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(Working Paper 07/07)

Travel to Work in Nottingham: An Analysis of Environmental Impacts and Mitigating Policies


Allan Leith

Version 1.0 November 2007

All rights reserved

School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom

This Working Paper is an online publication and may be revised.

The Authors full contact details are: Mail address: School of Geography University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT United Kingdom Email: geo5ajl@leeds.ac.uk

Acknowledgements The Census data used in this paper are Crown Copyright and are produced by the Office of National Statistics (ONS). All of the Census data was accessed through CASWEB online, provided by the Census Dissemination Unit (CDU) through the Manchester Information and Associated Services (MIMAS), supported by Manchester Computing, University of Manchester. Data concerning the geodemographic segmentation system Mosaic was sourced from Experian, along with mapping data showing road and rail networks.

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Abstract
This study uses Census data to look at travel to work patterns in Nottingham. Spatial trends are identified by analysing how number of journeys to work, distance travelled, commuter flows, method of travel, type of job and type of neighbourhood vary across the study area. Affluent commuters working in managerial and professional roles travelling long distances by car from the rural hinterland to the city centre contrast with people with routine jobs travelling short distances to work from deprived urban neighbourhoods using public transport. Temporal trends are revealed through the comparison of 1991 and 2001 Census data. The number of journeys to work is increasing, whilst flow patterns are becoming more complex. The environmental impact of travel to work in Nottingham is quantified through the application of a simple model that estimates the carbon dioxide emissions produced by commuting in each area. The Nottingham Express Transit tram network has been introduced in the city with the aim of reducing congestion and reliance on the car through the provision of an environmentally friendly alternative. The possible environmental benefits of this solution are highlighted by exploring several what-if scenarios. It is concluded that the tram network has the potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Top left photo: Nottingham park and ride bus. Source: Nottingham City Transport.

Top right photo: Traffic congestion. Source: Google Images.

Bottom left photo: Nottingham Express Transit tram in central Nottingham. Source: Nottingham Express Transit.

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Contents
Section Page

1 Introduction

2 Background

4 3 Data and methods

4 Analysis 4.1 Study area 4.2 Number of journeys 4.3 Distance travelled 4.4 Commuting flows 4.5 Method of travel 4.6 Type of job 4.7 Environmental impact 4.8 Tram network

5 5 7 9 10 12 15 17 21

5 Discussion and conclusion

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References

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List of tables
Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Title Summary of data used in each analysis section Total number of journeys to work 2001 and 1991 Comparing mode of transport used in the study area to the UK as a whole Changes in mode of transport between 1991 and 2001 Total km travelled by each method 2001 and 1991 Correlation between type of job and method of travel to work Carbon dioxide emissions for different methods of travel to work Weighting of car carbon dioxide emissions according to Mosaic Automotive group Example of emissions calculation Change in emissions per journey over time Emissions produced by each method of travel 2001 and 1991 Summary of Nottingham Express Transit tram network Nottingham Express Transit passenger statistics Tram scenarios Impact of each scenario on carbon dioxide emissions Page 4 7 12 14 14 16 17 17 18 19 19 21 23 23 24

List of figures
Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Title Aims of study Objectives of study Roadmap of sections Percentage of resident working population who commute to Nottingham UA The study area Number of journeys to work 2001 and 1991 Change in the number of journeys to work 1991-2001 Average commuting distance Commuting flows 2001 and 1991 Percentage of commuters using each main method of travel to work Spatial distribution of higher managerial occupations and routine occupations Dominant Mosaic UK group Carbon dioxide emissions 2001 and 1991 Change in emissions between 1991 and 2001 A Nottingham Express Transit tram Nottingham Express Transit tram network The relationship between emissions and near tram variable Impact of scenario three on carbon dioxide emissions Summary of the results of the analysis An example of improved bus services in Nottingham Page 1 1 2 5 6 7 8 9 11 13 15 16 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26

