April, 2011

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Participant Kit - Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced

Contents

EXCEL 2007 – FUNCTIONS...................................................................................................... 5 Getting help with using a particular function. .......................................................................................... 5 TODAY function ............................................................................................................................................. 5 DAY function.................................................................................................................................................. 7 MONTH function............................................................................................................................................ 8 YEAR function ............................................................................................................................................... 9 SUMIF function.............................................................................................................................................. 9 ROUND function .......................................................................................................................................... 12 COUNT function ........................................................................................................................................... 13 COUNTA function ........................................................................................................................................ 15 COUNTIF function........................................................................................................................................ 16 PROPER function ........................................................................................................................................ 18 UPPER function ........................................................................................................................................... 19 LOWER function .......................................................................................................................................... 20 CONCATENATE function............................................................................................................................. 20 FV function ................................................................................................................................................... 22 NPV function................................................................................................................................................ 25 PMT function ............................................................................................................................................... 27 PV function .................................................................................................................................................. 29 RATE function.............................................................................................................................................. 32 HLOOKUP function ..................................................................................................................................... 33 VLOOKUP function ...................................................................................................................................... 35 IF function .................................................................................................................................................... 42 AND function ............................................................................................................................................... 45 OR function .................................................................................................................................................. 47 ISERROR ...................................................................................................................................................... 48 DSUM function ............................................................................................................................................ 51 DMIN function ............................................................................................................................................. 59 DMAX function ............................................................................................................................................ 68 Using nested functions ..............................................................................................................85 Nesting IF() Functions ................................................................................................................................ 85 USING ONE-INPUT OR TWO-INPUT DATA TABLES / WHAT-IF TABLES ..............................86 One input Data Table command .............................................................................................................. 86 Two input data table command ............................................................................................................... 87 EXCEL 2007 - A FIRST LOOK AT PIVOT TABLES ..................................................................89 Quick start: Create a PivotTable report ................................................................................................... 89 Modifying data and refreshing the Pivot Table ...................................................................................... 92 grouping data within a Pivot table ........................................................................................................... 93 Pivot table chart ........................................................................................................................94 What is a PivotChart report....................................................................................................................... 94 Working with the source data of a PivotTable or PivotChart report ............................................97 Creating a PivotTable or PivotChart from worksheet data .................................................................. 97 Using an external data source to create a PivotTable or PivotChart .................................................. 97 Using another PivotTable report as the data source ............................................................................ 98 Changing the source data of an existing PivotTable report ................................................................. 98 EXCEL 2007 – ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................99

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.........................................................................................104 EXCEL 2007 ........................................104 Show/Hide Comments ................................................................................................................................................................................Participant Kit ..................................................................................................102 Tracing precedent cells......................................................................102 Using comments .................................107 Raising your macro security level ......................................................................................104 Navigating Comments ..................................................................................................................101 EXCEL 2007 ...................................................................107 Changing the Quick Toolbar Macro icon ...........................................102 Tracing dependants of a cell ........................................................107 Removing Command Button ................100 Summarize scenarios .................................................................................107 Resetting Quick Access Toolbar .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................MACROS ........................104 Deleting Comments .......................105 Displaying the Developer tab.107 Removing a macro icon from the quick access toolbar ................................................................................................................. 99 When to use scenarios ........ ....................................................................................................................................................................................107 Adding Command button ....................100 Working with Goal seek ......................102 Displaying all formulas within a worksheet ...................................................................................................................................................................................................Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Creating named Scenarios from defined cell ranges .........................................................................................................................................................................106 Customizing the Quick Access Toolbar .104 Inserting comments ........................... 99 ―What-if‖ scenarios are helpful for data analyses..........................AUDITING .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 99 Create scenarios .........................................................................105 Recording and running a macro ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................107 4 ...................105 Lowering your macro security level ......................................................................................................................................................................................

If the cell format was General before the function was entered. If you want to view the serial number. you must change the cell format to General or Number. Excel changes the cell format to Date. 5 . Figure 1 TODAY function Returns the serial number of the current date. 1.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced EXCEL 2007 – FUNCTIONS Getting help with using a particular function. The serial number is the date-time code used by Excel for date and time calculations.Participant Kit . Typing the function in a cell: MS Excel has the feature of contextual help. Using Help: Press F1 Type List of functions Select list of functions alphabetically Select the desired function 2. simply type = and function name in a cell and just click on it.

447 days after January 1. and then subtracts 1963. 1900 is serial number 1. if you know that someone was born in 1963. if the current date is 1/1/2008.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced The TODAY function is useful when you need to have the current date displayed on a worksheet. click Options. make sure that Automatic is selected. 1900. and January 1. Returns the current date plus 5 days. It is also useful for calculating intervals. For example. Syntax =TODAY() The TODAY function syntax has no arguments. For example. returning the person's age. Note: Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Note that cell A4 must be formatted as General or Number for 6 . you might need to change the settings that control when the workbook or worksheet recalculates. regardless of when you open the workbook. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. On the File tab. By default. January 1. this formula returns 1/6/2008. Note If the TODAY function does not update the date when you expect it to.Participant Kit . and then in the Formulas category under Calculation options. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. Returns the number of days between the current date and 1/1/2030. you might use the following formula to find that person's age as of this year's birthday: =YEAR(TODAY())-1963 This formula uses the TODAY function as an argument for the YEAR function to obtain the current year. Example A 1 2 Formula =TODAY() =TODAY()+5 3 =DATEVALUE("1/1/2030")TODAY() 4 B Description Returns the current date.

if the current month is May. MONTH and DAY functions will be values associated with the equivalent Gregorian date. Values returned by the YEAR. or as results of other formulas or functions. By default. DAY function Returns the day of a date. use DATE(2008. For example. For example. the returned values for the YEAR. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. 1900.Participant Kit . represented by a serial number. 7 . January 1.31).12). this formula returns 5.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 5 =DAY(TODAY()) 6 =MONTH(TODAY()) the result to display correctly. For example. MONTH and DAY functions will be Gregorian values regardless of the display format for the supplied date value. Syntax DAY(serial_number) The DAY function syntax has the following arguments: Serial_number Required. 1900 is serial number 1. The day is given as an integer ranging from 1 to 31. and January 1. Returns the current day of the month (1 . 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39.448 days after January 1. Returns the current month of the year (1 . The date of the day you are trying to find. if the display format of the supplied date is Hijri. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function.5. 2008.23) for the 23rd day of May.

The date of the month you are trying to find. or as results of other formulas or functions. The month is given as an integer. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.Participant Kit . Example A 1 2 3 4 Date 15-Apr-2008 Formula =MONTH(A2) Description (Result) Month of the date above (4) B 8 . 2008.23) for the 23rd day of May. use DATE(2008. Syntax MONTH (serial_number) The MONTH function syntax has the following arguments: Serial_number Required.5. ranging from 1 (January) to 12 (December).Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Example A 1 2 3 4 Date 15-Apr-2008 Formula =DAY(A2) Description (Result) Day of the date above (15) B MONTH function Returns the month of a date represented by a serial number. For example.

you want to sum only the values that are larger than 5. If you want. the formula =SUMIF(B2:B5. For example.23) for the 23rd day of May. or as results of other formulas or functions. "John". 2008. You can use the following formula: =SUMIF(B2:B25. C2:C5) sums only the values in the range C2:C5. where the corresponding cells in the range B2:B5 equal "John.5." Note: To sum cells based on multiple criteria. Syntax YEAR(serial_number) The YEAR function syntax has the following arguments: Serial_number Required. you can apply the criteria to one range and sum the corresponding values in a different range. Example A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Date 7/5/2008 7/5/10 Formula =YEAR(A2) =YEAR(A3) Description (Result) Year of the first date (2008) Year of the second date (2010) B SUMIF function You use the SUMIF function to sum the values in a range that meet criteria that you specify.">5") In this example. For example. use DATE(2008. suppose that in a column that contains numbers. the criteria is applied the same values that are being summed. The date of the year you want to find. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function.Participant Kit . Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced YEAR function Returns the year corresponding to a date. 9 . The year is returned as an integer in the range 19009999. For example. see SUMIFS function.

If the sum_range argument is omitted. 10 . Important Any text criteria or any criteria that includes logical or mathematical symbols must be enclosed in double quotation marks ("). if you want to add cells other than those specified in the range argument. "32". ">32". If the criteria is numeric. A question mark matches any single character. arrays.Participant Kit . "apples". Blank and text values are ignored. type a tilde (~) preceding the character. sum_range Optional. For example. Notes The sum_range argument does not have to be the same size and shape as the range argument. double quotation marks are not required. [sum_range]) The SUMIF function syntax has the following arguments: range Required. The actual cells to add. a cell reference. B5. 32. The criteria in the form of a number. For example: If range is A1:A5 A1:A5 A1:B4 A1:B4 And sum_range is B1:B5 B1:B3 C1:D4 C1:C2 Then the actual cells are B1:B5 B1:B5 C1:D4 C1:D4 You can use the wildcard characters — the question mark (?) and asterisk (*) — as the criteria argument. expression. an asterisk matches any sequence of characters. or TODAY(). text. or a function that defines which cells will be added. The actual cells that are added are determined by using theupper leftmost cell in the sum_range argument as the beginning cell. The range of cells that you want evaluated by criteria. or references that contain numbers. and then including cells that correspond in size and shape to the range argument. Cells in each range must be numbers or names. criteria Required. criteria can be expressed as 32. Excel adds the cells that are specified in the range argument (the same cells to which the criteria is applied).Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Syntax SUMIF(range. criteria. If you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk.

300000. Sum of the property values over 160.">160000") =SUMIF(A2:A5. Sum of the commissions for property values greater than the value in C2. Result 63.000 28.B2:B5) B Commission 7.">" & C2.000 200.C2:C7) Category Vegetables Vegetables Fruits B Food Tomatoes Celery Oranges Butter Carrots Apples Description Sum of the sales of all C Sales 2300 5500 800 400 4200 1200 Result 2000 11 .000 10 =SUMIF(A2:A5.">160000".000 300.000 Example 2 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Vegetables Fruits Formula =SUMIF(A2:A7.000 14.000.000 Formula =SUMIF(A2:A5.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Example 1 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 =SUMIF(A2:A5.000 900.000 21. Sum of the commissions for property values equal to 300.000.000 C Data 250."Fruits".000 400.B2:B5) Property Value 100.Participant Kit .B2:B5) 49.000 Description Sum of the commissions for property values over 160.000 21.000.

use the ROUNDUP function. If num_digits is less than 0. The number that you want to round. if cell A1 contains 23. 11 12 =SUMIF(B2:B7. the number is rounded to the nearest integer. For example.7825. Remarks If num_digits is greater than 0 (zero)."Vegetables". 2) The result of this function is 23. 12 . the "Fruits" 12000 Sum of the sales of all foods in the "Vegetables" category.78.C2:C7) 4300 =SUMIF(A2:A7.C2:C7) 400 ROUND function The ROUND function rounds a number to a specified number of digits. The number of digits to which you want to round the number argument. Sum of the sales of all foods that end in "es" (Tomatoes. and Apples)."". To always round up (away from zero).Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 9 10 =SUMIF(A2:A7."*es". the number is rounded to the left of the decimal point. you can use the following formula: =ROUND(A1. num_digits Required.Participant Kit .C2:C7) foods in category. Oranges. If num_digits is 0. num_digits) The ROUND function syntax has the following arguments: number Required. and you want to round that value to two decimal places. then number is rounded to the specified number of decimal places. Syntax ROUND(number. Sum of the sales of all foods that do not have a category specified.

) The COUNT function syntax has the following arguments: value1 Required. 1) =ROUND(2. cell reference.. or ranges within which you want to count numbers. Example A 1 2 3 4 5 COUNT function The COUNT function counts the number of cells that contain numbers. Up to 255 additional items.. Formula =ROUND(2.5). if five of the cells in the range contain numbers.5. you can enter the following formula to count the numbers in the range A1:A20: =COUNT(A1:A20) In this example. . the result is 5.15 to one decimal place Rounds 2. Use the COUNT function to get the number of entries in a number field that is in a range or array of numbers. The first item. . 2) =ROUND(21.1 -1. use the MROUND function. and counts numbers within the list of arguments. or range within which you want to count numbers.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced To always round down (toward zero). to round to the nearest 0..149 to one decimal place Rounds -1.149.Participant Kit .48 20 13 . use the ROUNDDOWN function. -1) B Description Rounds 2.5 to one decimal place to the left of the decimal point C Result 2.475 to two decimal places Rounds 21.475. Optional..15. To round a number to a specific multiple (for example. 1) =ROUND(-1. [value2]. cell references. value2.2 2. Syntax COUNT(value1. For example.

but only numbers are counted.Participant Kit . Counts the number of cells that contain 14 B C Data Sales 12/8/2008 Result 3 2 4 . Arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers are not counted. Example A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 =COUNT(A5:A8) 11 =COUNT(A2:A8. logical values. a number enclosed in quotation marks. use the COUNTIF function or the COUNTIFS function. use the COUNTA function. If an argument is an array or reference. or error values in the array or reference are not counted. text. only numbers in that array or reference are counted. Logical values and text representations of numbers that you type directly into the list of arguments are counted. text.2) 19 22. or error values. Empty cells. such as "1") are counted. dates. Counts the number of cells that contain numbers in cells A5 through A8.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Note: The arguments can contain or refer to a variety of different types of data. If you want to count only numbers that meet certain criteria. or a text representation of numbers (for example. Remarks Arguments that are numbers. If you want to count logical values.24 TRUE #DIV/0! Formula =COUNT(A2:A8) Description Counts the number of cells that contain numbers in cells A2 through A8.

use the COUNTIF function or the COUNTIFS function. Example A 1 2 3 4 5 19 Data Sales 12/8/2008 B C 15 . [value2]. and the value 2 COUNTA function The COUNTA function counts the number of cells that are not empty in a range. text. Remarks The COUNTA function counts cells containing any type of information. up to a maximum of 255 arguments. including error values and empty text (""). .Participant Kit . For example. use the COUNT function. The first argument representing the values that you want to count. If you want to count only cells that meet certain criteria.. if you want to count only cells that contain numbers). The COUNTA function does not count empty cells.. value2. Syntax COUNTA(value1.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 12 numbers in cells A2 through A8. Additional arguments representing the values that you want to count..) The COUNTA function syntax has the following arguments: value1 Required. Optional.. If you do not need to count logical values. or error values (in other words. if the range contains a formula that returns an empty string. . the COUNTA function counts that value.

suppose you have a worksheet that contains a list of tasks in column A. criteria) The COUNTIF function syntax has the following arguments: range Required. arrays. Example 16 . One or more cells to count. A question mark matches any single character. Blank and text values are ignored. Result 6 COUNTIF function The COUNTIF function counts the number of cells within a range that meet a single criterion that you specify. or text string that defines which cells will be counted.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 6 7 8 9 10 22. If you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk.24 TRUE #DIV/0! Formula =COUNTA(A2:A8) Description Counts the number of nonblank cells in cells A2 through A8. or references that contain numbers. determine how many tasks are assigned to that person."Nancy") Note: To count cells based on multiple criteria. You can use the COUNTIF function to count how many times a person's name appears in column B and. Criteria are case insensitive. For example.Participant Kit . For example: =COUNTIF(B2:B25. see COUNTIFS function. ">32". or "32". the string "apples" and the string "APPLES" will match the same cells. for example. For example. Syntax COUNTIF(range. cell reference. type a tilde (~) before the character. B4. expression. or you can count all the cells that contain a number that is larger or smaller than a number you specify. criteria Required. you can count all the cells that start with a certain letter. Notes You can use the wildcard characters — the question mark (?) and the asterisk (*) — in criteria. and an asterisk matches any sequence of characters. criteria can be expressed as 32. and the first name of the person assigned to each task in column B. For example. "apples". including numbers or names. A number. in that way.

