Introduction (continued

)
mimic the Oxford-Cambridge boat race as well as to avoid the Intercollegiate Regatta in Saratoga. Harvard agreed to withdraw in 1876, and their annual match race began. In the 1840’s, the innovation of iron riggers allowed the boats to be substantially narrower. In the following decade, hull shapes began to change from a keeled cross section to a lighter, smooth hull with a low profile not unlike that used today. In the United States, the sliding seat was first outfitted in a six-oared boat in the 1869 and, soon afterwards, the swivel oarlock was devised. By the turn of the century, the racing shell looked remarkably similar to the boats that would be used for the next seven decades until man-made materials such as plastic, fiberglass and carbon fiber were introduced in the 1970’s. The quality of American rowing was, at best, a poor substitute for the established intercollegiate rowing in England. Among other things, America was slow to adopt what became known as the English Orthodox style. For example, Frank Leslie observed in his Illustrated Newspaper on July 25, 1874: Our rowing undergraduates have learned much since the days when Yale and Harvard displayed their pluck and their ignorance of the fundamental principles of rowing on Lake Quinsigamond. In those early days of American boating, it is safe to say that neither crew really knew how to row. We used to hear learned discussions as to the relative merits of the Harvard and Yale strokes, and chiefly because the Harvard men browned their backs by exposure to the sun, we settled in our own minds that they were decidedly the finest oarsmen in the world. The defeat of the Harvards on the Thames [coxed fours before 500,000 spectators in 1869!!], and the subsequent defeat of the Atalantas on the same water, were of infinite service to our rowing men. The lesson was rather harshly taught that our best College crew could not compete with the worst of the two English University crews. At first we declined to recognize the reason, but it was not long before the fact forced itself upon us that there is but one right way to row, and that all deviations from that way are simply bad rowing. Last year Yale had the courage finally to adopt what has generally been called the English stroke, but which is, in point of fact, nothing more than the only true method of rowing. As a consequence, Yale won the Springfield regatta, though there were among her rivals more than one crew decidedly the superiors of the Yale men physically. We may not call Yale, as yet, the fit rival of Oxford, but there is no question that the victors on the Connecticut last July were fitter to challenge an English University crew than were the gallant Harvards when they invited defeat on the Thames. And if the Yale men improve as they should do under the competent teaching of Mr. Cooke, we need not fear to see the crew of ’75 or ’76 challenge the best of the English crews. Moreover, Yale is not the only one of our colleges which has adopted the English stroke—or, in other words, learned to row. At Saratoga, she will meet with rivals more dangerous than those whom she defeated last year. The few crews that still cling to the American style of bad rowing will be pretty sure to receive a lesson this week which they will heed, and in the regatta of ’75 we can safely predict that the English stroke will be rowed by every contestant. (excerpted)

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15

1872 CREW

VARSITY
A. Devereux ’72, A.H. Williams ’72, A. Pell ’73. H.B. Burt ’73, A. Marquand ’74, H.W. Guernsey ’72

The First Princeton Crew

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READY ALL, ROW
The origins of Princeton rowing during the 19th century, as told by Frank Presbrey 1879 in his book, Athletics at Princeton — A History, Frank Presbrey Co., New York 1901. His text is exerpted as follows—

ROWING AT PRINCETON
Yale and Harvard had been rowing for seventeen years before this sport was introduced into Princeton in 1870. Yet as early as May 1870, in the exclusive columns of the Nassau Lit, we find a long lament upon the fact that Princeton had no share in the college sport of rowing. This article may be the individual effort of the distressed editor to fill his columns, or an attempt to force a sport on the college, as the Princetonian attempted to force the revival of rowing in 1891; but probably it was called forth by a discussion at the time among the students. The editor writes:
“Princeton must overcome obstacles, before she can boast of her navy. But we feel confident that they are not so formidable in reality as in appearance. If Bristed’s description of English University life is to be relied upon, the inference is a safe one that Cambridge, whose rowers are the champions of England, has, in her diminutive Cam, a far less available stream than our Delaware and Raritan Canal. We are fully persuaded that, could the consent of the company be once obtained, and especially the favor of the powers that be a reasonable share of the energy which is now expended in defining Squatter Sovereignty, or guarding intact the prerogatives of Junior Oratorship, would soon set afloat a navy worthy of Princeton, past and present. The exercise itself is a most manly one, and exerts a strong influence against dissipation, since it is a matter of experience that boating and spreeing are, physically at least, incompatible. For our own sake, we confess with regret that it is too late for the class of ‘6o to undertake the matter. They have let their opportunity go by. But for the sake of the college, we hope that it will not longer suffer delay, and recommend the men of ’61 to take it up with Class spirit and enterprise. May prosperity crown their efforts and those of their successors.”

seemed to have disappeared. But in January 1870, a successful effort was made to organize a crew in Princeton. The beginning was indeed modest. One evening eight of the athletes of the college gathered in West College, and when their host announced that the motive for the meeting was to discuss the possibility of organizing a navy in Princeton, he was met with a general laugh. Three of the men withdrew at once in disgust, but five remained and decided to make the experiment. Uniting their purses, as well as their purposes, these men bought from the Yale Navy what was then called two “six-oared gigs:”
“but the name was a misnomer, as the boats were respectable imitations of Noah’s Ark, and about as appropriate, in which they could learn nothing but a vitiated style, that would require thorough change before the beginners could be formed in the right mould. The history of one of these boats is a short one. It was launched on the canal and manned by six enthusiastic oarsmen, who, after one hundred yards of the most ridiculous exhibition of rowing, were compelled to swim ashore, the leaky old craft having filled and gone to the bottom. This accident brought down the ridicule of the whole college upon the leaders. “But they were not to be cast down, nor for one instant did they abandon the undertaking. On the contrary, they persevered all the more, and the second boat proving to be a little better than the old coffin that went under, the crew in a short time learned to feather an oar quite well, sit in a boat fairly, and judiciously expend their strength on the stroke. All this time, be it remembered, the students had their athletic games, and in order to make the coveted creditable exhibition in these, they were obliged to do considerable training in the Gym. The good time that they had in running and leaping gave them a muscular development, which fitted them later for a place in the boat.”

But the aspirations of the editor were not to be realized. The momentous crisis of the Civil War threw the quiet ranks of students into confusion. Compositions were neglected for commissions; the dust gathered on the Latin textbooks while their owners were polishing swords on the banks of the Potomac. To be sure, a small number of students remained at college, but it is not surprising that they neglected rowing, which has always been an artificial sport at Princeton, for baseball and the quieter game of cricket. For ten years rowing, even as a topic of conversation,

This practice led to the organization of the Princeton College Boating Club, with the following officers: C. W. Kase, ’72, President S. E. Ewing, ’72, Treasurer A. Devereux, ’72, Secretary H. W. Guernsey, ’72, Captain Meantime, in the fall of 1870 the Class of ’74 organized a class crew, which their historian calls
“that miserable affair in Fresh Year, of which everyone was captain and in which Bradford pulled stroke and Gordon bow. Gordon was the worst bow oar you can imagine; he invariably ran into a bank every hundred rods, or hit his head on a bridge, and rudely expletived against both banks and bridges. They would always find the railroad (continued)

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1873 CREWS
FRESHMEN
—CLASS OF 1876
Standing: J.M.Mann ’76, F.A. Marquand ’76, F.H.Markoe ’76 Sitting: J.M.Taylor ’76, G.D.Parmley ’76, W.B.Van Lennep ’76 Floor: L.M.Walker ’76

READY ALL ROW (continued)
bridge swung back, the boat house within the aggravating distance of fifty feet, and no way of getting at it except by walking a quarter of a mile to one of the other bridges; and, after arriving at that point, they were always sure to find that bridge unswung and the fellow at supper, from which repast he would not rise until he had finished; or just as they would come down the Canal Street road their eyes would be gladdened by the sight of about sixty canal boats, numerous schooners, and a sprinkling of tugs all passing that point-and they were obliged to wait. When they would get to the boat house and bring the boat out, they would pretty nearly upset getting in; and when the word was given to trim boat, I have seen them all go to one side of the boat, and thereby disturb the equanimity of all on board. “In addition to these obstacles and discomfitures no one at the canal knew them, 110 bridge keepers would swing open the bridges, and the keepers’ children would shamefully maltreat them. I have known little urchins to get on the bridges, and, while the boys were pushing under, all lying flat on their backs to avoid striking their heads, the ragamuffins would drop sand and fine gravel down into their faces.”

faithfully to work. They had begun to train early in the spring and rowed twice a day during the months of April and May. Considering the fact that they had no one to coach them, the crew surpassed even the most sanguine expectations of their friends. Princeton’s first boat race came off on June 6, 1872, between the six-oared crew of ‘74 and the Varsity four-oared. The latter allowed the Sophomores one minute on the mile, and notwithstanding this advantage, the Varsity was beaten only by fifteen seconds, finishing in seven minutes. Soon after this the Varsity crew went to Philadelphia. The Press says:
“So quietly did they arrive at Philadelphia, so young were the men and so slight seemed their chances of success, that they were not taken into account at all by the ‘bookmakers.’ The crew did so well and showed so much pluck that ‘Josh’ Ward gave them unstinted praise for the form in which they presented themselves and the manner in which they pulled to the finish. To be sure they came in only fourth, but a close fourth in an entry list of seven that included some of the best amateur crews in America.”

Yet despite the jokes, the canal was not such a bad place for a crew to learn to row; as one Lit. editor said: “the crew is never deterred from their daily practice by tide or wind. As for passing canal boats that proved good practice for the bow.” At this time there was no coxswain, and the steering was managed by the foot gear of the bowoarsman. For two years these students continued to improve their physical standard and advance in the art of rowing, all the time arousing the interest of the College in the sport by their persistent energy and spirit. In the spring of 1872, the leaders felt that in their practice they were sufficiently developed to row in public, and obtaining the cooperation of their fellow students, they purchased a handsome four-oared shell from Watson, Balch and Company. The final crew was selected and entered in the Schuylkill Navy Regatta then open to all amateurs. Then the crew went

NATIONAL AMATEUR REGATTA.
SCHUYLKILL COURSE, PHILADELPHIA, JUNE 13, 1872.

Four-oared Race—One mile and a half. 1st-Couper of Savannah. Time 9 mm. and 3 sec 2nd-Quaker City. 3rd-Nassau of New York. 4th-Princeton. 5th-Vesper. 6th-Gulick. 7th-Neptune of New Brighton. The Princeton crew: Stroke- H. B. Burt, ’73, Captain, weight 154 lbs. (continued) No. 2- W. M. Smith, ’74, weight 136 lbs.

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
No. 3No. 4-

A. Williams, ‘72, weight 135 lbs. A. Devereux, Jr., ‘72, weight 133 lbs.

Yet this defeat proved to be the stepping stone to future progress. The Club was reorganized on a broader policy, more than sixty members joining; new boats were purchased and “rowing was firmly established as one of the sports of Princeton and many of the older games were thrown aside as quite humbugs in comparison.” But in the spring, the interest of the students was centered in the baseball nine, which had just returned from a successful tour. In June, 1873, there was no trace of a Varsity crew and Lit. says: “ ’74 is the only class whose crew rows regularly at five in the morning.” In November, 1873, the Lit. again discussed the problem whether Princeton can hope ever to be a “Boating College.” However, one thing was encouraging; namely, that Amherst had won the intercollegiate race in 1872, and in face of greater difficulties than confront the Princeton men; for the Amherst crew had to walk four miles to reach their practice course. An enthusiastic meeting was held and seventy names added to the list of members. Formerly the privilege of membership had been sold for a small pecuniary consideration, but now the Club threw open its doors to the College, and by its comprehensive embrace, it hoped to elicit general hearty sympathy and generous support by voluntary subscriptions. A committee was appointed to solicit funds for the erection of a new Boat House. They planned to send out a thousand postal cards to the graduates, friends, and patrons of the College, stating the needs of the Club and asking for subscriptions. But in consequence of the tightened money market throughout the country, the project was indefinitely postponed. This did not, however, prevent another energetic committee from making estimates, inspecting sites, and arranging the preliminaries relative to the erection of the prospective Boat House. The house, that they had been using, was an old wagon shed, and though the journey to and fro from the canal was up and down a precipitous hill, the awkward and clumsy old craft they then owned, was daily carried on their backs to the course. The committee chose an admirable site on the south bank of the canal just below the first bridge east of the railroad, about ten minutes from the college, where there would be no difficulty in crossing the canal, the bridge keeper would act as a watchman, and the crews, if rowing toward Kingston, would avoid one low bridge. The Club received a very cordial invitation from the Yale Navy to attend their Annual Fall Regatta, but Princeton was compelled to decline.

The annual Convention of the Rowing Association of American Colleges was held at Hartford, Conn., on January 21, 1874. The members of this Association were Amherst, Bowdoin, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Massachusetts Agricultural, Trinity, Williams and Yale. Wesleyan and Princeton were admitted, despite the objection of Amherst that “a line must be drawn somewhere. If every college that applied were admitted it would be impossible to get a sheet of water to row on.” Among other business the following rules of eligibility was passed, Princeton voting in the affirmative:
“Undergraduate students, students of colleges, members of the Association, candidates for the degree of A.B., Ph.B., or such other degrees as represent a parallel or similar course of study, with the exception of those who are candidates for the degree of LL. B.. M.D., or B. D., shall be eligible to the Regatta crews of this Association. It shall be understood that the term undergraduate shall mean all students, candidates for such degrees as mentioned above with the above exceptions, but who shall not yet have received any degree.”

It was also decided, Princeton voting in the affirmative, to hold the Regatta on July 16, over the Saratoga course, which was shown to be much superior to that of Troy or New London. There was great opposition to this course because Saratoga was then the sporting, racing and betting centre of the whole country, and it was said that the Association would fall into disrepute, if it went there and submitted itself to this contaminating influence. It was rumored also that the Trustees of Princeton would not allow their crew to go to Saratoga, but this question was never brought up for official discussion, nor was any official action taken, because at this time the control of the Trustees and the Faculty over college sports was not so well defined as at present, and probably the whole Board felt like that member who said: “Go ahead, boys, but keep quiet. The race will not take place until after Commencement and then you are your own masters.” The admission of Princeton into this Association had the beneficial effect of arousing the students to renewed efforts to build their Boat House. The postponed appeal was made to the graduates and patrons, and the response was both generous and immediate; the largest contributor was Mr. Robert Bonner, who gave at one time $2,000, and again $800. The plans for the House were designed and presented to the Club by Mr. Robertson of New York. The House was, and in fact still is, seventy feet long by thirty feet broad, fitted with boxes, wash basins and all the conveniences for oarsmen; it is capable of holding twenty shells. This House was formally opened on May 17, 1874, the day of the Annual Gymnastic contest. Mr. Allan Marquand ’74, President P. C. B. C. presided and introduced Mr. Harris, who spoke briefly of college athletic sports and of boating in particular. He was followed by W. A. Butler, Jr. ’76, who read a somewhat humorous address
(continued on page 23)

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19

THE UNIVERSITY AND FRESHMAN CREWS OF PRINCETON COLLEGE N.J., TAKING THEIR MORNING WALK

PREPARING FOR THE COLLEGE REGATTA ON SARATOGA LAKE.

20

ROWING AT PRINCETON

THE COLLEGE REGATTA
Harper’s Weekly of August 1, 1874 An account of both the first Princeton rowing defeat of Yale and the first Princeton rowing victory, accomplished by the Class of 1877 Freshman Crew
The pleasure of the Inter-collegiate Regatta this year was marred by two disappointments, one of which might have been prevented by proper management of the part of the committee. The afternoon of July 16 was the time chosen for the grand race, and long before the hour appointed for the start the shores of the lake were thronged by thousands of enthusiastic spectators, who waited impatiently for the boom of the signal-gun. Every vehicle in Saratoga and the surrounding country was pressed into service, and the hack-men and farmers made the most of their opportunity. But as the hour named for the start drew near the wind became fresh, and so roughened the surface of the lake that it was considered imprudent for the light shells to venture out. After waiting until long beyond the starting hour, the race was reluctantly postponed until the following day. The committee made the mistake of fixing upon the same hour in the afternoon, instead of choosing an hour in the forenoon, when the lake is almost always smooth as glass. The consequence was another postponement, on account of rough weather, until darkness put an end to all possibility of a race. Warned by two failures, the committee fixed upon ten o’clock Saturday morning as the hour for starting. In consequence of these two postponements, there was very little interest manifested in the race on Saturday; and although the day was fair, and the lake smooth as a mirror, there were not more than fifteen thousand people present to witness the contest, and the shores of the lake wore a comparatively deserted appearance. A fair start was made at forty-six minutes after ten o’clock, all the boats getting off in good form, and after a most gallant and exciting race, Columbia came in the winner in 16 minutes 42 seconds. Close behind came the Wesleyans, in 16:50; the other boats in the order indicated in the map on the next page. There was an unfortunate collision between the Yale and the Harvard boats, in which the former lost her rudder and broke an oar. It is yet undecided where the blame lies; but the bitter feeling manifested by both crews can not be too strongly regretted. By this accident Yale was thrown out of the race. [Princeton finished the race nearly two minutes behind the winner, thus defeating Yale but losing to all other crews, the closest of which was Trinity, 15 seconds better.] The excitement of the crowd as the winning boat crossed the line was indescribable. The whole concourse of spectators rose on tip-toe, and cheer upon cheer went up, while the fellow-collegians and the backers of the winning crew manifested their delight by flinging up their hats, waving handkerchiefs, and cheering. The names of the winning crew are as follows: Stroke.—B. F. REES, New York city; age, 20; height, 5 feet 8 ½ inches; weight, 153 pounds. 2. R. C. CORNELL, New York; age, 21; height, 5 feet 9 inches; weight, 171 pounds. 3. EDWARD S. RAPPEL, New York; age, 21; height, 6 feet; weight, 158 pounds. 4. G. GRISWOLD, New York; age, 18; height, 6 feet; weight 158 pounds. 5. J. T. GOODWIN, New York; age, 24; height, 5 feet 11 inches; weight, 157 pounds. Bow.—P. TIMSON, New York; age, 22; height, 5 feet 11½ inches; weight, 158 pounds. Averages.—Of weight, 159 pounds; of height, 5 feet 10 2/3 inches; of age, 21. Columbia’s boat is newly built, by FEARON; 49 ½ feet long, 21 inches wide; weighs 145 pounds. The racing dress consists of blue tights and white handkerchiefs. The Freshman race between the Yale, Brown, and Princeton crews took place about half past five Wednesday afternoon, July 15. It was a spirited and exciting contest. The rival crews were plucky and well trained, and when half-way over the course, it was impossible to say which would win. At the two-mile flag-boat, however, Princeton began to gain perceptibly, and had the advantage in steering. A quarter of a mile more and Princeton’s superior steering, combined with a brilliant spurt, sent her to the front, and it was bow and bow between her and Yale. The Brown crew were apparently somewhat demoralized. Their stroke became ragged, and a quarter of a mile from the finish they were evidently out of the race. Princeton and Yale kept up a gallant struggle; but at the last Princeton shot ahead of her antagonist, and won by one-third of a length. The official time was 18 minutes 12¼ seconds; distance, three miles. The two-mile race for single sculls followed the Freshman race. The entries were EDWARD L. PHILLIPS, Cornell; ANSLEY WILCOX, Yale; and A. L. DEVENS, Harvard, who took positions in the order named from the east shore, but a mile further northward than in the three-mile race. The contest was animated, and was won by WILCOX in 14 minutes 12¼ seconds.

END

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21

1874 CREWS

VARSITY
Back Row: J. M. Taylor ’76, R.J.Hall ’75, C.B.Cross ’75, W.H.Addicks ’74 Front Row: F.A.Marquand ’76, F.H.Markoe ’76, W.M.Smith ’74

Standing: C.J. Halsted, J.S. Ely, J.A. Campbell, J.F. Williamson. Seated: C.G. Greene, B. Nicoll

PRINCETON’S FIRST CREW VICTORY— July 15, 1874

Freshman Crew, Class of 1877 – Saratoga, NY Order of Finish: Princeton, Yale, Brown 6-Oared Shell without Coxswain Princeton’s First Use of Orange and Black College Colors
races. [A reference, no doubt, to the races on October 29 and 30, 1875, at which the 1877 bumped ’79 and ’78.] By the way, it may not be generally known that all the Princeton boats were bought two years ago by the Cedar Rapids Boat Club. The sixoared shell in which the Freshman race at Saratoga was won in ’77, has been presented to John Ely and myself. Of course we all have more or less vanity and egotism, and to me there seems to be no more fitting emblem of ‘77’s well-proven qualities of ‘getting there’ than that shell which won, with ‘77’s oars, the only boat race in which a Princeton crew has been victorious over another college.” J. F. Williamson, of Minneapolis, wrote that “My regard for the college is as deep as ever.” James A. Campbell, a resident of Trenton and President of the class, stated that “I owe my Alma Mater a deep debt of gratitude for the mental, moral and physical training received when under her care, and I hold above prize the warm and lasting friendships then formed and continued to this day.” Benj. Nicholl’s response from Wall Street to the questions posed was, according to the class secretary, “brief but characteristic.” In light of the present, what part of your College course has been of most value to you? Answer: “Athletics.” In your judgment, what course can the College pursue to secure more active interest of the Alumni and more students from your neighborhood? Answer: “Win a boat race.” #

The attitudes of the six members of that crew bore a striking resemblance to future Princeton rowers, as is evidenced by their Decennial Record in 1887. The record of their tenth reunion includes a note that the walls of the class headquarters were adorned with photographs including those of “the crew and ball nine.” At the Alumni dinner, the class representative noted that “In the next place, it is the only Class whose crew ever won the boat race, and the gallant boys of ’77 that achieved the victory at Saratoga—some of them are here today with their honors resting gracefully on their shoulders. ... I tell you that there is not one course in all the college that left its impress or its discipline upon my mind so strongly and so beneficially as college athletics.” The observations of the members of that crew: Chas. J. Halstead wrote from New York City that “My regard for the college is the same as it has always been, deep and sincere.” John S. Ely, a member of the class executive committee, wrote from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, that “I still have great regard for my Alma Mater, and take great pride in the fact that I am a graduate of Princeton College.” He reported that he regularly saw two of his old crewmates, Greene and Williamson C. G. Greene, also from Cedar Rapids, also noted the recent visit with Ely and Williamson: “Naturally such a reunion of three members of the old Freshman crew revived some interesting memories. We had especial delight in living over again that night after the cup had been won by victory in the Bumping

Class of 1877

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
on the boating affairs of the college. Then Dr. McCosh closed the exercises with a few pertinent remarks. At the time “no college crew had a more commodious, better equipped and appropriate boat house than this.” During the spring of 1874, it contained one six-oared paper shell, 49 feet by 19 inches; one four-oared shell, 43 feet by 34 inches; a new barge by Fearon of Yonkers, for practising; and single shells owned by individual members. For the races of the season, both the Varsity and the Freshmen crews purchased new shells from Fearon; length 49 feet, width 20 inches; depth amidships 8 inches; at bow 6 3/4 inches; at stern 4-3/4 inches; weight 135 lbs., and built of Spanish cedar. The crew began to train in the Gym in March, and the eighteen candidates were soon weeded down to ten, and then again to eight. They were required to row five or six miles each evening, at the rate of thirty strokes per minute. Their diet was very severe, nor was it relieved like that of Yale and Harvard, with ale and other tonics. On June 25, when the Varsity and Freshman crews went to Saratoga, the following estimate of their expenses was announced: Railroad fare and freight ............................... $60.00 Board for eight men at $10 per week ............ 280.00 Boat ............................................................... 325 00 Sundries......................................................... 100,00 $765.00 Of this the students contributed $415 and the Alumni were relied upon to furnish the remaining $350. The quarters of the crews were at “John Riley’s.” Not much was expected of either of the crews of Princeton. In fact, the gossip was not whether Princeton would win, but whether she would defeat Trinity or Williams for the last place, because of her light appearance, brief experience, numerous faults in practice, and the time of her trial spins. The first race was the Freshman Race, at 5 o’clock on Wednesday, July 15, 1874. There were only three entries, Yale, Brown and Princeton.
“When the starter asked if the crews were ready, Princeton, who had not gotten into proper position, quickly replied ‘No.’ But the officer, not hearing, or disregarding the answer, gave the signal immediately. This took the Princeton men by surprise and they were thrown into temporary confusion. They were the last to catch the water and even when they did their boat was headed in the wrong direction. However Yale fell behind on 30 strokes per minute while Brown was forging ahead at 37, with Princeton rowing 33. Half a mile out, Yale drew level and a mile later was slightly ahead of Princeton and considerably in advance of Brown. Half a mile from the finish they were in the same relative positions, but Yale was steering very wildly and as she drew near home, she suddenly slackened as if tired. Princeton put on a magnificent spurt and drew ahead, leaving Brown four seconds behind. The judges’ boat was awkwardly placed near the flag at one end of the finish line. Because Princeton passed between the boat and the flag, Yale wanted Princeton ruled out, on the ground that Princeton should have gone on the other side of the boat. But the judges failed to approve of this demand. Princeton had won the first intercollegiate race that she ever entered!”