1 Introduction
This report looks at travel to work in Nottingham. The main issues relating to commuting are traffic congestion and the associated adverse environmental impact. Government policy aims to reduce dependency on the car by providing viable public transport alternatives. There are many facets of travel to work in Nottingham that can be explored. Figure 1 presents the aims of this study in the form of a series of questions that the analysis intends to answer. Has the number of journeys to work in Nottingham increased over time and how does this vary across the city? Has the distance travelled to work in Nottingham increased over time and how does this vary across the city? Which areas of Nottingham do people commute from and to and how has this changed over time? How do people in Nottingham travel to work? What is the spatial pattern of each method of travel and how has this changed over time? Is there a link in Nottingham between type of job and method of travel of travel to work? What is the environmental impact of commuting in Nottingham? What are the spatial patterns of this and how has it changed over time? Does the new tram network in Nottingham have the potential to reduce the environmental impact of travel to work? How does this analysis compare to previous academic study on travel to work? What are the implications for government policy?

Figure 1: Aims of study. Figure 2 outlines the objectives of this project, which will enable the aims to be successfully achieved. Define a suitable level of geography at which to analyse data. Define a suitable study area. Measure the total number of journeys to work within the study area for both 2001 and 1991 and calculate this for each zone of the study area. Calculate average distance travelled for each zone of the study area for both 2001 and 1991. Look at commuting flows within the study area for both 2001 and 1991 and calculate change in each zone. Calculate the number of people in each zone travelling to work by each mode of transport. Do this for both 2001 and 1991. Look at the spatial distribution of different types of jobs within the study area. See if there is a statistically significant link between this and method of travel. Calculate total emissions of carbon dioxide for each zone in the study area for both 2001 and 1991 and look at changes over time. Analyse the existing and proposed routes of the new tram network in Nottingham. Implement various what if scenarios to look at the possible environmental benefits of the tram. Undertake a literature review of academic studies regarding travel to work and compare the results of the analysis to these. Summarise the problems facing travel to work in Nottingham and the government policies put in place to deal with them.

Figure 2: Objectives of study. The paper structure is as follows. Section 2 provides the background to the report through a literature review of academic studies on the subject of travel to work. This is followed by Section 3 which outlines the data used in each analysis

section, and discusses the accuracy and time context of this data. Next comes Section 4 which is the largest part of the report. It presents the results of the analysis that has been undertaken using tables, maps and graphs, and outlines the methodologies that have been employed. It is divided into eight sub-parts, each of which seeks to achieve one of the objectives outlined in Figure 2, and thus answer the questions posed in Figure 1. The sub-parts are as follows: Section 4.1: Study area Section 4.2: Number of journeys Section 4.3: Distance travelled Section 4.4: Commuting flows Section 4.5: Method of travel Section 4.6: Type of job Section 4.7: Environmental impact Section 4.8: Tram network Section 5 presents a discussion which summarises the results of the analysis, draws out the most significant points and relates the findings back to the literature. Concluding remarks are then made with regards to possible improvements that could be made to this study along with areas for future development. Finally the References section lists all the sources cited in the report.

2 Background
Many previous academic studies have looked at issues surrounding travel to work. Cole et al (2002) discuss how census data can be used to assess the environmental impacts of work journeys and changes over time. Frost et al (1997) use 1981 and 1991 census data to help calculate the energy consumption of changing work travel in major English cities. They find that the number and length of trips to work are increasing, and that there is a continuing dominance of the car over public transport with adverse implications in terms of energy consumption. Research by the Department of Trade and Industry (2002) reaches similar conclusions. Frost et al (1998) follow up this work by looking at how increasing commuting distances are being influenced by the changing form of urban areas, and conclude that excess or wasteful commuting is a major problem.

Shuttleworth et al (2000) use 1991 census data look at travel to work patterns in Belfast. This data is used to propose urban employment policies such as locating jobs in areas of high unemployment. Shuttleworth and Lloyd (2005) use 1991 census data to look at distance travelled to work in Northern Ireland. They find that distance travelled is higher in rural areas, lower in urban areas, and is influenced by type of job.

Noland and Lem (2002) consider transport and environmental policy in the UK and US. They acknowledge the need to reduce reliance on the car by improving public transport. Kingham et al (2001) find that there is a willingness in the UK to switch from the car, but that public transport is often not a viable alternative in terms of lack of provision and attractiveness. Mann and Abraham (2006) consider the psychology of travel to work. They conclude that many people will continue to use cars 2

even if there is a good public transport alternative, owing to issues regarding personal space and control.