">55") 2 12 =COUNTIF(B2:B5."apples") B Data 32 54 75 86 Description Number of cells with apples in cells A2 through A5. Number of cells with a value greater than or equal to 32 and less than or equal to 85 in cells B2 through B5."<>"&B4) 3 =COUNTIF(B2:B5.A4) Data apples oranges peaches apples Formula =COUNTIF(A2:A5.Participant Kit .">=32")COUNTIF(B2:B5. Number of cells with a value not equal to 75 in cells B2 through B5. Number of cells with oranges and apples in cells A2 through A5.">85") 3 Example 2: COUNTIF formulas using wildcard characters and handling blank values 17 . Number of cells with peaches in cells A2 through A5.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Example 1: Common COUNTIF formulas A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 =COUNTIF(A2:A5.A2) 10 11 =COUNTIF(A2:A5. Number of cells with a value greater than 55 in cells B2 through B5. Result 2 C 1 3 =COUNTIF(B2:B5.A3)+COUNTIF(A2:A5.

"?????es") 2 10 =COUNTIF(A2:A7. The average number of Yes votes (excluding blank cells) in cells B2 through B7.Participant Kit ."Yes") / (ROWS(B2:B7) -COUNTIF(B2:B7. 18 ."*") 11 =COUNTIF(A2:A7. Result 4 oranges peaches NO No Data apples B Data Yes C 9 =COUNTIF(A2:A7.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 apples Formula =COUNTIF(A2:A7.Converts all other letters to lowercase letters.5 PROPER function Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter. Number of cells containing any text in cells A2 through A7. "<>"&"*")) 14 4 2 0. Number of cells not containing text in cells A2 through A7."*es") yes Description Number of cells ending with the letters "es" in cells A2 through A7."<>"&"*") 12 =COUNTIF(B2:B7."No") ROWS(B2:B7) 13 =COUNTIF(B2:B7.333333333 0. Number of cells ending with the letters "les" and having exactly 7 letters in cells A2 through A7. / The average number of No votes (including blank cells) in cells B2 through B7.

or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to partially capitalize. a formula that returns text. The text you want converted to uppercase.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Syntax PROPER(text) The PROPER function syntax has the following arguments: Text Required.Participant Kit . Example A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Data this is a TITLE 2-cent's worth 76BudGet Formula =PROPER(A2) =PROPER(A3) =PROPER(A4) Description (Result) Proper case of first string (This Is A Title) Proper case of second string (2-Cent'S Worth) Proper case of third string (76Budget) B UPPER function Converts text to uppercase. Text can be a reference or text string. Example A 1 2 Data total 19 B . Syntax UPPER(text) The UPPER function syntax has the following arguments: Text Required. Text enclosed in quotation marks.

Syntax LOWER(text) The LOWER function syntax has the following arguments: Text Required. For example.B1) The second argument in this example (" ") is a space character. LOWER does not change characters in text that are not letters. The text you want to convert to lowercase. cell references. numbers. The joined items can be text. 2B Formula =LOWER(A2) =LOWER(A3) Description (Result) Lower case of first string (e. you can combine the two values in another cell by using the following formula: =CONCATENATE(A1. 20 . or a combination of those items. if your worksheet contains a person's first name in cell A1 and the person's last name in cell B1.Participant Kit . cummings) Lower case of last string (apt. e." ". You must specify any spaces or punctuation that you want to appear in the results as an argument that is enclosed in quotation marks. Example A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Data E. 2b) B CONCATENATE function The CONCATENATE function joins up to 255 text strings into one text string. E.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 3 4 5 6 Yield Formula =UPPER(A2) =UPPER(A3) Description (Result) Upper case of first string (TOTAL) Upper case of second string (YIELD) LOWER function Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase. Cummings Apt.

Result Stream population for brook trout species is 32/mile Andreas Hauser Hauser. A2. . up to a maximum of 255 items. =A1 & B1 returns the same value as =CONCATENATE(A1.. [text2]. For example. Note You can also use the ampersand (&) calculation operator instead of the CONCATENATE function to join text items. . a space character. A3. ". Andreas Andreas Fourth Hauser Pine B C 7 =CONCATENATE(C2. Text2. "/mile") 6 =CONCATENATE(B2. B2) 21 . The items must be separated by commas. " ". and the value in cell C2.. Concatenates the string in cell C2. Optional. The first text item to be concatenated. B1) Example A 1 2 3 4 5 Data brook trout species 32 Formula =CONCATENATE("Stream population for ". C2) Concatenates the string in cell B2.) The CONCATENATE function syntax has the following arguments: Text1 Required.Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Syntax CONCATENATE(text1.. ". A4.. " is ". a string consisting of a comma and a space Description Creates a sentence by concatenating the data in column A with other text. " ". Additional text items.

The FV function syntax has the following arguments: Rate Required. but by using the ampersand (&) calculation operator instead of the CONCATENATE function. Pv Optional. Fourth & Pine =B3 & " & " & C3 Fourth & Pine 9 FV function Returns the future value of an investment based on periodic. " & ". The payment made each period. The total number of payment periods in an annuity. it cannot change over the life of the annuity. =CONCATENATE(B3.Participant Kit .[pv]. Syntax FV(rate. pmt contains principal and interest but no other fees or taxes.nper. it is assumed to be 0 (zero).[type]) For a more complete description of the arguments in FV and for more information on annuity functions. If pmt is omitted. and the value in cell C3. constant payments and a constant interest rate. The interest rate per period. The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. a string consisting of a space. and the value in cell B2.pmt. or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now. and you must include the pmt argument. Pmt Required. an ampersand.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced character. The present value. Concatenates the same items as the previous example. Type Optional. C3) 8 Concatenates the string in cell B3. If pv is omitted. Nper Required. Typically. Set type equal to If payments are due 22 . see PV. another space. it is assumed to be 0. you must include the pv argument. If type is omitted.

40) The annual interest rate is divided by 12 because it is compounded monthly. is represented by positive numbers. A3. such as deposits to savings.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 0 1 Remarks At the end of the period At the beginning of the period Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper. For all the arguments. Example 2 A 1 2 Data 12% B Description Annual interest rate 23 . If you make monthly payments on a four-year loan at 12 percent annual interest. A5. is represented by negative numbers. cash you receive. cash you pay out. A4. A6) Data 6% 10 -200 -500 1 B Description Annual interest rate Number of payments Amount of the payment Present value Payment is due at the beginning of the period (see above) Description (Result) Future value of an investment with the above terms (2581. Examples Example 1 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Note: Formula =FV(A2/12.Participant Kit . such as dividend checks. If you make annual payments on the same loan. use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. use 12% for rate and 4 for nper.

25) The annual interest rate is divided by 12 because it is compounded monthly.40) Note: The annual interest rate is divided by 12 because it is compounded monthly.50) The annual interest rate is divided by 12 because it is compounded monthly. A3. Example 3 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Note: Formula =FV(A2/12. 24 . A3.682. A4.. A4.846. A5) Data 11% 35 -2000 1 B Description Annual interest rate Number of payments Amount of the payment Payment is due at the beginning of the year (see above) Description (Result) Future value of an investment with the above terms (82.Participant Kit . A4) A3. Number of payments Amount of the payment Description (Result) Future value of an investment with the above terms (12.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 3 4 5 6 Note: 12 -1000 Formula =FV(A2/12. A6) Data 6% 12 -100 -1000 1 B Description Annual interest rate Number of payments Amount of the payment Present value Payment is due at the beginning of the year (see above) Description (Result) Future value of an investment with the above terms (2301. Example 4 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Formula =FV(A2/12. A5.

not included in the values arguments. text.. Value1. Empty cells. subsequent values are optional. .. Value1 is required. .) The NPV function syntax has the following arguments: Rate Required. to interpret the order of cash flows. The rate of discount over the length of one period. must be equally spaced in time and occur at the end of each period. Be sure to enter your payment and income values in the correct sequence. value2. only numbers in that array or reference are counted. . logical values... Arguments that are empty cells. Remarks The NPV investment begins one period before the date of the value1 cash flow and ends with the last cash flow in the list. the formula for NPV is: NPV is similar to the PV function (present value). If your first cash flow occurs at the beginning of the first period. 25 .[value2]..Participant Kit . value2. or text that cannot be translated into numbers are ignored. 1 to 254 arguments representing the payments and income. For more information. the first value must be added to the NPV result.. The primary difference between PV and NPV is that PV allows cash flows to begin either at the end or at the beginning of the period. see the examples below... NPV uses the order of value1. If an argument is an array or reference. error values.. Syntax NPV(rate. or error values in the array or reference are ignored.value1. value2. logical values. Value1. or text representations of numbers.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced NPV function Calculates the net present value of an investment by using a discount rate and a series of future payments (negative values) and income (positive values). If n is the number of cash flows in the list of values. The NPV calculation is based on future cash flows.

NPV is also related to the IRR function (internal rate of return).).) = 0.922..000 3. Example 2 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -40. This might represent the rate of inflation or the interest rate of a competing investment. you include the initial $10.000 cost as one of the values.. . Initial cost of investment Return from first year Return from second year Return from third year Return from fourth year Return from fifth year Description (Result) Net present value of this investment (1. A3.44) In the preceding example.200 6.000 4. PV cash flows must be constant throughout the investment. For information about annuities and financial functions.000 8. A4:A8)+A3 Data 8% B Description Annual discount rate. A5.500 Formula =NPV(A2..000 9.000 12.06) 26 .000 14. A4. see PV. Example 1 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Data 10% -10.188. A6) B Description Annual discount rate Initial cost of investment one year from today Return from first year Return from second year Return from third year Description (Result) Net present value of this investment (1.Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Unlike the variable NPV cash flow values.800 Formula =NPV(A2.200 10.. because the payment occurs at the end of the first period. IRR is the rate for which NPV equals zero: NPV(IRR(.

Pv Required. Fv Optional. reserve payments. or fees sometimes associated with loans. If payments are due At the end of the period At the beginning of the period 27 . Syntax PMT(rate. see the PV function. If you make annual payments on the same loan. with a loss in the sixth year of 9000 (-3. Type Optional. PMT function Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.47) In the preceding example. The present value. use 12 percent for rate and 4 for nper. that is. or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. pv. Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper. because the payment occurs at the beginning of the first period. nper. [type]) Note For a more complete description of the arguments in PMT. you don't include the initial $40. The interest rate for the loan. The future value.749. The total number of payments for the loan. A4:A8. 9000)+A3 Net present value of this investment. the future value of a loan is 0. or the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now. Nper Required. it is assumed to be 0 (zero).000 cost as one of the values. also known as the principal. If fv is omitted. The PMT function syntax has the following arguments: Rate Required. The number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 11 =NPV(A2. [fv]. If you make monthly payments on a four-year loan at an annual interest rate of 12 percent. Set type equal to 0 or omitted 1 Remarks The payment returned by PMT includes principal and interest but no taxes.Participant Kit . use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper.

multiply the returned PMT value by nper.Participant Kit . 28 .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Tip To find the total amount paid over the duration of the loan.

16) Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate. 0. The present value is the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now.037. A4) =PMT(A2/12. A3*12. PV function Description Returns the present value of an investment.03) Monthly payment for a loan with the above terms. A3. when you borrow money. The number of years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments. A4) B Description Annual interest rate Years you plan on saving Amount you want to have save in 18 years Description (Result) Amount to save each month to have 50.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Example 1 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Data 8% 10 10000 Formula =PMT(A2/12. A3.08) B Description Annual interest rate Number of months of payments Amount of loan Description (Result) Monthly payment for a loan with the above terms (1. For example. the loan amount is the present value to the lender.030. Syntax 29 .000 Formula =PMT(A2/12. 1) 7 Example 2 You can use PMT to determine payments to annuities other than loans. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Data 6% 18 50. except payments are due at the beginning of the period (1.000 at the end of 18 years (-129.Participant Kit . A4. 0.

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced PV(rate. Fv Optional. four-year car loan at 12 percent are $263. or 0. use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. into the formula as the rate. You would enter 10%/12. if you want to save $50. it is assumed to be 0 (the future value of a loan. The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. the monthly payments on a $10. For example. is 0). pmt.83%. or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. use 12% for rate and 4 for nper. If you make annual payments on the same loan. for example. The interest rate per period. or 0. Nper Required. The future value. your interest rate per month is 10%/12. [fv]. If you make monthly payments on a four-year loan at 12 percent annual interest. you must include the pmt argument. The total number of payment periods in an annuity. [type]) The PV function syntax has the following arguments: Rate Required. If fv is omitted. you must include the fv argument. For example. Type Optional. or 0. Pmt Required. The payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity. your loan has 4*12 (or 48) periods. if you obtain an automobile loan at a 10 percent annual interest rate and make monthly payments. The following functions apply to annuities: CUMIPMT CUMPRINC FV PPMT PV RATE If payments are due At the end of the period At the beginning of the period 30 .0083.000 is the future value. Typically.Participant Kit . You could then make a conservative guess at an interest rate and determine how much you must save each month. You would enter -263.000 to pay for a special project in 18 years.33 into the formula as the pmt. For example. Set type equal to 0 or omitted 1 Remarks Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper. then $50.33. nper.000.83%. You would enter 48 into the formula for nper. if you get a four-year car loan and make monthly payments. For example. pmt includes principal and interest but no other fees or taxes. If pmt is omitted. If fv is omitted.