This is the only real victory that Princeton ever won in an intercollegiate boat race, and even it was disputed. The only other alleged victory is that of the Fourteenth Intercollegiate Regatta Challenge Cup, in 1881, which was won by a breach of the agreement on the part of the opponents. It was in this Freshman Race that Princeton first used orange and black as college colors. Long before, at the inauguration of President McCosh, in 1868, orange ribbon had been worn, and words were printed on it in the common black printer’s ink, but this combination was accidental, and the two colors were never associated, at least in the undergraduate mind. But from this time on there was a change. It came about in this way. The summer before he entered College, W. Libbey, ’77, now the well-known Professor of Physical Geography, Explorer, Lecturer, etc., had been abroad, and while in Cambridge he saw in a window a large placard “The Duke of Nassau’s Colors,” and surrounding this a lot of ribbon of half width stripes of yellow and black. Mr. Libbey bought several yards of this and some time after he entered college he remarked to his classmate, M. W. Jacobus, that these colors would be appropriate for Princeton, even better than the orange, which had been used before, but not generally. Jacobus dared him to wear a necktie of these colors. And luckily, as later events proved, he did. Some weeks later, Rutgers College was endeavoring to adopt colors and desired orange and black. But a rumor had reached them that these colors belonged to Princeton and had been worn there. Accordingly a committee was sent to Princeton to investigate. They found abundant evidence that these colors had been worn, but could obtain no particulars about the men who wore it, or when, or how long. This was enough, however, to send them home disappointed. So the Orange and Black had been saved for the Tiger and Princeton, by a dare and a necktie. When his class decided to send a crew to Saratoga, Mr. Libbey thought it would be a good plan to present them with these colors. But he found it impossible to purchase here in America any ribbon striped in two colors. Fortunately, through the business interests of his father, he was able to order one thousand yards of orange and black ribbon from a Paterson silk mill. He did not duplicate the Cambridge specimen, but ordered a deep orange color, thinking this more effective than the lighter yellow. When the ribbon came, he gave the crew and officials pieces of it for hat bands, etc., and sent the remainder to a store in the Grand Union Hotel at Saratoga to be sold as “Princeton’s colors.” Very little of it, however, was sold before the race. The lake, where the races were rowed,
(continued)

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23

1875 CREWS
VARSITY SIX
Boathouse on Delaware and Raritan Canal
Port: B.Nicoll ’77, G.D.Parmly ’76, R.J.Hall ’75, B.Hall ’75, Starboard: F.Biddle ’75, W.B.VanLennep ’76, J.S.Ely ’77

VARSITY
R.J. Hall ’75, J.S. Ely ’77, G.D. Parmly ’76, W.B. Van Lennep ’76, F. Biddle ’75, B. Nicoll ’77 (Capt.)

THE SARATOGA REGATTA
Harper’s Weekly, August 2, 1879

24

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
is three miles from the hotel, and when Princeton had won the Freshmen Race, the Class of ’77 commissioned one of their members, who happened to be present, with a very fast trotting horse, to hasten to the hotel and buy up all the ribbon. He hastened — but bought no ribbon. Every inch had been sold. From this time on the Orange and Black have remained the colors of Princeton. In the spring of 1896, they were adopted by the Trustees as the official colors for the trimmings of the Academic Gowns; despite the strong plea that was made in The Princeton Bulletin, that buff and blue, and not orange and black, were the true colors of the House of Nassau. There was too strong a sentiment among the alumni that “It matters not whether we got them by accident or design. We have them, and will never change them, so long as eye and voice can ‘unite in praise of dear old Princeton and the Orange and the Black.’” So much for the colors. To return to the races, Princeton felt very proud of her Freshman crew, but still prouder were the Class of ’77. Their gratitude found expression the following June, when each member of the crew received a loving cup in commemoration of their part in this victory. The presentation took place in the Gymnasium:
“which was filled with seats, and a platform had been arranged at the east end, in the rear of which were the oars used by the crew, adorned with ribbons, and the colors worn by them, consisting of a blue banner appropriately inscribed and a national flag with the names of the oarsmen on the white stripes. From one of the beams overhead hung the boat. The cups were valued at $50 each, of satin finished silver, lined with gold, 10-1/2 inches high, with a pair of crossed oars about six inches long, tied with a wreath; the captain’s cup had in addition a solid figure three inches high, bearing a wreath in either hand.”
FOURTEENTH INTERCOLLEGIATE REGATTA.

SARATOGA, July 15, 1874.

Freshman Six-oared Race — Three miles 1st 2d 3d Princeton Yale Brown

SARATOGA, July 18, 1874.
1st 2d 3d 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th University Six-oared Race — Three miles Columbia Wesleyan Harvard Williams Cornell Dartmouth Trinity Princeton Yale

Princeton Dress—white tights, orange and black around the knees; stripped to the waist.

The Varsity Race was postponed, on account of rough water and weather, from Thursday to Friday, and again to Saturday. The splendid victory of the light Freshman crew inspired the Varsity men. But the race was a fine victory for Columbia. Yale and Harvard fouled each other and Princeton brought up the rear. As regards Princeton’s defeat, the less said the better. Some of the critics at College said that certain members of the crew were ignorantly or partially chosen, and that the best talent of the College had not been given a chance. The real facts of the case seem to be as follows:
“The quarters which had been prepared for the crew were very uncomfortable, besides being inconvenient to the course. The food, which they ate, was little adapted to rigid training. They had no experienced trainer. The boat, in which they practiced, was an inferior one. Yet they worked on each day, without faltering, manfully struggling against these serious drawbacks. On the day first appointed for the race, they rowed themselves from their quarters to the starting point, a distance of almost two miles; just as they were nearing the Columbia slip, their boat sank on account of the roughness of the water. Several of them were thoroughly entrenched and the next morning they had developed severe colds. But notwithstanding this, they were all ready and anxious to row at the appointed hour. Finally when the race did occur they were compelled to row in the Freshman boat.”

In the fall, there was very little gossip about the crews, but a good deal of solid work was done in training. The Freshman Class, anxious to uphold the record of ’77, organized a crew. On November 7, they held a race with the Class of ’77 from the Aqueduct to the Railroad Bridge, but the ’77 crew finished several lengths ahead. These class races served the two purposes of bringing forward and maturing future oarsmen, and of affording the whole student body an opportunity to see what was being accomplished and granting it a guarantee for the capital invested. They decided to spend $200 in a four-oared gig with a coxswain’s seat, built by Fearon and to send A.Alexander ’75 and B. Nicoll ’77 to Hartford, to the Annual Convention of The Rowing Association of America in Colleges, in January. There the date of the annual Regatta was determined as July 14, and after due deliberation Saratoga was chosen as the place. After much discussion a motion was passed, that racing with coxswain’s seat be made optional, and another motion that the course of each boat be buoyed off, the buoys being one hundred feet wide apart and oneeighth of a mile apart in parallel lines. J. C. Drayton,’73 was elected to the Regatta committee, and at the second meeting, on April 7, this committee reported that
“their agreement with the Saratoga Rowing Association guarantees free transportation for boats and crews; the keeping of a man at Albany to assist crews on their way to the lake; good boat houses; comfortable quarters and good board at ten dollars a week per man; regular delivery of mail, freight and express; regular stages to run as directed by the Regatta Committee etc.”

The racing rules were slightly amended to the effect that each boat shall keep its own water throughout the race, and any boat departing from its own water shall be disqualified.
(continued)

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25

1876 CREWS
VARSITY
C.G. Greene ’77, J.A. Campbell ’77, D. Stewart ’78, H. Stevenson ’78, W.B. Van Lennep ’76, B. Nicoll ’77

Varsity Crew on the Delaware and Raritan Canal

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1880
Standing: B.Ballard, H.M.Cutts Sitting: G.S.Johns, A.McLaren (Capt.), W.S.Horton Floor: H.F.Livingood

26

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
When the Varsity crew left college in June, 1875, they were in perfect condition. The New York Herald said:
“Every man is a perfect physical specimen, and seems to combine the greatest strength with inexhaustible health, energy, and pluck. So far as strong backs and big loins and grand muscular development goes, Princeton is not far behind any of her associates this season. Two or three are very big men—perhaps too big to work effectively in a shell-but then there is no clumsiness about them. Indomitable pluck characterizes them all, and if the combined strength of the crew can be moulded into proper shape, it will stand a good chance of winning the race. If Princeton does not gain the honors this year, their present system of training will bear fruit an hundred fold at no distant period. There seems, however, to have been a lack of coaching—the entire work depending on the stroke, Nicoll. They, however, have become conspicuous on the lake at Saratoga, for their hard work and rapid improvement. In a crew of so much strength and fire, the faults which are so easily detected, are likely to be hidden in the race. The well-known pluck and endurance of the men are likely to make very hot work for all the crews in the first half at the finish. A singular thing in considering this splendid spirit of Princeton is that it has not worked in the same way or with such happy results in the training of her Freshman crew. They came up here among the roughest in their work of any of the Freshman crews; and they have not improved to any decided extent since. A judicious sharp coaching with such material would work wonders.” of the sort of timber that knows how to learn.”
FIFTEENTH INTERCOLLEGIATE REGATTA.

SARATOGA, July 13, 1875.

Freshman Race — Three miles straightaway 1st 2d 3d 4th Cornell Harvard Brown Princeton

University Six-oared Race — Three miles 1st - Cornell 2d - Columbia 3d - Harvard 4th - Dartmouth 5th - Wesleyan 6th - Yale 7th - Amherst 8th - Brown 9th - Williams 10th - Bowdoin 11th - Hamilton Princeton did not cross the line.

SARATOGA, July 14, 1875.

The Freshman Race was rowed first, at 12 o’clock on Tuesday, July 13, 1875.
“At the start Princeton was pulling 38 strokes to the minute, Harvard 36 and Cornell 35. Princeton led by three-fourths of a length at the half mile. But at the mile post, Princeton began to splash and drop back. All along she had been doing too much arm work and had no idea of throwing her body on to the oar. She had not been left ignorant of this, but still seemed to have failed to make much improvement. She was now beginning to find that muscle alone cannot win a college race in these days and that there must be form as well. Early in the second mile, Princeton was still at her 38 stroke, and all were keeping well together. The steering was very ragged, but there was a slight excuse for this, because Fearon, the builder of their new boat, had failed to furnish it, until long after the time specified in his contract, and the crew had only had three days practice in the new boat. In the last half mile, Princeton was last, but even with her terribly wearing stroke, she was still hitting away manfully, and showing of what stuff she was made, and how her one great need was coaching. Even at the very close she was rowing 36 strokes to the minute, and when the roughness of her work is considered, it was most creditable that she was only seventeen seconds behind the winner Cornell. “In the University Race, the Princeton crew was handicapped by a felon on Parmly’s finger. At the mile station he fainted or was seized with an epileptic fit. However he kept up his stroke, but so feebly, that, by the time the second mile was reached, Nicoll, the stroke, turned and asked what was the matter. He replied very faintly, and the next moment fell over in the boat, supported by Van Lennep, until the others had rowed him to Dartmouth’s House. He was then carried on a mattress to the Princeton quarters, where he soon recovered. He had been much annoyed by the felon on his little finger, and had not been able to sleep for three nights. It is singular that the man with the largest and most muscular arms and body among all the oarsman, should first succumb to the severe strain. Princeton’s chief trouble was her lack of coaching, for she had abundantly shown that she was made up Shell by Thomas Fearon of Yonkers, N. Y. Material, Spanish Cedar; length, 49 ft. 6 in. width, 22 in. depth admidships, 8-1/2 in. bow, 7 in.; stern 6 in. Donaghue’s sweeps, 12 ft. 6 in. Weight of each, 6 3/4 lbs. Racing Dress—White shirts and knee breeches; an orange “P” shaded with black and embroidered with silk on breast. Same colors knee and shoulders.

The loss of these races seemed to have little influence on the Club. Their first work was to purchase another new fouroared shell from Fearon, and to send a challenge to the Schuylkill Navy, of Philadelphia, for a four-oared race of one and a half miles, at Philadelphia, on October 9. But this was declined, owing to the lateness of the season. Accordingly, all interest at Princeton was centered in the Bumping Races of the First Annual Fall Regatta, on the Delaware and Raritan Canal, during the last days of October. These races had been fixed for May, but for various reasons, the committee had postponed them. The prize for these races was a silver cup, presented by Messrs. McCook ’73, Alexander ’76, and Drayton ’73, to be held by the winning crew until the next fall regatta; and the races were rowed under the rules for “Bumping Races,” which we condense as follows:
(continued on page 33)

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27

1876 BRIC-A-BRAC
‘76 Taylor (bow) Markoe Van Lennep Marquand Mann Parmly (stroke) CLASS CREWS. ‘77 ‘78 Greene (bow) Thurston (bow) Halsted Macfarland J. Campbell Hess Williamson Van Lennep Ely Stewart Nicoll (stroke) Stevenson (stroke) Stevens ’77 (bow) Papin ‘78 Bartley ’78 G. S. S. Enos ‘78 Burgess ’77 Denny ’77 (stroke) ‘79 Williamson (bow) Rankin Larkin Roessle Gilman Presbrey (stroke)

BARGE RACE Delaware and Raritan Canal, November 7th, 1874 ’77 ‘78 Greene (bow) Hitchcock (bow) Halsted D.M. Miller J. Campbell Van Lennep Williamson Kargè Ely T. Reed Nicoll (stroke) Stevenson (stroke) H. Butler (cox) W.A. Butler, Jr. (cox) Distance, form Aqueduct to Boat House; won by ’77; no time taken. BARGE RACE Delaware and Raritan Canal, June 1875 University ‘78 Ely (bow) Thruston (bow) R. Hall Macfarland W. Van Lennep Hess Parmly E.Van Lennep Biddle Kargè Nicoll (stroke) Stevenson (stroke) Distance, 3 miles; ’78 allowed 1/4 mile; won by ‘78 SHELL BUMPING RACES. Delaware and Raritan Canal, October 29, 1875 ’77 vs. ’79 ’77 wins ’76 vs. ’78 ’78 wins October 30th. ’76 v. ‘79 ’76 wins Time (not official). ’76, 11 min. 10 sec. ; ’79, 11 min . 21 sec. ’77 vs. ‘78 ’77 wins Time (not official). ’77, 9 min. 14 sec.; ’78, 9 min 13 1/2 sec. Crews arranged according to seniority of classes, with an interval of seventy feet between each boat. Distance, 1 1/2 miles. Prize, a silver challenge cup. Won by ’77, since it was not bumped.

28

ROWING AT PRINCETON

SHELL RACE
DELAWARE RIVER, BURLINGTON, NEW JERSEY
Saturday, October 13th 1877.
[From N.Y. Herald]
One of the prettiest races seen this season was rowed by the crews of Princeton College, New Jersey, on the Delaware river, at Burlington, in that state, yesterday. It was the regular Fall regatta, and, although there was only one contest, it was in every respect a most exciting one. Three crews, in six oared shells, struggled for the possession of the silver cup which was presented two years ago by a number of the Alumni residents of New York, and which, until yesterday, was in the hands of the class of ’78. But today it belongs to the Sophomore’s crew or the class of ’80, by whom it was won after a brief though exceedingly close match. THE CREWS. There were four entries originally – six men from each class. The Juniors did not appear, so their names were not given. It was understood that the illness of some one prevented their taking part in the regatta. Therefore the struggle was left to the other three. It was the intention of the competitors to have rowed before noon, wind and water permitting, but it was entirely too rough at this portion of the day, and therefore the regatta was deferred until four P.M. The crews and their friends were the guest of the Oneida Boat Club, of Burlington, whose house was placed at their disposal, and whose members paid them every possible attention. THE COURSE. The course was one mile and a half straight away, from a line of stakes off General Grubb’s dock to another line of stakes ahead of the schooner yacht Eva, which was anchored about a cable’s length below the Oneida Boat Club house. None more direct, or displaying better advantages, could have been found anywhere. There were no sail-boats or trading craft plying across it, and it was skirted by a picturesque shore, dotted with villas and well-shaded lawns, on which hundreds had assembled to see the race. THE START. At four o’clock in the afternoon there was scarcely a ripple on the Delaware as the crews rowed leisurely up to the starting point, followed by the little propeller carrying the referee, Mr. T. C. Woolman, of the Oneida Club; the timekeeper, Mr. Matthew Goldie, proctor of Princeton College, and the judges, Mr. Corwin for the Seniors, Mr. Katzenbach for the Sophomores, and Mr. Larkin for the Freshmen. The contestants got into position immediately and received their instructions from the referee. The Seniors were on the left, heading up the river, the Sophomores in the centre and the Freshmen on the right, inshore. They may have had less tide to aid them on this account. It certainly seemed that the Seniors had a little the advantage in this way at the outset, but not such an one as benefited them much after the race began. At precisely half-past four o’clock the referee hailed the crews thus: –“Are you ready?” “All ready!” being the reply, he shouted, “One! two! three! Go!” and, as if released by one hand, the boats shot down the river abreast. THE RACE. The Seniors were pulling quickly, the Sophomores steadily, and the Freshmen just a trifle unevenly. Nearing the first quarter the Seniors, with the tide, were evidently obtaining a lead on the Sophomores, while the Freshmen were perceptibly dropping astern. At the first quarter the Seniors sheered in shore a little, as if their steering was wild, but they instantly got into line again without doing any mischief. The Sophomores rowed beautifully, making almost a bee line from their stake, pulling a long, steady stroke, never sheering to right or left. At the half mile they had caught the Seniors, and both together left the Freshmen a couple of lengths astern. From this point all interest was centered in the two crews, who were now abreast, not more than a dozen yards apart. The spectators became perfectly frantic and their cheers rang out across the water, and they themselves could be seen running along the shore in vain endeavor to keep up with the boats, which were speeding toward the end of the mile. “Pull, Steve!” “Spurt, Mac!” shouted the excited students afloat and ashore. The Seniors did pull; but the Sophomores would not “spurt”, because they had a good stroke and meant to keep it. Over the first mile side by side they crossed, and it was hard to say who would have the advantage. The Seniors quickened their stroke visibly; but still the long, steady sweep of the Sophomores continued, every man reaching well over his toes and looking straight at the stroke oarsman. “There’s brains in that boat, I tell you,” said an old oarsman on the steamer; “and if there’s any chance of winning it lies with brains, for the crews are the most evenly matched I have ever seen row.” The mile and a quarter was done, yet neither led the other an inch. It was terribly exciting. The people on the beach were scurrying toward the finish, shrieking as if possessed. Even the judges and referee had caught the infection and could scarcely restrain themselves from giving expression to their feelings. And now the boats were abreast of the Eva and still together. At this moment, when only a hundred yards of the course remained, the Sophomores made one supreme effort and in a few seconds crossed the line a quarter of a boat’s length ahead of the Seniors, winning the race. Time 7m. 59s. The Freshmen were far astern. END

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Origin of Childs Cup Competition

COLLEGE BOATRACE ON THE SCHUYLKILL
Columbia and Princeton Quarters – lower right Harper’s Weekly – July 12, 1879 CHALLENGE FOR A BOAT RACE
A. McLaren, Esq. Captain of the P.U. Boat Club University of Pennsylvania April 17, 1879

(Original letters in Princeton archives.)
A. McLaren, Esq. Captain of the P.U. Boat Club Dear Sir — In pursuance of the enclosed challenge, the University of Pennsylvania proposes to hold an Intercollegiate Regatta between Columbia College, the College of New Jersey, and the University of Pennsylvania — The conditions of the race have been expressed with the challenge — To compensate both Princeton and Columbia for coming to Philadelphia, the University of Pennsylvania offers a challenge prize, to be rowed for each year, to cost $250+, and also to each member of the winning crew, a handsome gold medal. In addition to this, the expenses of each crew will be paid both coming to and going from Philadelphia and the housing of the boats and boarding of the crews will be provided for one week preceding the day of the Regatta. Respectfully s/ Calhoun Megargee R.L. Hart Bernard Gilpin Wm. H. Smith Wm. Henry Patterson W. L. Robinson Committee

The University of Pennsylvania hereby extends a challenge to the College of New Jersey to row a race in fouroared shells. The distance to be one mile and a half, Straight away over the National Course on the Schuylkill River at Philadelphia between the 15th and 30th days of June next. The crews to be composed of the undergraduates of the several departments of each college. s/ Calhoun Megargee Bernard Gilpin Wm. Henry Patterson R.L. Hart Wm. H. Smith W.L. Robinson Committee Be kind enough to send an early answer to— Calhoun Megargee 2047 Walnut Street Philadelphia

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CHILDS CUP
INTERCOLLEGIATE CHALLENGE CUP
Presented by

GEORGE M. CHILDS
To be Rowed for Annually by Columbia College of New York The College of New Jersey of Princeton University of Pennsylvania (Heavyweight Varsity)

1879 Penn Columbia Princeton 1880 Columbia Penn Princeton 1881 Princeton (walkover) 1882 Penn Princeton 1883 Penn Princeton 1884 Penn Cornell Princeton 1885-1911 Princeton crew competition suspended 1912 Columbia Princeton Penn 1913 Columbia Princeton Penn 1914 Columbia Princeton Penn 1915 Princeton Columbia Penn 1916 Princeton Columbia Penn 1917 World War I 1918 Penn Columbia Princeton 1919 Penn Princeton Columbia 1920 Navy Princeton Penn Columbia 1921 Columbia Princeton Penn 1922 Princeton Columbia Penn 1923 Columbia Penn Princeton 1924 Penn Columbia Princeton 1925 Penn Columbia Princeton 1926 Penn Princeton Columbia 1927 Princeton Columbia Penn 1928 Columbia Penn Princeton 1929 Columbia Princeton Penn 1930 Columbia Penn Princeton 1931 Columbia Penn Princeton 1932 Penn Columbia Princeton 1933 Princeton Penn Columbia 1934 Princeton Penn Columbia 1935 Penn Princeton Columbia 1936 Penn Princeton Columbia 1937 Princeton Penn Columbia 1938 Penn Princeton Columbia

1939 Princeton Columbia 1940 Columbia Penn 1941 Princeton Columbia 1942 Penn Princeton 1943 Princeton Penn 1944-47 World War II 1948 Princeton Penn 1949 Princeton Penn 1950 Penn Princeton 1951 Penn Princeton 1952 Penn Princeton 1953 Princeton Columbia 1954 Penn Princeton 1955 Penn Princeton 1956 Princeton Penn 1957 Princeton Penn 1958 Penn Princeton 1959 Penn Princeton 1960 Penn Princeton 1961 Penn Princeton 1962 Penn Columbia 1963 Columbia Penn 1964 Princeton Penn 1965 Princeton Penn 1966 Penn Princeton 1967 Penn Princeton 1968 Penn Princeton 1969 Penn Princeton 1970 Penn Princeton 1971 Penn Princeton 1972 Penn Princeton 1973 Penn Princeton 1974 Penn Princeton 1975 Penn Princeton 1976 Princeton Penn

Penn Princeton Penn Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Penn Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Princeton Princeton Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia Columbia

1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Princeton Penn Penn Princeton Princeton Penn Princeton Princeton Princeton Penn Penn Princeton Penn Penn Penn Penn Penn Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton

Penn Columbia Princeton Princeton Penn Columbia Penn Columbia Princeton Columbia Penn Columbia Penn Penn Columbia Princeton Columbia Princeton Columbia Penn Princeton Columbia Princeton Columbia Princeton Columbia Princeton Columbia Princeton Columbia Penn Columbia Penn Columbia Penn Berkeley Columbia Penn Columbia Penn Columbia Penn Columbia Penn Columbia

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31

1879–1880 CREWS
CLASS CREW
Childs Cup
Standing: P. Katzenbach ’79, A. Wylly ’79 Sitting: F. Larkin, Jr. ’79, F.S.Presbrey ’79, C.H. Dodge ’79, F.P. Gilman ’79.