Rye (2002) looks at government policy aimed at solving travel to work problems in the UK. Travel plans implemented by employers have the potential to reduce the proportion of commuters travelling to work alone in cars. Coleman (2000) similarly explores how employers can help reduce traffic congestion. The Department for Transport (2002) focus on the need to reduce the adverse environmental impact of car-based travel to work, a solution being to provide incentives to travel by public transport. Dickinson et al (2003) investigate how cycling could potentially become a moreutilised method of travel to work in the UK. Kumar (1990) discusses technological developments facilitating the possibility of working from home and reducing the need to commute in the first place.

3 Data and methods


The analysis in this report is predominantly undertaken using data from the UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census. Where appropriate this is supplemented by data from additional sources. Table 1 outlines the data to be used in each section of analysis.

The census is the most comprehensive data source available for this study, however there are issues regarding the timeliness and accuracy of the data. Census data from 2001 is 6 years old and major changes related to travel to work in Nottingham have taken place since then, such as the opening of the tram network in 2004. Travel to work census data from 1991 is based on a 10% sample, it remains to be seen how representative this sample is. Censuses in general have a problem with undercounting, it is estimated that the UK 1991 census achieved only 98% coverage (Rees et al, 2002).

The methodologies employed and indicators calculated will be explained in further detail within each individual section of analysis.

Table 1: Summary of data used in each analysis section. Analysis section 4.1 Study area Data used UK 2001 Census: Commuting flows data in the form of an origindestination matrix Ward boundaries Experian-sourced data showing roads, railways, rivers, urban zones UK 2001 Census: Table KS15 counts of total commuting journeys in each ward UK 1991 Census: Table 82 counts of total commuting journeys in each ward Ward boundaries UK 2001 Census: Table KS15 average commuting distance from each ward UK 1991 Census: distance data for Nottingham sourced from Frost et al (1997) Ward boundaries UK 2001 Census: Commuting flows data in the form of an origindestination matrix UK 1991 Census: Commuting flows data in the form of an origindestination matrix Ward boundaries UK 2001 Census: Table CAS122 counts of people travelling to work by each method UK 1991 Census: Table 82 counts of people travelling to work by each method Ward boundaries UK 2001 Census: Table CAS122 counts of people working in each type of job UK 1991 Census: Table 82 counts of people working in each type of job Experian-sourced data showing dominant Mosaic UK group in each ward Ward boundaries European Environmental Agency-sourced data showing emissions for each method of travel over time UK 2001 Census: Table KS15 - counts of people and distance travelled for each method of travel to work UK 1991 Census: Table 82 - counts of people and distance travelled for each method of travel to work Experian-sourced data showing dominant Mosaic Automotive group in each ward Ward boundaries Tram network map sourced from Nottingham Express Transit Experian-sourced data showing roads, railways, rivers, urban zones Ward boundaries Estimates of carbon dioxide emissions for each ward as calculated in section 4.7

4.2 Number of journeys

4.3 Distance travelled

4.4 Commuting flows

4.5 Method of travel

4.6 Type of job

4.7 Environmental impact

4.8 Tram network

4 Analysis
4.1 Study area
In order to include the full commuting area for Nottingham it was decided that the study area should include all wards that send 5% or more of their resident working population to work within Nottingham Unitary Authority. Wards were chosen as the level of geography for this analysis because they provide a suitable level of detail and have good data availability. The study area comprises 171 wards. Figure 4 shows that the percentage of workers who travel to work in Nottingham UA is at its highest in and around the city centre.

Figure 4: Percentage of resident working population who commute to Nottingham UA. Data source: UK 2001 Census.

Figure 5 shows the urban areas located within the study area, along with major roads and the rail network. The study area is dominated by Nottingham city. To the north and west are traditional industrial towns located in former coalfield areas. To the south and east are small rural villages located in extensive agricultural land.

Figure 5: The study area.

4.2 Number of journeys


The journeys to work included in this analysis are those that both begin and end within the study area. Those that begin or end outside the study area are not considered. Table 2 shows that the number of journeys to work within the study area has increased considerably over time. There has been a 12% increase between 1991 and 2001.