Participant Kit . The result is negative because it represents money that you would pay. cash you receive. For example. 0) 8% Data 500 B Description Money paid out of an insurance annuity at the end of every month Interest rate earned on the money paid out Years the money will be paid out Description (Result) Present value of an annuity with the terms above (-59. A2. .15). then: (pmt * nper) + pv + fv = 0 Example A 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 Formula =PV(A3/12. For more information. If you are asked to pay (60. If rate is not 0.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced FVSCHEDULE IPMT PMT XIRR XNPV An annuity is a series of constant cash payments made over a continuous period. a $1. then: If rate is 0. is represented by a negative number. such as a deposit to savings. In annuity functions.777.000 deposit to the bank would be represented by the argument -1000 if you are the depositor and by the argument 1000 if you are the bank. a car loan or a mortgage is an annuity. cash you pay out. Microsoft Excel solves for one financial argument in terms of the others. see the description for each annuity function. 12*A4. you would determine this would not be a good 31 . For example. is represented by a positive number.000) for the annuity. an outgoing cash flow. such as a dividend check.

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced investment because the present value of the annuity (59. [fv]. Typically. pv. Remarks 32 . If fv is omitted. pmt includes principal and interest but no other fees or taxes. for example. If pmt is omitted. pmt. Set type equal to 0 or omitted 1 If payments are due At the end of the period At the beginning of the period Guess Optional. is 0). pv. RATE function Description Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. The RATE function syntax has the following arguments: Nper Required. fv. Pv Required.Participant Kit . Syntax RATE(nper. Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate. Your guess for what the rate will be. The future value. RATE is calculated by iteration and can have zero or more solutions. Fv Optional. The total number of payment periods in an annuity.15) is less than what you are asked to pay.0000001 after 20 iterations. pmt. you must include the fv argument. Pmt Required. The number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. and type. see PV. RATE usually converges if guess is between 0 and 1. try different values for guess. The years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments. it is assumed to be 0 (the future value of a loan. If you omit guess. [type].777. The present value — the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now. Type Optional. If the successive results of RATE do not converge to within 0. The payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity. If RATE does not converge. it is assumed to be 10 percent. [guess]) Note For a complete description of the arguments nper. RATE returns the #NUM! error value.

Participant Kit . The H in HLOOKUP stands for "Horizontal. Use HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a row across the top of a table of data. Lookup_value can be a value. a reference. Data 4 -200 8000 Formula =RATE(A2*12. table_array. use 12%/12 for guess and 4*12 for nper. A4) =RATE(A2*12.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying guess and nper. The value to be found in the first row of the table. and you want to look down a specified number of rows. or a text string.24%) 33 . A3. Example A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Note The number of years of the loan is multiplied by 12 to get the number of months HLOOKUP function Description Searches for a value in the top row of a table or an array of values.09241767 or 9. and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array. If you make annual payments on the same loan. use 12% for guess and 4 for nper. [range_lookup]) The HLOOKUP function syntax has the following arguments: Lookup_value Required. B Description Years of the loan Monthly payment Amount of the loan Description (Result) Monthly rate of the loan with the above terms (1%) Annual rate of the loan with the above terms (0." Syntax HLOOKUP(lookup_value. row_index_num. Use VLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data you want to find. A4)*12 A3. If you make monthly payments on a four-year loan at 12 percent annual interest.

If you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk. and range_lookup is TRUE. 2. if row_index_num is greater than the number of rows on table_array. If range_lookup is TRUE. the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first row of table_array. otherwise. In other words. it uses the largest value that is less than lookup_value. in lookup_value. the values in the first row of table_array must be placed in ascending order: . HLOOKUP will find an exact match. A question mark matches any single character. The values in the first row of table_array can be text. question mark (?) and asterisk (*).. If one is not found. HLOOKUP may not give the correct value. HLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value. . HLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. Range_lookup Optional. TRUE. 0. HLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. type a tilde (~) before the character.Participant Kit . an asterisk matches any sequence of characters. if an exact match is not found. If FALSE. If row_index_num is less than 1. you can use the wildcard characters. Sort the values in ascending order. an approximate match is returned.. numbers. -1. If TRUE or omitted. table_array does not need to be sorted. The row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned.. Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent. If range_lookup is FALSE and lookup_value is text. If range_lookup is FALSE. A-Z. or logical values. Example A 1 2 Axles 4 B Bearings 4 C Bolts 9 34 ... 1. A logical value that specifies whether you want HLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match. Remark If HLOOKUP can't find lookup_value. the error value #N/A is returned. A table of information in which data is looked up.-2. Row_index_num Required. FALSE. a row_index_num of 2 returns the second row value in table_array. Use a reference to a range or a range name. A row_index_num of 1 returns the first row value in table_array. left to right. and so on.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Table_array Required.

(5) Looks up Bolts in row 1. 3. and returns the value from row 4 that's in the same column. For example. A1:C4. 3. TRUE) 8 =HLOOKUP("Bolts". "d". 35 . "a". (4) Looks up Bearings in row 1. "c". TRUE) 7 8 Description (Result) Looks up Axles in row 1. (c) 10 11 6 =HLOOKUP("Bearings". A1:C4. "b". (7) Looks up B in row 1. The employees' ID numbers are stored in the first column of the range. and returns the value from row 2 that's in the same column. and returns the value from row 3 that's in the same column. suppose that you have a list of employees contained in the range A2:C10. the next largest value that is less than B is used: Axles. (11) Looks up 3 in the first row of the array constant. and returns the value from row 3 that's in the same column. {1. 2. as shown in the following illustration.Participant Kit . 2. "e". A1:C4. 3. "f"}. and then return a value from any cell on the same row of the range. A1:C4. FALSE) 7 =HLOOKUP("B". 2. 4) 9 =HLOOKUP(3. and returns the value from row 2 in same column.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 3 4 5 5 6 Formula =HLOOKUP("Axles". Because B is not an exact match. TRUE) 10 VLOOKUP function Description You can use the VLOOKUP function to search the first column of a range of cells.

table_array. Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent. or logical values. A2:D8). [range_lookup]) The VLOOKUP function syntax has the following arguments: lookup_value Required. Use VLOOKUP instead of HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data that you want to find.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 2 If you know the employee's ID number. you can use the VLOOKUP function to return either the department or the name of that employee. table_array Required. The lookup_value argument can be a value or a reference. The column number in the table_array argument from which the matching value must be returned. The value to search in the first column of the table or range. VLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. The V in VLOOKUP stands for vertical. These values can be text. A2:C10.Participant Kit . a col_index_num of 2 returns the value in the second column in table_array. FALSE). The range of cells that contains the data. 3. col_index_num Required. A col_index_num argument of 1 returns the value in the first column in table_array. You can use a reference to a range (for example. and so on. This formula searches for the value 38 in the first column of the range A2:C10. Syntax VLOOKUP(lookup_value. If the col_index_num argument is: 36 . col_index_num. The values in the first column of table_array are the values searched by lookup_value. To obtain the name of employee number 38. you can use the formula =VLOOKUP(38. and then returns the value that is contained in the third column of the range and on the same row as the lookup value ("Axel Delgado"). If the value you supply for the lookup_value argument is smaller than the smallest value in the first column of the table_array argument. numbers. or a range name.

A question mark matches any single character. the values in the first column of table_array do not need to be sorted. In this case. If range_lookup is FALSE and lookup_value is text. For more information. For more information. ensure that the data in the first column of table_array is not stored as text values. type a tilde (~) preceding the character. In these cases. VLOOKUP might return an incorrect or unexpected value. otherwise. the values in the first column of table_array must be placed in ascending sort order. VLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value. an exact or approximate match is returned. see Sort data in a range or table. range_lookup Optional. If there are two or more values in the first column of table_array that match the lookup_value. you can use the wildcard characters — the question mark (?) and asterisk (*) — in lookup_value. Greater than the number of columns in table_array. 37 . an asterisk matches any sequence of characters. If range_lookup is FALSE. inconsistent use of straight ( ' or " ) and curly ( ‗ or ―) quotation marks. VLOOKUP might return an incorrect or unexpected value. If you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk. Important Ifrange_lookup is either TRUE or is omitted. the error value #N/A is returned. A logical value that specifies whether you want VLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match: If range_lookup is either TRUE or is omitted. If an exact match is not found. VLOOKUP will find only an exact match. VLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. If an exact match is not found. the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. trailing spaces. see CLEAN function and TRIM function.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Less than 1. or nonprinting characters. ensure that the data in the first column of table_array does not contain leading spaces.Participant Kit . If the range_lookup argument is FALSE. Remarks When searching text values in the first column of table_array. the first value found is used. VLOOKUP might not return the correct value. When searching number or date values.

946 1.2) B Viscosity 3.3. searches for the value 38 C Temperature 500 400 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Result 2.457 0.746 0.3.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Example 1 This example searches the Density column of an atmospheric properties table to find corresponding values in the Viscosity and Temperature columns.29 Formula =VLOOKUP(1. searches for the value 1 in column A.FALSE) #N/A .Participant Kit . searches for the value 1 in column A.946. (The values are for air at 0 degrees Celsius at sea level.55 3. Using an approximate match.A2:C10.A2:C10. and then returns the value from column C in the same row.17 12 =VLOOKUP(1.17 1.606 0.835 0.75 2. finds the largest value less than or equal to 1 in column A which is 0. or 1 atmosphere.95 1.38 2. which is 0.) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Density 0. and then returns the value from column B in the same row.525 0.675 0.09 1.57 2. Using an exact match.93 2.TRUE) 100 13 14 =VLOOKUP(0.25 2.946.A2:C10. finds the largest value less than or equal to 1 in column A.7.71 Description Using an approximate match.

Using an approximate match.1 in column A. searches for the value 0.TRUE) 0.12 $2.2.67 $3.45 $5. C Cost $145.TRUE) 1. FALSE) * (1 + VLOOKUP("DI-328". 3.96 39 . finds the largest value less than or equal to 2 in column A.1 is less than the smallest value in column A.29.71 Example 2 This example searches the Item-ID column of a baby products table and matches values in the Cost and Markup columns to calculate prices and test conditions. Because 0. #N/A 16 =VLOOKUP(2.7 in column A. an error is returned. Using an approximate match.2.56 $21.Participant Kit .1.56 D Markup 30% 40% 35% 40% 45% Result $28. searches for the value 2 in column A.A2:C10.A2:C10. which is 1. and then returns the value from column B in the same row. A2:D6. an error is returned. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Item-ID ST-340 BI-567 DI-328 WI-989 AS-469 Formula = VLOOKUP("DI-328". Because there is no exact match in column A. B Item Stroller Bib Diapers Wipes Aspirator Description Calculates the retail price of diapers by adding the markup percentage to the cost.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 15 =VLOOKUP(0.

"Cost is $" & VLOOKUP(A3.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 8 A2:D6.nn". A2:D6.P. A ID 1 1 2 3 2 4 5 6 Fonta na Olivier B Last name Davis C First name Sara D Title Sal es Rep . A2:D6. 4. FALSE) * (1 + VLOOKUP("WI-989".Participant Kit . V.56 11 Example 3 This example searches the ID column of an employee table and matches values in other columns to calculate ages and test for error conditions. If the cost of an item is greater than or equal to $20. FALSE)) = (VLOOKUP("WI-989". FALSE) >= 20. "Markup is " & 100 * VLOOKUP(A2. 4. FALSE) &"%". FALSE)) Calculates the sale price of wipes by subtracting a specified discount from the retail price. otherwise. A2:D6. displays the string Markup is nn%". 3. of Sal es Sal es Rep . "Cost is under $20. FALSE))) * (1 20%) = IF(VLOOKUP(A2.73 9 If the cost of an item is greater than or equal to $20. A2:D6. 3. 3. E Birth date 12/8/19 68 2/19/19 52 3 Leal Karin a 8/30/19 63 40 . FALSE) >= 20. displays the string "Cost is under $20. A2:D6. Markup is 30% Cost is $3. displays the string "Markup is nn%". 3. A2:D6. "Markup is: " & 100 * VLOOKUP(A3.00") 10 = IF(VLOOKUP(A3.00. A2:D6. $5. otherwise. FALSE) &"%". 4. 4.00".00. displays the string "Cost is $n.

displays the message "Employee not found".FALSE)) 1 1 Burke 1 2 =IF(ISNA(VLOOKUP(15.6. VLOOKUP(15.2. VLOOKUP(5. If there is an employee with an ID of 5.A2:E7.2.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 7 8 4 Patte n Micha el Sal es Rep . otherwise. displays the employee's last name. The ISNA function returns a 41 Result 49 =IF(ISNA(VLOOKUP(5.FA LSE)) = TRUE.Participant Kit . FALSE).2. "Employee not found". The ISNA function returns a TRUE value when the VLOOKUP function returns the #NA error value.2.3 0). displays the employee's last name.F ALSE)) = TRUE.5. otherwise.A3:E8. Sal es Rep . VLOOKUP(5.A2:E7. If there is an employee with an ID of 15.A2:E7. 9/19/19 58 5 Burke Brian 3/4/195 5 9 6 Sousa Luis 7/2/196 3 Formula =INT(YEARFRAC(DATE(2004. Sal es Mgr .FALSE)) Employe e not found . displays the message "Employee not found". Uses the YEARFRAC function to subtract the birth date from the fiscal year end date and displays the result as an integer using the INT function. "Employee not found". finds the age of the employee with ID equal to 5.A3:E8. 1)) 1 0 Description For the fiscal year 2004.

the IF function returns the text "Within budget. and "10 or less" if A1 is less than or equal to 10. . Otherwise. value_if_true Optional. =VLOOKUP(4. use the logical value TRUE for the value_if_true argument.A2:E7.A2:E7. If logical_test evaluates to FALSE and the value of the value_if_false argument is omitted (that is. (that is. A10=100 is a logical expression. the IF function returns 0 (zero). For example."10 or less") returns "Over 10" if A1 is greater than 10. there is only a comma following the logical_test argument). the IF function returns the logical value FALSE.Participant Kit .FALSE) & " is a " & VLOOKUP(4." If logical_test evaluates to TRUE and the value_if_true argument is omitted (that is. Syntax IF(logical_test. To display the word TRUE. [value_if_true]. concatenates the values of three cells into a complete sentence.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced TRUE value when the VLOOKUP function returns the #NA error value. there is no comma following the value_if_true argument). there is no comma following the value_if_true argument). For example. The value that you want to be returned if the logical_test argument evaluates to FALSE.3. [value_if_false]) The IF function syntax has the following arguments: logical_test Required. For example.A2:E7. The value that you want to be returned if the logical_test argument evaluates to TRUE.2. if the value of this argument is the text string "Within budget" and the logical_test argument evaluates to TRUE. Michael Patten is a Sales Rep. This argument can use any comparison calculation operator.FALSE) IF function Description The IF function returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE." If logical_test evaluates to FALSE and the value_if_false argument is omitted.4. if the value of this argument is the text string "Over budget" and the logical_test argument evaluates to FALSE. and another value if that condition evaluates to FALSE. Any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. the expression evaluates to TRUE. value_if_false Optional. the IF function returns the text "Over budget."Over 10". the expression evaluates to FALSE. the IF function returns the value 0 (zero). For example. in the IF function. the formula =IF(A1>10. if the value in cell A10 is equal to 100.FALSE) & " " & VLOOKUP(4. Remarks 42 For the employee with an ID of 4.