1880 FRESHMEN
—Class of 1883
G.C.Howell, E.C.Peace, T.A.C.Baker, J.T.Haxall, G.P.Way, G.B.Jennison

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
“The boats shall be arranged according to the seniority of classes, with the interval of seventy feet between each boat; and there shall be one hundred and twenty feet between the finishing posts of each boat. “A boat bumping another on one day, changes position with the boat bumped on the next day. “A bump is when the nose of the rear boat overlaps the stern of the boat ahead. “The boat bumping and the boat bumped shall immediately make way for any in the rear. “A bump cannot be made after the stern of the boat to be bumped has passed its finishing post. “There shall be a marker for each boat, whose duty it shall be to fire a pistol as the stern of his boat passes its finishing post.”

ever built, weighing only 120 pounds. At the time there were twenty-one shells and gigs in the house, including eight six-oared shells; and the treasurer reported to the Club to be in prosperous financial condition. In the spring of 1876, there were two Freshman crews. In the fall, when the organization of a Freshman crew to enter the regatta at Saratoga was taken up, there was considerable discussion as to whether first year men in the Scientific School were eligible to places in the crew. As the Scientific course was only three years, the Freshmen in the Scientific School were really members of the class of ’78, while the Freshman crew in the Academic Department were ’79 men. It was finally decided that, notwithstanding the Scientific men might graduate a year earlier, they were nevertheless Freshmen, and, in the final make-up of the crew which was to represent the class in the Saratoga Regatta in the spring of 1876, two of the Scientific men, C.C. Clarke, and C. D. Bennett, were given places in the boat. The other Freshman crew was composed entirely of ’79 men, and represented the class in the class bumping races. But despite the two Freshman crews, Princeton was not represented in the Intercollegiate Freshman Race in 1876; the class were unwilling to subscribe the necessary funds and the Boating Club could not afford to take two crews. The University Race was held on July 19. For the first mile Princeton held first place. Her form continued noticeably good, but the pace was telling. Foot by foot she began to slide back. At the last half mile Princeton was three lengths behind Wesleyan. As they drew near the last quarter Princeton spurted brilliantly and picked up, but in the next minute the reaction came and she fell back again. In the single Scull Race Parmly maintained a stout fight for second place, but in the last mile Danforth, of Harvard, forged ahead.
SIXTEENTH INTERCOLLEGIATE REGATTA Saratoga, July 19, 1876 University Race – Three miles straightaway 1st - Cornell 2d - Harvard 3d - Columbia 4th - Union 5th - Wesleyan 6th - Princeton

On the first day, ’78 bumped ’77, but ’77 claimed a foul, alleging that their steering gear was broken within the first ten strokes. After considerable discussion, the referee allowed the foul, declaring that ’78 had made no bump under the existing circumstances, and that the boats must start on the second day in the same order. But ’76 and ’78 were dissatisfied with this decision, and refused to row on the second day. ’77 and ’79 were the only crews to start, but again the start was declared foul, because ’79 broke their rudder. On the third day ’78 bumped ’76, but ’79 was not able to bump ’77. On the fourth day, ’78 failed to bump ’77, and the cup was handed over to Captain Nicoll. Inasmuch as 1876 was the Centennial Celebration in Philadelphia, the Intercollegiate Association challenged the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge to an international race. Much surprise was therefore caused when, in December, Yale withdrew from the College Association, saying that the large number of entries made it impossible to secure a course large enough to be fair to all the competitors, that the Association was liable to be mismanaged, and necessitated too much publicity. Yale also urged Harvard to withdraw, in order that the merits of their own colleges might be better tested in exclusive races. The same request was extended to Columbia and Princeton. Princeton, however, declined under the extraordinary circumstances, feeling that duty, as well as courtesy, forbade the desertion of the Association during the Centennial year, and in view of the English challenge. At first Harvard was inclined to yield to Yale, and even did accept a challenge for a four-oared race with Yale; nevertheless Harvard remained in the Association in accordance with the expressed wishes of the alumni, announcing, however, that she would withdraw immediately after the July Regatta. In this spring of 1876 two new shells were purchased by the Princeton Club; one paper boat built by Waters, of Troy; the other shell of Spanish cedar, by Fearon, of Yonkers. This latter was said to be the lightest six-oared shell

(continued)

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33

1878-1881 FRESHMEN CREWS
FRESHMEN
— Class of 1878
Standing: J.M.McFarland ’78, E.J. Van Lennep ’78, R.F. Karge ’78, H. Hess ’78 Sitting: H. Stevenson ’78, J.C. Thurston ’78

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1878 & 1879
Standing: J.M.Woodbury ’79, F.S.Presbrey ’79 Sitting: E.O. Roessle ’79, A. Wylly ’79, C.D. Bennett ’78, C.C. Clarke ’78

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1881
Standing: A.T.Bruce, H.McAlpin Sitting: H.D.Warren, W.H.Roberts, H.McDermott Floor: T.B.Bradford

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
Single Scull Race – Two miles straightaway 1st - Francis ’76, Cornell 2d - Danforth ’76, Harvard 3d - G.D.Parmly’ 76, Princeton 4th - Weeks ’77, Columbia

In the fall of 1876 the interest in rowing decreased greatly. The three years of defeat, coupled with the expense, seemed to cool the ardor of all except a few. On September 10, the Princeton four-oared crew entered the Burlington Regatta against the Falcons and the Oneidas. Princeton started with a very quick telling stroke, and immediately took the lead. At the three-quarter mile post a man was observed standing out in the water in Princeton’s course, waving his hand to the Falcons. When Princeton came along, he shook his fist at them. Shouting out a curse, then threw himself bodily upon number two’s oar. That immediately stopped the boat. A foul was claimed and the referee declared “it is no race.” The Second Annual Fall Regatta or Bumping Races were held on the “raging” canal on October 25. In the first heat ’78 traversed the one and one-half mile course in ten minutes and forty-five seconds, crossing the finish line three minutes in advance of ‘80, who were delayed by a canal boat. In the second heat, ’79 made the distance in eleven minutes and fifty seconds, and fifty feet behind came the crew of ’77 with a disabled rudder. In the final heat, ’78 crossed the line two hundred feet in advance of ‘79 winning the cup and the race in nine minutes and fifty-five seconds. In the single Scull Race for the cup offered by C. C. Clarke ’78 the prize was awarded to P. Katzenbach ’79 the only competitor. The Club was heavily in debt, and a committee consisting of Messrs. Libbey ’77, Kretsinger ’78, Pitney ’79, and Rhine ’80 was appointed to solicit subscriptions. The President, J. S. Ely ‘77 resigned and Mr. F. Dunning ’77 was chosen as his successor. At the annual convention in December, Princeton was represented on the Regatta Committee by C. Scribner ’75. It was then decided that the University Race should be rowed in four-oared shells, and that the rules of eligibility should be broader, to include candidates for any degree. Princeton was very much opposed to this, as with her Collegiate and Scientific Courses alone, it practically debarred her from all hope of success.

Because of lack of interest in rowing in the spring of ’77, Captain C. C. Clarke decided that to attempt to train a crew with a worse than depleted treasury, and inferior men, would redound neither to his credit nor that of the college. The Boating Club was encumbered with a debt of $500. It seemed as if the benefits arising from rowing to the students was not at all in proportion to the cost of the sport. Very few students, probably not fifteen regularly, were willing to “walk a mile to pull an oar upon a narrow, dirty, nasty, dead canal;” while during the last three years, the sport had cost $10,000. The reasons against Princeton entering the Regatta of ’77 are summed up by Captain Clarke, as follows:
“First, at present we are heavily in debt, and it would be impossible to send a crew, though one could be sent for one-third the amount expended last year. Second, the men training for a University crew should be selected early in the fall, soon after College opens, and should continue outdoor work so long as the weather will permit. This year the men were unable to commence work till January, thus loosing three months of valuable time. Third, the number of boating men from whom to select a Varsity crew this season is small. Fourth, it is of the greatest importance that Princeton should do well in the next regatta she enters. Otherwise, there will be no interest in boating whatever.”

The Third Annual Fall Regatta was held on October 3, 1877, not on the canal, but on the Delaware River, at Burlington. There were only three entries, as the class of ’79 did not send a crew. The course was one mile and a half straightaway, and the class of ’80 won in 7 minutes 59 seconds, with ’78 a few inches, and ’81 four or five lengths behind. The debt had been increasing, and little was done to meet the obligation except a Glee Club concert in November 1877, but this yielded only $80. Graduates and undergraduates alike refused to give money toward “a Club which is dead and with no prospect of coming to life again.” Then the committee in charge tried to raise some money by selling the boats, but this attempt was unsuccessful. The debt now amounted to $441; about $100 was due to different tradesmen and manufacturers of boating materials. For the remaining $371, Fearon brought suit against the Club, and the suit going by default to the plaintiff, Mr. Elmer F. Green, of Trenton, most generously relieved the Association of its embarrassment by advancing the sum, to be repaid at its convenience, without interest. Little by little the money was collected, until in the spring of 1879, the debt was nearly liquidated, so nearly so at least, that there was a great deal of talk of entering a crew in the Newark Regatta. Just at this time, the University of Pennsylvania
(continued)

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35

1881-1882 CREWS
1881 VARSITY
Childs Cup
Standing: T.A.C.Baker ’83, H.K.Devereux ’80, G.B.Jennison ’83 Sitting: J.T.Cowan ’81, G.C.Howell ’83

1882 VARSITY
T.A.C.Baker ’83, G.C.Howell ’83, C.W.Bird ’85, G.B.Jennison ’83

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
challenged Princeton and Columbia to row for the Childs Challenge Cup, and agreed to pay the expenses of the Varsity crews, both coming to and going from Philadelphia, the housing of the boats, and boarding of the crews for one week preceding the race. A mass meeting of the college decided to accept. A new shell was purchased and the crew began to train under G. D. Parmly ’76. On June 10 the crew went to the Colonnade Hotel, Philadelphia. The Press says:
“The race was held over the National Course on June 24. Captain McLaren of Princeton was suffering from an abcess and in no condition to row. Nevertheless Princeton took the water first, getting off in fine style and leading by one-half length. Pennsylvania soon forged ahead passing both crews. Princeton was rowing thirty-six strokes to the minute; then Columbia quickened her stroke to forty-four and soon passed Princeton. The Princeton crew were ragged in their recovery and did not make the catch or finish at the proper time. Caption McLaren, however, stuck bravely to his work and called on his men for a spurt, which they gave with a will, but the long gap was not lessened and Princeton finished six lengths behind.”
FIRST ANNUAL INTERCOLLEGIATE RACE FOR THE CHILDS CHALLENGE CUP. SCHUYLKILL RIVER, JUNE 24, 1879. National Course– One and a half mile straightaway. 1st- University of Pennsylvania 2d- Columbia 3d- Princeton

had the outer course and the rougher water. Princeton rowed and steered well until the last half mile, but then she weakened and fell rapidly to the rear. The time, however, was five seconds faster than that of last year.
SECOND ANNUAL INTERCOLLEGIATE RACE. FOR THE CHILDS CHALLENGE CUP. SCHUYLKILL RIVER, JUNE 25, 1880.
National Course—One and a half mile straightaway. 1st- Columbia 2d- University of Pennsylvania 3d- Princeton

But nothing of interest occurred until on May 30, 1881, when the Varsity made its first public appearance at the Passaic Regatta, Newark. In the first heat, the Albany City crew finished first, Princeton second and Excelsior third. In the final heat, Princeton led by a length at the start which she maintained until a foul occurred between them and the Albany’s, which lost them the place. Long before the crew went to Philadelphia for the Childs Cup Race, Princeton and Columbia had protested Hart of the Pennsylvania crew, alleging that he was ineligible under the spirit if not the letter of the regulation: “Undergraduate members of any department of the University.” Hart’s membership consisted in matriculation as a student in the summer course of the Medical Department. This was only a special course, because it did not grant a diploma but only a certificate of proficiency. The University of Pennsylvania consented to replace Hart, and the postponed race was to be held on July 5. After Princeton had been training on the Schuylkill for some time, they were astonished to hear Pennsylvania announce that Hart was to row. The Pennsylvania coach, Ellis Ward, insisted that Hart must remain, else the crew would surely be defeated. But certain members of the Regatta committee supported Princeton and Columbia, in their position, that he was not eligible; and these, rather than submit to the coach, resigned. Columbia and Princeton remained firm in their demand that the Pennsylvania crew, with Hart, should be disqualified, and the only concession that they would make, even on the day of the race, was that the final decision in the matter should be left open until after the alleged race, in order that Pennsylvania might have ample time to produce further testimony as to Hart’s eligibility. On the afternoon of the race Columbia was forced to withdraw their crew because one of their men had strained his back. The other two crews, however, were found in their shells at the stake-boat at the appointed time,
“not for a race, but only for a ‘row over’ to sustain their claim for a cup which neither of them made any effort to win. Princeton starting (continued)

There was little interest, however, in the sport, as the class races show. These had been postponed from the fall to the spring, but even then they were not held. Only two crews had entered, from the class of ’80 and ’83. A few days before the race the class of ’80 withdrew their crew. Accordingly, on the morning set for the race, ’83 rowed over the course. Then the class of ’80 changed their minds and telegraphed that they would row in the afternoon. But ’83 declined to row and claimed the race. As for the University crew, the Club met the expenses by assessing each man in college one dollar. A professional coach, Mr. Kennedy, of Maine, was secured and the crew trained faithfully, spending the Easter vacation on the Schuylkill River. Ten days before the race in June the crew went to their quarters at the Riverside Mansion. The Press says:
“Kennedy has been coaching them to a pace of thirty-three to thirty-five strokes to the minute, which is slow considering the short distance, a mile and a half. The reason is the size of number three, who, it is believed, will not be able to last out the distance, at say forty strokes. The time, however, is partly made up for by the length of the slide, which is longer by several inches than that of the other crews. The boys are in excellent trim, rested wholly on the Sabbath as became Presbyterian catechumens and expect to make a good pace whether they win or not. They will row in one of Waters’ shells.”

Again Princeton got started first, but unfortunately

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
east hugged the east shore, moved slowly and so carelessly that they nearly fouled a conspicuous buoy. The University of Pennsylvania were spoiling for a fight and challenged every rowing craft along the course from six-oared barges to wherries.” “The last one-half mile was desperate work in both shells. Pennsylvania showed themselves stayers by putting on a fine spurt and running up to a good thirty-eight stroke. Jennison called upon his men to do likewise, but they were unable to respond. Bravely but desperately they struggled to shut out the daylight already visible between the shells. ”

Pennsylvania won in nine minutes, thirty-two seconds; and two lengths in the rear came Princeton, nine minutes; thirty-six seconds, with Howell in a dead faint. In the evening, J. T. Goodwin, Columbia, Davidson Kennedy, University of Pennsylvania, and H. K.Devereux ’80, Princeton, sat to hear the additional testimony on affirmation of Hart’s eligibility and to award the trophy to whichever club they might decide had properly rowed over the course. After a long secret session it was announced: “The meeting was perfectly amicable and the cup was awarded to Princeton.” This contest, however, led to a convention in January, 1882, where the following rule of eligibility was adopted:
“Any man who is studying for a degree and has attended regularly the lectures, recitations and examinations given in the University for the said degree during the last half of the college year next preceding any race, shall be eligible to row on his college crew for the Childs Cup.” FOURTH ANNUAL INTERCOLLEGIATE RACE FOR THE CHILDS CHALLENGE CUP. SCHUYLKILL RIVER, JUNE 23, 1882.

National Course—One and a half mile straightaway. 1st-University of Pennsylvania 2d- Princeton

Princeton sent this same crew to Lake George on July 4, where they met Pennsylvania, Wesleyan, Bowdoin, and Cornell in a one and one-half mile race. “The wind and rain made this race disagreeable to watch, but those who stood it out were amply repaid. At the word the crews started on nearly even terms, Cornell and U. of P. forging to the front. At the one-half mile Cornell led slightly, the others being bunched together. From there to the mile flag the race was as pretty a one as was ever rowed, the various crews passing and repassing each other so constantly as to produce the conviction that it was anybody’s race. Princeton was leading at the mile flag with the slow, steady, thirty-five stroke, but a little later, they faltered and allowed Pennsylvania and Wesleyan to forge ahead. The superior steering of the Pennsylvania and the fine spurts of the Wesleyan crew began to tell and they surely and steadily passed to the front. In the last third mile it was evident that the race for first place was between these two, with great uncertainty as to which of the three remaining crews would be last.
“Meantime a fierce struggle had been going on between Princeton, Cornell, and Bowdoin for third place, and at the finish the three crews fairly lapping each other, Princeton crossing the line three lengths behind Wesleyan, and again Howells fainted.” 1st2d3d5th5thUniversity of Pennsylvania Wesleyan Princeton Cornell Bowdoin

THIRD ANNUAL INTERCOLLEGIATE RACE FOR THE CHILDS CHALLENGE CUP. SCHUYLKILL RIVER, JULY 5, 1881.

First place awarded to Princeton, time not taken. But nothing occurred until spring, when the crew began to practice on the canal. On May 30 they entered the Newark Regatta and won second place, time nine minutes, thirty-two seconds. The Albany crew was first, time nine minutes, sixteen and one-quarter seconds. Columbia was not represented in the Challenge Cup Race of 1882. The time was very slow, due to the southwest wind blowing directly against the rowers. The Press says:

“For nearly half a mile it was anybody’s race. Princeton never deviated from the long, swinging, thirty-six stroke with which they started. The Pennsylvania’s hugged the western shore, and their opponents by some resistless attraction, tried to get as near to them as possible. For the first third of the course, not a baulk was apparent. Pennsylvania’s quick stroke at the start caused it to forge ahead, but the lead was not beyond recovery, and the Orange and Black skimmed along with a stately, clock-like motion as to give every promise of evening with their opponents. Just before the Laurel Hill bend, Pennsylvania settled to a slow, all-day, thirty-six stroke, and for nearly a half a mile the crews were like automata, the blue of the Pennsylvania oar flashing the light simultaneously with the Princeton spoons. It now became apparent that the Jersey men were doomed to defeat. For some inscrutable reason Baker steered strongly eastward, then evidently attempting to correct himself pursued a sinuous course for a few seconds, finally recovering himself but not until the Pennsylvania had won an irretrievable advantage.

In the spring there seemed to be a revival of interest in rowing, perhaps because it was thought to be good training for football. The Varsity crew entered the Newark Regatta on May 30. In the trial heat, Princeton won from the Mutuals of Albany, in seven minutes, fifty-five seconds, four seconds faster than any Princeton record. But in the final heat, Princeton was fouled by the winners and finished third. On June 12 the same crew rowed in the Harlem Regatta and won first place in the mile race.
1st- Princeton 2d- Albany 3d- Columbia

(continued)

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
responded gamely and drew away rapidly after passing the head of the island. From this point the race was a procession, as forging further and further ahead, the Pennsylvania boat finally passed the judges, winning by two lengths.

And the Junior race resulted,
1st- Princeton, 6 minutes, 4-3/4 seconds.

2d- Nonpareils, 6 minutes, 11-1/2seconds.

These successful races naturally aroused greater interest in the Childs Cup Race, which was held on June 15. The time of this race was decidedly slow, partly due to erratic steering, which brought the crews into the face of the wind.
“There was a decided contrast between the crews, both as regards physique and method. The Princeton men are undoubtedly the stronger crew, but they have yet to master the technique of rowing. They lack dash and with all their undoubted strength they appear incapable of sustaining a spurt for more than a couple hundred yards. Their recovery is slow and number three’s action decidedly wooden. Pennsylvania, on the other hand, rowing a waiting race for two-thirds of the way, with exemplary patience and excellent judgment and coming away at the proper moment, showed that they possess a turn of fine speed, with which their warmest admirers had hardly credited them. Both crews took the water exactly together, Princeton rowing thirty-seven strokes to the minute, and Pennsylvania somewhat faster, but the long, steady stroke of Bird kept Princeton in the lead. “For the first hundred yards they remained on perfectly even terms and then, Princeton, already quickening, forged a few feet ahead. At this early stage of the race, it was evident that Pennsylvania were rowing with their heads as well as their hands. The stroke did not quicken even a shade, and as Princeton, rowing at high pressure, crept further and further ahead, the college adherents grew wild with delight. But Pennsylvania were only biding their time and driving their boat with the long, sweeping stroke and rapid recovery of Ellis Ward’s training. They rowed a stern race until three-quarters of a mile had been covered as calmly and comfortably as though they were pulling further and further from their opponents at every stroke. “Up to a point of the race both boats had been hugging the western shore and keeping very close together. Now the stroke of Pennsylvania quickened, and at this point want of judgment was evinced by the Princeton captain and the race was practically lost. The leaders failed to spurt or at least made no endeavor to maintain their advantage, although they were by no means distressed. “The Pennsylvania crew pulling splendidly came up hand over hand. In a couple hundred yards Princeton’s lead was reduced to a length, and on completing the mile, the nose of Pennsylvania’s boat was abreast of number three. At this point the boats were dangerously near together, and it appeared from the referee’s boat that Princeton was crowding Pennsylvania; a slight foul took place. The oars barely touched, however, and as a matter of fact neither crew was prejudicially interfered with. Pennsylvania gave way and the race continued without a check. “Right across the river went the boats and when they straightened out and made for home Pennsylvania had a lead of fully a length. Here Princeton spurted but all unavailingly. Although momentarily they got their boat’s nose alongside their opponents’ rudder, Pennsylvania

“The Princeton boat pulled alongside the referee’s boat and claimed a foul. Mr. Eustic at once told them very courteously that the claim was preposterous, as Pennsylvania was blameless in the matter. He added further that the chance of neither crew was affected by the foul, such as it was, and clinched his decision by saying that had Pennsylvania ceased rowing and claimed the race on the foul, he should have felt bound under the circumstances, to award them the race.” FIFTH ANNUAL INTERCOLLEGIATE RACE FOR THE CHILDS CHALLENGE CUP. SCHUYLKILL RIVER, JUNE 15, 1883. National Course—One and a half mile straightaway 1st - Pennsylvania 2nd - Princeton

This crew won third place in the Lake George Regatta on July 4, 1883.
“The water was very rough and many attempts were made before a fair flying start was secured. Pennsylvania took the lead and Wesleyan was a close second. At the one-half mile it was doubtful whether Pennsylvania or Wesleyan led, but here Cornell, close to the shore, struck smooth water and in the next quarter of a mile, from being three lengths in the rear, passed rapidly to the front. Pennsylvania turned toward Cornell and sought to reduce the lead. Spurt after spurt followed between Wesleyan and Pennsylvania, but gradually Wesleyan dropped to the rear, and Pennsylvania started in a fruitless attempt to catch the Cornell boys, who were steadily increasing the gap. “Meantime the sturdy stroke of the Princeton boys had closed the gap which threatened to make them a bad fourth, and at the mile flag the race took on the appearance of a procession, Cornell leading Pennsylvania nearly six lengths, while some three lengths behind that crew, Wesleyan and Princeton struggled on nearly equal terms. From the mile flag the only struggle was between Wesleyan and Princeton. Spurt answered spurt and had the struggle been for first position, it would have been highly exciting. “The water was so rough that it almost swamped the Princeton shell which had the outer course.” LAKE GEORGE REGATTA. July 4, 1883. 1st - Cornell 2d - Pennsylvania 3d - Princeton 4th - Wesleyan

On the following day Captain Jennison, of Princeton, won the Single Scull Race. He took the lead at the very start and kept it easily throughout the rather uninteresting race; for at the half mile Kokler jumped his seat and was compelled to wait fully thirty seconds before starting again. The strong head wind made the water choppy and prevented even good time. But there was a great deal of opposition to rowing at Princeton. The main cause of this, as well as of her de(continued)

ROWING AT PRINCETON

39

1884 CREWS
VARSITY
W.J. Greene ’85, J.M.T. Finney ’84, C.W. Bird ’85, T.H. Harris ’86

The Last Crew that represented Princeton in a Regatta in the 19th Century. Placed Third in I.R.A.