Year Total journeys to work

2001 444501

1991 396040

Table 2: Total number of journeys to work 2001 and 1991. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census. Figure 6 shows ward level maps for 2001 and 1991. The increase is clearly visible throughout the study area, particularly in peripheral wards.

Figure 6: Number of journeys to work 2001 and 1991. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census. Although there has been an overall rise in commuting journeys over time, some wards have experienced a decline. Figure 7 shows change in number of commuting journeys over time at ward level.

Figure 7: Change in the number of journeys to work 1991-2001. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census. 7

Wards with a decrease in commuting journeys tend to be located to the northwest of Nottingham city centre. These areas are located in a former coalfield region with declining heavy industry. Perhaps increased unemployment has resulted in less commuting. The biggest increases are generally found in rural areas to the southeast of the city. This could be evidence of affluent workers moving out to villages in the countryside in search of a better quality of life, and commuting from there to jobs in central Nottingham.

4.3 Distance travelled


All journeys to work originating from within the study area are considered here. Average commuting distance from within the study area is 10.95km, which is lower than the UK average of 15.43km. This is to be expected because the study area is dominated by urban areas where commuting distances are shorter. Figure 8 shows the average distance travelled from each ward.

Figure 8: Average commuting distance. Data source: UK 2001 Census. Shortest commuting distances are found around Nottingham city centre, longest commuting distances are found in the rural hinterland. People living in sparsely populated rural areas with poor accessibility have to travel further to get to work. This trend could also be explained by increased car ownership and affluent workers moving to the countryside then undertaking long distance commutes into the city.

Commuting distances are increasing over time. Frost et al (1998) report that the average commuting distance in Nottingham was 6.6km in 1981 and 7.6km in 1991. The 1981-1991 increase was therefore 15%, and the 1991-2001 increase around 30%.

4.4 Commuting flows


This section looks at where people commute to and from. Commuting flows can be summarised by comparing total number of incoming commuters with total number of outgoing commuters. The difference between these figures indicates whether an area is predominantly a place where people work or a place where people live. This analysis considers only those journeys to work that both begin and end within the study area.

Figure 9 presents this information at ward level for 2001 and 1991. Red-coloured wards have more incoming commuters than outgoing commuters implying that these are areas people commute to. Blue-coloured wards have more outgoing commuters than incoming commuters suggesting that these are areas people commute from. The general trend is that people commute to Nottingham city from the surrounding suburbs and rural hinterland. Smaller towns in the study area also attract commuters such as Mansfield to the north and Long Eaton to the west.

Commuting flows are becoming more complex over time. In 1991 there are more wards coloured either dark blue or dark red indicating a strong flow from the suburbs to the city. In 2001 this flow is far less pronounced suggesting that more people are commuting to the suburbs and outlying areas. This perhaps provides evidence of trends such as working at home and the decentralization of offices away from the city.

Figure 9: Commuting flows 2001 and 1991. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census.

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4.5 Method of travel


This section of analysis considers only those journeys to work that both begin and end within the study area. Travel to work in Nottingham is dominated by the car. Table 3 compares the percentage of people in the study area who travel to work by each method of transport to the equivalent figures for the UK. Table 3: Comparing mode of transport used in the study area to the UK as a whole. Data source: UK 2001 Census. United Method Percent Study Area Percent Index Kingdom Work mainly at home 2857516 8.07 36315 8.17 101 Underground, metro, light rail 1397348 3.95 184 0.04 1 Train 1618842 4.57 3915 0.88 19 Bus, minibus or coach 3071208 8.68 51820 11.66 134 Motorcycle, scooter or moped 393585 1.11 4814 1.08 97 Car or van 21261125 60.07 286647 64.49 107 Bicycle 990469 2.80 13917 3.13 112 On foot 3654751 10.33 45395 10.21 99 Other 151218 0.43 1494 0.34 79 Total 35396062 100 444501 100 100 The study area has above average usage of cars, buses and bicycles, and lower than average usage of trains. The bus network within Nottingham is extensive whereas the rail network is comparatively limited, concentrating on intercity services as opposed to local commuter routes. Figure 10 maps the percentage of commuters using each main method in each ward.