) Alternatively.) If any of the arguments to IF are arrays. To calculate a sum based on a string of text or a number within a range. For example. empty text ("") is returned. or CHOOSE functions. Otherwise. HLOOKUP. (See Example 4 for a sample of the LOOKUP function.Participant Kit . to count the number of occurrences of a string of text or a number within a range of cells."Within budget". use the COUNTIF or the COUNTIFS worksheet functions. use the SUMIF or the SUMIFS worksheet functions. Excel provides additional functions that can be used to analyze your data based on a condition." Otherwise. Result Within budget B C Empty text ("") 5 Example 2 A 1 2 3 4 5 Actual Expenses 1500 500 500 Formula B C Predicted Expenses 900 900 925 Description Result 43 . the function displays "Over budget. every element of the array is evaluated when the IF statement is carried out. A2 + B2 is calculated and returned."") 23 Description If the number in cell A2 is less than or equal to 100. the formula returns "Within budget. consider using the LOOKUP. (See Example 3 for a sample of nested IF functions." If the number in cell A2 is equal to 100. VLOOKUP.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Up to 64 IF functions can be nested as value_if_true and value_if_false arguments to construct more elaborate tests. Example 1 A 1 2 3 Data 50 Formula =IF(A2<=100."Over budget") 4 =IF(A2=100.A2+B2. to test many conditions.

"F")))) B C Description Assigns a letter grade to the score in cell A2 Assigns a letter grade to the score in cell A3 Assigns a letter grade to the score in cell A4 Result F A C The preceding example demonstrates how you can nest IF statements."C"."A"."Over Budget"."D"."B". If the first logical_test argument evaluates to FALSE."OK") =IF(A3>B3.IF(A3>79. the fourth IF statement is also the value_if_false argument to the third IF statement.Participant Kit . For example."C". and so on."A". "A" is returned."B"."D".IF(A4>59. if the first logical_test argument (Average>89) evaluates to TRUE. You can also use other functions as arguments. and the second IF statement is the value_if_false argument to the first IF statement. If Score is Greater than 89 From 80 to 89 From 70 to 79 From 60 to 69 Less than 60 Then return A B C D F 44 ."B". IF(A4>69. the third IF statement is the value_if_false argument to the second IF statement. Similarly."OK") Checks whether the expenses in row 2 are over budget Checks whether the expenses in row 3 are over budget Over Budget OK 6 7 Example 3 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Score 45 90 78 Formula =IF(A2>89."F")))) =IF(A3>89.IF(A2>79. In each formula."F")))) =IF(A4>89."C".IF(A4>79."Over Budget". The letter grades are assigned to numbers. IF(A2>69."A"."D". using the following key.IF(A3>59.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced =IF(A2>B2.IF(A2>59. IF(A3>69. the second IF statement is evaluated.

"C+".87.77.{0."A"."A". returns FALSE if one or more arguments evaluate to FALSE.Participant Kit .90.83.87."C-"."D".70.67.80. For example. One common use for the AND function is to expand the usefulness of other functions that perform logical tests."A".63.83.97}."C+".93.90."D".73.63."C-".70.67.80."B-"."C".63."B-"."B+".60.83."A". A 1 2 3 4 5 Score 45 90 78 Formula =LOOKUP(A2."C-".90.60. Description Returns TRUE if all its arguments evaluate to TRUE.87.93. {"F".80."C". the LOOKUP function is used instead of the IF function because there are thirteen conditions to test.93.77.60. {"F"."B"."A"."A+"}) Descripti on Assigns a letter grade to the score in cell A2 Assigns a letter grade to the score in cell A3 Assigns a letter grade to the score in cell A4 Resu lt F B C 6 7 =LOOKUP(A3.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Example 4 In this example."D-"."D+". You may find the LOOKUP function easier to read and maintain than the IF function."D+".{0."B"."A"."D-".67.70.97}."C"."B-"."A+"}) C+ AND function This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the ANDfunction in Microsoft Excel."A+"}) A- 8 =LOOKUP(A4."D-"."B"."C+". {"F".{0.77.73."B+"."D+".97}."D"."B+". the IF function performs a logical test and then returns one 45 .73.

logical2. the AND function returns the #VALUE! error value.) The AND function syntax has the following arguments: 1. A 1 2 3 4 Example 2 A 1 2 3 Data 50 104 B C Formula =AND(TRUE.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced value if the test evaluates to TRUE and another value if the test evaluates to FALSE. Syntax AND(logical1. [logical2]. Additional conditions that you want to test that can evaluate to either TRUE or FALSE. FALSE) =AND(2+2=4. you can test many different conditions instead of just one. those values are ignored. or the arguments must be arrays or references that contain logical values. By using the AND function as thelogical_test argument of the IF function.. TRUE) =AND(TRUE. Optional. up to a maximum of 255 conditions.Participant Kit . Remarks The arguments must evaluate to logical values. 2.. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. . The first condition that you want to test that can evaluate to either TRUE or FALSE. If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells. such as TRUE or FALSE. .. 2+3=5) B Description All arguments are TRUE One argument is FALSE All arguments evaluate to TRUE C Result TRUE FALSE TRUE 46 . logical1 Required.. If the specified range contains no logical values.

A3<100). press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. if it is between 1 and 100. .Participant Kit . 1 to 255 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE. "The value is out of range. Otherwise. OR returns the #VALUE! error value. 50 7 OR function This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the ORfunction in Microsoft Excel. A2<100) Description Displays TRUE if the number in cell A2 is between 1 and 100. Syntax OR(logical1.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 4 Formula =AND(1<A2..") 6 =IF(AND(1<A2. Remarks The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE." Displays the number in cell A2. or in arrays or references that contain logical values.. A2. Otherwise. those values are ignored. returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE. Displays the number in cell A3. . [logical2]. 47 . If the specified range contains no logical values. If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells.) The OR function syntax has the following arguments: Logical1. A2<100). logical2. "The value is out of range.. subsequent logical values are optional. it displays the message "The value is out of range. You can use an OR array formula to see if a value occurs in an array. Result TRUE 5 =IF(AND(1<A3. Otherwise. A3.") The value is out of range.. Description Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE. it displays FALSE. Logical1 is required. if it is between 1 and 100. To enter an array formula. it displays a message.

You can use an IS function to get information about a value before performing a calculation or other action with it. referred to collectively as the IS functions. For example. otherwise it returns FALSE. the IF function performs the calculation A1*2. "An error occurred. you can use the ISERROR function in conjunction with the IF function to perform a different action if an error occurs: =IF(ISERROR(A1). checks the specified value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending on the outcome.2+2=5) =OR(TRUE. Description Each of these functions.Participant Kit ."." If no error exists. If so. A1 * 2) This formula checks to see if an error condition exists in A1.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Example A 1 2 3 4 Formula =OR(TRUE) =OR(1+1=1. Syntax ISBLANK(value) ISERR(value) ISERROR(value) ISLOGICAL(value) ISNA(value) ISNONTEXT(value) 48 . For example. the ISBLANK function returns the logical value TRUE if the value argument is a reference to an empty cell. the IF function returns the message "An error occurred.TRUE) B Description (Result) One argument is TRUE (TRUE) All arguments evaluate to FALSE (FALSE) At least one argument is TRUE (TRUE) ISERROR IS functions This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the ISfunctions in Microsoft Excel.FALSE.

For example. 49 .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced ISNUMBER(value) ISREF(value) ISTEXT(value) The IS function syntax has the following argument: value Required. #REF!. The IS functions are useful in formulas for testing the outcome of a calculation. Value refers to text. #NAME?. Value refers to the #N/A (value not available) error value. text. The value argument can be a blank (empty cell). #NUM!. logical value. Value refers to a logical value. or a name referring to any of these. #DIV/0!. or #NULL!). the text value "19" is converted to the number 19. (Note that this function returns TRUE if the value refers to a blank cell. Value refers to any item that is not text. and the ISNUMBER function returns FALSE. Value refers to a reference.Participant Kit . #VALUE!. "19" is not converted from a text value to a number value. Returns TRUE if Value refers to an empty cell. Function ISBLANK ISERR ISERROR ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISREF ISTEXT Remarks The value arguments of the IS functions are not converted. or reference value. When combined with the IF function. Value refers to any error value (#N/A. Any numeric values that are enclosed in double quotation marks are treated as text. in most other functions where a number is required. error. However. these functions provide a method for locating errors in formulas (see the following examples). in the formula ISNUMBER("19").) Value refers to a number. number. The value that you want tested. Value refers to any error value except #N/A.

330. #REF!. Checks whether the value in cell A6. Region1. Checks whether the value in cell A4. #N/A. is an error. is the #N/A error. Checks whether the value in cell A4. Checks whether the value in cell A3. Checks whether the value in cell A6. Checks whether the value in cell A5. #REF!. #N/A. is text.92. is an error.92 #N/A Formula =ISBLANK(A2) =ISERROR(A4) Description Checks whether cell A2 is blank. is the #N/A error. Result FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE B C Formula =ISLOGICAL(TRUE) =ISLOGICAL("TRUE") =ISNUMBER(4) =ISREF(G8) =ISREF(XYZ1) B Description Checks whether TRUE is a logical value Checks whether "TRUE" is a logical value Checks whether 4 is a number Checks whether G8 is a valid reference Checks whether XYZ1 is a valid reference C Result TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE 50 .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Example 1 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Example 2 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 =ISNA(A4) 10 =ISNA(A6) 11 =ISERR(A6) 12 =ISNUMBER(A5) 13 =ISTEXT(A3) 14 Data Gold Region1 #REF! 330. is a number.Participant Kit .

Enter the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount $10. Criteria Required. For example. Is the range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify. The range of cells that makes up the list or database. such as "Age" or "Yield. If you add more information to the list. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced DSUM function Description Adds the numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify.Participant Kit . You can use any range for the criteria argument. field. 51 . the new information is added to the first row below the list. Make sure that the criteria range does not overlap the list. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. If the row below the list is not blank. and so on. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. 2 for the second column. Syntax DSUM(database. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. do not place the criteria range below the list. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label in which you specify a condition for the column. Field Required. Remarks You can use any range for the criteria argument.000 in G2. The first row of the list contains labels for each column. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. and columns of data are fields." or a number (without quotation marks) that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column. criteria) The DSUM function syntax has the following arguments: Database Required. Indicates which column is used in the function.

Participant Kit - Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced

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Participant Kit - Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced

Examples A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Tree ="=Apple" ="=Pear" Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DSUM(A4:E10, "Profit", A1:A2) Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) The profit apple (225) total from trees. Age 20 12 14 15 8 9 Yield 14 10 9 10 8 6 Profit 105.00 96.00 105.00 75.00 76.80 45.00 B Height >10 C Age D Yield E Profit F Height <16

12

13

=DSUM(A4:E10, "Profit", A1:F2)

The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16. (75)

Criteria examples Important Because the equal sign is used to indicate a formula when you type text or a value in a cell, Microsoft Excel evaluates what you type; however, this may cause unexpected filter results. To indicate an equality comparison operator for either text or a value, type the criteria as a string expression in the appropriate cell in the criteria range: =''=entry'' Where entry is the text or value you want to find. For example:

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Participant Kit - Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced What you type in the cell ="=Davolio" ="=3000" What Excel evaluates and displays =Davolio =3000

When filtering text data, Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. However, you can use a formula to perform a case-sensitive search. The following sections provide examples of complex criteria. Multiple criteria in one column Boolean logic: (Salesperson = "Davolio" OR Salesperson = "Buchanan") To find rows that meet multiple criteria for one column, type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows of the criteria range. In the following data range (A6:C10), the criteria range (B1:B3) displays the rows that contain either "Davolio" or "Buchanan" in the Salesperson column (A8:C10). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson =Davolio =Buchanan C Sales

Multiple criteria in multiple columns where all criteria must be true Boolean logic: (Type = "Produce" AND Sales > 1000) To find rows that meet multiple criteria in multiple columns, type all of the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. In the following data range (A6:C10), the criteria range (A1:C2) displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column and a value greater than $1,000 in the Sales column (A9:C10).

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where any criteria can be true. type the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. In the following data range (A6:C10). the criteria range (A1:B3) displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column or "Davolio" in the Salesperson column (A8:C10).Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Type =Produce B Salesperson C Sales >1000 Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Multiple criteria in multiple columns where any criteria can be true Boolean logic: (Type = "Produce" OR Salesperson = "Davolio") To find rows that meet multiple criteria in multiple columns. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Type Beverages Meat produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Sales $5122 $450 $6328 Type =Produce =Davolio B Salesperson C Sales 55 .

the criteria range (B1:C3) displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and a value greater than $3. In the following data range (A6:C10). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson =Davolio =Buchanan C Sales >3000 >1500 Multiple sets of criteria where each set includes criteria for one column Boolean logic: ( (Sales > 6000 AND Sales < 6500 ) OR (Sales < 500) ) To find rows that meet multiple sets of criteria.000 in the Sales column. A 1 2 Type B Salesperson C Sales >6000 D Sales <6500 56 . where each set includes criteria for one column.Participant Kit . In the following data range (A6:C10). or displays the rows that contain "Buchanan" in the Salesperson and a value greater than $1.500 and values less than 500 in the Sales column (A8:C10). the criteria range (C1:D3) displays rows that contain values between 6.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 10 Produce Davolio $6544 Multiple sets of criteria where each set includes criteria for multiple columns Boolean logic: ( (Salesperson = "Davolio" AND Sales >3000) OR (Salesperson = "Buchanan" AND Sales > 1500) ) To find rows that meet multiple sets of criteria. where each set includes criteria for multiple columns. type each set of criteria in separate rows. include multiple columns with the same column heading.000 and 6.500 in the Sales column (A9:C10).

" and "Davis. Excel finds "Davolio.Participant Kit . *. or ~ To find Any single character For example. sm?th finds "smith" and "smyth" Any number of characters For example. asterisk." Use a wildcard character. the criteria range (A1:B3) displays rows with "Me" as the first characters in the Type column or rows with the second character equal to "u" in the Salesperson column (A7:C9). *east finds "Northeast" and "Southeast" A question mark. For example. For example. The following wildcard characters can be used as comparison criteria. do one or more of the following: Type one or more characters without an equal sign (=) to find rows with a text value in a column that begin with those characters.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio <500 Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Criteria to find text values that share some characters but not others To find text values that share some characters but not others." "David. Use ? (question mark) * (asterisk) ~ (tilde) followed by ?. if you type the text Dav as a criterion. A 1 2 3 Type Me =?u* B Salesperson C Sales 57 . fy91~? finds "fy91?" or tilde In the following data range (A6:C10).

Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. the criteria range (D1:D2) displays rows that have a value in the Sales column greater than the average of all the Sales values (C7:C10). "C7" refers to the filtered column (C) of the first row of the data range (7). Remember the following important points: The formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. In the formula. C7 and A7). If you use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. Calculated Average and Exact Match). and do not type the expression in the following way: =''=entry'' Do not use a column label for criteria labels.Participant Kit . Filtering for values greater than the average of all values in the data range In the following data range (A6:D10). Because you are using a formula. The formula that you use for criteria must use a relative reference to refer to the corresponding cell in the first row (in the examples below. All other references in the formula must be absolute references.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Criteria created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula as your criterion. You can ignore this error because it does not affect how the range is filtered. enter the formula as you normally would. The following subsections provide specific examples of criteria created as the result of a formula. either keep the criteria labels blank or use a label that is not a column label in the range (in the examples below. 58 .

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson C Sales D Exact Match =EXACT(A7. "Produce") DMIN function This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the DMINfunction in Microsoft Excel. "A7" refers to the filtered column (A) of the first row of the data range (7). 59 .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Type B Salesperson C Sales D Calculated Average =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Filtering for text by using a case-sensitive search In the data range (A6:D10). In the formula.Participant Kit . the criteria range (D1:D2) displays rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column by using the EXACT function to perform a case-sensitive search (A10:C10).

if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount $10. Enter the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. The first row of the list contains labels for each column." or a number (without quotation marks) that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column. criteria) The DMIN function syntax has the following arguments: Database Required.Participant Kit . Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. Field Required. Remarks You can use any range for the criteria argument. Make sure that the criteria range does not overlap the list.000 in G2. and so on. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. do not place the criteria range below the list. Indicates which column is used in the function.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Description Returns the smallest number in a field (column) of records in a list or database that matches conditions that you specify. such as "Age" or "Yield. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. The range of cells that makes up the list or database. and columns of data are fields. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label in which you specify a condition for the column. If you add more information to the list. Syntax DMIN(database. 60 . You can use any range for the criteria argument. For example. If the row below the list is not blank. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. the new information is added to the first row below the list. The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify. Criteria Required. field. 2 for the second column.

80 45. For example: What you type in the cell ="=Davolio" ="=3000" What Excel evaluates and displays =Davolio =3000 61 .00 75. type the criteria as a string expression in the appropriate cell in the criteria range: =''=entry'' Where entry is the text or value you want to find.00 105. A1:B2) Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height. this may cause unexpected filter results.00 76. (75) Age 20 12 14 15 8 9 Yield 14 10 9 10 8 6 Profit 105.00 B Height >10 C Age D Yield E Profit F Height <16 12 Criteria examples Important Because the equal sign is used to indicate a formula when you type text or a value in a cell.Participant Kit . "Profit". Microsoft Excel evaluates what you type.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Examples A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Tree ="=Apple" ="=Pear" Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DMIN(A4:E10. To indicate an equality comparison operator for either text or a value.00 96. however.

type all of the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. In the following data range (A6:C10). Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced When filtering text data. you can use a formula to perform a case-sensitive search.000 in the Sales column (A9:C10). type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows of the criteria range. Multiple criteria in one column Boolean logic: (Salesperson = "Davolio" OR Salesperson = "Buchanan") To find rows that meet multiple criteria for one column. the criteria range (B1:B3) displays the rows that contain either "Davolio" or "Buchanan" in the Salesperson column (A8:C10). In the following data range (A6:C10). A 1 2 3 Type =Produce B Salesperson C Sales >1000 62 . However.Participant Kit . The following sections provide examples of complex criteria. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson =Davolio =Buchanan C Sales Multiple criteria in multiple columns where all criteria must be true Boolean logic: (Type = "Produce" AND Sales > 1000) To find rows that meet multiple criteria in multiple columns. the criteria range (A1:C2) displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column and a value greater than $1.

type the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type =Produce =Davolio B Salesperson C Sales Multiple sets of criteria where each set includes criteria for multiple columns Boolean logic: ( (Salesperson = "Davolio" AND Sales >3000) OR (Salesperson = "Buchanan" AND Sales > 1500) ) To find rows that meet multiple sets of criteria. type each set of criteria in separate rows. the criteria range (A1:B3) displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column or "Davolio" in the Salesperson column (A8:C10). where any criteria can be true.Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Multiple criteria in multiple columns where any criteria can be true Boolean logic: (Type = "Produce" OR Salesperson = "Davolio") To find rows that meet multiple criteria in multiple columns. In the following data range (A6:C10). 63 . where each set includes criteria for multiple columns.

500 and values less than 500 in the Sales column (A8:C10). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Type Beverages Meat produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan 64 B Salesperson C Sales >6000 <500 D Sales <6500 Type Sales $5122 $450 $6328 . where each set includes criteria for one column.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced In the following data range (A6:C10). or displays the rows that contain "Buchanan" in the Salesperson and a value greater than $1.000 in the Sales column. the criteria range (C1:D3) displays rows that contain values between 6.500 in the Sales column (A9:C10). include multiple columns with the same column heading. the criteria range (B1:C3) displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and a value greater than $3. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson =Davolio =Buchanan C Sales >3000 >1500 Multiple sets of criteria where each set includes criteria for one column Boolean logic: ( (Sales > 6000 AND Sales < 6500 ) OR (Sales < 500) ) To find rows that meet multiple sets of criteria.000 and 6.Participant Kit . In the following data range (A6:C10).

sm?th finds "smith" and "smyth" Any number of characters For example. or ~ To find Any single character For example. For example. The following wildcard characters can be used as comparison criteria." Use a wildcard character. Use ? (question mark) * (asterisk) ~ (tilde) followed by ?. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type Me =?u* B Salesperson C Sales 65 ." and "Davis. do one or more of the following: Type one or more characters without an equal sign (=) to find rows with a text value in a column that begin with those characters. *east finds "Northeast" and "Southeast" A question mark. *. the criteria range (A1:B3) displays rows with "Me" as the first characters in the Type column or rows with the second character equal to "u" in the Salesperson column (A7:C9).Participant Kit . For example." "David. if you type the text Dav as a criterion. fy91~? finds "fy91?" or tilde In the following data range (A6:C10).Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 10 Produce Davolio $6544 Criteria to find text values that share some characters but not others To find text values that share some characters but not others. Excel finds "Davolio. asterisk.

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Participant Kit - Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced

Criteria created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula as your criterion. Remember the following important points: The formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. Because you are using a formula, enter the formula as you normally would, and do not type the expression in the following way: =''=entry'' Do not use a column label for criteria labels; either keep the criteria labels blank or use a label that is not a column label in the range (in the examples below, Calculated Average and Exact Match). If you use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name, Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. You can ignore this error because it does not affect how the range is filtered. The formula that you use for criteria must use a relative reference to refer to the corresponding cell in the first row (in the examples below, C7 and A7). All other references in the formula must be absolute references. The following subsections provide specific examples of criteria created as the result of a formula. Filtering for values greater than the average of all values in the data range In the following data range (A6:D10), the criteria range (D1:D2) displays rows that have a value in the Sales column greater than the average of all the Sales values (C7:C10). In the formula, "C7" refers to the filtered column (C) of the first row of the data range (7). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Salesperson Sales

67

B Salesperson

C Sales

D Calculated Average =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10)

Type

Participant Kit - Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 7 8 9 10 Beverages Meat produce Produce Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio $5122 $450 $6328 $6544

Filtering for text by using a case-sensitive search In the data range (A6:D10), the criteria range (D1:D2) displays rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column by using the EXACT function to perform a case-sensitive search (A10:C10). In the formula, "A7" refers to the filtered column (A) of the first row of the data range (7). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson C Sales D Exact Match =EXACT(A7, "Produce")

DMAX function This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the DMAXfunction in Microsoft Excel. Description Returns the largest number in a field (column) of records in a list or database that matches conditions you that specify. Syntax DMAX(database, field, criteria) The DMAX function syntax has the following arguments: Database Required. The range of cells that makes up the list or database. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records, and columns of data are fields. The first row of the list contains labels for each column.

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and so on.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Field Required. You can use any range for the criteria argument. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. Criteria Required.00 B Height >10 C Age D Yield E Profit F Height <16 69 .00 75." or a number (without quotation marks) that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column.Participant Kit . Indicates which column is used in the function. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information.000 in G2. 2 for the second column. Make sure that the criteria range does not overlap the list. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount $10. Remarks You can use any range for the criteria argument.00 96. such as "Age" or "Yield. Examples A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tree ="=Apple" ="=Pear" Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Height 18 12 13 14 Age 20 12 14 15 Yield 14 10 9 10 Profit 105. If you add more information to the list. the new information is added to the first row below the list. The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify. do not place the criteria range below the list. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database.00 105. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label in which you specify a condition for the column. For example. Enter the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. If the row below the list is not blank.

type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows of the criteria range.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 9 10 11 Pear Apple Formula =DMAX(A4:E10. this may cause unexpected filter results.Participant Kit . Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. Microsoft Excel evaluates what you type. For example: What you type in the cell ="=Davolio" ="=3000" What Excel evaluates and displays =Davolio =3000 When filtering text data. A1:A3) 9 8 Description (Result) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees.00 12 Important Because the equal sign is used to indicate a formula when you type text or a value in a cell. Multiple criteria in one column Boolean logic: (Salesperson = "Davolio" OR Salesperson = "Buchanan") To find rows that meet multiple criteria for one column. "Profit". However. type the criteria as a string expression in the appropriate cell in the criteria range: =''=entry'' Where entry is the text or value you want to find. The following sections provide examples of complex criteria. In the following data range (A6:C10). you can use a formula to perform a case-sensitive search. A 1 2 Type B Salesperson =Davolio 70 C Sales . however.80 45. the criteria range (B1:B3) displays the rows that contain either "Davolio" or "Buchanan" in the Salesperson column (A8:C10). To indicate an equality comparison operator for either text or a value. (105) 8 9 8 6 76.

type the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. where any criteria can be true. 71 .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce =Buchanan Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Multiple criteria in multiple columns where all criteria must be true Boolean logic: (Type = "Produce" AND Sales > 1000) To find rows that meet multiple criteria in multiple columns.Participant Kit . A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type =Produce B Salesperson C Sales >1000 Multiple criteria in multiple columns where any criteria can be true Boolean logic: (Type = "Produce" OR Salesperson = "Davolio") To find rows that meet multiple criteria in multiple columns.000 in the Sales column (A9:C10). the criteria range (A1:C2) displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column and a value greater than $1. In the following data range (A6:C10). type all of the criteria in the same row of the criteria range.

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Type Beverages Meat Salesperson Suyama Davolio Sales $5122 $450 Type B Salesperson =Davolio =Buchanan C Sales >3000 >1500 72 . In the following data range (A6:C10). where each set includes criteria for multiple columns.Participant Kit .000 in the Sales column.500 in the Sales column (A9:C10). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type =Produce =Davolio B Salesperson C Sales Multiple sets of criteria where each set includes criteria for multiple columns Boolean logic: ( (Salesperson = "Davolio" AND Sales >3000) OR (Salesperson = "Buchanan" AND Sales > 1500) ) To find rows that meet multiple sets of criteria.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced In the following data range (A6:C10). or displays the rows that contain "Buchanan" in the Salesperson and a value greater than $1. the criteria range (B1:C3) displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and a value greater than $3. type each set of criteria in separate rows. the criteria range (A1:B3) displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column or "Davolio" in the Salesperson column (A8:C10).

where each set includes criteria for one column. do one or more of the following: Type one or more characters without an equal sign (=) to find rows with a text value in a column that begin with those characters." and "Davis.Participant Kit . A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson C Sales >6000 <500 D Sales <6500 Criteria to find text values that share some characters but not others To find text values that share some characters but not others. Use ? (question mark) To find Any 73 single character ." "David. The following wildcard characters can be used as comparison criteria. include multiple columns with the same column heading.500 and values less than 500 in the Sales column (A8:C10). For example. Excel finds "Davolio." Use a wildcard character. the criteria range (C1:D3) displays rows that contain values between 6. In the following data range (A6:C10). if you type the text Dav as a criterion.000 and 6.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 9 10 produce Produce Buchanan Davolio $6328 $6544 Multiple sets of criteria where each set includes criteria for one column Boolean logic: ( (Sales > 6000 AND Sales < 6500 ) OR (Sales < 500) ) To find rows that meet multiple sets of criteria.

sm?th finds "smith" and "smyth" * (asterisk) ~ (tilde) followed by ?. For example. either keep the criteria labels blank or use a label that is not a column label in the range (in the examples below. *. or ~ Any number of characters For example. asterisk. Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. and do not type the expression in the following way: =''=entry'' Do not use a column label for criteria labels. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type Me =?u* B Salesperson C Sales Criteria created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula as your criterion. Remember the following important points: The formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. You can ignore this error because it does not affect how the range is filtered. the criteria range (A1:B3) displays rows with "Me" as the first characters in the Type column or rows with the second character equal to "u" in the Salesperson column (A7:C9). 74 . If you use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name.Participant Kit . Because you are using a formula.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced For example. enter the formula as you normally would. *east finds "Northeast" and "Southeast" A question mark. Calculated Average and Exact Match). fy91~? finds "fy91?" or tilde In the following data range (A6:C10).

"A7" refers to the filtered column (A) of the first row of the data range (7). the criteria range (D1:D2) displays rows that have a value in the Sales column greater than the average of all the Sales values (C7:C10). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson C Sales D Calculated Average =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Filtering for text by using a case-sensitive search In the data range (A6:D10). All other references in the formula must be absolute references.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced The formula that you use for criteria must use a relative reference to refer to the corresponding cell in the first row (in the examples below. "C7" refers to the filtered column (C) of the first row of the data range (7). In the formula. A 1 2 3 4 Type B Salesperson C Sales D Exact Match =EXACT(A7. Filtering for values greater than the average of all values in the data range In the following data range (A6:D10). The following subsections provide specific examples of criteria created as the result of a formula. In the formula. "Produce") 75 .Participant Kit . the criteria range (D1:D2) displays rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column by using the EXACT function to perform a case-sensitive search (A10:C10). C7 and A7).

Field Required. The range of cells that makes up the list or database. Syntax DCOUNT(database. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records. Remarks 76 . and so on. The field argument is optional. field. Criteria Required. Indicates which column is used in the function.Participant Kit ." or a number (without quotation marks) that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column. Enter the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. Description Counts the cells that contain numbers in a field (column) of records in a list or database that match conditions that you specify.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 DCOUNT function This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the DCOUNTfunction in Microsoft Excel. 2 for the second column. DCOUNT counts all records in the database that match the criteria. The range of cells that contains the conditions that you specify. criteria) The DCOUNT function syntax has the following arguments: Database Required. You can use any range for the criteria argument. and columns of data are fields. If field is omitted. The first row of the list contains labels for each column. as long as the argument includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label in which you specify a condition for the column. such as "Age" or "Yield.