READY ALL ROW (continued)
feats, consisted in the lack of any boating interest. “There is rarely a man who can play football or baseball who will not, such are the attractions and facilities of these staple sports; but many men who could make good oarsmen are unwilling to try.” “There is no fire or glory in the sport as it must exist at Princeton.” There was lacking that general interest which “is essential to success in any line of athletics.” The races were the cause of the crew; men did not row for the sport. It was felt that the futility of her attempts to row would weaken the good impression made by Princeton’s activity and pluck, as displayed in other athletic contests. If Princeton cannot do a thing well, she had better not do it at all.” But despite discouragement from the alumni, the college mass meeting voted to maintain a crew, and when open weather came there were at least fourteen men in training. Mr. George Hosmer was secured as coach and two crews began training. Both these crews were entered in the Passaic Regatta, at Newark, on May 30, 1884. In the Junior Race, Princeton came in third. But the Senior Race was a farce. From the very first Princeton was ahead, but the poor steering of the remaining boats involved them in so many fouls that they were called back. A second time the fouls were made. Then the referee made an effort to start all the crews at the last half mile.But Captain Bird said Princeton would row the full course of one and one-half miles or not at all, and withdrew. The Senior crew was entered in the Harlem Regatta of June 4, but their entry was received a day after the entries had officially closed, and three days before the race. The Secretary telegraphed that the entry had been accepted, but on the day of the race, the other competitor, the Atlantas, entered protest against Princeton. Although Princeton crossed the finish line fully one minute ahead of the Atlantas, the cup was(continued) awarded

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
to Atlantas, much to Princeton’s disgust. Princeton sent a crew to the Intercollegiate Regatta at Saratoga on July 7. In order to make the contest for the Childs Challenge Cup more exciting, Cornell was invited to enter this year and accepted. The Press says:
“In the start Princeton caught the water first, while Cornell on the far side was particularly slow in getting hold of the water; indeed Princeton and Cornell pushed their second stroke together. Pennsylvania got off in excellent shape2 and no accident happening to any of the crews in the first ten strokes, it was now a race without any chance of a recall. Before these strokes were finished however, it was already apparent that the last place was to be the place of Princeton. They were tugging away with every honest intention of getting there but were pulling in bad form compared with the others, their boat rocking and their oars splashing the water about, while, stroke by stroke, they were losing ground. During the first minute Princeton pulled forty-two strokes, Pennsylvania thirty-nine and Cornell but thirty-seven. The rowing of the latter was particularly good, each stroke being well pulled through and the boat traveling on an even keel without the slightest indication of a hang between the strokes. Before reaching the row of ice-houses on the east shore, Cornell had obtained a half length’s lead of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania was also ahead of Princeton, but they had taken a line direct for the angle at Soapstone Point on the west shore, and being so wide apart from Cornell, it was the merest guess work as to their relative positions. At Soapstone Point, a little over a half mile below the start, Princeton had come over toward Pennsylvania, and the latter were then a length in front. Cornell kept drawing away east of midstream, their boat going much more evenly than either of the others. Off Princeton Station the leading crews were timed at thirty-six each, while Princeton had dropped to thirty-eight and were steadily losing ground. Just below the station and in the course of the boats was a canal boat going down stream but well out from the shore. Pennsylvania went outside of it without altering their course, and the tow line was dropped for their accommodation, so that they passed the boat without any loss of time. Princeton steered outside and already they were getting very ragged in their stroke. At the mile the two leaders were rowing thirty-four strokes and Princeton thirtysix. Cornell was rapidly nearing the grandstand, and the murmur of encouraging cheers becoming louder every moment, they too began spurting, and reached thirty-eight strokes, with Pennsylvania pulling forty. At the upper end of the grandstand Pennsylvania was nearly the full length of their boat in front. It was now do or die with Cornell, and with a great effort they responded to the Cornell yells, and so rapidly did they decrease the lead of Pennsylvania that when the flag fell, the stern of the Cornell boat was level with the forward end of the cockpit of Pennsylvania. Princeton was three lengths behind.” SIXTH ANNUAL INTERCOLLEGIATE RACE FOR THE CHILDS CHALLENGE CUP. SCHUYLKILL RIVER, JUNE 10, 1884. New National Course—One and a half mile straightaway. 1st - Pennsylvania 2d - Cornell 3d - Princeton “Pennsylvania was first to get away with a dozen spinning strokes,

and they were soon nearly a length in the lead. Princeton’s boat seemed to hang and at the end of two hundred yards they were well to the rear. At the start Pennsylvania and Columbia pulled thirty-eight, Bowdoin forty-two, Princeton thirty-four and Cornell thirty-six. The latter when they settled to their powerful stroke were holding and slightly gaining on the leaders. Pennsylvania saw their move and set out to match them. The two boats soon began to leave the other crews, and inch by inch the Cornell boys gained. When the first quarter was reached, they were one half a length behind Pennsylvania, and Bowdoin was third, a half dozen lengths in the rear. Columbia closely followed, while Princeton seemed already hopelessly distanced. The race between the leaders still continued, with Cornell gaining. At a half a mile they were neck and neck, each rowing a sweeping thirty-two stroke. “In a few minutes Cornell’s bow was in front and as they still kept gaining, it looked as if victory would be theirs by two or three lengths. At the three-quarters they were easily a half a length in advance and there was no change of position as they dashed past the mile flag. “Here the smooth water began, and Sergeant, the Pennsylvania stroke, soon quickened the stroke. At the same time Princeton began to row really for the first time. At the mile they were last. Quickly they slipped by Columbia, then Bowdoin, and from that time to the finish they did some of the prettiest rowing seen during the race. Steadily they gained on the leaders, lessening the distance they were behind from ten to four lengths. All this time Cornell was still in the lead with Pennsylvania gaining. Bowdoin was practically out of the race. During the first mile she surprised everybody by her spurt, occupying the third place with ease. Just before the mile was reached, that great hulk called the Lady of the Lake, slipped out of a cove near Bowdoin and nearly filled the latter’s boat with her swash. Columbia kept the fourth which she was expected to do. “Feeling perfectly at home, Pennsylvania kept gaining; Scofield of the Cornell crew saw the danger and quickly cried ‘Now!’ to his men for a spurt. Sergeant fortunately had spurted also. At every stroke they gained on Cornell. A hundred feet from the finish Cornell was leading by four yards. At ten feet they were even, and just then Pennsylvania’s oars were in the water at the beginning of a stroke while Cornell’s were out. That stroke finished it and sent Pennsylvania in the winner by less than a yard in the magnificent time of eight minutes, thirty-nine and three-quarter seconds. Princeton was third by four lengths, but she finished nearly ten lengths ahead of Columbia. Bowdoin stopped when their boat filled.” INTERCOLLEGIATE REGATTA. SARATOGA, JULY 7, 1884. Course-One and a half mile straightaway. 1st - Pennsylvania 2d - Cornell 3d - Princeton 4th - Columbia 5th - Bowdoin

This was the last race for Princeton. Everyone felt that Princeton’s rowing days were over, and the following year an effort was made to bring the boat-house up to the campus as a training “cage” for the baseball team. To be sure the old crew of Bird, Harris, Smith and Greene kept together, and still rowed a little, but they entered no regattas.The death knell of rowing, as a sport at Princeton, was sounded in May, 1886, when the Treasurer submitted

(continued)

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READY ALL ROW (continued)
his final report:
RECEIPTS. Balance,................................................................. .66 Sale of boats, ................................................... 350.00 ...................................................................... $ 350.66 Expenses ................................................................................................... 292.53 Balance......................................................... $ 58.13

This balance was turned over to the Athletic Executive Committee and went into the “University Fund.” In December, 1891, the Daily Princetonian under the energetic management of Bowdre Phinizy ’92 tried to resurrect the sport, and sent out the following list of questions to twenty of the alumni:
“The Princetonian desires to place before its readers opinions of the alumni and friends of the College on the project of reorganizing the crew. To that end we would solicit a communication from you on this subject and would ask that you touch upon the following points, together with any other that may occur to you. 1. What of our facilities for practice as compared with those of Oxford and Cambridge? 2. What of weekly trips to Philadelphia for practice contests on the Schuylkill in order to become accustomed to racing on rough water? 3. What would be the influence on our prowess in football, baseball and general athletics? 4. What is your opinion on the general advisability and practicability of the plan?”

In 1883, rowing colleges led by Columbia, Cornell and Penn formed the Intercollegiate Rowing Association for fours and then, in 1889, for eights. Harvard and Yale declined. This organization evolved in the “IRA” races that still exist. It moved to Poughkeepsie in 1895.

Many answers were printed in a special edition, dated January 19, 1892, and the general consensus of opinion was unfavorable: because of the probable expense; a singular lack of facilities, interference with football, baseball and track sports in which athletics Princeton’s strength lies; the already sufficient tax upon time in other sports; the probability that Princeton would have to confine its matches to second rate colleges; the improbability of success even if matches with first-class colleges were secured. “The Canal is a wretched place, it is inconvenient to go to Trenton, and weekly trips to Philadelphia would weaken the college discipline as well as purse.” The only remarks in favor of the sport were that Princeton loses many men because she has no crew; that the exercise develops football men, and the defeats of the past are due to the lack of proper coaching. The Football Association bought a barge for the football men to train in, but it was used very little and soon disabled. Nothing more was done until the spring of 1897, when the Football Association accepted three shells from an alumnus. But very little use has been made of them, and no one in college now thinks that Princeton ever will have a crew, despite the prospect of the new Gymnasium with its rowing tank, and the rapid transit to Trenton. END

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‘LOCH’ CARNEGIE
The story of Andrew Carnegie’s gift to Princeton
as written by Howard Russell Butler, 1876, presented in Princeton University Land 1752-1984 by Gerald Breese (Princeton University 1986)

Howard Russell Butler 1876 played a pivotal role in the re-establishment of Princeton rowing in the early years of the 20th century. Butler was the coxswain of the 1874 Princeton crew and a Renaissance man. He was an assistant in Princeton’s Department of Physics, a New York patent lawyer and executive, a painter of celestial phenomena, and a portrait and landscape painter. From 1906 through 1912, he was responsible for assembling the 400+ acres that comprise Lake Carnegie, the lake on the Princeton campus that is the home of Princeton rowing. His firsthand story is reproduced here.

Howard Russell Butler 1876 From the Howard Russell Butler, Jr. 1920 Collection

I painted my first portrait of Andrew Carnegie as he sat in the library of his new house, after breakfast, reading his newspaper. This is the portrait which hangs in the center of his gallery, and which Mrs. Carnegie considers the best of all the many portraits which were painted of him. I think it was during one of these sittings that he was bragging of the four lakes which he had built, and all of which I had seen. To make conversation, I told him of a scheme which I had had for a lake at Princeton. In my college days, as already told, I had been coxswain of the six-oar college barge. We rowed on the Delaware and Raritan Canal, a dangerous matter, for the canal was then filled with boats, many of them propelled by steam and it was not easy to pass them on half oar. So the idea of cleaning out the marshes which extended from the campus to Kingston, building a dam and flooding them, became a dream for all of us and often in the evenings we would sit toasting our toes at the open stove, a kind known as the Blushing Maiden, and discuss the great project. To my surprise Carnegie was very much
(continued)

Andrew Carnegie

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COACHES
Constance S. Titus was the first crew coach to train Princetonians on the brand new Lake Carnegie. He was the most successful and best known oarsman in America when he left New York to settle in Princeton in 1906. His accomplishments as a sculler were indeed impressive. He won the national championship in single sculls in 1901, 1902, 1906, and in the doubles in 1903, 1904, and 1905. He went to England and rowed at Henleyin 1902, winning three heats and losing in the finals. Titus won the international championships in 1906 in Worcester, MA. Connie was first and foremost a sculler. That was his heritage and the source of his fame. Therefore, it is not surprising when he advocated that novice oarsmen should be trained as scullers in order to become successful sweeps. In the fall of 1905 Titus wrote a column for the (New York) WORLD:

CONSTANCE S. TITUS
National Champion at Sweeps and Sculls

First Shell on Lake Carnegie November 15, 1906
This historical summary is compiled from four volumes on the life of Constance S. Titus as prepared in 1998 and donated to Princeton by his daughter Ms. Joan Titus.

SCULLERS BOUND TO OUST SWEEPS
I HAVE BEEN asked scores of times if in my opinion the so-called octopede style of racing shell is likely to be adopted by college oarsmen. I do not hesitate to place myself on record as saying that I am positive the chief universities will come to competitions with sculling crews. It will take time to convince the heads of the rowing departments of the colleges that the eight-oared shell is an antique, cumbersome affair as compared with the speedy octopede, but the discovery is as certain as that a rowing boat has two ends. Already some of the most successful professional coaches of the country have interested themselves in the doings of the octopede, and while the following of Yale and Harvard may make a vigorous protest against the abolition of the craft propelled by the use of sweeps, popular opinion will prevail in the end in favor of the craft rowed by sculls. very good reason that it is much superior to the one-sided sweep shell, besides being faster, crews being equal, and also because its use is a more satisfactory, musclebuilder and sinew developer. The convert to the octopede will never want to go back to ordinary shell racing. If the sweep manipulator who has never rowed in an octopede boat could realize what a fine time he is missing there would be fewer sweep handlers and a greater number of scullers. I believe an ordinary octopede crew to be fully one-quarter of a mile faster in the national distance of one and a half miles than an ordinary crew using a shell and eight sweeps, and that the future will prove my claim. ear, and to make the circular side of it an oarsman has to pull around corners, as it were. In time the constant use of a sweep will make a man lop-sided, one of his shoulders getting higher than the other. I think it possible to pick out at a glance the inveterate sweep handler with his deforming list to starboard or port, as the case may be. In sculling there is no push and pull movement as in sweeping. It is a straight, clean-cut movement, this sculling with the result that the slides move freely, and without a jerky indecision such as marks the work of the average sweep crew. The result is that the headway of the craft is not checked in good sculling, and the wear and tear on the boat is not nearly so great as in sweep hauling. Look at it as one may, I cannot see how anything propelled by human energy can beat the octopede. Just watch it grow. ***

Sweep Rowing Artificial. That the average landsman may readily understand why the choice of selection must eventually fall to sculling crew boats in college races, it may be said that sculling is a natural movement, and that sweep handling is artificial. The Octopede a Comer. It is inevitable that the octopede shape of a sweep stroke in the washould have its inning and for the ter is almost like that of a human

Titus remained at Princeton for four years before returning to New York. Primarily he was a volunteer coach who drew students to the new sport, in spite of having to make do with sweepoared shells. There were as yet no power launches on the lake, so Titus would give instruction while propelling his own single. The daily academic schedule allowed the coach plenty of time to train for the goal of a Diamond Sculls competition at Henley. Perhaps it was his coaching; perhaps it was his newspaper writing that accounts for the rejection of his application to compete for America at the Henley Royal Regatta in 1907. While at Princeton, Titus attracted a full squad of enthusiastic oarsmen and introduced the fall competition of Class Races which continued for the next decade. But, by 1910 Constance Titus was missing the big, popular races held on the Hudson and Harlem Rivers. Furthermore, the University faculty voted down the proposal for a “paid” crew coach, so he moved back to New York to pursue his own rowing and to take up two new careers. Having been “America’s Foremost Amateur Oarsman,” he began writing regular columns in THE WORLD and NEW YORK AMERICAN, popularizing the sport — “Titus Says Cornell Will Win The Regatta,” ”Expert Titus Suggests That Distance for Poughkeepsie Varsity Race Be Reduced One Mile (from four to three) and Thus Assure Better Competition,” “Titus Picks Harvard to Beat Yale in Three Races”... In addition he established a life insurance agency that was doubtless encouraged by his contacts in the rowing world. Regardless of his subsequent careers, which further included four years of crew coaching in Havana, Cuba and the invention of a new single scull in 1926 that featured a fixed seat with sliding foot rests and oarlocks, Connie Titus will always be revered as the “Father of Rowing at Princeton.”

44

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‘Loch’ Carnegie (continued)
interested. “Wouldn’t it be a good place for the Students to curl?” he asked. A few days after he said he wanted to go to Princeton to call on Grover Cleveland; would I accompany him? We foolishly neglected to telegraph that we were coming, and Mr. Cleveland was not there. Mrs. Cleveland, however, received us, and Henry Van Dyke, who drove a two-seated vehicle, came over to see Mr. Carnegie and invited him to drive around the campus. I was not with them. But when returning on the train, as we passed over the trestle, Mr. Carnegie said, “I got Van Dyke to drive me down to see your marshes.” I presume they went down Washington Road. I asked if he was really interested in the project of a lake for Princeton. He said he was. “Go ahead,” he said, “and find out what it will cost.” I immediately organized the Princeton Lake Committee: Moses Taylor Pyne as its chairman, and my brother, William Allen Butler, and Cornelius C. Cuyler. These three gentlemen advanced $1,000 and employed James J. R. Croes, President of the New York Society of Civil Engineers, to make surveys, plans and estimates. These were turned over to me by the committee, and I endorsed them, to Mr. Carnegie, stating “in my opinion the total cost (estimated at $118,000.) is not large considering the magnificent scale of the work. If attempted at all it should be done on the lines laid down in the accompanying reports.... I believe the estimate to be as reliable as one based on a preliminary survey can be. We were very fortunate in interesting so eminent an engineer.” That the estimate was worthless never occurred to me. On the back of this letter Mr. Carnegie wrote in pencil: My dear Mr. Cleveland: I should like to do something for Princeton. Two of its graduates here said this lake would be best of all. If you concur, I will do it through you. I am cautioned that the project must not be known, or the needed real estate could not be got. An option should be obtained upon it at once if the “loch” is desired. My regards to Mrs. Cleveland. Best wishes for you both always. A. Carnegie. New York. From my letter turning over the report and from Carnegie’s endorsement on its back to Mr. Cleveland, it is evident that he intended to give the lake, not the amount of the estimate. I had only said that I believed the estimate to be as reliable as one based on a preliminary survey can be. I banked on the great prestige of Mr. Croes as an engineer who believed to be true what he was reporting to the committee. On this authority, I was leaving Carnegie’s house when I encountered Dr. Woodrow Wilson, supported by Mr. John Aitken and Dr. Jaspar Garmany. President Wilson had come to ask Mr. Carnegie for a contribution to his preceptorial system. A servant came running out and asked me to return, “as Mr. Carnegie says that Princeton is in the house.” My heart fell, as I feared it meant the loss of the Princeton lake. We sat around the fire. Mrs. Carnegie joined us. The conversation for a long time was general. But when President Wilson prepared to make his request, Mr. Carnegie stopped him, and turning to me, he said, “Butler, give me those papers.” He waved them in his left hand in front of Dr. Wilson. “I am going to give a great gift to Princeton University,” he said, “It’s a lake.” This must have been a blow to Dr. Wilson, but he rose handsomely to the occasion, and said, if I remember correctly, “Mr. Carnegie, it is a fine gift, and in behalf of the University I accept it.” The deed was done. Mr. Carnegie said, “Well, there is one condition, and that is that Howard Butler shall construct it.” I had never built a lake, if a lake can be built, and hesitated, fearing that the task might be beyond me. “You will do anything for your Alma Mater, won’t you?” asked Mr. Carnegie. “Of course,” I replied, “I will do my best.” The meeting broke up, and Mr. Carnegie retained the papers, ultimately returning them to me. They never reached ex-president Cleveland. I have them in my files. Later, when unforeseen difficulties greatly augmented the cost, Mr. Carnegie claimed that he had only intended to give the amount of the original estimate. But neither in his written words to Mr. Cleveland or in anything I can remember his saying, was there the slightest allusion to such terms. Dr. Wilson could not have accepted a gift of money to be applied on account of the building of a lake. Shortly after this Dr. Wilson, at an Alumni dinner, made an address in which he said, “We went to Andrew Carnegie to ask bread and he gave us cake.” Now this remark could be interpreted two ways. Carnegie chose to regard it as asking for a necessity and only getting a luxury. I was worried that anything should have occurred to dampen his ardor but thought little about it at the time. The year 1903 brought some letup in work and responsibilities and my health greatly improved. Princeton Lake became the important undertaking. I began to purchase the land included in the area to be flooded, as well as the strips along the shore. There were thirty-one pieces in all, the lake proper being three and five-eighths miles long and varying from 400 to 1,000 feet in width and a secondary lake extended up the Millstone River for half a mile. (continued) There can be no way of condemning properties in a case like this and we were obliged to settle with the owners as best we could. Some of the firmer spots in the swamps

ROWING AT PRINCETON

45

1907 CREWS

In the ‘Rowing Machines’: Jack Farr ’09, Reg.Livingston ’10; In Background: Constance S. Titus (coach), N. Fox ’09, N. Armour ’09, R. Duane ’10, S. Dietrich ’09, P. Drayton ’08, A. Bunting ’09, W. Ottinger ’09, F.Fritts ’10, R.Hartshorne ’09 (Mgr.), R.Strange ’09, W.Kerr ’09, L.Howard ’09, N.McWilliams ’09, B.Dodge ’09, Van S.Olcott ’09, A.Ober ’09. R.Roche ’11, T.Janeway ’11, L.Meade ’11.

Revival of Rowing on the Delaware & Raritan Canal 1907

Squad includes: 1908 — E. Drayton, Thompson; 1909 — N.Armour, S. Dietrich, B.Dodge, J.Farr, R. Hartshorne, J.Howard, W.Kerr, N.Mackie, E.Moore, A.Ober, Van S. Olcott, W.Ottinger, R.Strange; 1910 — F.Fritts, T.Janeway, R.Livingston, E.Whitman; 1911 — L.Meade, R.Roche; Coach, Constance S. Titus

Bow-Steering Four on the Canal 1908

46

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‘Loch’ Carnegie (continued)
had sold as high as $20 per acre, and the engineer in his estimates had predicted that all could be bought at that price. We kept the matter as quiet as possible but one morning I was startled to find it all in the first column of the front page of the New York Sun. I held seven options at the time and closed them at once over the phone. Thereafter, all the Jersey farmers of the neighborhood knew that Carnegie’s money was behind the plan and they wanted all they could get. So did [one lady]. She owned the little white house, part of a row erected in 1838 for the workmen building the canal. We knew the price ($800.) at which her late husband held it, but she wanted $7,000. All we needed was the little lowland at the back of the house where she had a chicken coop, but she would not part with that separately. We could have built a dyke about this for about $4,000. and I think [she] got wind of this. We bought the next place, house and land, for $1,000. and made it the office of the engineers, as it was conveniently near the dam which we were building. [The lady] held out for two years. But one cold night, the engineers, having put too much wood in the stove, their house caught fire and burned to the ground. It is said that [the lady] stood, arms akimbo, watching the flames and was overheard saying to her son, “They’ve been trying to buy us out, now they’re going to burn us out.” She reduced her price suddenly to $3,500. and I immediately closed. At first I used a real estate agent named Fielder in these bargains but on his death I secured the efficient services of Mr. Alexander R. Gulick. He was invaluable, both as bargainer and lawyer. He had many queer experiences. One was with a riparian owner who had eleven acres, hidden on which was an illicit distillery. We offered him $1,100, which he gladly agreed to accept and signed a contract of sale, on the strength of which he got married. Thinking it wise to have his wife’s signature on the contract, Mr. Gulick sent or took it to his wife, but the owner, evidently having learned that Carnegie was behind the purchase, captured the contract and refused to return it. Our written demand was met by a reply from an attorney of New Brunswick which said that his client, being an uneducated man, had signed the contract under the misapprehension that he was getting eleven thousand dollars instead of eleven hundred, a clever dodge, but not too much so for Gulick. For $200 he got the wife to sign a duplicate contract and then threatened jail proceedings for theft against the owner who got frightened and signed the deed. Many of the titles were in bad shape. Years before a minister had bought a small piece, almost in the middle of the swamp, where he pastured a cow. He had died long before this and his heirs-in-law, of which there were about thirty, were scattered over the country, south and west. The lake was practically finished before all the necessary signatures had been secured. The Gray farm of over a hundred acres, situated between Harrison Road and the Howe farm, had three acres of the needed swampland. Mr. Gray’s widow refused to sell the three acres unless we bought the entire farm at $16,000. I was finally compelled to do this. Meeting Mr. Carnegie shortly afterwards, I told him that I had had to buy 100 acres of highlands in order to get 3 of lowlands. His reply was, “Well, I’ll take the lowlands. You keep the highlands.” Here my brother Will came to my assistance. He and Pyne and Cuyler secured eight other alumni and the eleven each put in $1,000. They called themselves the Gray Syndicate. There was a mortgage of $5,000 on the farm which my mother assumed. The new owners of the farm then presented the three acres to Carnegie. When, three years later, the water was let into the lake, the value of riparian property rose and the Gray Syndicate valued their hundred acres at $50,000. Now this property adjoined the easterly edge of the campus and the advantage to the University of its acquisition was apparent. My mother offered to cancel the mortgage if the Syndicate would donate its shares. This my brother succeeded in bringing about. All but one gave their shares and another alumnus was found to assume and donate that share. So on the commencement day after the completion of the lake, a deed was executed to the University for 89 acres, a strip of the balance along the shore going to the Carnegie Lake Association. The land was accepted by the University and is named “The Butler Tract.” The same difficulty occurred when we attempted to buy [a farm] of about 121 acres. Fourteen of these extended into the swamp. [The owner] asked $18,000 for the entire farm, refusing to sell the lowland by itself. The purchase was made and again Carnegie refused to take the farm. He advised me to take it myself which I did on condition that he loan me $15,000 on it at 3%. This he agreed to and I held the farm for seven years. By that time it had cost me about $23,000 with interest on the mortgage, taxes and care, less what I received for rent. It was a very beautiful tract and included the interesting colonial house known as Castle Howard. Perhaps the most important purchase was that of the Aqueduct Mill, near the place where the Millstone River enters the lake. For this we paid $5,000. It had a millpond with a
(continued)