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Figure 10: Percentage of commuters using each main method of travel to work. Data source: UK 2001 Census. Car usage is highest in outlying areas where commutes are longer and public transport is less developed. Bus usage is highest in central Nottingham where journeys to work are shorter and the

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network is extensive. The train network in the study area is limited, however significant numbers of commuters travel to the city from surrounding towns including Beeston and Long Eaton. Commuting by bicycle or on foot is predictably at its highest close to the city centre where journeys to work are shortest. Working from home is most common in outlying rural areas, perhaps this pattern is influenced by the agricultural sector where people live close to their place of work.

Table 4 compares mode of transport data for 2001 with the equivalent figures from the 1991 census. Table 4: Changes in mode of transport between 1991 and 2001. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census. Method 2001 Percent 1991 Percent Index Work mainly at home 36315 8.17 15950 4.03 203 Underground, metro, light rail 184 0.04 230 0.06 71 Train 3915 0.88 2470 0.62 141 Bus, minibus or coach 51820 11.66 49580 12.52 93 Motorcycle, scooter or moped 4814 1.08 6150 1.55 70 Car or van 284870 64.09 255160 64.43 99 Bicycle 13917 3.13 12680 3.20 98 On foot 45395 10.21 46380 11.71 87 Other 3271 0.74 7440 1.88 39 Total 444501 100 396040 100 100 The most obvious change over time is the rise of working from home. This is perhaps evidence of technological advances making the location of work less important. The limited local rail service has increased in popularity, whilst the car has remained the dominant mode of transport.

Commuting distance has increased significantly between 1991 and 2001. Table 5 shows how much distance has increased for each main method of travel. Table 5: Total km travelled by each method 2001 and 1991. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census. Method of travel Total km travelled Total km travelled Percentage increase 2001 1991 Train 48648 22481 116.40 Bus 594520 398567 49.16 Motorbike 57808 51792 11.62 Car 3528205 2191796 60.97 Bike 164145 106873 53.59 Foot 535803 384174 39.47 The total distance travelled to work by people in cars has increased by 61% in 10 years. This reinforces trends regarding long distance commutes originating from the rural hinterland around Nottingham.

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4.6 Type of Job


There is a strong link between type of job and method of travel. This section of analysis considers only those journeys to work that both begin and end within the study area. As figure 11 shows, workers who have managerial jobs generally live in rural areas to the south and east of Nottingham where people mostly commute by car. Routine workers inhabit inner city districts and industrial small towns northwest of the city where buses are commonly used to travel to work.

Figure 11: Spatial distribution of higher managerial occupations and routine occupations. Data source: UK 2001 Census. The strength of the relationship between occupation and mode of transport can be analysed statistically by measuring the correlation between these variables, as shown in table 6.

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Table 6: Correlation between type of job and method of travel to work. Data source: UK 2001 Census. Light Motorb Occupation Home Bus Car Bicycle Foot Other rail Train ike Higher managerial & professional 0.56 0.24 0.14 -0.20 -0.53 0.13 0.06 -0.34 0.08 Lower managerial & professional 0.52 0.12 0.14 -0.25 -0.47 0.33 -0.09 -0.52 -0.03 Intermediate -0.38 -0.01 0.02 -0.30 0.10 0.04 -0.01 -0.16 -0.35 Small employers & own account 0.91 0.05 -0.04 -0.56 -0.24 0.47 -0.48 -0.51 0.34 workers Lower supervisory and technical -0.57 -0.28 -0.09 0.10 0.65 -0.03 0.02 0.24 -0.11 Semi-routine -0.63 -0.22 -0.14 0.30 0.53 -0.26 0.06 0.42 -0.13 Routine -0.59 -0.24 -0.11 0.21 0.49 -0.23 0.06 0.46 -0.03 Not classified -0.17 0.34 -0.01 0.33 -0.31 -0.54 0.33 0.51 0.09 Key: Not significant Negative significant 0.05 Positive significant 0.01 Negative significant 0.01 People working in managerial roles are likely to commute by car or work from home, whereas routine workers are likely to commute by bus or on foot.

A geodemographic segmentation system can give further insight into the types of neighbourhoods found within the study area. Figure 12 shows the dominant Mosaic UK group in each ward. This was calculated by looking at the number of households belonging to each Mosaic UK group in each ward.