To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount $10. For example.000 in G2. "Age". Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. Examples A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Tree ="=Apple" ="=Pear" Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT(A4:E10.00 96. A1:F2) Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees Age 20 12 14 15 8 9 Yield 14 10 9 10 8 6 Profit 105. Make sure that the criteria range does not overlap the list. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. the new information is added to the first row below the list.00 105. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition.Participant Kit .00 75. If the row below the list is not blank. do not place the criteria range below the list.00 76.00 B Height >10 C Age D Yield E Profit F Height <16 77 . If you add more information to the list.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced You can use any range for the criteria argument.80 45. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range.

Microsoft Excel evaluates what you type. this may cause unexpected filter results. A 1 2 Type B Salesperson =Davolio 78 C Sales .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 12 between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers. (1) Important Because the equal sign is used to indicate a formula when you type text or a value in a cell. For example: What you type in the cell ="=Davolio" ="=3000" What Excel evaluates and displays =Davolio =3000 When filtering text data. Multiple criteria in one column Boolean logic: (Salesperson = "Davolio" OR Salesperson = "Buchanan") To find rows that meet multiple criteria for one column. you can use a formula to perform a case-sensitive search. In the following data range (A6:C10).Participant Kit . However. however. the criteria range (B1:B3) displays the rows that contain either "Davolio" or "Buchanan" in the Salesperson column (A8:C10). To indicate an equality comparison operator for either text or a value.The following sections provide examples of complex criteria. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows of the criteria range. Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. type the criteria as a string expression in the appropriate cell in the criteria range: =''=entry'' Where entry is the text or value you want to find.

In the following data range (A6:C10). the criteria range (A1:C2) displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column and a value greater than $1.Participant Kit . 79 . type the criteria in different rows of the criteria range.000 in the Sales column (A9:C10). type all of the criteria in the same row of the criteria range.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce =Buchanan Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Multiple criteria in multiple columns where all criteria must be true Boolean logic: (Type = "Produce" AND Sales > 1000) To find rows that meet multiple criteria in multiple columns. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type =Produce B Salesperson C Sales >1000 Multiple criteria in multiple columns where any criteria can be true Boolean logic: (Type = "Produce" OR Salesperson = "Davolio") To find rows that meet multiple criteria in multiple columns. where any criteria can be true.

or displays the rows that contain "Buchanan" in the Salesperson and a value greater than $1.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced In the following data range (A6:C10). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type =Produce =Davolio B Salesperson C Sales Multiple sets of criteria where each set includes criteria for multiple columns Boolean logic: ( (Salesperson = "Davolio" AND Sales >3000) OR (Salesperson = "Buchanan" AND Sales > 1500) ) To find rows that meet multiple sets of criteria. the criteria range (B1:C3) displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and a value greater than $3.500 in the Sales column (A9:C10). where each set includes criteria for multiple columns. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Type Beverages Meat Salesperson Suyama Davolio Sales $5122 $450 Type B Salesperson =Davolio =Buchanan C Sales >3000 >1500 80 .000 in the Sales column. type each set of criteria in separate rows. the criteria range (A1:B3) displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column or "Davolio" in the Salesperson column (A8:C10). In the following data range (A6:C10).Participant Kit .

" "David.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 9 10 produce Produce Buchanan Davolio $6328 $6544 Multiple sets of criteria where each set includes criteria for one column Boolean logic: ( (Sales > 6000 AND Sales < 6500 ) OR (Sales < 500) ) To find rows that meet multiple sets of criteria. the criteria range (C1:D3) displays rows that contain values between 6." and "Davis.000 and 6. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson C Sales >6000 <500 D Sales <6500 Criteria to find text values that share some characters but not others To find text values that share some characters but not others.500 and values less than 500 in the Sales column (A8:C10). The following wildcard characters can be used as comparison criteria. include multiple columns with the same column heading. For example. do one or more of the following: Type one or more characters without an equal sign (=) to find rows with a text value in a column that begin with those characters. Excel finds "Davolio. Use ? (question mark) To find Any 81 single character . In the following data range (A6:C10). where each set includes criteria for one column." Use a wildcard character.Participant Kit . if you type the text Dav as a criterion.

Participant Kit . 82 . If you use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. You can ignore this error because it does not affect how the range is filtered.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced For example. the criteria range (A1:B3) displays rows with "Me" as the first characters in the Type column or rows with the second character equal to "u" in the Salesperson column (A7:C9). *. Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. For example. *east finds "Northeast" and "Southeast" A question mark. or ~ Any number of characters For example. sm?th finds "smith" and "smyth" * (asterisk) ~ (tilde) followed by ?. enter the formula as you normally would. either keep the criteria labels blank or use a label that is not a column label in the range (in the examples below. fy91~? finds "fy91?" or tilde In the following data range (A6:C10). A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type Me =?u* B Salesperson C Sales Criteria created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula as your criterion. Calculated Average and Exact Match). Because you are using a formula. asterisk. and do not type the expression in the following way: =''=entry'' Do not use a column label for criteria labels. Remember the following important points: The formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE.

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced The formula that you use for criteria must use a relative reference to refer to the corresponding cell in the first row (in the examples below. The following subsections provide specific examples of criteria created as the result of a formula. In the formula. A 1 2 3 4 Type B Salesperson C Sales D Exact Match =EXACT(A7. All other references in the formula must be absolute references. "Produce") 83 . In the formula. C7 and A7). Filtering for values greater than the average of all values in the data range In the following data range (A6:D10).Participant Kit . A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 Type B Salesperson C Sales D Calculated Average =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Filtering for text by using a case-sensitive search In the data range (A6:D10). the criteria range (D1:D2) displays rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column by using the EXACT function to perform a case-sensitive search (A10:C10). "C7" refers to the filtered column (C) of the first row of the data range (7). the criteria range (D1:D2) displays rows that have a value in the Sales column greater than the average of all the Sales values (C7:C10). "A7" refers to the filtered column (A) of the first row of the data range (7).

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Beverages Meat produce Produce Salesperson Suyama Davolio Buchanan Davolio Sales $5122 $450 $6328 $6544 84 .Participant Kit .

IF(A1 >= 10000. Nesting IF() Functions When building models using IF(). For example. the function AVERAGE(SUM(A1:A10). ―Not big‖) If A1 > 1000 returns TRUE. This is called nesting functions. and returns Big! if it‘s FALSE. ―Big!‖). SUM(B1:B15)) sums two columns of numbers and returns the average of the two sums. however the levels of nested are limited to 64 only. it‘s common to come upon a second fork in the road when evaluating either the value_if_true or value_if_false arguments. For example. 10. 85 . which returns Really big!! if A1 > 10000 is TRUE. say. you want to run another test that checks to see if A1 > 10000. You can handle this scenario by nesting a second IF() function inside the first as the value_if_true argument: =IF(A1 >= 1000. Note: Ideally we can put maximum 255 arguments in a function.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Using nested functions You can use a function as an argument for another function. the formula evaluates the nested IF(). if the condition A1 > 1000 proves to be true. ―Really big!!‖. ―Big!‖. ―Not big‖) What if you wanted to return a different string for values greater than. if A1 > 1000 returns FALSE.000? In other words. consider the variation of our formula that outputs a description based on the value in cell A1: =IF(A1 >= 1000. the formula returns Not big.Participant Kit .

) 3. as the following procedure shows: 1. 86 . as shown in Figure 14. If you‘re interested in studying the effect a range of values has on the formula. In the investment analysis example. suppose that you want to see the future value of the investment with the annual deposit varying between $7. 4. • If the input values are in a column.2. Excel displays the Table dialog box. Table. 2. In the investment analysis worksheet. Select the range that includes the input values and the formula. These tables can be either one dimensional (Single Input) or Two Dimensional (Two Input) One input Data Table command Setting Up a One-Input Data Table The problem with modifying formula variables is that you see only a single result at one time. (In Figure 14.000. you enter C4 in the Column Input Cell. however. use the Row Input Cell text box to enter the cell address of the input cell. start the column one cell down and one cell to the left of the cell containing the formula.2. for example. You have two choices for the placement of these values: • If you want to enter the values in a row.000 and $13. Setting up a data table.Participant Kit . start the row one cell up and one cell to the right of the formula. is much easier. enter the input cell‘s address in the Column Input Cell text box.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced USING ONE-INPUT OR TWO-INPUT DATA TABLES / WHAT-IF TABLES In MS Excel we can create Horizontal or Vertical calculation tables on the basis of a formula. • If you want to enter the values in a column. Choose Data. You could just enter these values in a row or column and then create the appropriate formulas. Add to the worksheet the values you want to input into the formula. this is B9:C16. How you fill in this dialog box depends on how you set up your data table: • If you entered the input values in a row. you need to set up a data table.

say.Participant Kit . This option enables you to see the effect on an investment‘s future value when you enter different values for. The following steps show you how to set up a twoinput data table: 87 .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 3 Figure 4 Two input data table command Setting Up a Two-Input Table You also can set up data tables that take two input variables. the annual deposit and the interest rate.

In the Column Input Cell text box. In the Row Input Cell text box. Excel runs through the various input combinations and then displays the results in the data table Figure 5 88 . Choose Data. Table to display the Table dialog box. Select the range that includes the input values and the formula. 6.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 1. 3. enter the cell address of the input cell that corresponds to the row values you entered (C2—the Interest Rate variable). 5. Click OK. 4. Enter one set of values in a column below the formula and the second set of values to the right of the formula in the same row 2.Participant Kit . enter the cell address of the input cell you want to use for the column values (C4—the Annual Deposit variable).

or to the total sales of all departments. For example. the following PivotTable report shows how the total third-quarter Golf department sales in cell F3 compare to sales for another sport. and present a summary of your worksheet data or an external data source.A FIRST LOOK AT PIVOT TABLES Quick start: Create a PivotTable report By using a PivotTable report. How? 1.Participant Kit . this quick start article describes how to create one for worksheet data. The summary of the source values in C2 and C8 from the source data Important Although you can also create a PivotTable report for an external data source. The source values for Qtr3 Golf summary in the PivotTable report 3.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced EXCEL 2007 . and aggregated data or subtotals would help you look at the data from different perspectives and compare figures of similar data. you can summarize. Source data. explore. from a worksheet 2. The entire PivotTable report 4. or quarter. Define the data source for the PivotTable report 89 . analyze. A PivotTable report is especially useful when you have a long list of figures to sum. in this case. Figure 6 1.

but you can replace it by typing a different range or a name that you defined for the range. and then click PivotChart. click PivotTable. To use data in a Microsoft Excel table as the data source. verify the range of cells. and then in the Table/Range box. include the workbook and worksheet name by using the following syntax [workbookname]sheetname!range. On the Insert tab. make sure that Select a table or range is selected. 90 . in the Tables group. click the arrow below PivotTable. Figure 8 Excel automatically determines the range for the PivotTable report. 2.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced To use worksheet data as the data source. For data in another worksheet or workbook. Tip To create a PivotChart that is based on the PivotTable report at the same time. Create the PivotTable report 1. and that there are no blank rows in the range or table. click a cell inside the Excel table.Participant Kit . In the Create PivotTable dialog box. Note Make sure that the range has column headings or that headers are displayed in the table. Figure 7 2. click a cell in the range of cells that contains the data.

By default. 4. the worksheet. select Existing Worksheet. and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) date and time hierarchies are added to the Column Labels area. and then click Expand Dialog 3. and then in the Location box. To place the PivotTable report at a specific location in an existing worksheet. do one or more of the following: To place a field in the default area of the layout section. Do one of the following: To place the PivotTable report in a new worksheet starting at cell A1. 91 . Excel adds an empty PivotTable report to the specified location and displays the PivotTable Field List so that you can add fields. Click OK. Note If you created a PivotChart at the same time. specify the first cell in the range of cells where you want to position the PivotTable report. create a layout. and customize the PivotTable report. nonnumeric fields are added to the Row Labels area. it is displayed on top of the associated PivotTable report. Add fields to the PivotTable report In the PivotTable Field List. click New Worksheet.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Tip You can also click Collapse Dialog to temporarily hide the dialog box. A PivotChart and its associated PivotTable report must always be in the same workbook. select the range on . numeric fields are added to the Values area. select the check box next to the field name in the field section.Participant Kit .

To place a field in a specific area of the layout section. Options tab. right-click the field name in the field section. Modifying data and refreshing the Pivot Table Changes that you make to the source data after you create the PivotTable report are reflected in the report when you refresh the selected PivotTable report (PivotTable Tools. or by dragging the fields between the areas in the layout section. and then selecting the area that you want. If you add rows to the range of source data. and then drag it to an area in the layout section. Refresh button). Tip You can use the PivotTable Field List to rearrange the fields later as needed by right-clicking the fields in the layout section.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 9 The field section contains the field names of the fields you can add to the Layout section The layout section contains the Report Filter area. Data group. Change 92 . To drag a field to the area that you want. you can include those rows in the PivotTable report by changing the source data (PivotTable Tools. Data group. and the Values area. the Row Labels area. or Add to Values. the Column Labels area. Add to Row Label. click and hold the field name in the field section.Participant Kit . and then select Add to Report Filter. Add to Column Label. Options tab.

additional rows are automatically displayed when you refresh the PivotTable report. grouping data within a Pivot table Figure 10 93 .Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Source Data button). If the source data is in an Excel table.

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Pivot table chart What is a PivotChart report A PivotChart report provides a graphical representation of the data in a PivotTable report. you determine the chart layout by dragging fields from the PivotTable Field List to specific areas on the chart sheet. When you create the PivotChart report first. which in this case is called the associated PivotTable report. Changes that you make to the field layout and data in the associated PivotTable report are immediately reflected in the PivotChart report.Participant Kit . is determined initially by the layout of the PivotTable report. the legend placement. the data labels. A PivotChart report of sport sales by quarter Figure 11 You can automatically create a PivotChart report when you first create a PivotTable report. You can also change the chart type and other options such as the titles. Comparing a PivotTable report and a PivotChart report When you create a PivotChart report from a PivotTable report. a PivotChart report is interactive. Note The Totals and Subtotals of an associated PivotTable report are ignored in a PivotChart report. When you create a PivotChart report. categories. Like a PivotTable report. PivotChart report filters are displayed in the chart area so that you can sort and filter the underlying data of the PivotChart report. and the chart location. A PivotChart report displays data series. 94 . the layout of the PivotChart report. data markers. the position of its fields. that is. or you can create a PivotChart report from an existing PivotTable report. and axes just as standard charts do.