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47

1907 CREW
Excavating on Site of Carnegie Lake

48

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‘Loch’ Carnegie (continued)
dam, which had been in use for seventy-five years, having a lip elevation of +52.16 as referred to the bench level at the Raritan River. The right to maintain the Millstone at this level afterwards became a very valuable possession. The Pennsylvania Railroad owned the D. & R. Canal and held a strip of marsh land bordering the towpath. This we needed and negotiated a contract to buy 110 acres for $2,200. When I touched on this to Carnegie, he bristled up with “You’re not paying anything to the Pennsylvania Railroad, are you?” I told him of the contract. He called his secretary and dictated a letter to one of the executives of the Road. A few days later I got an official letter stating that the Railroad Company had concluded to donate the land. I knew that Carnegie had for years dominated the Pennsylvania and that he had held a club over it, but I did not know till then that the handle of the club was still in his hands. The plans prepared by the engineers fixed the lake level at +54 and the specifications called for a channel 300 feet wide and four feet deep, beginning about 400 feet west of Washington Road and ending near the Aqueduct Bridge, where the valley level was +50. All the earth was to be transported to the campus, west of Washington Road. Eleven firms bid for the excavation work and the contract was about to be let to the Hudson Water Lift Company at 47¢ a cubic yard, when it was discovered that the +54 level would cause a backwater flooding of many acres in the bottom lands of Bear Creek, which enters the Millstone two miles above the lake. The owners of this land saw an opportunity to coin money and made their prices exorbitant. On a cold day in the late autumn, we ascended the Millstone in two rowboats and the engineers appalled me by pointing out the boundaries of the district that would be flooded by the +54 level. That they did not know of this before was due to errors in the government surveys on which they had relied. My mind was at once made up. Rising in the boat, I announced that we would abandon the + 54 level and adopt the level of the old Aqueduct Mill dam +52.16. This meant, if we maintained the depth of the channel, that we would have to dig down in the valley 22 inches deeper. The engineers demurred to this on the ground that it would cost $5,000 an inch. All, however, agreed that it would make a far safer lake, would eliminate all legal difficulties and would avoid the purchase of any more land. The old plans were accordingly discarded, amended plans were drawn and I was compelled to face Mr. Carnegie with the new proposition. On November 30, 1904, Mr. Carnegie agreed, rather reluctantly, to the new level. He would not think of buying more land from “extortioners” as he called them, but he cut off six inches from the channel depth. The extra cost did not please Mr. Carnegie and with Dr. Wilson’s remark about “cake” still in his mind, he was in no humor to receive John Cadwallader’s report, as counsel for the University, viz.: that the latter would be unable to accept the gift of the lake owing to provisions in its charter, which made it impossible to hold titles to a property of this kind. Therefore it became necessary to form a self-perpetuating corporation to hold titles. We proposed a Board of Trustees made up of ten alumni of the University and one representative of Mr. Carnegie. Carnegie was forced to agree to this and the Carnegie Lake Association was incorporated. This plan assured the benefits to the University as well as if it were the owner, but removed from it all liability. Following this difficulty came another. There were people in Princeton who did not think that the lake would be a good thing for the town. Some thought there was not sufficient flow from the Millstone and Stony Brook to keep it full; that the banks would be exposed and muddy; that it would breed mosquitoes, etc.; even my dear old friend Cyrus Brackett disapproved of the scheme. Then there were those who considered it vandalism to cut down the trees. About 100 acres of swamp land were thickly grown over with water birch, with here and there heavy timber. It was a big undertaking to remove these, dynamiting out the stumps. This subcontract cost about $32,000, the contractors getting the wood. Of course it had to be done, notwithstanding the objections of tree lovers. Princeton is daft on the subject of trees, with a consequence that there are far too many in most parts of the town, preventing the free passage of air and greatly increasing the dampness. It would be good for Princeton if every other tree were removed, especially on Bayard Lane and Library Place. The magnificent trees, Tulip, Pine, Elm and Magnolia, of which Princeton has many fine examples, would stand out to greater advantage if judicious elimination of other trees were made. Then another trouble arose. The engineers had advocated two 400 foot bridges of cantilever type for the two driveways which would have to cross the lake, Washington Road and Harrison Street. It was planned to make these similar in construction to many other bridges in Mercer County but these were far longer than any previously built and the Selectmen of the County refused to accept bridges of this type having so great a length, claiming

(continued) 49

ROWING AT PRINCETON

1908 CREWS

Single: Constance S. Titus (Coach). First Four: ?, E.Drayton ’08, E. Whitman ’10, N.Armour ’09 Second Four: T. Janeway ’10, R.Strange ’09, R.Livingston ’10, J.Howard ’09 Third Four: J.Farr ’09, R.Hartshorne ’09, A.Bunting ’09, N.Mackie ’09, N.Fox ’09 (Cox) Fourth Four: P.Ransome ’11, ?, R.Roche ’11, R.Duane ’10, L.Meade ’11 (Cox)

First Crews on Lake Carnegie 1908

50

ROWING AT PRINCETON

‘Loch’ Carnegie (continued)
that their maintenance (painting and replenishing of flooring planks) would be a heavy expense to the county. They demanded that Mr. Carnegie either put up bonds to maintain the bridges or build self-sustaining bridges. This also annoyed Mr. Carnegie but when I presented two plans, one for the beautiful bridge now faced with stone, but then planned to have a cement facing, for Washington Road, and another graceful design for Harrison Street, both with stone piers and cement floorings, he gave in and O.K.’d them. Everything seemed to lead to greater expense but I did succeed in securing one reduction. Carnegie had appointed me as landscape architect, as well as his attorney-in-fact. I found that the +52.16 level would make a very much more picturesque lake. I held as much as possible to the natural shoreline, marked all the trees that would overhang the water, that could be retained, and called for bids for removal of all the excavated land east of Washington Road, with a haul not greater than 600 feet, the haul in the original specifications having averaged three-quarters of a mile. The Hudson Water Lift Company again secured the contract at 25¢ a cubic yard, a reduction of 22¢. The earth now had to be deposited in spots and so we built Margaret Carnegie Island and the island across from it, near the towpath, the embankment at Harrison Street and the road leading from Harrison Street to the Howe Farm. This new plan not only saved money but added greatly to the picturesqueness of the lake but did not appease Mr. Carnegie’s wrath to any great extent. That he was down on me for having suggested the lake was becoming very apparent, but that he was going to visit his wrath on me personally, I then had no suspicion. The next few interviews with Mr. Carnegie were far from agreeable. After each interview I made notes of our conversations. “You got me into all that trouble in Princeton. That is why I ended with you. It was the worst thing I ever got into. It cost me $440,000 when you said $134,000. I always thought I was giving it to the college. Woodrow Wilson didn’t want it and tried to get something else instead. I supposed I was to give the money first asked for, and the college would do the rest. I want a man who can carry things through for me.” I might have referred him to his estimate of my abilities which he had penned for Triumphant Democracy, or to some of the statements which I understood he had made in Pittsburgh about finding just the man he needed for his New York interests. END

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51

1909 CREWS

M. Lewis ’11 (Cox), R.Roche ’11, P. Ransome ’11, L. Howard ’09, J.Van Dyke ’10, R.Livingston ’10 (Capt.), N.Armour ’09, R. Hartshorne ’09, M. Clark ’11. R.Strange ’09 (Mgr.), C.Titus (Coach)

First Varsity Squad on Lake Carnegie

The Crew Squad — Fall 1909

The Crew Squad — Fall 1910 52 ROWING AT PRINCETON

Review of the 1908 Rowing Season
When Mr. Andrew Carnegie presented the deed for Lake Carnegie to President Wilson on December 5, 1906 and spoke so optimistically of the time when Princeton should be represented on the water and participate in Intercollegiate Regattas, it seemed as though that time would be very far off, and that to develop a university crew worthy to represent Princeton would be almost an impossible feat. That was two years ago, but so great has been the interest in rowing and so steadily has the crew work been progressing that now the organization of a university crew is no longer a matter of doubt. Mr. Constance S. Titus, the world’s amateur champion sculler, entered into residence in Princeton in the spring of 1907, and took such as active interest in the affairs of the Rowing Association, which was then organized, that the sport was once more established here on a firm basis. Mr. Titus volunteered his services as a coach and a large number of men reported to him for instruction. During Commencement week an exhibition regatta was held. By the beginning of the next college year two new four-oared shells had been presented to the Association, which, with the two re-commissioned shells, relics of the ‘70’s, made possible an interclass race on November 8, 1907. Mr. and Mrs. Carnegie donated a handsome trophy cup to be competed for annually at this season and, in this first regatta, the class of 1910 was victorious. The 1909, 1908, and 1911 crews finished second, third and fourth respectively. This fall regatta stirred up considerable enthusiasm and some of the Alumni became so much interested that, during the winter, they provided the Rowing Association with four new eight-oared shells, a temporary boat-house, and a coaching launch. Immediately after Easter recess, Coach Titus called out candidates for the class “eights” and “fours,” and for six weeks the men worked hard and consistently. This was evident from the excellent showing made in the Commencement Regatta on Saturday morning, June 6, before the Yale baseball game, when the Freshman, Sophomore, and Junior boats crossed the finish line practically abeam, but in the order named, in a most exciting finish. The winner’s time of ten minutes 25 3-5 seconds for the 1 7-8 miles course was very creditable. The Senior Crew had labored under disadvantages throughout the spring and finished a poor fourth. The Freshman four-oared also won, against the Sophomores. The Commencement Regatta aroused great enthusiasm and was an interesting feature of the week’s events. The Rowing Association was then admitted into the University Athletic Association, and rowing became a recognized sport. A new 21-foot coaching launch and a set of eight rowing machines were purchased during the summer vacation, and some necessary improvements were also made in the boat-house. Soon after college opened this fall, a call was made for candidates for Varsity and Freshman crews, to which over fifty men responded. It is expected that arrangement will be completed for holding a dual regatta with some prominent University next spring. The remarkable results which have been attained within the past year in this new and important branch of our athletics are due largely to the untiring efforts and skill of Coach C. S. Titus.

1910 BRIC-A-BRAC

Note: In earlier years the results of any particular Crew Year appeared in the BRIC-A-BRAC of 1-2 years later because of printing schedules.

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53

1910 CREWS
40th REUNION

45th REUNION

50th REUNION
R.W.Todd ’10, R.B.Duane ’10, H.S.Gill ’10, R.S.Wilson ’10, J.H.Drummond ’10, A.F.Hinrichsen ’10, E.B.Whitman ’10, R.R.Livingston ’10, W.W.McCord ’10 (Cox), C.S.Titus (Coach)

54

ROWING AT PRINCETON

There has been a general and manifest increase of interest in rowing at Princeton during the past year. This is due to two things — to the fact that we are beginning to understand more the charm and value of rowing as a sport, and to the untiring efforts of Dr. Spaeth of the University Faculty, who has supervised the work of the different crews. A great many fellows reported at the beginning of the season, some of whom had had previous experience in rowing, but the majority of whom had never been in a racing shell before. The material, however, was promising, despite its greenness. Under the watchful eyes of Dr. Spaeth and Mr. Tomlinson (with his three years’ experience in the Oxford shell) the crews began to develop and finally rounded into such form as would cause them to look not at all out of place at New London or Poughkeepsie. The Third Annual Commencement Regatta was held on Friday, June 10, 1910. In the four-oared race the Freshmen defeated the Sophomores by a narrow margin. The eight-oared race was also very closely contested. But a few feet of water separated the first three shells. The higher stroke of the Senior eight pushed them to the fore a winner. The Juniors were second, the Freshmen third, and the Sophomores last. The time, 9 minutes 26 seconds, established a new record. Last spring the first race ever held with an outside crew at Princeton was rowed on Lake Carnegie, when the Freshman eight met the Central High School crew from Philadelphia. The Freshman gained a well-earned victory, defeating their opponents by a full length. The time was considerably faster than that made by the Harvard, Yale and Pennsylvania Freshman eight in the Henley Regatta. The Annual Fall Regatta, held October 25, 1910, resulted in a victory for the Juniors, who won both events. In the four-oared race the Freshmen were a poor second. The Interclass eight-oared race was mainly a struggle between the Juniors and Seniors. The latter spurted early in the race, forcing the 1912 men hard, but the pace was too fast and they were forced to drop back. The time, 9 minutes 36 seconds illustrates forcibly the improvement in the work of the crews. 1912 BRIC-A-BRAC

Review of the 1910 Rowing Season

CHAMPIONSHIP FOUR-OARED CREW
Standing: R.R.Livingston ’10, E.B.Whitman ’10, F.R.Bradford ’10, T.W.Janeway ’10 Seated: W.W.McCord ’10, C.S.Titus (Coach)

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55

1911 CREWS

First Princeton Varsity Eight in Intercollegiate Competition–Spring 1911 over 1-3/4 mi.
H.R.Gray ’11, R.T.Roche ’11, P.A.Ransome ’11, C.D.Winant ’11, C.Higgins ’12, F.R.Cross ’12, R.S.Rauch ’13, R.H.Smith ’11, M.A.Lewis ’11 (Cox)

Carnegie Lake Course

Winner Cornell by Two Lengths. Second Princeton by Six Lengths Over Yale

VARSITY
Standing: E.Dillon ’11, R.Rauch ’13, P.Ransome ’11, F.Larkin ’11, C.Higgins ’12, J.North ’13 Seated: R.Smith ’11, F.Cross ’12, R.Roche ’11 (Capt.), H.Gray ’11, C.Winant ’11, M.Lewis ’11 (Cox)

45th REUNION
‘Down Hill Regatta’
M.A.Lewis ’11, R.H.Smith ’11, R.S.Rauch ’13, C.C.Savage ’11, C.Higgins ’12, P.W.Cookingham ’11, P.A.Ransome ’11, R.T.Roche ’11 (Capt.), E.S.Dillon ’11 Coach Constance S. Titus in Single Scull

56

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1910–13 CLASS CREWS
1910 CLASS CREW
T.W.Janeway, F.R.Bradford, R.B.Duane, J.H.Drummond, A.F.Hinrichsen, R.S.Wilson, S.F.Camp, R.W.Todd, W.W. McCord (Cox)

1911 CLASS CREW
R.Rogers, E.S.Dillon, P.W.Cookingham, C.D.Winant, F.Perry, C.C.Savage, H.R.Gray, R.T.Roche (Capt.) M.A. Lewis (Cox)

1912 CLASS CREW
W.S.Matthews, W.F.Judd, J.R.Shoemaker, L.E.McClure, S.A.Sisson, F.R.Cross, C.Higgins, J.J.Pentz (Capt.) C.B.Rockwell (Cox)

1913 CLASS CREW
R.S.Rauch, C.Scribner, B.F.Howell, J.S.North, J.K.Bartlet, W.C.Davison, I.B.Kingsford, E.Law, E.Congelton (Cox)

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57

1912 CREWS
VARSITY
Bow — W.Curtis ’14, G.Pyne ’12, Sailbreuch, J.North ’13, T.Briggs ’14, F.Cross ’12, R.Rauch ’13 (Capt.), C.Higgins ’12

VARSITY
C.Higgins ’12, R.Rauch ’13 (Capt.), F.Cross ’12, T.Briggs ’14, J.North ’13, R.Lawrence ’12, G.Pyne ’12, W.Curtis ’14, E.Congelton ’13 (Cox)

CHILDS CUP RACE
Columbia–Princeton–Pennsylvania

FRESHMEN –
— Class of 1915
I.E.Swart, J.C.McKibben, R.W.Purdy, J.M. Heffron, O.S.Putnam, F.Winant, P.Drinker, W.Swart, J.R.Paul (Cox)

Just Before Their Victorious Race

Yale

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History of Crew
The liberality of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, whose donation brought about the building of the lake which bears his name, made possible the renewal of rowing as an intercollegiate sport after a lapse of twenty-seven years. Prior to that time Princeton had been represented at times in various regattas, but owing to the lack of facilities their success was mediocre and the sport was abandoned. For several years, after the completion of Lake Carnegie in 1906, only class regattas were held. The enthusiasm for rowing increased with such rapidity that in the Spring of 1911 a triangular regatta was arranged with Cornell and Yale. This regatta marked the return of rowing as an intercollegiate sport in Princeton. The result of that race is well-known. The good showing of the Varsity in defeating Yale by a dozen lengths and finishing a close second to Cornell realized the most optimistic dreams of Princeton crew supporters. From then on it became the belief that Princeton would be as strongly represented on the water as she always has been in the other branches of athletics. line drew near the Princeton crew made a terrific spurt and nearly succeeded in overtaking the Crimson boat. According to the official time, Princeton crossed the line one second or ten feet behind Harvard. The tenacity with which the Varsity clung to the heels of the Crimson shell was easily the feature of the race. On May 25, the Junior Varsity entered the American Henley in Philadelphia. Here the Princeton eight defeated Yale and Pennsylvania and finished third to Columbia and Harvard. This race was unusually close, as only two lengths separated the first and last crews. The Annual Commencement Regatta was held on June 5. The most interesting event was a dual race between the Varsity and the University Barge Club of Philadelphia. The Princeton crew after a hard tussle for the lead in the early part of the course, succeeded in defeating the Philadelphians. On this day the Varsity broke the record for the Lake Carnegie course, which was formerly held by Cornell. The announcement that the class of ’87 as its twentyfifth reunion held in June, had unanimously voted to give to the University a boat-house, to be located on Lake Carnegie, which will be up-to-date in every way, was received with joy by all those connected with rowing. The plans for its construction are well under way and it is hoped that the house will be completed by the coming season. The crews have been coached by Dr. J. Duncan Spaeth, a member of the University Faculty and the success of the renewal of rowing in Princeton is to a great extent due to his untiring efforts. 1914 BRIC-A-BRAC

Review of the 1912 Season
On Saturday, May 18 1912, Princeton, Pennsylvania and Columbia met for the first time since 1884 in a regatta for the Childs trophy. On this day, also, the Freshman crews of Yale and Princeton met for the first time in the history of rowing. A large number of spectators assembled on the shores of Lake Carnegie to witness these races. Columbia succeeded in crossing the finish line a scant length ahead of the Varsity, who in turn defeated Penn by two lengths. Columbia jumped away in the lead, with Princeton, close behind. Until the mile and a half mark was reached the Varsity was in second place two lengths behind the New Yorkers. On the last quarter the Varsity gained on Columbia, while Penn fell two lengths to the rear of the Princeton shell. In the Freshman race, Princeton gained an early lead which they increased steadily and finished four lengths in front. Five days later the Varsity journeyed to Cambridge, where they met Harvard and Cornell on the Charles River. The veteran Cornell eight go away first and led throughout, finishing two lengths ahead of Harvard and Princeton. The real race of the regatta was between Harvard and Princeton for second place. The Varsity got a bad start, which gave the Crimson a length’s lead. But as the finish

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1913 CREWS
COMBINED SQUADS – 1913
Center Row: Varsity Front Row: Freshmen

FALL RACE
Bunzel ’14, Pyne ’14, McKibben ’15, Quinby ’15, Heffron ’15, Purdy ’15, Briggs ’14 (Capt.), Putnam ’15 (Stroke), Sikes ’16 (Cox)

Just Before Moving to Class of 1887 Boathouse

FRESHMEN
– Class of 1916
C.McWilliams, Sadler, S.Hypes, R.Burns, W.Starr, P.Gadebusch, W.Agar, C.Hockmeyer (Capt.), A. Bingham (Cox)

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Review of the 1913 Crew Season
With victories over both Harvard and Yale, the 1913 crews placed rowing on a still firmer basis at Princeton. The superiority of the Varsity stroke over the English stroke used by Yale reflects great credit to Dr. Spaeth, whose efforts have been largely responsible for Princeton’s rapid rise in the rowing circles of the past few years. Further incentive to rowing has been given by the new boathouse opened this fall, presented by the Class of ’87. This is a handsome two-story building, with accommodations for nearly fifty shells and large lock and club rooms. The Princeton-Harvard-Pennsylvania Regatta was held over the 1 7/8 miles course down the Charles River Basin on May 12th, under almost ideal weather conditions. In this race the Princeton eight fulfilled the highest expectations of their backers by finishing four seconds ahead of the Crimson and sixteen seconds ahead of the Pennsylvania. The Princeton boat was slow in getting into motion, and at the first quarter flag was over 35 feet behind Harvard and 20 feet behind Pennsylvania. Then the strong, even stroke of the Varsity began to tell. The Pennsylvania shell was passed at the half-way mark, and when the three crews disappeared under the bridge only five feet separated the Princeton and Harvard shells. Here in the dark the Crimson yielded the lead, and from then on till the finish, when a momentary spurt put Harvard within striking distance, Princeton’s victory was assured. The times follow: Princeton, 10 minutes 18 seconds, Harvard, 10 minutes 22 seconds; Pennsylvania, 10 minutes 34 seconds. On May 17th the Princeton-Columbia-Annapolis Regatta took place on Carnegie Lake, resulting in a triumph for the Columbia crew, with the Navy taking a second place and Princeton third. Annapolis took the lead at the start, with Princeton second, a full stoke ahead of Columbia. Near the half-mile mark, however, the powerful swing of the Blue and White oarsmen brought them even with their opponents, and at the three-quarter mile flag the fight for first place was over, leaving Princeton and Navy to battle it out for second honors. The times were: Columbia, 6 minutes 45 4/5 seconds; Navy, 6 minutes 48 4/5 seconds; Princeton, 6 minutes 49 4/5 seconds. In the American Henley Regatta, which was rowed at Philadelphia, the second Varsity crew competed with the second crews of Cornell, Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Annapolis, and Pennsylvania. Here again the superior oarsmanship of the Columbia and Navy eights was in evidence, but the Princeton boat was not far behind the leaders, and finished a strong third. An innovation was made in fall rowing at Princeton this October by securing a race with Yale, which took place on Lake Carnegie on the 25th of the month. The fact that the Princeton eight, with only three weeks’ practice together, and with four new men in the boat, were able to win without apparent effort by two full lengths leaves little else to be said as to the value of the Princeton stroke in comparison with the English stroke used by Yale. Both eights began the race at a forty-to-the-minute stroke, but at the quarter-mile mark the Princeton crew was able to drop down to a thirty-six with a lead of almost a length and a half. The Princeton eight finished strong with a full length of open water separating them from their opponents. The times were: Princeton, 9 minutes 29 1/5 seconds; Yale, 9 minutes 46 2/5 seconds.

The success of the 1916 crew was rather doubtful as only two races were contested, and the men were consequently unable definitely to prove their merit. Their victory over the strong Central High aggregation and the close race they gave the Pennsylvania Freshmen prove them to be a combination of no mean ability, however, and capable of further successes if only given the opportunity. The race with the Central High School eight, which started the season, on May 6th, resulted in one of the prettiest competitions ever seen on Lake Carnegie. The Freshmen covered the 1 5/16 mile course in 6 minutes 58 2/5 seconds, over 22 seconds faster that they had ever done in practice. The visitors’ time was 7 minutes 10 2/5 seconds. The Freshman boat jumped into the lead at the start, and by the time the crews had settled into a steady stroke of thirty-six to the minute, had an advantage of half a length over their opponents. The school eight made up this distance during the first mile, and by the time the mile flag was reached the two crews were straining neck and neck. With their opponents still slightly gaining, the Freshmen spurted, pulling a strong thirty-eight stoke, and at the mile and a quarter mark were again in the lead. From here on till the finish the reserve strength of the Freshmen became more and more apparent, and they finally crossed the line with a full length of open water to their advantage.

1916 Freshman Crew

1915 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1913 CREWS
BRAND NEW CLASS OF 1887 BOATHOUSE

VARSITY
E.Congelton ’13, O.Putnam ’15, R.Rauch ’13 (Capt.), J.North ’13, W.Chester ’13, L.Bashinsky ’13, W.Curtis ’14, H.Pyne ’14, E.Bunzel ’14

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Review of the 1913-1914 Crew Season
With two victories over Yale and one over Pennsylvania the 1913-14 rowing season may be considered one of the most satisfactory in the history of Princeton crews. Defeats were met at the hands of both Columbia and Cornell, to be sure, but when it is considered that in these two eights Princeton race the year’s two fastest college shells, the showing of the Varsity was greatly to its credit. Columbia defeated Princeton on Lake Carnegie by a bare length, and two weeks later Cornell, with the superb machine which soon after defeated Harvard by over a length, won by a scant quarter length. Although no race was scheduled with Harvard, a comparison may be drawn from the Cornell race and from the fact that the Yale crew, twice defeated, won from the Crimson. The Yale Regatta was rowed on Lake Carnegie, October 25th and here the Princeton shell easily outdistanced the Blue and finished a good two lengths in the lead. The Varsity was seated as follows: Bunzel, bow; Pyne, 2; McKibbin, 3: Quinby, 4: Heffron, 5, Purdy, 6; Briggs (Capt.), 7; Putnam, stroke; Sikes, cox. When work began again in the winter Dr. Spaeth found himself somewhat handicapped by the loss of Bunzel at bow. Several shakeups followed and it was not until late in the Spring that the seating was again finally established. On May 9th the Columbia-Pennsylvania-Princeton Triangular Regatta was rowed on Lake Carnegie, resulting in a hard-won victory for the Blue and White. Princeton finished second with but one length of water between the shells, and Pennsylvania came in a poor third. Incidentally, Columbia also obtained the historic Childs Cup. The victors held the lead from the first and finished in 9 minutes and 16 seconds, 6 seconds slower that the course record held by Cornell. The other times were: Princeton, 9 minutes, 20 4/5 seconds; Pennsylvania, 9 minutes, 32 4/5 seconds. At Ithaca, on the 24th, Princeton again came in second this time losing by a bare quarter length. The Varsity, pulling a 38 stroke, led for the first half of the race, but the Ithacans’ powerful thirty-two told in the end, and during the last half mile they slowly forged ahead. Yale was hopelessly outdistanced, finishing four lengths behind the Varsity. The official times follow: Cornell, 10 minutes 38 2/5 seconds; Princeton, 10 minutes 41 3/5 seconds; Yale 10 minutes 58 3/5 seconds. The Junior Varsity, as usual, competed in the American Henley on the Schuylkill. They were outclassed, however, and lost to Yale, Harvard, Pennsylvania and the Navy. The Crimson shell, which won, also made the feature race of the day, sweeping the Varsity contest and winning the Steward Trophy.