Figure 12: Dominant Mosaic UK group. Data source: Experian. This map reinforces trends outlined earlier in the study. Symbols of Success are found in rural villages to the south and east of Nottingham, from where people commute long distances by car to managerial jobs in the city. Ties of Community are found in the traditional industrial areas northwest of Nottingham, from where people commute short distances by bus to work in routine jobs.

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4.7 Environmental impact


Environmental impact can be quantified by estimating carbon dioxide emissions. This section of analysis considers only those journeys to work that both begin and end within the study area. Table 7 shows carbon dioxide emissions for different modes of transport over time. Emissions for cars and buses have decreased over time as technology has improved. Table 7: Carbon dioxide emissions for different methods of travel to work. Data source: European Environmental Agency (2004). Method of travel to work Grams of carbon dioxide emitted Grams of carbon dioxide emitted per passenger-km: 2001 per passenger-km: 1991 Work mainly at home 0 0 Underground, metro, light rail 43.7 42.1 Train 43.7 42.1 Bus, minibus or coach 66.1 67.1 Motorcycle, scooter or moped 83.5 85.9 Car or van 126.2 131.3 Bicycle 0 0 On foot 0 0 Other 118.4 121.5 Passenger-km travelled by each mode of transport in each ward can be calculated using census data. A simple estimate of carbon dioxide emissions can therefore be calculated by multiplying the emissions figures for each method by passenger-km travelled.

More accurate estimates can be calculated by taking into account the types of car in each area. Table 8 shows how Mosaic Automotive has been used to decide how carbon dioxide emissions should be weighted for different types of car. Size and age of cars was taken into account when devising weights, for example it is assumed that large old cars emit more carbon dioxide than small new cars. Table 8: Weighting of car carbon dioxide emissions according to Mosaic Automotive group. Data source: Experian (2007). Mosaic Automotive Group Typical Cars Size Age Weight Symbols of Success Happy Families Suburban Comfort Ties of Community Urban Intelligence Welfare Borderline Municipal Dependency Blue Collar Enterprise Grey Perspectives Rural Isolation BMW, Mercedes, Porsche Renault, Vauxhall, Fiat Nissan, Honda, Toyota Vauxhall, Fiat, Ford Volkswagen, Audi, Saab Vauxhall, Ford, Rover Ford, Proton, Daewoo Ford, Vauxhall, Fiat Rover, Honda, Skoda Land Rover, Subaru, Mitsubishi Very large Large Medium Medium Small Medium Medium Large Small Very large Very new New New Quite old Quite new Very old Old Quite old Quite new Quite old 1.3 0.9 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.3

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Table 9 exemplifies how carbon dioxide emissions have been calculated for each ward. Table 9: Example of emissions calculation. Data source: UK 2001 Census. Carbon dioxide emissions produced by cars commuting from Arboretum ward in 2001 Number of people commuting by car from Arboretum ward in 2001 Average commuting distance from Arboretum ward in 2001 Passenger-km travelled by cars commuting from Arboretum ward in 2001 Grams of carbon dioxide per passenger-km emitted by cars in 2001 Weight (dominant Mosaic Automotive group in Arboretum ward is Urban Intelligence) Weighted emissions 1128 10.95 (1128*10.95) 12351.6 126.2 0.9 113.58

(126.2*0.9)

Grams of carbon dioxide emitted by cars commuting from Arboretum (12351.6*113.58) ward in 2001

1402895

Emissions are calculated for each mode of transport then added together to provide a final estimate for each ward. Figure 13 displays ward-level carbon dioxide emissions maps for both 2001 and 1991. It is clear to see that emissions are increasing over time.

Figure 13: Carbon dioxide emissions 2001 and 1991. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census.

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Overall emissions of carbon dioxide attributed to commuting within the study area have increased by 51% between 1991 and 2001. The number of commuting journeys has increased by 12% over the same time period. This means that each journey is now producing more emissions, as highlighted in table 10. This is perhaps caused by long distance commutes by car. Table 10: Change in emissions per journey over time. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census. 2001 1991 Total carbon dioxide emissions 508903202 336793035 Total number of commuting journeys Grams of carbon dioxide emitted per journey 444501 1145 396040 850

The underlying trends are not easily identifiable. This is because high emissions could in theory be caused by a small number of people travelling a long distance by car, or a large number of people travelling a short distance by bus. Figure 14 shows change in emissions between 1991 and 2001.