Source data Standard charts are linked directly to worksheet cells. data labels. or bubble chart. However. layout.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced The following PivotTable and PivotChart reports of sales data illustrate the relationship between the two. However. Figure 12 A row label corresponds to a category A column label corresponds to a data series Differences between a PivotChart and a standard chart If you are familiar with standard charts. stock. trendlines. you will find that most operations are the same in PivotChart reports.Participant Kit . Formatting Most formatting — including chart elements that you add. you cannot change the chart data range in the Select Data Source dialog box of a PivotChart report. there are some differences: Row/Column orientation Unlike a standard chart. you can pivot the Row and Column labels of the associated PivotTable report to achieve the same effect. Unlike a standard chart. PivotChart reports are based on the data source of the associated PivotTable report. error bars. you cannot switch the row/column orientation of a PivotChart report by using the Select Data Source dialog box. and 95 . However. Chart types You can change a PivotChart report to any chart type except an xy (scatter). and style — is preserved when you refresh a PivotChart report.

you can increase the font size of the text to effectively resize the labels. Although you cannot directly resize the data labels in a PivotChart report. 96 . Standard charts do not lose this formatting once it is applied.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced other changes to data sets are not preserved.Participant Kit .

Using a named range To make the report easier to update. If the named range expands to include more data. you can input the data directly into a PivotTable report.odc) to retrieve external data for your report. the data is returned to Excel only as a PivotTable report or a PivotTable report that has been converted to worksheet functions. Office Data Connection files If you use an Office Data Connection (ODC) file (. For example. For example. Excel uses your column labels for the field names in the report. name the source range. you can use any of several different types of source data. The data should be in list format. OLAP source data When you retrieve source data from an OLAP database or a cube file. use that same command to remove the subtotals and grand totals before you create the report. Using an external data source to create a PivotTable or PivotChart You can retrieve data from a source that is external to Excel such as a database. data from relational databases or text files. Each cell in subsequent rows should contain data appropriate to its column heading. or a text file. If the source data contains automatic subtotals and grand totals that you created by using the Subtotals command in the Outline group on the Data tab. new and updated data from the Excel table is automatically included in the refresh operation. Excel tables Excel tables are already in list format and are good candidates for PivotTable source data. 97 . When you refresh the PivotTable report. an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube. Creating a PivotTable or PivotChart from worksheet data You can use data from a Microsoft Excel worksheet as the basis for a report. you can refresh the report to include the new data. Including totals Excel automatically creates subtotals and grand totals in a PivotTable report. Non-OLAP source data This is the underlying data for a PivotTable report or a PivotChart report that comes from a source other than an OLAP database. you might maintain a database of sales records you want to summarize and analyze.Participant Kit . We recommend that you retrieve external data for your reports by using ODC files.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Working with the source data of a PivotTable or PivotChart report When you create a PivotTable or a PivotChart report. There should not be any blank rows or columns within the data of interest. with column labels in the first row. and use the name when you create the report.

both reports are affected. each new report requires additional memory and disk space. but you cannot base it directly on another PivotChart report. both reports are affected. you may want to conveniently switch from a test database to a production database. Changes to a PivotChart report affect the associated PivotTable report. and saves this storage area as part of the workbook file. You can view any new fields in the Field List and add the fields to the report. When you create calculated fields or calculated items in one report. Excel creates an associated PivotTable report from the same data whenever you create a PivotChart report. both reports must be in the same workbook. Changes affect both reports When you refresh the data in the new report. copy the source report to the workbook location where you want the new report to appear. the size of the workbook file is reduced and less data is kept in memory. For example.Participant Kit . You can update a PivotTable report or a PivotChart report with new data that is similar to the original data connection information by refreshing the report. For reports based on worksheet lists. When you group or ungroup items in one report. it may be easier to create a new report. both reports share the same copy of the data.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Using another PivotTable report as the data source The PivotTable cache Each time that you create a new PivotTable report or PivotChart report. For reports based on external data. However. Displaying new data brought in by refresh Refreshing a report can also change the data that is available for display. each with its own copy of the data in memory and in the workbook files. therefore. you can redefine the source data for the report. when you use an existing PivotTable report as the source for a new report in the same workbook. PivotTable reports and PivotChart reports in different workbooks are separate. 98 . and vice versa. Excel retrieves new fields within the source range or named range that you specified. Thus. Excel stores a copy of the data for the report in memory. If the source PivotTable report is in a different workbook. Because you reuse the same storage area. you can base a new report on the associated report. Changing the source data of an existing PivotTable report Changes in the source data can result in different data being available for analysis. To include additional data or different data. However. you can use the Offline OLAP command to modify your cube file so that it contains different data from the server. Excel retrieves new data that meets the criteria for the underlying query or data that becomes available in an OLAP cube. Location requirements To use a PivotTable report as the source for another report. Changing OLAP cubes that you create Reports based on OLAP data always have access to all of the data in the cube. PivotChart reports You can base a new PivotTable report or PivotChart report on another PivotTable report. If the data is substantially different with many new or additional fields. Excel also updates the data in the source report. If you created an offline cube file that contains a subset of the data in a server cube. and vice versa.

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced EXCEL 2007 – ANALYSIS Creating named Scenarios from defined cell ranges When to use scenarios You could use scenarios to take snapshots of data as you change certain variables or conditions. After a number of scenarios have been saved. In the following example. 99 . environmental studies. trend analysis. and genetic predictions. a user can switch between scenarios that show what happens to a personal budget when payments on a second car are added and what happens when a second car is added with lower working hours.Participant Kit . the results of which can be used to build charts or graphs. such as materials testing. such as what would happen to the temperature of a material if you gradually increased the temperature of the environment. Students can use scenarios to explore ―what-if‖ possibilities for many types of school projects. you can create a summary. Figure 13 ―What-if‖ scenarios are helpful for data analyses. You can create and save different groups of values on a worksheet and then switch to any of those scenarios to view different results.

Enter the cells that display the results. To summarize the data in the scenarios. Then. and then click Scenario Manager. in the Scenario Values dialog box. click What-If Analysis. 2. 6. click Summary. 3. Create scenarios 1. When you finish creating scenarios. enter the references for the cells that you want to change. Next. You can also merge the data from scenarios on different worksheets. Double-click a scenario on the list in Scenario Manager to view it on the worksheet. To create a new scenario. 7. click What-If Analysis. 100 . Click Add. In the Scenario name box. and then type in your data and formulas. On the Data tab. you might want to see what happens when you change several variables that affect the budget and then display the result as an amount over or under budget. click OK. on the Data tab. 3. Excel 2007 creates a new worksheet that summarizes the data in your scenarios. and then click OK. Summarize scenarios 1. and then click Scenario Manager 4. select the options that you want. Start Office Excel 2007. press CTRL and then click the cell. or start from a new worksheet. first create a scenario that contains the original cell values. click Add again. If you want to create additional scenarios. 10. Either open a file that includes some formulas that you would like to use for your analysis. In the Changing cells box. Under Protection. 2. type the values that you want for the changing cells. Note: To preserve the original values for the changing cells. create the scenarios in which you change the values. in the Data Tools group. To add a cell to the list. type a name for the new scenario. 4. and then click OK. and then click OK. For example. 9. and then repeat steps 5 through 9. Decide which values in the worksheet you will change and which will display the results.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 14 You can use summaries of “what-if” scenarios to build charts or graphs. 8. 5.Participant Kit . Decide whether you want a summary or PivotTable report. in the Data Tools group.

enter the reference for the cell that contains the value you want to adjust.00). For example. click What-If Analysis. Figure 15 1. use Goal Seek to change the interest rate in cell B3 until the payment value in B4 equals ($900. this is -900. On the Data tab.Participant Kit . 2. enter the reference for the cell that contains the formula you want to resolve. this is cell B3. (In the example.) Note This cell must be referenced by the formula in the cell you specified in the Set cell box. 101 . (In the example.) 4. type the result you want. you can use the Goal Seek feature. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. In the To value box. In the Set cell box.) 3. In the By changing cell box. in the Data Tools group. this is cell B4. (In the example.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Working with Goal seek If you know the result that you want from a formula. and then click Goal Seek.

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced EXCEL 2007 .AUDITING Tracing precedent cells Select formula Formula bar Trace precedents in formula auditing group Figure 16 Tracing dependants of a cell Select formula Formula bar Trace dependents in formula auditing group Figure 17 Displaying all formulas within a worksheet Formula TabShow Formulas in formula auditing group 102 .Participant Kit .

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 103 .Participant Kit .

Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Using comments Inserting comments Select CellReview TabNew Comment in Comments GroupType Comment Deleting Comments Select comments containing cellReview TabDelete in Comments Group Navigating Comments Review TabNavigation Buttons in Comments Group Show/Hide Comments Review TabShow/hide Comments in Comments Group Figure 18 104 .

MACROS Displaying the Developer tab Office button General Show Developer Tab Recording and running a macro 1.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced EXCEL 2007 . Recording a Macro View Tab Macro in Macro Group Record MacroGive a macro Name Give a Keyboard Shortcut Figure 19 (Perform activities) View Tab Macro in Macro Group Stop Macro 105 .Participant Kit .

Running a Macro View Tab Macro in Macro Group View Macro Select MacroRun Figure 21 Or Press keyboard shortcut assigned to the macro Lowering your macro security level Office button Excel Options Trust CenterTrust Center Setting Macro Settings Enable all Macros 106 .Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 20 2.

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Customizing the Quick Access Toolbar Adding Command button Right click the Button Add to quick access toolbar Removing Command Button Right Click the button on quick access toolbar Remove from quick access toolbar Resetting Quick Access Toolbar Quick Access Toolbar More commands Reset Changing the Quick Toolbar Macro icon Quick Access Toolbar More Commands Select a command button ModifyChange the Icon Removing a macro icon from the quick access toolbar Quick Access Toolbar Right Click Macro Icon Remove From Quick Access Toolbar Raising your macro security level Office button Excel Options Trust CenterTrust Center Setting Macro Settings Disable all Macros with notification 107 .Participant Kit .

On the Insert tab. and then in the Table/Range box. Note Make sure that the range has column headings or that headers are displayed in the table. Define the data source for the PivotTable report To use worksheet data as the data source. click the arrow below PivotTable. click a cell in the range of cells that contains the data.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 4. this quick start article describes how to create one for worksheet data. click a cell inside the Excel table. In the Create PivotTable dialog box. in the Tables group. click PivotTable. The summary of the source values in C2 and C8 from the source data Important Although you can also create a PivotTable report for an external data source. 108 . and that there are no blank rows in the range or table. 1. Tip To create a PivotChart that is based on the PivotTable report at the same time. Figure 7 2. How? 1. verify the range of cells. and then click PivotChart. make sure that Select a table or range is selected.Participant Kit . To use data in a Microsoft Excel table as the data source. Create the PivotTable report 1.

Participant Kit . Excel adds an empty PivotTable report to the specified location and displays the PivotTable Field List so that you can add fields. select Existing Worksheet. but you can replace it by typing a different range or a name that you defined for the range. To place the PivotTable report at a specific location in an existing worksheet. . A PivotChart and its associated PivotTable report must always be in the same workbook. Click OK. and then click Expand Dialog 3. the other also changes. and then in the Location box. It is created automatically when you create a new PivotChart report. click New Worksheet. When you change the layout of either report.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 8 Excel automatically determines the range for the PivotTable report. 4. For data in another worksheet or workbook. 109 . include the workbook and worksheet name by using the following syntax [workbookname]sheetname!range. select the range on the worksheet. Tip You can also click Collapse Dialog to temporarily hide the dialog box. Note If you created a PivotChart at the same time. and customize the PivotTable report. create a layout.). specify the first cell in the range of cells where you want to position the PivotTable report. Do one of the following: To place the PivotTable report in a new worksheet starting at cell A1. it is displayed on top of the associated PivotTable report (associated PivotTable report: The PivotTable report that supplies the source data to the PivotChart report.

Participant Kit . do one or more of the following: To place a field in the default area of the layout section.) date and time hierarchies are added to the Column Labels area. nonnumeric fields are added to the Row Labels area.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Add fields to the PivotTable report In the PivotTable Field List. select the check box next to the field name in the field section. 110 . and then select Add to Report Filter. OLAP data is organized hierarchically and stored in cubes instead of tables. To place a field in a specific area of the layout section. the Row Labels area. the Column Labels area. numeric fields are added to the Values area. and the Values area. Add to Column Label. or Add to Values. and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) (OLAP: A database technology that has been optimized for querying and reporting. Add to Row Label. right-click the field name in the field section. Figure 9 The field section contains the field names of the fields you can add to the Layout section The layout section contains the Report Filter area. instead of processing transactions. By default.

Options tab. If the source data is in an Excel table. or by dragging the fields between the areas in the layout section. and then selecting the area that you want. you can include those rows in the PivotTable report by changing the source data (PivotTable Tools. and then drag it to an area in the layout section. Change Source Data button). Tip You can use the PivotTable Field List to rearrange the fields later as needed by right-clicking the fields in the layout section.Participant Kit . Changes that you make to the source data after you create the PivotTable report are reflected in the report when you refresh the selected PivotTable report (PivotTable Tools. 2. click and hold the field name in the field section. Options tab. grouping data within a Pivot table Figure 10 111 . Data group. additional rows are automatically displayed when you refresh the PivotTable report. Data group. Refresh button).Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced To drag a field to the area that you want. If you add rows to the range of source data. Modifying data and refreshing the Pivot Table 1.

the legend (legend: A box that identifies the patterns or colors that are assigned to the data series or categories in a chart. When you create a PivotChart report.). data markers (data marker: A bar. Each data series in a chart has a unique color or pattern. Pie charts have only one data series. and the chart location.). dot. You can plot one or more data series in a chart.) just as standard charts do.Participant Kit . Related data markers in a chart constitute a data series. A PivotChart report displays data series (data series: Related data points that are plotted in a chart and originate from datasheet rows or columns. a PivotChart report is interactive. categories. You can also change the chart type and other options such as the titles (titles in charts: Descriptive text that is automatically aligned to an axis or centered at the top of a chart.). which represents a single data point or value that originates from a worksheet cell. or other symbol in a chart that represents a single data point or value that originates from a worksheet cell.) so that you can sort and filter the underlying data of the PivotChart report. It is created automatically when you create a new PivotChart report. the other also changes. The y axis is usually the vertical axis and contains data. slice.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Pivot table chart What is a PivotChart report A PivotChart report provides a graphical representation of the data in a PivotTable report. Changes that you make to the field layout and data in the associated PivotTable report are immediately reflected in the PivotChart report.) placement. and axes (axis: A line bordering the chart plot area used as a frame of reference for measurement. the data labels (data label: A label that provides additional information about a data marker. PivotChart report filters are displayed in the chart area (chart area: The entire chart and all its elements. Like a PivotTable report.). The x-axis is usually the horizontal axis and contains categories. area. which in this case is called the associated PivotTable report (associated PivotTable report: The PivotTable report that supplies the source data to the PivotChart report.). When you change the layout of either report. A PivotChart report of sport sales by quarter 112 .