1917 Freshman Crew
In the two contests of the season the Freshman crew showed good ability, but varied success. In its first race, 1917 completely overwhelmed the Pennsylvania, 1917, crew. The Freshmen covered the course in 9 minutes 46 seconds, while the visitors’ time was 9 minutes 58 seconds. But the Freshmen, in their next race, were defeated by Cornell, 1917, which proved superior from the start. The times were: Cornell, 1917, 10 minutes 52 2/5 seconds; Princeton, 1917, 11 minutes 7 seconds. The second Freshman crew deserves a great deal of credit for winning the Interclass race on June 12th. 1916 BRIC-A-BRAC

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CLASS OF 1887 BOATHOUSE
This history of the Class of 1887 Boathouse is drawn from the Princeton Alumni Weekly, as presented on the University’s web site.

upon completion of its construction
(Photo courtesy of Seeley G. Mudd Library Archives)

Class of 1887 Boathouse

In celebration of its 25th reunion, the Class of 1887, who were freshmen when rowing was suspended at Princeton, gave the University the grand boathouse that has served Princeton rowing for more than 85 years. The June 12, 1912, Princeton Alumni Weekly reported the gift of the Class of 1887. The originally planned location for the boathouse would have been on Margaret Carnegie Island, which lies in Lake Carnegie between the Washington Road and Harrison Street bridges. The Class of 1887 distinguished its 25th year reunion by presenting to the University a new boathouse, to be erected on Margaret Carnegie Island, which lies in Lake Carnegie between the Washington Road and Harrison Street bridges. The house is to be approximately 140 feet long by 60 feet wide, of concrete and tile construction, two stories high, and connected with the mainland by a concrete bridge. On the lower floor there will be space for thirty-two eight-oared shells and a number of smaller boats. The upper story will be for training rooms, with hot

and cold showers, 200 lockers, lounging room, etc. There will also be an upper balcony on the south, with accommodations for 100 persons. There will be a room for the launch on the lower floor, and another for skaters, which will be of much benefit to the hockey team and to others who skate. Provision is to be made for heating the upper story in the winter. The tentative plans drawn by the architect, Mr. Grosvenor Atterbury of New York, call for a house to cost about $40,000, which is to be given entirely by the Class of ’87. The foundations will be started in the near future, under direction of the committee, composed of Charles S. Bryan [18]87, Chairman, and the class officers, Adrian H. Larkin, President, and W. J. Duane, Secretary. The first gift to the equipment of the boathouse is that of a new shell, presented by Warden McLean ’12 of Philadelphia, of this year’s second crew.
(continued)

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CLASS OF 1887 BOATHOUSE
This timely and generous gift by the Class of ’87 will contribute much to the reestablishment of rowing at Princeton, which has already won a well recognized place as an intercollegiate sport and a healthy recreation for a large number of our undergraduates. Organized rowing at Princeton is very properly kept under the supervision of the faculty, whose Committee on Outdoor Sports last year appointed Dr. J. Duncan Spaeth of the English Department the Director of Rowing. On the nomination of Dr. Spaeth, the same committee has appointed a Graduate Advisory Committee on Rowing, consisting of Charles S. Bryan [18]87, Chairman; William Allen Butler, Jr., [18]76 and Arthur L. Wheeler [18]96. This committee is authorized to appoint two additional members, with the approval of the Faculty Committee on Outdoor Sports. The Faculty Committee has empowered the Graduate Advisory Committee on Rowing... That fall, the October 30, 1912, Princeton Alumni Weekly reported that revised plans for the boathouse had been drawn. The subjoined architect’s drawing shows the new boathouse presented by the Class of [18]87, the plans for which have been drawn by Pennington Satterthwaite [18]93. The fund for the house has now been completed, and the work of construction is to be started in the near future. Instead of the site formerly chosen, that on the island in Lake Carnegie below the Washington Road bridge, the boat house is to be built on the meadow between the Washington Road and Pennsylvania Railroad bridges, about sixty or seventy feet back from the water edge. The design is intended to harmonize with the college buildings. The building is to be of terracotta block stucco, with reinforced concrete floors and a slate roof. On the ground floor there will be six aisles with accommodations for thirty-two eight-oared shells and sixteen four-oared shells; also a repair shop. On the second floor there will be a very handsome club room, 73 x 38 feet, with a fireplace, and this big room will open on a balcony, 38 x 19 feet. There will be a kitchenette connecting with the club room. The plans also include two large locker rooms with showers, lavatories, etc. The tower will have a room for the directors and an ante-room. The January 22, 1913, Princeton Alumni Weekly reported that construction of the boathouse had begun in its present location. Ground has been broken for the new boathouse presented by the Class of [18]87 and it is hoped that the house may be in partial use by the middle of May. The site finally decided upon, on the meadow bordering Lake Carnegie, between Washington Road and the Pennsylvania Railroad tracks, is much nearer the central campus than the location at first selected—on the island below the Washington Road bridge. This is a wise change, as it will bring the center of boating into closer touch with the campus, and fairly contiguous to the other athletic equipment now being developed on the lower campus. An attractive road is to be laid out through Potter’s woods to the boathouse.

END

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1914 CREWS
VARSITY
Back Row: Quinby ’15, Gadebusch ’16, Robinson ’15, McKibbin ’15 Front Row: Paul ’15, Dunn ’14, Heffron ’15, Putnam ’15, Briggs ’14, Pyne ’14, Gardner ’14

VARSITY
F.S.Dunn ’14, O.S.Putnam ’15, T.C.Briggs ’14 (Capt.), R.Quinby ’15, S.M.Robinson ’15, P.H.Gadebusch ’16, J.M.Heffron ’15, H.R.Pyne ’14, J.C.McKibbin ’15, F.W.Gardner ’14 (Mgr.)

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1917
J.V.W.Reynolds, A.V.Savage, G.C.King, F.T.Hogg, J.G.S.Humphreys, C.J.Ingersoll,T.J.Hilliard, P.M.Sturges, H.D.Sparks (Cox), J.D.Paull (Mgr.), R.N.Schullinger

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Review of the 1914-1915 Crew Season
The winning of the Childs Cup by Princeton for the first time since 1877 gave to the 1914-15 rowing season a stamp of success which the defeat at the hands of Yale and Cornell a week later could not wholly efface. Princeton met five crews in all, comprising all the Eastern college crews except Syracuse and Harvard. Of these Annapolis, Columbia and Pennsylvania were defeated in well rowed races in which the Princeton crew was practically unchallenged for the leadership. After such a successful opening of the season the defeat on Lake Carnegie at the hands of both Yale and Cornell came as most unexpected and bitter disappointment, which was, however, somewhat mitigated when it became clear from Yale’s victory over Harvard and Cornell’s triumph at Poughkeepsie that Princeton had only been defeated by the two fastest crews which the season produced. The crew opened its season on April 17th when it traveled to Annapolis and easily defeated the Middies on the Severn. Princeton got away to a good start and with a half length’ s lead settled down to a thirty-two stroke, which brought the crew to the finish three lengths ahead of the Navy. The official times were: Princeton, 7 minutes, 2 3/5 seconds; Navy 7 minutes, 13, 3/5 seconds. The Childs Cup race between Columbia, Pennsylvania, and Princeton was rowed on Lake Carnegie on May 8th and resulted in a victory for Princeton by one and a half lengths. Columbia and Pennsylvania fought hard for second place, which the former won by a magnificent spurt at the finish. Princeton led from the first with a long swing which pushed the shell further ahead at every stroke. In form, blade work and leg drive the Princeton crew was manifestly superior to its rivals. The victory brought the famous Childs Cup, which Columbia had previously won in three consecutive races, back again to Princeton. Princeton’s time, made against a head wind which rendered the course slow, was 9 minutes 43 seconds, 5 4/5 seconds better than that of Columbia and 6 1/5 seconds better than that of Pennsylvania. On May 15th the Yale-Cornell-Princeton triangular regatta was held on Lake Carnegie, Yale winning a hard fought race in the fast time of 9 minutes 9 3/5 seconds. The excellent time was, however, in some measure due to a very favorable wind. Princeton was slow in getting started and was unable to make up the ground lost at first. Yale and Cornell made frequent spurts and were on even terms until Yale pulled ahead at the finish and won by a narrow margin. Princeton rowed a consistent long stroke, but seemed to lack the life and drive that characterized their rowing a week previous. Yale’s time of 9 minutes 9 3/5 seconds was within three seconds of the record previously made by Cornell. The other times were: Cornell, 9 minutes 10 3/5 seconds; Princeton, 9 minutes 21 3/5 seconds. The Junior Varsity rowed its only race of the year on the Schuylkill in the American Henley, and was defeated by both Pennsylvania and Harvard. Princeton led until the last quarter-mile, but the crew was unable to hold its lead on the final spurt, being nosed out by both Pennsylvania and Harvard, the former winning the race by half a length with Harvard three feet ahead of Princeton.

1918 Freshmen Crew
In spite of an abundance of material, the Freshmen Crew met with little success. In the first race of the season, at Annapolis, over the Henley distance 1 5-16 miles, the Plebe boat finished three and one-half lengths in the lead. They crossed the line in 6 minutes and 53 seconds, while the Freshmen’s time was 7 minutes and 1 3-5 seconds. In their next race, the Freshmen lost to Pennsylvania ’18, by two lengths. The time was not taken. In their third and last race, they again met defeat at the hands of the Cornell and Yale Freshmen. The Cornell Crew held the lead from the start, finishing one length ahead of Yale and two lengths ahead of Princeton. The winner’s time was 9 minutes and 27 seconds; Yale’s, 9 minutes and 30 2-5 seconds; Princeton’s, 9 minutes and 46 seconds. The second Freshman crew was more successful, defeating the Northeast High School by five lengths, and losing to West Philadelphia High School by a scant four feet. 1917 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1915 CREWS
VARSITY
Childs Cup
J.C.McKibbin ’15, R.A.Cochran ’17, J.M.Heffron ’15, E.H.Lee ’16, S.M.Robinson ’15, R.Quinby ’15, T.J.Hilliard ’17, O.S.Putnam ’15 (Capt.), H.D.Sparks ’17 (Cox), P.H.Gadebusch ’16, C.J.Ingersoll ’17

1915 VARSITY IN 1960

W.S.Limond ’15 (Cox), I.E.Swart ’15, R.Quinby ’15, C.S.Proctor ’15, S.Robinson ’15, W.H.Battles ’15, P.Drinker ’15, W.S.Swart ’15, J.Devereux ’15

FRESHMEN
—Class of 1918
S.Godfrey, L.C.Rhodes, G.W.H.Smith, G.W.Young (Capt.), B.P.Leeb, W.B.Ten Broeck, P.R.Pyne, A.V.Lyman, W.T.Stewart (Cox)

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1915 CREWS
PRINCETON WINS CHILDS CUP – 1915
Columbia and Penn Trailing The Old Finish Line on Lake Carnegie

VARSITY
Childs Cup
Paul’15, Villiard’17, McKibben’15, Robinson’15, Quinby’15, Butler’16, Heffron’15, Dr. Spaeth (Coach), Putnam ’15, Lee ’16, Cochran ’17, Sparks ’17.

CREW SQUAD
Back Row: Schullinger ’17, ?, ?, ?, Abbett ’16, Dawkarn ’16, ?, Third Row: Sturgis ’17, Hypes ’16, Paul ’17, Savage ’17, Gadebusch ’16, McCann ’17, Delanoy ’17, ?, ?, Taber ’17, Ingersoll ’17, ?, ? Second Row: Paul ’15, Hilliard ’17, McKibben ’15, Quinby ’15, Putnam ’15, Dr. Spaeth, Heffron ’15, Robinson ’15, Lee ’16, Cochran ’17, John Fitzpatrick Front Row: Pate ’15, ?, Sparks ’17, Sikes ’16, ?

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1916 CREWS
VARSITY
Childs Cup Navy Trophy
Arthur Savage ’17, Douglas Delanoy ’17, Richard McCann ’17, Elliott Lee ’16, James Otis ’16, Paul Gadebusch ’16, James Paul ’17, Robert Cochran ’17, Gordon Sikes ’16 (Cox)

EXHAUSTED!
Princeton Crew After Cornell Race on Lake Cayuga (Lead Changed 4 Times)

FRESHMEN
– Class of 1919
B.H.Davis, J.H.Ackerman, A.Armour, W.S.Humphrey, W.M.Paxton, F.J.McConnell, F.B.Christmas, A.Terry, E.T.Knowlson (Cox)

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Review of the 1916 Crew Season
Under the coaching of Dr. J. Duncan Spaeth and the captaincy of J. R. A. Cochran, 3rd, ’17, Princeton rowing enjoyed the most successful season in its history. Starting the season with only three veterans, and with inexperienced material to pick from, Dr. Spaeth turned out the best crew which has ever represented Princeton. Yale, Harvard, Columbia, the Navy and Pennsylvania were all defeated. Cornell proved the only stumbling block, finally winning a hard-fought race on Lake Cayuga by a margin of nine feet. Dr. Spaeth, in a review of the season said, “Three elements are necessary to a fast crew: power, form and spirit. Short on power the 1916 Princeton crew made up for this in form and sprit, and Captain Cochran’s eight will go down and deserves to go down in Princeton rowing history as the Fighting Crew of 1916.” The season opened on April 20th, when the Varsity met Harvard on Lake Carnegie, and won the closest race ever rowed there, defeating the Crimson shell by a scant two feet. Princeton jumped into a lead of a quarter length at the start, rowing a thirty-six stroke. Captain Cochran gradually dropped to a thirty-two stroke and by the time the mile-post was reached had increased the lead to threequarters of a length. Then Harvard’s tremendous power began to tell, and Princeton’s lead began to gradually cut down, until at the finish line the Varsity crossed the line only two feet ahead of the Harvard shell. Both crews were timed at 9 minutes, 121/2 seconds. The Childs Cup was again brought to Princeton when the Varsity defeated the Navy, Pennsylvania and Columbia crews on the Schuylkill at Philadelphia on May 13th. Columbia took the lead at the start but Princeton soon overcame it, and from the quarter-mile mark on was never seriously challenged. The Varsity finished a full length ahead of the Navy. Columbia came in a length behind Navy, while Pennsylvania was two lengths behind Columbia. The time was 7 minutes flat. The Yale-Cornell-Princeton triangular regatta was held on Lake Cayuga at Ithaca on May 27th. Yale caught the water first, but soon was overtaken by Cornell and Princeton, and from then on the race was between Cornell and Princeton, Yale being seven lengths in the rear at the finish. At the quarter-mile mark the Varsity led by a quarter of a length; at the half-mile the two crews were even; at the mile mark Cornell began to take the lead and held it up to a quarter mile from the finish, when Captain Cochran started a terrific spurt which resulted in bringing Princeton abreast of Cornell, and in a few strokes more in giving her the lead. But when only one hundred yards from the finish line there was a break in the boat, and before Princeton could recover Cornell shot by and won by the length of the forward deck. The official times were: Cornell, 11 minutes, 21 1/5 seconds; Princeton, 11 minutes 23 1/5 seconds; Yale, 11 minutes, 32 4/5 seconds.

1919 Freshman Crew
Although there was very little good material for the Freshman crew, and although the final results make the season appear unsuccessful, the members of the crews are to be congratulated for their showing. The men were inexperienced and exceptionally light. In addition to this the crews were broken up in mid season by an epidemic of measles, and thus suffered greatly. There were but two races, one of which was won and the other lost. In the first race of the season on May 6th the Freshmen defeated Central High by one and one-quarter lengths of Lake Carnegie, rowing over the Henley course in 7 minutes and 7 seconds. On May 27th the Cornell Freshmen defeated both Yale and Princeton on Lake Cayuga, rowing over a two-mile course in 11 minutes and 27 seconds. Cornell was one and two-thirds lengths ahead of Yale, with Princeton a poor third. 1918 BRIC-A-BRAC

Lake Carnegie’s Greatest Races
By Charles B. Saunders, Jr. ‘50 One of the closest races ever held on Lake Carnegie, one in which the wining margin was variously reported from six inches to two feet, was the Harvard-Princeton contest of 1916. Both boats rowed neck-and-neck throughout. Going into the last quarter Princeton held a six-foot lead until one of the port oars caught a crab. The boat wavered, and Harvard shot up even, but the Tigers recovered quickly and raised their stroke to come abreast at the finish. Gordon Sikes, Princeton’s Director of Student Placement and its long-time amateur coach, was the Tiger coxswain for that 1916 race. As he recalls the judge was Alfred Noyes, then teaching English at Princeton in the days before he became England’s Poet Laureate. As the crowd held its breath, the former Oxford oarsman reared his great frame from the improvised judging stand, a small flat boat anchored in midlake. He announced the verdict with a roar and a flourish: “Princeton, by the width of a butterfly’s wing!”

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1917 CREWS
VARSITY

“PERFECT STYLE”

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Review of the 1917 Crew Season
1920 Freshman Crew
Although the outbreak of the war curtailed the schedule of the Freshman crew, the season may be considered successful. The two races which were rowed, one with a scrub varsity eight and the other with the Central High School of Philadelphia, resulted in victories for 1920. The crew is to be congratulated, not only upon their success, but also upon the consistent work and splendid spirit under trying conditions. After the departure of Captain Clark for war service, G.F. Williamson was chosen captain. 1919 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1918 CREWS
VARSITY
S.Godfrey ’18, G.Campbell ’20, W.B.Bryan ’20, P.C.Walters ’19, W.T.Hammer ’18 (Cox), C.R.Gregor ’20, S.R.Lamont ’20, H.S.Roche ’18 (Capt.), W.M.Paxton ’19

FRESHMEN
—Class of 1921
B.B.McAlpin, H.F.McCormick, A.H.Clarke, H.L.Chisholm, W.M.Strong, J.H.Leh, C.H.Haines, M.C.Fleming, L.A.Cover (Cox)

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Review of the 1918 Crew Season
Princeton’s victory over Cornell for the first time in the history of modern rowing brought to a successful close the 1918 rowing season, which up to this time had been a disappointment. Princeton met four crews in all, but suffered defeat at the hands of the first three, Harvard, Pennsylvania and Columbia in well-rowed regattas, though the Princeton eight seemed to lack the life and drive which characterized their brilliant victory over Cornell a few weeks later. War conditions presented many difficulties which the crew and Coach Fitzpatrick, who ably filled the position as coach during Dr. Spaeth’s absence in service, are to be congratulated on overcoming so well. Special credit is due Captain Roche for his conscientious leadership and consistent work at number 7, and also to W.M. Paxton ’19, at stroke. The season opened on April 27, when the Varsity met Harvard on Lake Carnegie and was defeated in a hard fought struggle, Harvard winning by one length. The race was lost at the start, and Princeton was unable throughout the course to cut down on the length’s lead which she had lost there. The official times were: Harvard 9 minutes, 57 seconds; Princeton 10 minutes. The Childs Cup race between Pennsylvania, Columbia and Princeton was rowed on Lake Carnegie May 4th, and resulted in an easy victory by five lengths for Pennsylvania. Penn, with a lead of three lengths at the half-mile post, was clearly the winner, and the interest centered on the struggle between Columbia and Princeton for second place, which the former won by an eighth of a length after a strong rally and spurt at the finish. On May 25th, the CornellPrinceton regatta was held on Lake Carnegie, Princeton, winning by a quarter of length, after a sharply contested race, in the time of 9 minutes and 51 seconds. Princeton showed a great improvement on the start, and when the two crews settled down to a thirty-two stroke, which both crews maintained until the final spurt, the Princeton shell was half a length in the lead. Cornell overcame this lead, however, and, as the last half mile was reached, was a length ahead. Princeton raised the stroke, however, to thirty-seven and with a remarkable sprint passed the Cornell crew near the finish. 1920 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1919 CREWS
VARSITY
B.S.Michael ’19, J.G.Campbell ’20, F.E.Martin ’20, P.C.Walter ’19, W.B.Bryan ’20, R.S.Lamont ’20, C.R.Gregor ’20, W.M.Paxton ’19 (Capt.), F.F.Rosenbaum ’20 (Cox), H.Chisholm ’19, E.Dent ’19, B.B.McAlpin ’21

FRESHMEN
– Class of 1922
A.L.Cobb, F.L.Page, L.W.Jones, P.D.Moser, W.R.Kent, H.C.Cresswell, S.W.Milne, A.P.Morgan, R.B.Scull (Cox), F.T.Wolverton, G.J.Cooke

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Review of the 1919 Crew Season
In the spring of 1919 the Princeton Rowing Association resumed activities on a peace basis under the leadership of Captain William Paxton, III, and coached by Dr. J. D. Spaeth, who just recently returned from work in the Army Y.M.C.A. In spite of the depleted personnel of the upper classes, a full rowing schedule was arranged, including races with Harvard, Yale, Cornell, Columbia, Pennsylvania and the Navy. This constituted a hard season for the eight and, though the record they made was not up to the standard of former years, a very creditable showing was made, in view of the fact that the men were both light and inexperienced. The first try-out came at Annapolis on April 19, where Princeton met the Navy and Harvard Varsity crews. Both Princeton and Harvard put up a spirited race, but neither of the college crews were in a class with the unusually fine product that Annapolis turned out. The Navy far outdistanced both Princeton and Harvard, and the Crimson won second place from Princeton by ten seconds. The next event on the schedule was the dual race with Yale on the new course at Derby on the Housatonic River, May 3rd. The Princeton crew improved rapidly in the two weeks intervening between the Navy and Yale races, with the result that the Varsity would have probably gained a victory over the Blue had not the stroke oar jammed his oar-handle in the midst of a sprinting finish, allowing Yale to win by a few seconds. The Childs Cup Regatta between Princeton, Columbia and Pennsylvania was rowed on May 17 on Lake Carnegie. Pennsylvania, who had won the Childs Cup from Princeton in the previous year, had one of the fastest crews of her history, and the event was generally conceded to her as a foregone conclusion. The Tiger Varsity rowed its best race on this occasion, and for a mile and a half held the Pennsylvania combination. In the last quarter the superior weight and experience of the Red and Blue oarsmen told, and they won out by a length of open water. Princeton easily outdistanced Columbia by a large margin. Owing to Cornell’s inability to meet Yale and Princeton on the Housatonic, and by special invitation of the Ithacans, the Princeton crew rowed a dual race with Cornell on Lake Cayuga, the Saturday following, May 24. During the first mile of the race the boats were practically even, but from there on the Cornell eight gradually pulled away from Princeton and won by several lengths of open water. By rowing on both the Housatonic and on Lake Cayunga, Princeton made it possible to revive the Yale-Princeton-Cornell triangular regatta on Lake Carnegie in 1920. 1921 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1920 CREWS
VARSITY
Standing: F.L.Page ’22, H.F.Brigham ’20, J.Sinclaire ’22, G.J.Cooke ’22, G.A.Lawrence ’20 (Mgr.), F.F.Rosenbaum ’20 (Cox) Sitting: H.L.Chisholm ’21, A.Terry ’19, R.S.Lamont ’20 (Capt.), S.W.Milne ’22, H.C.Cresswell ’22

May 1, Cambridge: Princeton, Harvard, Pennsylvania May 15, Lake Carnegie: Princeton, Yale May 28, Philadelphia: Princeton, Pennsylvania, Columbia May 29, Philadelphia: Princeton, Union Boat Club

OXFORD VS. PRINCETON
Oxford Resting — ca. 1920

FRESHMEN
– Class of 1923
L.R.Schmertz, W.S.Howland, G.A.Wiggan, C.T.Jackson, H.L.Hilgartner, N.T.Montgomery, F.G.Marburg, J.S.Wright (Capt.), A.Gardner (Cox)

AMERICAN HENLEY FRESHMEN CHAMPIONS
May 1, Cambridge: Princeton, Harvard May 15, Lake Carnegie: Princeton, Yale May 29, Philadelphia: Princeton, Pennsylvania, Navy

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CREW
Review of the 1920 Crew Year
In spite of the scarcity of Varsity men and the loss of Captain Lamont, who was injured early in the spring, the 1920 season was one of the most successful that the Rowing Association has had in years. Princeton rowed in four regattas, scoring victories over Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Pennsylvania and the Union Boat Club, and being defeated by only Cornell, Syracuse and the Navy. In addition, our Junior Varsity and Freshman crews won from Harvard and Yale, and the hundred and fifty pound crew defeated the Yale eight. By special arrangement the Annapolis crew was invited to row in the Childs Cup Race in order that they might compete for the Olympic honors, so, in spite of the fact that Princeton defeated Columbia and Pennsylvania, the cup was given to the Midshipmen. The season opened on May 1st with a triangular regatta at Cambridge between Princeton, Harvard and Pennsylvania. After trailing the Crimson oarsmen for a mile and a half, the Princeton crew passed them at this point and gradually drew ahead to a lead of over one-third of a length at the finish, with Pennsylvania about a length behind Harvard. Th next race came on May 15th, when Princeton met Yale and Cornell on Lake Carnegie. In this event the Cornell crew led from the half-mile mark and held this position throughout the race. About a quarter of a mile from the finish the Princeton boat made a final spurt, fairly lifting the boat from the water in an effort to overcome the lead, but the distance was too short, and the Cornell oarsmen crossed the line first, with Princeton less than a quarter of a length behind and Yale several lengths to the rear. It was one of the finest finishes ever seen on the lake. On May 28th the Childs Cup Race was held with four crews, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Columbia and the Navy competing. Princeton and the Navy took the lead at the start and never relinquished it. However, the Annapolis oarsmen gradually crept ahead and finished a length and a quarter ahead of the Orange and Black, with Pennsylvania third and Columbia fourth. By placing first and second in this event Princeton and the Navy became eligible to compete in the American Henley Regatta for the Steward’s Cup, which was to be rowed on the following day. Four crews qualified for the American Henley Regatta, Princeton, Navy, Syracuse and the Union Boat Club of Boston. Both Princeton and Syracuse got away to good starts and struggled for the lead throughout the first half-mile. Here the Navy put up the stroke and slowly, but surely, cut down on the leaders. In a final spurt in the last quarter-mile they forged ahead and crossed the line first, with Syracuse a close second and Princeton third, one-half length behind the Orange boat. 1922 BRIC-A-BRAC