Figure 14: Change in emissions between 1991 and 2001. Data source: UK 2001 Census and UK 1991 Census. The highest increases are spread across the city. These areas include rural villages to the southeast of Nottingham, giving further credence to the theory regarding affluent commuters travelling long distances to work, driving from the countryside to city centre in luxurious cars. It is interesting to note that some wards have experienced a decrease in emissions. This could perhaps be the result of high unemployment or successful public transport schemes.

Table 11 looks at the emissions produced in the study area by each mode of transport in both 2001 and 1991.

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Table 11: Emissions produced by each method of travel 2001 and 1991. Data source: UK Census 2001 and 1991. Method of travel to 2001 1991 2001% 1991% Change in % work Emissions Emissions Work mainly at home 0 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 Underground, metro, 98893 0.02 77273 0.02 0.00 light rail Train 2125901 0.42 946441 0.28 0.14 Bus, minibus or coach 39297773 7.72 26743863 7.94 -0.22 Motorcycle, scooter or 4826971 0.95 4448959 1.32 -0.37 moped Car or van 460337621 90.46 297021929 88.19 2.27 Bicycle 0 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 On foot 0 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 Other 2216043 0.44 7554570 2.24 -1.81 Total 508903202 100 336793035 100 0 It is unsurprising to discover that cars account for the vast majority of emissions produced in the study area. The percentage of emissions attributed to cars has increased from 88.19% in 1991 to 90.46% in 2001. This is likely to be the result of an increased number of long distance commutes.

4.8 Tram network


The Nottingham Express Transit tram network aims to reduce car dependency by improving the provision of public transport (Nottingham Express Transit, 2007a). Anticipated benefits include more transport choice, better accessibility, opportunities for regeneration and reduced congestion and pollution (Nottingham Express Transit, 2007b). Figure 15 shows a tram travelling through Nottingham city centre.

Figure 15: A Nottingham Express Transit tram in central Nottingham. Source: Nottingham Express Transit.

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The inaugural 14km line opened in 2004. Two further extensions have been proposed, which will add a further 17.5km to the network (Nottinghamshire County Council, 2007). Table 12 provides a summary of the three lines. Table 12: Summary of Nottingham Express Transit tram network. Line Route Status One Nottingham-Hucknall Existing Two Three Nottingham-Beeston Nottingham-Clifton Proposed Proposed Opening date 2004 2013 2013

. Figure 16: Nottingham Express Transit tram network.

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Figure 16 shows existing and proposed routes of the Nottingham Express Transit tram network. A 1km buffer zone has been placed around the tramlines. All wards partially or fully covered by this buffer zone have a near tram variable set to 1, for all other wards this variable is set to 0. The purpose of this is to assess how well the network might fare in terms of reducing carbon dioxide emissions caused by commuting in Nottingham. Figure 17 shows the relationship between the near tram variable and 2001 carbon dioxide emissions for each ward.

Figure 17: The relationship between emissions and near tram variable. Many of the most polluting wards are located near existing or proposed tram routes. The correlation figure between the near tram variable and emissions is 0.217, which is significant at the 0.01 level. This indicates that the tram is being targeted at areas of high emissions.

Table 13 presents passenger statistics for the opening years of the tram network. Usage of the network has steadily increased. Table 13: Nottingham Express Transit passenger statistics. Data source: Department for Transport (2005, 2006). 2004/05 2005/06 Passenger boardings 8 million 10 million Passenger-km travelled 37 million 42 million

Given that the tram extensions have yet to be built, it is difficult to fully assess the environmental impact of the completed network. This can however be estimated through the implementation of various what if scenarios. Table 14 presents three possible scenarios. Table 14: Tram scenarios. Scenario Impact of tram One 50% of people who commute by bus from near tram wards switch to the tram Two Three 75% of people who commute by bus and 25% of people who commute by car from near tram wards switch to the tram 100% of people who commute by bus and 50% of people who commute by car from near tram wards switch to the tram

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Each scenario has been modelled under the assumption that the complete extended network was open in 2001. Carbon dioxide emissions for the near tram wards have been re-calculated according to the changes in method of travel set out in each scenario. The results are presented in table 15. In all cases there is a reduction in emissions which is to be expected given that trams are less polluting than cars and buses.