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 11 You can automatically create a PivotChart report when you first create a PivotTable report. is determined initially by the layout of the PivotTable report. the layout of the PivotChart report.Participant Kit . When you create the PivotChart report first.). or you can create a PivotChart report from an existing PivotTable report. Comparing a PivotTable report and a PivotChart report When you create a PivotChart report from a PivotTable report. A chart sheet is beneficial when you want to view a chart or a PivotChart report separately from worksheet data or a PivotTable report. the position of its fields. Note The Totals and Subtotals of an associated PivotTable report are ignored in a PivotChart report. The following PivotTable and PivotChart reports of sales data illustrate the relationship between the two. 113 . you determine the chart layout by dragging fields from the PivotTable Field List to specific areas on the chart sheet (chart sheet: A sheet in a workbook that contains only a chart. that is.

you cannot switch the row/column orientation of a PivotChart report by using the Select Data Source dialog box. When you change the layout of either report. It is created automatically when you create a new PivotChart report. and style — is preserved when you refresh (refresh: To update the contents of a PivotTable or PivotChart report to reflect changes to the underlying source data. stock. the other also changes.Participant Kit . you will find that most operations are the same in PivotChart reports.). However. PivotChart reports are based on the data source of the associated PivotTable report (associated PivotTable report: The PivotTable report that supplies the source data to the PivotChart report. 114 .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 12 A row label corresponds to a category A column label corresponds to a data series Differences between a PivotChart and a standard chart If you are familiar with standard charts. Source data Standard charts are linked directly to worksheet cells. layout. Unlike a standard chart. you cannot change the chart data range in the Select Data Source dialog box of a PivotChart report. there are some differences: Row/Column orientation Unlike a standard chart. Chart types You can change a PivotChart report to any chart type except an xy (scatter). or bubble chart. However. Formatting Most formatting — including chart elements that you add. you can pivot the Row and Column labels of the associated PivotTable report to achieve the same effect.

115 . also called regression analysis.). which represents a single data point or value that originates from a worksheet cell.Participant Kit . you can increase the font size of the text to effectively resize the labels. data labels (data label: A label that provides additional information about a data marker. Standard charts do not lose this formatting once it is applied.). error bars (error bars: Usually used in statistical or scientific data. error bars show potential error or degree of uncertainty relative to each data marker in a series. Although you cannot directly resize the data labels in a PivotChart report. However. trendlines (trendline: A graphic representation of trends in data series.) a PivotChart report. refreshing runs the underlying query to retrieve new or changed data. and other changes to data sets are not preserved. such as a line sloping upward to represent increased sales over a period of months.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced If the report is based on external data. Trendlines are used for the study of problems of prediction.).

you can use any of several different types of source data (source data: The list or table that's used to create a PivotTable or PivotChart report. PivotChart reports have series. such as Sales!C20:C30. page. Creating a PivotTable or PivotChart from worksheet data You can use data from a Microsoft Excel worksheet as the basis for a report. There should not be any blank rows or columns within the data of interest.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Working with the source data of a PivotTable or PivotChart report When you create a PivotTable or a PivotChart report. refreshing runs the underlying query to retrieve new or changed data. Excel tables Excel tables are already in list format and are good candidates for PivotTable source data. name (name: A word or string of characters that represents a cell. such as Products.Participant Kit .) the source range. and data fields.) the report to include the new data. you can refresh (refresh: To update the contents of a PivotTable or PivotChart report to reflect changes to the underlying source data. range of cells. or another PivotTable report. When you refresh the PivotTable report. page. The data should be in list format. with column labels in the first row. new and updated data from the Excel table is automatically included in the refresh operation. and use the name when you create the report. PivotTable reports have row.) names in the report. to refer to hard to understand ranges. formula. Including totals Excel automatically creates subtotals and grand totals in a PivotTable report. use that same command to remove the subtotals and grand totals before you create the report. Within a database. Using an external data source to create a PivotTable or PivotChart You can retrieve data from a source that is external to Excel such as a database (database: A collection of data related to a particular subject or purpose. If the named range expands to include more data.). or constant value. a category of data that's derived from a field in the source data. such as an 116 . Using a named range To make the report easier to update. If the report is based on external data. category. If the source data contains automatic subtotals and grand totals that you created by using the Subtotals command in the Outline group on the Data tab. information about a particular entity. Use easy-to-understand names. Each cell in subsequent rows should contain data appropriate to its column heading. Excel uses your column labels for the field (field: In a PivotTable or PivotChart report. Source data can be taken from an Excel list or range. an external database or cube. and data fields. column.

or on a Web server. dBASE. For example. and data fields measure quantities.Participant Kit . an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) (OLAP: A database technology that has been optimized for querying and reporting.odc) to retrieve external data (external data: Data that is stored outside of Excel.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced employee or order. SQL Server. We recommend that you retrieve external data for your reports by using ODC files. instead of processing transactions. each new report requires additional memory and disk space. Excel stores a copy of the data for the report in memory. OLAP data is organized hierarchically and stored in cubes instead of tables. Using another PivotTable report as the data source The PivotTable cache Each time that you create a new PivotTable report or PivotChart report. and data fields. or a text file. If the source PivotTable report is in a different workbook. like Country/Region/City.) file.) for your report. records. Non-OLAP source data This is the underlying data for a PivotTable report or a PivotChart report that comes from a source other than an OLAP database.). when you use an existing PivotTable report as the source for a new report in the same workbook. PivotTable reports and PivotChart reports in different workbooks are separate. However. 117 . Office Data Connection files If you use an Office Data Connection (ODC) file (. the size of the workbook file is reduced and less data is kept in memory. the data is returned to Excel only as a PivotTable report or a PivotTable report that has been converted to worksheet functions. you might maintain a database of sales records you want to summarize and analyze. Because you reuse the same storage area. each with its own copy of the data in memory and in the workbook files. data from relational databases or text files.) cube. OLAP source data When you retrieve source data from an OLAP database or a cube (cube: An OLAP data structure. is categorized into tables. and fields. you can input the data directly into a PivotTable report. copy the source report to the workbook location where you want the new report to appear. For example. A cube contains dimensions. and saves this storage area as part of the workbook file. Location requirements To use a PivotTable report as the source for another report. Dimensions organize types of data into hierarchies with levels of detail. Thus. Examples include databases created in Access. both reports must be in the same workbook. like Sales Amount. both reports share the same copy of the data.

For example. Calculated items can perform calculations by using the contents of other items within the same field of the PivotTable report or PivotChart report. you can redefine the source data for the report. When you group or ungroup items in one report. For reports based on worksheet lists. an external database or cube.) the report. Changes to a PivotChart report affect the associated PivotTable report.) or calculated items (calculated item: An item within a PivotTable field or PivotChart field that uses a formula you create. or constant 118 . it may be easier to create a new report. Source data can be taken from an Excel list or range. If the data is substantially different with many new or additional fields. you can base a new report on the associated report.) the data in the new report. PivotChart reports You can base a new PivotTable report or PivotChart report on another PivotTable report. Calculated fields can perform calculations by using the contents of other fields in the PivotTable report or PivotChart report. Excel creates an associated PivotTable report (associated PivotTable report: The PivotTable report that supplies the source data to the PivotChart report. range of cells. and vice versa.Participant Kit . but you cannot base it directly on another PivotChart report. Excel also updates the data in the source report. Displaying new data brought in by refresh Refreshing a report can also change the data that is available for display. refreshing runs the underlying query to retrieve new or changed data. or another PivotTable report. both reports are affected. formula.) in one report.) from the same data whenever you create a PivotChart report. When you change the layout of either report. you may want to conveniently switch from a test database to a production database. You can update a PivotTable report or a PivotChart report with new data that is similar to the original data connection information by refreshing (refresh: To update the contents of a PivotTable or PivotChart report to reflect changes to the underlying source data.) can result in different data being available for analysis. therefore. It is created automatically when you create a new PivotChart report. When you create calculated fields (calculated field: A field in a PivotTable report or PivotChart report that uses a formula you create. If the report is based on external data. However. Excel retrieves new fields within the source range or named (name: A word or string of characters that represents a cell. If the report is based on external data. Changing the source data of an existing PivotTable report Changes in the source data (source data: The list or table that's used to create a PivotTable or PivotChart report. To include additional data or different data. both reports are affected. and vice versa. refreshing runs the underlying query to retrieve new or changed data.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Changes affect both reports When you refresh (refresh: To update the contents of a PivotTable or PivotChart report to reflect changes to the underlying source data. the other also changes.

such as Sales!C20:C30. Offline cube files allow you to keep working when you are not connected to the OLAP server. You can view any new fields in the Field List and add the fields to the report. Use easy-to-understand names. Excel retrieves new data that meets the criteria for the underlying query (query: In Query or Access.). and data fields. In the following example. If you created an offline cube file (offline cube file: A file you create on your hard disk or a network share to store OLAP source data for a PivotTable or PivotChart report. such as what would happen to the temperature of a material if you gradually increased the temperature of the environment. Changing OLAP cubes that you create Reports based on OLAP data always have access to all of the data in the cube. EXCEL 2007 – ANALYSIS Creating named Scenarios from defined cell ranges When to use scenarios You could use scenarios to take snapshots of data as you change certain variables or conditions.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced value. like Country/Region/City. a means of finding the records that answer a particular question you ask about the data stored in a database. You can create and save different groups of values on a worksheet and then switch to any of those scenarios to view different results. 119 .) or data that becomes available in an OLAP cube (cube: An OLAP data structure. such as Products. For reports based on external data. A cube contains dimensions. a user can switch between scenarios that show what happens to a personal budget when payments on a second car are added and what happens when a second car is added with lower working hours. Dimensions organize types of data into hierarchies with levels of detail. to refer to hard to understand ranges. you can use the Offline OLAP command to modify your cube file so that it contains different data from the server.Participant Kit .) that contains a subset of the data in a server cube. and data fields measure quantities. like Sales Amount.) range that you specified.

trend analysis. Either open a file that includes some formulas that you would like to use for your analysis. and genetic predictions. Start Office Excel 2007. such as materials testing. 120 . the results of which can be used to build charts or graphs. Figure 14 You can use summaries of “what-if” scenarios to build charts or graphs. Create scenarios 1.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 13 “What-if” scenarios are helpful for data analyses. After a number of scenarios have been saved. environmental studies. and then type in your data and formulas. you can create a summary. or start from a new worksheet.Participant Kit . Students can use scenarios to explore “what-if” possibilities for many types of school projects.

Then. Working with Goal seek If you know the result that you want from a formula. 121 . in the Scenario Values dialog box.Double-click a scenario on the list in Scenario Manager to view it on the worksheet.Participant Kit . 8. 5. 3. but not the input value the formula needs to get that result. 4. To summarize the data in the scenarios.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 2. 10. and then click OK. use Goal Seek to change the interest rate in cell B3 until the payment value in B4 equals ($900. select the options that you want. Note: To preserve the original values for the changing cells. Decide whether you want a summary or PivotTable report. In the Changing cells box. Summarize scenarios 1. enter the references for the cells that you want to change. 9. 6. click Add again. In the Scenario name box. first create a scenario that contains the original cell values. create the scenarios in which you change the values.00). Decide which values in the worksheet you will change and which will display the results. Click Add. To create a new scenario. in the Data Tools group. and then click Scenario Manager. and then repeat steps 5 through 9. If you want to create additional scenarios. you might want to see what happens when you change several variables that affect the budget and then display the result as an amount over or under budget. and then click OK. in the Data Tools group. 2. press CTRL and then click the cell. type the values that you want for the changing cells. Enter the cells that display the results. Under Protection. When you finish creating scenarios. For example. click OK. and then click Scenario Manager 4. click What-If Analysis. You can also merge the data from scenarios on different worksheets. on the Data tab. To add a cell to the list. 7. 3. type a name for the new scenario. On the Data tab. click Summary. Next. and then click OK. click What-If Analysis. you can use the Goal Seek feature. For example. Excel 2007 creates a new worksheet that summarizes the data in your scenarios.

names. type the result you want. enter the reference for the cell that contains the value you want to adjust. this is cell B4. (In the example.Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 15 1.Participant Kit . in the Data Tools group. 2. 122 . On the Data tab. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. In the By changing cell box. functions.) 3. (In the example. and then click Goal Seek. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). In the Set cell box. click What-If Analysis.) you want to resolve. cell references.) Note This cell must be referenced by the formula in the cell you specified in the Set cell box. enter the reference for the cell that contains the formula (formula: A sequence of values. In the To value box. (In the example. this is -900. this is cell B3.) 4.

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced EXCEL 2007 .Participant Kit .AUDITING Tracing precedent cells Select formula Formula bar Trace precedents in formula auditing group Figure 16 Tracing dependants of a cell Select formula Formula bar Trace dependents in formula auditing group Figure 17 Displaying all formulas within a worksheet Formula TabShow Formulas in formula auditing group 123 .

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced 124 .Participant Kit .

Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Using comments Inserting comments Select CellReview TabNew Comment in Comments GroupType Comment Deleting Comments Select comments containing cellReview TabDelete in Comments Group Navigating Comments Review TabNavigation Buttons in Comments Group Show/Hide Comments Review TabShow/hide Comments in Comments Group Figure 18 125 .

MACROS Displaying the Developer tab Office button General Show Developer Tab Recording and running a macro 1. Recording a Macro View Tab Macro in Macro Group Record MacroGive a macro Name Give a Keyboard Shortcut Figure 19 (Perform activities) View Tab Macro in Macro Group Stop Macro 126 .Participant Kit .Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced EXCEL 2007 .

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Figure 20 2.Participant Kit . Running a Macro View Tab Macro in Macro Group View Macro Select MacroRun Figure 21 Or Press keyboard shortcut assigned to the macro Lowering your macro security level Office button Excel Options Trust CenterTrust Center Setting Macro Settings Enable all Macros 127 .

Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Customizing the Quick Access Toolbar Adding Command button Right click the Button Add to quick access toolbar Removing Command Button Right Click the button on quick access toolbar Remove from quick access toolbar Resetting Quick Access Toolbar Quick Access Toolbar More commands Reset Changing the Quick Toolbar Macro icon Quick Access Toolbar More Commands ModifyChange the Icon Select a command button Removing a macro icon from the quick access toolbar Quick Access Toolbar Right Click Macro Icon Remove From Quick Access Toolbar Raising your macro security level Office button Excel Options Trust CenterTrust Center Setting Macro Settings Disable all Macros with notification 128 .Participant Kit .

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