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Princeton Lightweight Rowing
When Canadian sculler Joseph Wright became the coach of the University of Pennsylvania in 1916, he noticed that his prospects included a number of excellent but somewhat smaller oarsmen. He soon evolved the concept of fielding a crew composed solely of these lighter men, who averaged about 150 pounds. His idea spread to other colleges, and in 1919 the American Rowing Association officially recognized competition by 150-pounders in eight-oared shells. The initial weight differentiation was not particularly substantial. In fact, lightweight rowers were much closer to the heavyweight crews of that era than they are now. The winning Varsity crew in the 1874 Saratoga regatta (Columbia) averaged 159 pounds and about 5’ 10½”. In the first two decades of the 20th century, prior to the introduction of lightweight rowing, the average size of first-boat rowers was about 6’ 0” in height and about 172 pounds in weight. By the 1960’s, the lightweight average requirement had increased only from 150 to 155 pounds (with no oarsman over 160), but the average in Princeton’s first heavyweight boat had increased nearly 25 pounds in weight and three inches in height—to 194 pounds and 6’ 3”. Gordon G. Sikes ‘16, a member of the Princeton administration, had been the coxswain of Professor (and Coach) J. Duncan Spaeth’s 1916 Varsity crew. He learned of Wright’s concept and pioneered lightweight rowing at Princeton in 1920. Sikes served as the Princeton 150s’ amateur coach, just as Spaeth was an unpaid coach of the heavies. Harvard began lightweight rowing the following year. The Tiger lights placed second to Penn in their first race, in 1920. Princeton won its first race—and the first Goldthwait Cup—over Harvard and Yale in 1922. Two of Sikes’ crews, the 1926 and 1930 Varsities, became lightweight champions by winning the Joseph Wright Challenge Cup (named for lightweight rowing’s founder) in the annual American Rowing Association regatta, predecessor to the Eastern Sprints. Sikes’ 1930 crew was the first Princeton crew, heavy or light, to compete at Henley (and the second American lightweight crew to row at Henley). The Tigers won two races in the Thames Challenge Cup bracket before being eliminated by Kent School in a close race. When Sikes took over the varsity heavyweight coaching position in 1931, Wilhelmus B. Bryan ’20, Princeton’s Presbyterian chaplain, began an eight-year stint as the unpaid coach of the Tiger lightweights. His overall record was 12-14. Bryan’s 1933 and 1935 crews won the Goldthwait Cup over Harvard and Yale, and the Wright Cup in the American Henley on the Schuylkill. The 1933 crew returned to Henley in another bid for the Thames Cup. Dutch Schoch (0-7) coached the lightweight crew in 1939 and 1940 prior to moving to the heavyweights, and Jim Rathschmidt (6-3) took over in 1941 and 1942. After losing to Pennsylvania and Harvard early in the season, the 1942 eight outrowed all competitors for the Wright Cup over the Henley distance on Lake Carnegie to win the championship and reduce the course lightweight record by almost six seconds. Gordon Sikes (20-19) returned to his first love after World War II to coach the 150s in 1946 and 1947. Some of the oarsmen who rowed for Sikes in the 1920s established the Gordon Sikes Medal, awarded annually to the outstanding senior lightweight oarsman, in tribute to his “courage, enthusiasm, and devotion to Princeton.” The Eastern Sprints began in 1946. The lightweight competition was on the Charles River. The ten-year period from 1948 to 1957 was a golden era of Princeton lightweight rowing featuring accomplishments unmatched until the end of the century. The 1948 crew, coached by Davis Spencer ’45 (2-2), won the Wright Cup, symbolic of the Eastern championship, at the American Henley regatta and went on to win the Thames Challenge Cup at the Henley—not only the first Princeton crew but also the first American lightweight crew to win a championship on Henley’s fabled waters. The undefeated 1949 eight, coached by Chuck von Wrangell (7-6), won the Goldthwait Cup from Harvard and Yale as well as two other races, and then performed superbly at Henley. They twice equaled the course record and retained the Thames Cup for Princeton. From 1953 through 1957, Princeton monopolized the Goldthwait Cup and in 1953, 1956, and 1957, the lightweight Tigers also won the Eastern championship, symbolized by the Wright Cup. The 1953 crew, coached by Arthur Sueltz (4-5), pared three-tenths of a second off the record for the Wright Cup race, and lost the final for the Thames Cup after breaking the English Henley course record by six seconds in a preliminary race. John Stiegman posted an 11-1 record in 1954 and 1955.
(continued)

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Princeton Lightweight Rowing (continued)
Coach Donald Rose’s winning percentage will never be surpassed—he never lost a Varsity race in 14 outings. His undefeated 1956 Varsity broke the Lake Carnegie course record for the Henley distance on two occasions, and his undefeated 1957 Varsity lowered a sixteen-year-old Charles River course record by nearly nine seconds. These two crews were the third and fourth Princeton winners of the Thames Cup at Henley. Al Povey took over the lightweight varsity coaching reins in 1958 to 1965 seasons. His overall record of 24-29, including bronze medals at the 1958 and 1959 Sprints. Former heavyweight Varsity stroke and captain Fin Meislahn ’64 turned around the fortunes of lightweight rowing in the 1966 through 1969 seasons. Meislahn posted an overall record of 21-12. His 1966 crew had a Princeton record-eight victories, and his 1967 Varsity took a bronze at the Sprints. Woody Fischer moved Princeton lightweight rowing to the next level. He was 19-4 as coach of the lights from 1970 through 1972 and won two bronzes and a silver at the Sprints. In 1972, Princeton’s freshmen lightweights, coached by Gary Kilpatrick, won the national championship for freshmen coxed fours at the IRAs in Syracuse. The following year, Kilpatrick became the lightweight varsity coach and led his first boat, which included the four plus cox, to an undefeated season and Princeton’s fifth Thames Cup victory at Henley. The 1980s under Kilpatrick became another golden era of Princeton lightweight rowing. The 1981 Varsity was the undefeated Sprints champion, took home the Jope Cup, and lost in the second round of the Ladies Plate competition at Henley. His 1984 eight was undefeated and won the Sprints and the Reading Regatta in England; his 1985 crew won the Goldthwait Cup and won at the Sprints taking the Jope Cup, and his 1986 Tigers were again undefeated Sprints champions and Jope Cup winners, won the heavyweight second varsity race at the IRAs, and won the first national championship race at Cincinnati. The 1984 and 1985 boats advanced to the semi-finals, and the 1986 boat reached the quarter-finals, of the Ladies Plate at Henley. The 1988 lights were undefeated in the regular season, second at the Sprints and national champions. In his 16 years at the helm of the Varsity lights, Kilpatrick posted the most rowing victories for any coach in Princeton history; his overall record was 97-28. Joe Murtaugh (67-11 through 2000) took over the lightweight varsity program in 1989 and promptly won the national championship. His crews medaled at the Sprints every year for the remainder of the century with the exception of a fourth in 1993, after which the Tigers bounced back to second at the national championships. Murtaugh’s eight won the national championship in 1994 and was second in 1995. The 1996 Princeton lightweights were undefeated Sprint and national champions, a feat they repeated in 1998. The 1997 crew set the Princeton lightweight record for 2000 meters in a half-second loss to Harvard at Derby. In 1999, the Tigers were undefeated in the regular season and won the Sprints, and in 2000 they bounced back from a fourth place at the Sprints to win the silver medal at the national championships. Through the 2000 season, the Princeton Varsity lightweights were led by fourteen coaches, posted an overall record of 304-142 (.681), were Eastern champions 17 times and won six national championships. Since its inception in 1963, the Jope Cup, symbolic of program supremacy, has been held by Princeton ten times.

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1921 CREWS

STROKED IN MASTERLY FASHION BY HEINIE LEH, THE PRINCETON VARSITY OARSMEN,

John H. ‘Heinie’ Leh 1921

1921

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Already Victors Over the Navy, Yale, Harvard and Cornell, Defeating the Brawny California Eight, One of the Best Crews Ever Produced on the Pacific Coast, in the Greatest Race Rowed on Lake Carnegie in Many a Day, at the Same Time Establishing a New Record for the Course of 8 Minutes 53 4-5 Seconds. (TimesWide World Photos)

Cox Barclay Scull and Coach Dr. J. Duncan Spaeth Plan Strategy for Victory Over Harvard — May 1921

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1921 CREWS
VARSITY ‘A’ BOAT
H.L.Page ’22, M.Fleming ’21, M.Pyne ’21, G.Cooke ’22. R.Newlin ’22, J.Sinclaire ’22. S.Milne ’22. H.Creswell ’22 (Stroke), R.Scull ’22 (Cox)

JUNIOR VARSITY
American Henley – Philadelphia — May 28, 1921 Princeton-Harvard-Navy-Penn-Yale Princeton Time: 6 min. 57 seconds
H.L.Page ’22, L.W.Jones ’22, F.T.Woolverton ’22, G.J.Cooke ’22, M.H.Pyne ’21, J.Sinclaire ’22, R.S.Newlin ’22, J.G.Campbell ’20, A.Gardner ’23 (Cox)

‘B’ Boat Reunion
— June 11, 1966
Leh, Sinclaire, Morgan, Lewis, Curtis, Wood, Fleming, Brush, Scull

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Review of the 1921 Crew Year
The Crew Season of 1921 is remarkable not only because a Princeton boat defeated both the Olympic champion of 1920 and the championship eight of the Pacific Coast, but also because Coach Spaeth was able to pick, from the available material, two crews of Varsity class. Varsity “B”, stroked by J.H. Leh, ’21, made a victorious record by beating the Navy, Harvard, Cornell, Yale, and the University of California shells, while Varsity “A”, stroked first by Captain Cresswell and later by Campbell, came across the line ahead of the Harvard, Pennsylvania, Yale, and Navy Junior Varsities in the American Henley Regatta, but behind the Columbia Varsity in the Childs Cup Race. It was only a short time prior to the first race that the showing of Varsity “B” warranted its being chosen as the Orange and Black’s best crew. The season opened on May 7th, when Princeton met the Navy and Harvard in a triangular regatta on Lake Carnegie. Although the Midshipmen, by reason of their victory at Antwerp the year before, were favored to win, they came in half a length after the Tiger boat, with the Crimson oarsmen four lengths in the rear. Leh’s crew got a slow start, soon forged ahead, was overtaken by the Annapolis eight beyond the mile mark, but regained its lead half a mile from the finish. In the Junior Varsity Race, Princeton won over Harvard by a six lengths’ margin. May 14th saw Princeton’s Varsity “A” pitted against the Varsity shells of Pennsylvania and Columbia, on the Harlem, in the annual struggle for the Childs Cup. Columbia nosed out the Tiger crew by a three-quarters’ length, with the Red and Blue four lengths behind. Meanwhile the Orange and Black Varsity “B” was training for the classic race with Cornell and Yale. Having had two days of final practice at Ithaca on May 21st, the Princeton boat proved its wroth by winning a neck-and-neck race from Cornell, with the New Haven crew far in the rear. In the Junior Varsity race of the American Henley Regatta, held on the Schuylkill on May 28th, Varsity “A”, now reorganized with Campbell at stroke, finished first, followed by the Navy, Pennsylvania, Harvard, and Yale, in the order named. A Princeton 150-pound crew, however, lost to Yale and Pennsylvania. What was in many respects the most thrilling race of the season took place on June 4th, when the Princeton Varsity “B” capped its record by nosing out the University of California eight and establishing a new course record of 8 minutes 53 4-5 seconds for the Lake Carnegie Course. The Westerners had been training at Princeton for some time, having won the championship of the Pacific Coast by defeating the University of Washington. 1923 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1921 CREWS
VARSITY ‘B’ BEATS NAVY & HARVARD
– MAY 7, 1921 Navy was World’s Championship Olympic Crew in 1920
J.M.Brush ’21, M.C.Fleming’21, S.W.Milne’22, J.S.Curtis ’21, J.B.Lewis ’22, A.P.Morgan’22, H.F.Brigham ’20, J.H.Leh ’21(stroke), R.B.Scull ’22 (Cox)

VARSITY ‘B’ BOAT
– MAY 1921 This Combination Beat Yale & Cornell Carnegie Cup Navy Trophy
J.M.Brush ’21, M.C.Fleming’21, S.W.Milne’22, J.S.Curtis ’21, J.B.Lewis ’22, J. Sinclaire ’22, H.F.Brigham ’20, J.H.Leh ’21(stroke), R.B.Scull ’22 (Cox)

EAST BEATS WEST
— JUNE 4, 1921 Princeton Beats California on Lake Carnegie

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History of Events Leading up to Varsity “B” being made the Princeton Varsity Crew for the 1921 Rowing Season
Extracts from Princeton Diary of H.F. Brigham ’20
Thurs. April 21 1 1/2 mi. race and time trial. A great fight - dead tie –time 8:04. Again bank spectators rob Varsity A of apparent inch victory. There is still hope for us. I’d give anything (a pound of flesh) to beat out Varsity A for the races. Varsity B laid off while its Heine (stroke) is drafted into V. A. for experiment (Cresswell didn’t show up.) Now we all wonder. Then crew - many visitors - full course race at low gait and V. B. wins by length and a half ! ! (Hugh strokes us down to starting line, and Heinie in V.A., but Hugh not comfortable and at start we swap back and then - Race.) Our V.B. had and held the lead all the way. Hugh in talking to Dr. (Spaeth) after race, broke down some, being overcome with his forebodings and despair. I feel truly sorry for him in his distress. At training table Keene Fitz - tells us (1) Do not overeat (2) Keep regular hours, especially sleep. Tues. April 26 Revolution and startling change in Crews. There is (possibility) I will have my chance after all. Doc builds on V. B. as nucleus, giving us Sid (7) and Mat (2) and putting me at my (3), the rest remaining intact: Leh (8) Al (6) J. Lewis (5) Joch C. (4) Brush (1). We just have a trial row to get used to new positions. But Hugh1s boat seems to be revived, too, and tho’ we may have the advantage today, all is far from settled yet. It’s Fight still and for dear life. Crew: (all I think about these days, absolutely all — i.e. concerning campus). I am back at my favorite position (7), Milne to (3) and we go better today and though we do not professedly race, our boat can claim superiority rather plainly. A time trial, probably tomorrow, will tell. Dr. S. to me “Aren’t you sorry you didn’t resign now?” Crew: I make my crew after all!! My year can likely be called successful. All astir. Blood in the air. A big race impending. Spectators on banks even. I hadn’t thought of all this. Then the race itself — a killing suicide. We (unchanged) win decisively with a half length of open water. I never so nearly pass out. When “Way ‘nough” finally came and I could stop with a gasp, all was blurred before my eyes, in fact all was double that I saw, and splitting pains crossed both eyes and head - a new experience to me. But then the coaching launch glided up and Doc pronounced the blessed decree: “This boat will row Harvard and Navy on May 7.” Congratulations, Heinie Leh! and all respect to you. Hugh Cresswell, you’re a man’s man “No racing,” “Paddle easy at 28,” but V. A. which refuses to admit defeat gets cockey and challenges us all along the line. Nothing short of a race naturally developed (in spite of yesterday’s gruelling) and we stifled them handily again though neither without honest effort nor by any enormous margin. Doc had taken them into his office for a private conference and apparently told something of interest to V.B. to know. It was either “You have it in you to beat V.B. and I’m going to bring it out and give you your chance,” or “Egg on V.B. — you must to fit them to meet the Navy.” I say rather he told them both. Crew: Practice sprints and starts and spacing by ourselves. (The course is being laid out and flags set.) Crew: Long pulls, starts and a time trial over the last quarter of the course. Crew called off on account of a Nor’easter. (continued) Thurs. May 5 Rowing: Weather rank still with high wind and water. We just pull a hard while and back, unable to do

Fri. April 22 Mon. April 25

Wed. April 27

Thurs. April 28

Fri. April 29

Mon. May 2 Tues. May 3 Wed. May 4

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CARNEGIE CUP
THE CARNEGIE CUP Presented in Memory of ANDREW CARNEGIE
by

Mrs. Andrew Carnegie in 1921
To be rowed for annually by Cornell University, Princeton University and Yale University
1911 1914 1915 1916 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1939 1940 1941 1942 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 Cornell Cornell Yale Cornell Cornell Princeton Cornell Yale Yale Yale (No race) Princeton Yale Yale Yale Cornell Yale Yale Yale (No race) Cornell Yale Yale Yale Yale Cornell ( No race) Princeton Princeton Cornell Princeton Cornell Yale Princeton Cornell Cornell Cornell Yale Cornell Yale Yale Cornell Cornell Cornell Princeton Princeton Cornell Princeton Princeton Cornell Princeton Cornell Cornell Cornell Yale Cornell Cornell Cornell Yale Cornell Princeton Cornell Yale Yale Princeton Yale Yale Yale Yale Princeton Princeton Princeton Cornell Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Cornell Princeton

Princeton Yale Princeton Cornell Cornell Princeton Cornell Princeton Cornell Princeton Yale Princeton Cornell Cornell Yale Yale Princeton Princeton Yale Princeton Yale Yale Cornell Yale Cornell Cornell Princeton Princeton Yale Yale Yale Princeton, Penn, Syracuse Penn, Cornell Yale Cornell Cornell Yale Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Yale Yale Princeton

1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

Cornell Yale Yale Cornell Cornell Yale Cornell Princeton Cornell Yale Princeton Yale Princeton Cornell Princeton Yale Cornell Princeton Cornell Princeton Cornell Yale Kansas State Cornell Princeton Cornell Princeton Princeton Cornell Cornell Yale Princeton Cornell Cornell Princeton Princeton Cornell Cornell Princeton Princeton Cornell Princeton Cornell Cornell Princeton Princeton Cornell Princeton Cornell Princeton Cornell Princeton Cornell

Princeton Princeton Princeton Yale Princeton Cornell Yale Cornell Yale Yale Princeton, Yale

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Princeton Princeton Cornell Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton

Cornell Cornell Princeton Cornell Cornell Cornell Cornell Yale Yale Yale Yale Cornell

Stanford Cornell Cornell Cornell Cornell Yale

Boston U.

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History of Events Leading up to Varsity “B” being made the Princeton Crew for the 1921 Rowing Season
(continued)
Fri. May 6 more, and we go wonderfully poorly. ’Tis the night before the big test. Intense speculation reigns. It’s For joy or for sorrow God help us tomorrow

Varsity

At the boathouse this afternoon all was excitement. The Harvard and Navy boats as well as our own all appeared on the water. Cameramen and crowds flocked about. The Navy champions made a very impressive showing, unique in their unearthly long, far-back paddling stroke. And Harvard comes to see the race in just the spirit we own, that of “My kingdom to defeat the Navy.” Our rowing today a dread slump? ! Marburg’s declared ineligible — Woolverton in (as hero). The event bore a social function tonight when the 3 first boats of each college ate together at our field house. We set our visitors on intimate terms and hoped to make them feel at home. I had no opportunity to meet the midshipmen and unfortunately they seemed to give the general impression of aloofness and “We are sure we’re good.” The Harvard fellows I met were the best sort, especially Terry, Morgan and McKague, with whom I enjoyed strolling the campus awhile after supper. Sat. May 7 With Bubs on the sly to jeweler and order the wedding ring. She “starved to death” and when we go to eat she orders a charlotte russe! Then off to the Wars. Meet Leh’s folks and Brush’s (Mr. Leh promises dinner if we win.) (All these are fixed up in Bert’s car and off to tow-path.) Then long wait in boathouse till our turn to go off. Play cards some, lie down most. Navy fellows put “shamrocks”, i.e. 4-leaf clovers, in their shoes for good luck. (I myself wear last year’s suit, instead of a new one, for good luck.) I feel exceptionally fit, and confident in self. News of 1st race. Choate wins from 2nd and 3rd Freshmen. We off then and paddle to finish amid all kinds of well-wishing from the shore so thickly crowded and colored. 2nd race- - defeat again by Harvard Freshmen – 2-1/2 lengths but this encourages us because their Freshmen are rated nearly as fast as their varsity. Paddle further and see our A-crew make Harvard J. V. look sick, win by 6 or 7 lengths. Then to starting line, quickly lined up and “Ready all” – “Go!” We had a perfect start getting jump on Navy (and perhaps Harvard) increasing lead a little by 1/4 mark. 1/2 mark we still in lead by 1/4 length and settling into good stroke. Harvard fast dropping behind already and as good as out of race from then on. At mile mark we still leading by same small margin. Leh doing great, Scull coxing race of his life too. Navy seemed to be gaining a speck. We give drives and get ahead at 1-1/4 mark. Then Scull: “Heinie, you’re rowing the race of your life!” and Bang! Heinie catches a crab! Horrors! But no, he recovers, has lost only a single stroke, and we are together again. That cost us a precious 10 feet and all our lead. Now the big fight is on. Drives desperately and we come abreast. Increased stroke to 36 and we forge a shade ahead. We approach 1-1/2 mark. Scull: “Only 50 strokes to go men. Now let’s see what you’ve got.” 10 drives and we go over the 1-1/2 line in the lead. The banks raise a great roaring cheer. The final spurt is on. Up goes stroke to 38. We keep our lead and fight off every stroke of the desperate Navy boat. “Thirty strokes will put us over, men. Fight!” shouts Scull. We pull on sheer will power now, carried on the crest of the cheers ashore of the frantic, shouting, leaping, crazy crowd. We have kept our small lead. “Five more, men!” –“Way enough!” We win! O, shades of evening, can it be true? ! The spectators were stark mad, and we’re still too exhausted to be conscious quite of all going on. When we stopped my stomach turned and I expected to vomit. A splitting headache too. But what a grand and glorious feeling in spite of these little concerns. At the boathouse every oarsman old and young was prancing, and congratulating us and each other, falling on everybody at hand. And Dr. Spaeth was perhaps the most overcome of all. (He’s now probably rated best coach in country. He deserves all.) The cold shower put me back on my feet and then off to find the folks. It was a happy reunion so unlike last year’s when Cornell beat us by no more than we beat the Navy.

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1922 HEAVYWEIGHT CREWS
VARSITY ‘ORANGE’
Childs Cup
H.H.Iredell ’22, F.G.Marburg ’23, A.P.Morgan ’22, J.B.Lewis ’22, J.Sinclaire ’22, F.Woolverton ’22, C.T.Jackson ’23, S.W.Milne ’22, W.Scull’25 (Cox)

PRINCETON DUELING COLUMBIA
Junior Varsity Race – Princeton — May 1922

JUNIOR VARSITY ‘BLACK’
H.Page ’22, P.Moser ’22, U.Bradley ’23, C.Austin ’24, Merlin, F.Burke ’23, G.Burnham ’24, J.Pirie ’24, R.Laidlaw ’24 (Cox)

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Review of the 1922 Crew Season
The 1922 Crew Season brought out a flotilla of Princeton crews which established a record better than any in recent years. Although the Varsity record did not equal that of the 1921 season, the Junior Varsity Crew, stroked by J.T. Pirie, II, ’24, was victorious over all four of its opponents. The Varsity Crew, stroked by Captain Milne, crossed the line ahead of Yale, Harvard, Columbia and Penn, taking second place to Navy and Cornell, and winning the Childs Cup on Lake Carnegie, May 13th. The season opened, May 6th, with a triangular regatta with the Navy and Harvard at Cambridge. The powerful Navy combination made good its defeat the year before, leading the Orange and Black shell by nearly three lengths across the finish, while Harvard was two lengths behind the Tiger eight. For the first half-mile Princeton led way and bade fair to continue her lead, but at this point the Navy found herself and began to draw away steadily, never being headed again. May 13th saw the Princeton Varsity pitted against the Varsity shells of Pennsylvania and Columbia on Lake Carnegie. After both the Freshman and Junior Varsity shells had triumphed over the Red and Blue with Columbia bringing up the rear in each race, the Orange and Black Varsity made a clean sweep of the Regatta in a magnificent race, crossing the finish a quarter-length ahead of Columbia in the final spurt, the Penn shell being two and a quarter lengths behind the Blue and White. This race brought the Childs Cup to Princeton for the first time since the War.