Table 15: Impact of each scenario on carbon dioxide emissions. Area Scenario One Scenario Two Near tram wards -2.20% -17.4% Whole study area -0.63% -5.01%

Scenario Three -32.61% -9.39%

Figure 18 maps the impact on emissions of scenario three which presents the most optimistic possible future impact of the tram network.

Figure 18: Impact of scenario three on carbon dioxide emissions. The analysis shows that the tram has the potential to significantly reduce emissions within the study area. If scenario three became a reality then emissions would be reduced by 9% across the whole study area and by 33% in near tram wards. However for this to occur then a significant proportion of car users would have to be persuaded to switch to the tram, it remains to be seen if this is a realistically achievable objective.

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5 Discussion and conclusion


Figure 19 presents a summary of the results of the analysis.

The number of journeys to work within the study area has increased by 12% between 1991 and 2001. The majority of journeys to work originate from wards close to the city of Nottingham, although there has been a rapid increase in journeys originating from the surrounding countryside.

The average distance travelled to work in Nottingham has increased by around 30% between 1991 and 2001. Distances to work are short in the city centre and long in the surrounding rural hinterland.

Generally people travel to work in Nottingham city from the surrounding suburbs and rural villages although commuting flows are becoming more complex over time. Travel to work in the study area is dominated by the car, especially away from the city centre. Within central Nottingham, a significant minority of commuters travel by bus, bicycle or on foot. Over time there has been a significant increase in working from home.

There is a strong link between type of job and method of travel. Typical examples include people in managerial roles living in the countryside and commuting by car, and workers with routine jobs living close to city and commuting by bus.

There has been a considerable increase in the estimated carbon dioxide emissions produced by travel to work in the study area. Emissions have increased by 51% between 1991 and 2001. Long distance commutes by car are largely responsible for this increase.

The Nottingham Express Transit tram network has the potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions within the study area, but only if it succeeds in persuading a large proportion of car users to switch to the tram.

Figure 19: Summary of the results of the analysis. Many of the findings are linked together. There is a rise in commuting from rural villages surrounding Nottingham. This leads to a continued reliance on the car and an increase in commuting distances. People who undertake these commutes tend to work in managerial jobs in central Nottingham and own large luxurious cars, which contribute to increased traffic congestion and carbon dioxide emissions.

The results agree with the findings of previous academic study. Frost et al (1997) similarly found that the number and length of journeys to work are increasing, with adverse environmental implications. Shuttleworth and Lloyd (2005) make similar findings with regards to distance and the influence that type of job has on commuting. Many other studies mentioned in Section 2 acknowledge the growing problems caused by commuting and the need for public transport to improve in order to provide a viable alternative to cars. 23

Nottinghamshire County Council (2006) intend to reduce congestion and pollution caused by commuting. In addition to extending the tram network, bus links are to be improved, roads are to be widened and integration between different modes of transport is to be improved. Congestion charging and taxing workplace car parking are being considered in order to dissuade people from commuting by car (Jowit, 2004). Figure 20 shows an example of one of the improved bus services that have been introduced in Nottingham. These are targeted specifically at commuters, students or airport passengers and aim to reduce congestion along key commuting routes (Nottingham City Council, 2007).

Figure 20: An example of improved bus services in Nottingham. Source: Nottingham City Transport. If this study had not been limited in terms of time and resources it may have proved useful to compare Nottingham with other cities in the UK or abroad. Analysing data at a lower level of geography such as Output Area may reveal more specific spatial trends, whilst using UK 1981 census data could give further understanding of temporal trends. The calculations used to estimate carbon dioxide emissions are somewhat simplistic, it would certainly be possible to devise a more sophisticated and more accurate model.

Looking to the future, it would be worthwhile repeating this analysis once UK 2011 census data is available. This will include information on method of travel to study, which when used in addition to travel to work data would enable a more comprehensive overview of traffic-related issues to be ascertained (Office for National Statistics, 2005).

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