In the last triangular regatta of the season, with Yale and Cornell on the Housatonic, May 20th, the Tiger crew was forced to take second place to the more powerful Red crew, which, drawing ahead steadily after the first mile, led the Orange and Black by three lengths and a half across the line, with the hopelessly outclassed Yale crew laboring four more lengths to rear. Princeton’s 150 crew rowed to an easy victory over Harvard and Yale in the Henley event, leading the latter by two and a half lengths. The American Henley Regatta on the Schuylkill, May 27th, saw Pirie’s crew triumph in its last race of the season, beating out the Navy junior varsity crew by a quarter length, and both Penn’s junior varsity and 150-pound crews. It thus established for itself a perfect record of victories. The 150-pound crew lost to Penn, but beat Yale, while the Third Varsity lost to Harvard and the Navy. Dr. Spaeth said of the season: “Although the record of the Varsity Crew of 1922 did not equal that of the crew of 1921, that defeated the Navy and Cornell, the season of 1922 was the best that Princeton has known, so far as all-round rowing proficiency is concerned.” 1924 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1922 LIGHTWEIGHT CREWS
THE LIGHTWEIGHTS WHO WON THE FIRST HARVARDYALE-PRINCETON RACE – 1922
Became Goldthwait Cup in 1924 with trophy put up by Kimball Prince, Harvard ’24
F.Ellis ’23, T.Witherspoon ’22, M.Baird ’24, B.Read ’23, H.Guthrie ’24, L.Cushing ’22, R.Williamson ’22, S.Mueller ’22 (Stroke), H.Miner ’23 (Cox), G.Sikes ’16 (Coach)

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1925
R.McLeod, J.Hayden, C.Williams (Capt.), E.G.Leigh, F.Ball, J.Thorpe, F.Connor, W.Scull (Stroke), A.Kennedy (Cox)

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GOLDTHWAIT CUP
THE VINCENT BOWDITCH GOLDTHWAIT
Trophy Put Up By Kimball Prince

GOLDTHWAIT CUP

Harvard Class of 1924

MEMORIAL TROPHY
Harvard - Yale - Princeton Annual Regatta

1922 Princeton 1923 Yale 1924 Harvard 1925 Harvard 1926 Princeton 1927 Harvard 1928 Princeton 1929 Harvard 1930 Yale 1931 Yale 1932 Yale 1933 Princeton 1934 Yale 1935 Princeton 1936 Yale 1937 Yale 1938 Harvard 1939 Harvard 1940 Harvard 1941 Harvard 1942 Harvard 1943-6 (No Race) 1947 Harvard 1948 Harvard 1949 Princeton 1950 Yale 1951 Yale 1952 Harvard 1953 Princeton 1954 Princeton 1955 Princeton 1956 Princeton 1957 Princeton 1958 Harvard 1959 Harvard 1960 Harvard 1961 Harvard 1962 Harvard

1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Princeton Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard Yale Harvard Princeton Yale Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Yale Princeton Harvard Yale Yale Yale Harvard Princeton Princeton Princeton Harvard Princeton Princeton Yale

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93

1923 HEAVYWEIGHT CREWS
VARSITY
W.G.Dyer ’25, R.W.McClenahan ’24, E.C.Wilcox ’23, F.H.Connor ’25, C.L.Austin ’24, C.T.Jackson ’23, F.E.Burke ’23, G.W.Burnham ’24, R.W.Laidlaw ’24 (Cox)

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1926
C.H.Cromwell, G.F.Hawkins, C.G.Buffum, A.M.Helmrath, W.R.Deemer, T.F.Trimble, W.H.Forrest (Capt.), R.L.Barnes, A.F.Adams (Cox)

COACH
MATTHEW BAIRD ’24
Volunteer Freshman Coach 1924-25

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Review of the 1923 Crew Season
The 1923 Crew Season, while not as successful as in former years, was characterized by hard work and the determination of the men to win in spite of inexperience. The Varsity stroked by Captain J.T. Pirie, II, ’24, triumphed over Harvard, finished second to the Navy, but lost to its other four opponents. In the Henley Regatta on the Schuylkill, the Junior Varsity, exhibiting better form than any seen in a Tiger boat during the season, finished three feet behind the winning Penn combination. The Childs Cup regatta at Philadelphia, April 28th, opened the season for both the Varsity and Junior Varsity crews. Columbia’s varsity eight, displaying remarkably good form and driving power for so early in the season, avenged its defeat of the year before, leading the Penn shell by three lengths across the finish, while the Orange and Black was three lengths behind the Red and Blue eight. Columbia made a clean sweep of the regatta, when the Blue and White Junior Varsity rowed to victory by the margin of two lengths over Penn, and the Tigers trailed the Red and Blue by only half a length, fighting until the final stroke. May 5th saw the Princeton Varsity pitted against the Varsity shells of Harvard and the Navy in a triangular regatta on Lake Carnegie. The Tiger crew was forced to take second place to the more powerful Navy eight, which repeated its victory of last year. The Navy began to draw away steadily from the start, and led the Orange and Black by six lengths across the line, with the outclassed Harvard crew bringing up the rear. The Harvard Freshman shell, however, triumphed over the Navy, with the Orange and Black one length behind. In the last triangular regatta of the season, with Yale and Cornell at Ithaca, May 19th, Yale’s oarsmen rowed to a well-earned victory by defeating the combinations of Cornell and Princeton in the struggle for the Carnegie Cup. Cornell finished one length behind the winner, and Princeton trailed five lengths in the rear. The Freshman race was captured by the fast Cornell crew, which rowed the distance in one less second than the Eli Varsity. Yale was second and the Tiger third. Yale’s 150-crew defeated Harvard and Princeton in the Henley event at Cambridge, Princeton finishing third. The Junior Varsity, in the last race of the season at the Henley Regatta on the Schuylkill, May 26th, was nosed out of a victory by the Penn Junior Crew. The Orange and Black boat led until the last half mile, when Penn started a spurt which carried the Quaker shell across the line a winner by three feet. The Third Varsity took second place to Harvard, while the 150-pound crew lost to Penn and Yale. 1925 BRIC-A-BRAC

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PRINCETON–NAVY (SMITH) TROPHY
PRINCETON–NAVY REGATTA TROPHY
Presented by

William M. Smith, Princeton ’25
Awarded for the combined point total of Heavyweight First and Second Varsity, and First Freshmen Men
TEAM POINTS TROPHY 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 Navy Princeton Princeton Princeton Navy Navy Navy Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Navy Princeton Princeton Princeton 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Princeton Princeton Princeton (No Competition) Navy Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton

VARSITY RACE WINNER CUP — MEN’S HEAVYWEIGHT 1913 1915 1916 1919 1921 1922 1923 1925 1927 1930 1932 1933 1934 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1946 1947 1948 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 Navy Navy Princeton Navy Princeton Navy Navy Navy Navy Navy Navy Princeton Princeton Navy Navy Navy Navy Princeton Princeton Navy Navy Navy Navy Navy Princeton Princeton Navy Navy Navy Navy 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Princeton Navy Princeton Navy Navy Navy Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Navy Navy Navy Princeton Princeton Navy Princeton Navy Navy Navy Navy Navy Navy Navy 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Navy Navy Princeton Navy Princeton Navy (No Competition) Navy Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton

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COACHES
J. Duncan Spaeth
Murray Professor of English Literature Volunteer Coach of Crew and Director of Rowing 1910-1925
J. Duncan Spaeth was the loudest living faculty member. When he lectured in McCosh 50 the rumble carried to Nassau Street and when he boomed out over Lake Carnegie, oarsmen trembled in their shells half a mile away. He was not your slight, shrill noisemaker, but robust, tumultuous, Elizabethan; his ample gestures included the whole universe in one sweep of the arm. He was Princeton’s Paul Bunyan and his saga was a fascinating and as fantastic as any legend of the logging camps, or of Beowulf, whose story Dr. Spaeth translated into rugged modern English. Obviously he was in his element delivering majestic scenes from Shakespeare, the rowdier books of the Canterbury Tales, or the sulphurous addresses of Jonathan Edwards. But here is the anomaly: this great bulk of a man, snorting and guffawing as Flagstaff, can turn to lines of Ophelia or Juliet or a fragile poem of Emily Dickinson and read them with quiet beauty and effectiveness; no wonder he was favorite lecturer for several Princeton classes. He came here in 1905 after ten years’ teaching at Central High School in Philadelphia. He graduated, Phi Beta Kappa, from Penn in 1888 and went to Leipzig for his Ph.D. During the war he organized the army’s work among illiterates and wrote the indispensable Camp Reader for American Soldiers. But at this point we can envision letters from Henry B. Thompson ’77, Heinie Leh ’21, and other great oarsmen asking, “What about crew?” Dr. Spaeth was Princeton’s amateur crew coach for fifteen years and during that period he startled the country. Not only did the amateur defeat the best professionals but he did it with an efficiency which caused athletic treasurers to examine his technique. While most institutions had crew appropriations of $15,000, Princeton was beating them on one-third that sum. Dr. Spaeth relinquished the coaching job in 1925, but just try to keep him away from the lake! If he should be absent some afternoon, however, he would be represented just the same, for the coach’s launch is appropriately called The Doctor. Princeton Alumni Weekly April 27, 1934 Famous Quotes from the Doctor: “I like to take my exercise sitting down. Furthermore, I’d rather be a member of forward-moving, backward-looking team, than of a forward-looking but backward-moving team!” “Never use a megaphone when you should use a monkey-wrench!” “Never play a sport which you can’t afford to lose, but then play that sport as if you couldn’t afford to lose it!”

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1924 HEAVYWEIGHT CREWS
VARSITY
W.G.Dyer ’25, J.H.Hayden ’25, W.A.Rentschler ’25, C.L.Austin ’24, W.L.Forrest ’26, J.R.Thorpe ’25, T.H.Darnell ’25, J.T.Pirie ’24, A.Kennedy ’25 (Cox)

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1927
E.B.Eckerson, C.K.Wilson, R.C.Collins, R.D.Magee, W.R.Ballard, H.Clark, S.Goodman, J.W.Aitken (Capt.), L.R.Pirie (Cox)

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Review of the 1924 Crew Season
The first race for the University crews in 1924 was scheduled for Saturday, May 3rd at Annapolis. The Varsity, Junior Varsity and Freshman Crews, journeyed with their shells to Annapolis on the second of May, but on account of rough water it was impossible to row the race. The next event was the Yale-Cornell-Princeton Regetta for the Carnegie cup and the Yale-Harvard-Princeton triangular for 150 lb. Crews. This was rowed at Princeton on Saturday afternoon, May 17, and proved to be the most disastrous afternoon for Princeton in rowing since her competition with Yale and Cornell had begun in 1911. In the Junior Varsity race Princeton looked like a sure winner, until less than a hundred yards from the finish, when a crab in the Princeton shell caused disorganization and Yale won by less than a second. Time: Yale 10.18 1/5, Princeton, 10.19. In the next event, the Freshman race, Princeton secured a lead of open water in the middle of the race, but evidently had rowed too high a stroke and allowed Yale to pass just before the finish was reached, but defeating the Cornell Freshmen. In the 150 lb. Race for a mile and 5/16 Harvard was first, time 8.50:1/5, Yale, second, 8:51: 4/5, Princeton, third, 8:58. In the Varsity race Yale’s championship crew swept to an easy victory over Princeton and Cornell. Times, Yale, 9.43, Cornell, 9.57, Princeton, 10.12. The Childs Cup Regetta between Pennsylvania, Columbia, and Princeton, was rowed at Philadelphia as part of the American Rowing Association Regatta on May 31st, and was won by Pennsylvania, with Columbia second and Princeton third, Princeton having held her own until rough water was encountered half way down the course. Neither the Junior Varsity, nor the Third Varsity placed in their events, but the Freshman Crew rowed a brilliant race, defeating the Pennsylvania Freshman, who later won their event in the Poughkeepsie Regatta, and the powerful Navy Plebes Crew in the fast time of 6.55. 1926 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1925 HEAVYWEIGHT CREWS
VARSITY
Standing: S.Goodman ’27, D.H.Smith ’26, J.W.Aitken ’27, R.D.Magee ’27 Seated: L.M.Pirie ’27, F.E.Ball ’25, W.G.Dyer ’25 (Capt.), R.J.Van Gytenbeck ’25, H.Clark ’26

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1928
J.P.Wilson, W.C.Spruance, S.M.Becker, A.Z.F.Wood, H.W.Large, J.Langhorne, H.R.Stratford, A.Alexander, H.Shaw (Cox)

COACH CHARLES P. LOGG
Washington ’21 Assistant to Dr. Spaeth Varsity Coach 1925-26 1926-31

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Review of the 1925 Crew Season
The first notable occurrence of the season came the week beginning April 20, when the University crews had as their guest the Harvard crews. The practice together was very helpful to all the crews and Harvard was most grateful for the hospitality shown them. The first race for the University crews was held May 2, on Lake Carnegie. The Navy Varsity, Junior Varsity, and Freshmen Crews, with leads of from two and a half to four lengths, defeated the Princeton crews. The 150 lb. Princeton crew, rowing over the Henley distance, lost to the M.I.T. crew by three-fourths of a length in the most exciting race of the regatta. The next event of the season was the Yale-Cornell-Princeton Regatta for the Carnegie Cup and the Yale-Harvard-Princeton triangular for 150 lb. Crews, held May 16, at Derby. Yale easily won the varsity race, with Princeton finishing third, behind Cornell. In the junior varsity contest Princeton gave Yale a close race for the first half mile but finished second. Again, in the Freshman race Princeton was overhauled by Yale with its usual long, slow New Haven stroke, and finished second. Over the Henley distance the Princeton 150 lb. Crew fought hard to maintain its lead over the Harvard and Yale shells and though passed by Harvard led Yale throughout the race. In the Childs Cup Regatta, on the Harlem, May 23, the Princeton Varsity crew, rowing its best race of the season, pushed the Pennsylvania shell hard, but lost by several lengths, Columbia trailing six lengths in the rear. The Freshman race was also won by Pennsylvania, Princeton second, and Columbia third. The American Henley Regatta on the Schuylkill, May 30th finished an unsuccessful season for Princeton. Pennsylvania’s 150 lb. Crew led Harvard by three lengths and Yale, Princeton and Columbia by a wider margin. Pennsylvania also led in the Junior Varsity race over most of the course, but was passed by Syracuse in a final sprint. Harvard took third place and Navy came in fourth, only a few feet ahead of the Princeton Junior Varsity shell. 1927 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1926 CREWS
HEAVYWEIGHT VARSITY
H.R.Stratford ’28, S.Goodman ’27, T.A.Platz ’26, W.F.Ballard ’27, A.M.Helmrath ’27, A.Z.F.Wood ’28, H.Clark ’27, J. Langhorne ’28, A.Kennedy ’26 (Cox)

150 LB. VARSITY
Goldthwait Cup
A.Zinsser ’26, S.S.Cooley ’27, J.H.W.Thompson ’28, H.W.Whiton ’26, B.W.Read ’26, W.B.Krag ’27, C.H.Cromwell ’26 (Capt.), G.F.Hawkins ’26, D.L.Barry ’26 (Cox), H.E.Dunn ’27 (Mgr.)

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1929
J.B.Ballantine, W.A.Patty, C.S.Bromley, J.M.Thompson, J.V.Quarles, R.B.Kenyon, J.F.Lawrence, J. Alison, C.MacRae (Cox)

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Review of the 1926 Crew Season
On May 8 the Princeton crews rowed their first races with Harvard and M.I.T. on Lake Carnegie. In the Varsity race Princeton looked like a sure winner with an open water lead at the mile mark, but evidently had rowed too high a stroke and allowed Harvard to cross the finish line a quarter of a length in the lead. The Princeton Junior Varsity eight completely outclassed and swept across the finish two and a half lengths ahead of the Crimson shell. In the 150 lb. event the Princeton combination suffered its only defeat of the season by trailing the powerful M.I.T. crew down the entire Henley distance. However, Princeton managed to cut down the lead to one length at the finish. On the following Saturday the 150 lb. Crew staged a comeback by defeating both Yale and Harvard over the course at Cambridge. The Tigers rowed a smooth, steady, and wisely planned race, exhibiting a style of oarsmanship of which Princeton has been lacking in the last few years. The Princeton Varsity, Junior Varsity, and Freshman crews journeyed to Ithaca for the Carnegie Cup Race on May 22. Miserable weather conditions prevented the Varsity and Junior Varsity events. The Freshman race which was started contrary to the approval of the coaches who considered Lake Cayuga in too dangerous a mood to risk a race proved to be a battle with the elements rather than a crew race. The Tiger yearlings maintained a substantial lead until at the quarter mark the shell filled and almost sank. Yale took the opportunity and overcame the Tiger lead to win by a scant half length with Cornell a poor third. At the finish the Tiger shell swamped, but luckily the shore provided a safe landing for men and boat. The powerful Pennsylvania Varsity crew defeated both Princeton and Columbia in the Childs Cup Race on Lake Carnegie on May 29. The Red and Blue shell main-

tained a safe lead up the entire course and crossed the finish three lengths ahead of Princeton and six lengths ahead of Columbia. The most exciting race of the season was the Freshman race between Pennsylvania, Columbia, and Princeton that preceded the Varsity event. The Orange and Black yearlings got off to a poor start, but in a cleverlyrowed race succeeded in passing the Pennsylvania crew and pushed up even with the Columbia crew in the last quarter, only to lose by a split second at the finish. The climax of the 1926 crew season was reached on May 31st when the Princeton 150 1b. crew won the American Henley Regatta at Philadelphia. The Princeton crew exhibited a superb form of rowing, defeating Pennsylvania, Navy, Yale, Columbia, and Harvard, in the order named. In the Junior Varsity event which followed Princeton finished two lengths behind the winning Syracuse crew, which although representing a junior varsity crew was composed of varsity oarsmen. Pennsylvania, Harvard, and Columbia finished third, fourth, and fifth respectively. In a post-season race the Varsity and Junior Varsity crews were completely outclassed by the Washington crews which a week later won the Poughkeepsie Regatta. 1928 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1927 CREWS
HEAVYWEIGHT CHAMPIONSHIP CREW
Carnegie Cup Childs Cup
Standing: A.Jenny ’27 (Mgr.), J.Thompson ’28, J.Quarles ’29, J.Lawrence ’29, J.Ballantine ’29, J.Alison ’29, Coach C.Logg Seated: H.Cook ’27, S.Becker ’28, H.Clark ’27 (Capt.), H.Stratford ’28, W.Rutherfurd ’28

LIGHTWEIGHT VARSITY
J.H.W.Thompson ’28, S.S.Cooley ’27, W.Beale ’27, T.Kerr ’29, E.Eckerson ’27, W.B.Krag ’27 (Capt.), G.Dayton ’28, J.Plume ’28, I.P.Nevius ’28

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1930
P.H.Steinmetz, H.M.Jones, R.E.Reeves, H.E.Ensley, J.L.Tonetti, D.A.Lowry, G.C.Voorhees, S.B. Lloyd (Capt.), J.K.Howe (Cox)

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Review of the 1927 Crew Season
Coach Logg, beginning his second year as Head Crew Coach with only two Varsity men and a promising 1929 crew to build upon, was faced with a hard task. However, by intensive fall and winter work, he fashioned an eight which bade fair to avenge the defeats of last year. On May 7, on the rough waters of the Charles River, this new Tiger crew was vanquished by a more powerful and experienced M.I.T. boat. For the first three quarters of a mile the Nassau oarsmen held their own but here the Tech slipped ahead and, despite a Tiger sprint in the last quarter mile, crossed the line two lengths in the lead. The Princeton 150 pounders were nosed out after fighting vigorously for the lead the whole distance but the Tiger cubs staved off a complete defeat by leaving the M.I.T. freshmen six lengths behind at the finish. Then, after two weeks’ hard work, the Princeton oarsmen, hosts to Yale and Cornell for the Carnegie Cup Race, were most inhospitable when they out-rowed and out-lasted the Blue to win by half a length, with Cornell a length and a half behind. Yale, hitherto undefeated for five successive years, held even with the Tiger boat to the half way mark but there lagged a bit and relinquished the lead to Princeton, a lead which was held to the end. A last minute answer to the Eli cox’s red flag was met by an incontestable, determined Princeton surge, which carried the Nassau men over the line in a spectacular, halflength victory. Yale retaliated by nosing out the Tiger 150 pound shell by half length and by scoring an easy win in the Junior Varsity Race, in which the Nassau boat came third. The Princeton yearling eight, however, once more gained a Princeton victory by out-stroking both the Yale and Columbia 1930 crews. Though the Princeton Varsity went to the Philadelphia races intending to race only for the Childs Cup, Navy’s complaint as to the scarcity of Steward’s Cup aspirants resulted in a combining of the two races into one. Navy’s powerful undefeated eight was easily master of the field with Princeton trailing the Penn A. C. crew over the line. Early in the race Columbia, Nassau’s strongest rival for the Childs Cup, drew even with the Princeton boat which then pulled half a length ahead and held this lead until the last minute when Columbia’s last heart breaking spurt fell short by a few feet. The Childs Cup was Princeton’s. Penn, never a threatening contender brought up the rear. The Princeton 150’s trailed the field which Penn led in the record time of 6:39 4/5 while the Tiger cubs were nosed out by a strong Navy Plebe boat, which bettered the Varsity’s time. The Princeton Junior Varsity, represented by Beardsley’s shell which, the week before, had won this honor over Patty’s boat, took an unexpected beating from Penn and Navy while the former J-V’s ran the Yale third boat a hard but losing race in the Third Varsity Race for the William S.R. Brown Cup. 1929 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1928 HEAVYWEIGHT CREWS
VARSITY
Standing: ?, ?, A.Strang ’33, ?, ? Seated: G.G.Sikes ’16 (Coach), W.Rutherfurd ’28, G.Merrill ’31, J.Rutherfurd ’32, ?

JUNIOR VARSITY
H.M.Jones ’30, C.S.Bromley ’29, J.D.Winsor ’29, A.S.Alexander ’28, J.L.Tonetti ’30, D.A.Lowry ’30, C.B.Eddy ’30, S.B.Lloyd ’30 (Stroke), C.MacRae ’29 (Cox)

FRESHMEN
— Class of 1931
A.B.Wolfe, C.H.Moore, A.Uihlein, H.F.Shoemaker, T.J.Skillman, R.T.Miller, R.Burkham, J.W.Clingerman, R.L.Colmore (Cox, Capt.)

106

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LYMAN BIDDLE MEDAL
THE W. LYMAN BIDDLE MEDAL
The W. Lyman Biddle Medal for good sportsmanship in rowing is awarded to that oarsman, a member of the senior class, and a member of the Men’s Heavyweight Crew, who in the judgment of the members of all varsity crews which have raced, has throughout the year shown the best sportsmanship and done most for rowing.
1922 John Sinclaire ‘22 1923 John Story Wright ‘23 1924 John Thomas Pirie II ‘24 1925 Charles Watkins Williams ‘25 1926 Charles Hammond Cromwell, Jr. ‘26 1927 Howard Clark ‘27 1928 Archibald Stevens Alexander ‘28 1929 James MacNaughton Thompson ‘29 1930 Garret Coerte Voohees ‘30 1931 Lucius Felt Hallett, Jr. ‘31 1932 James Grierson Shennan ‘32 1933 Joseph Wilson Johnson, Jr. ‘33 1934 Rusling Wood, Jr. ‘34 1935 Roger Stanley Firestone ‘35 1936 Albridge Clinton Smith III ‘36 1937 Grant Eddy Armstrong ‘37 1938 Thomas Roberts McMillen ‘38 1939 Henry Robert Fischer ‘39 1940 Alexis Irenee duPont Bayard ‘40 1941 Peter Michael Dean ‘41 1942 Eugene Waterman Mason, Jr. ‘42 1943 Lon Fredrick Israel ‘45 1944 No Award 1945 No Award 1946 No Award 1947 John Belcher Ashmun ‘45 1948 Peter Van Wyck Gardner ‘46 Francis Fels Rosenbaum, Jr. ‘48 1949 Michael Wright Huber ‘49 1950 Robert B. O’Connor, Jr. ‘50 1951 Thomas Matthew Marshall ‘51 1952 Edgar Martin Masinter ‘52 1953 John Childress Beck ‘53 Jay Winfield Jacobs ‘53 1954 Brandon Hart ‘54 1955 Oral Offil Miller ‘55 1956 John Detjens III ‘56 1957 Benjamin D. Williams III ‘57 1958 A. Kenneth Blaydow ‘58 1959 Edward A. Lasater ‘59 1960 Robert D. Bach ‘60 1961 John E. Bjorkholm ‘61 1962 R. Dale LeCount, Jr. ‘62 1963 Anthony A. Jones ‘63 1964 Findley Meislahn ‘64 1965 John C. Nickerson Ill ‘65 1966 Guilbert C. Hentschke ‘66 Sankey V. Williams ‘66 1967 James R. Millar ‘67 1968 Peter H. Raymond ‘68 1969 Raymond G. Wright ‘69 1970 Kenneth S. Klarquist ‘70 1971 Ronald J. Brachman ‘71 1972 James R. Paulson ‘72 1973 Daniel A. Hudacek ‘73 1974 Stephen F. Deutsch ‘74 1975 Thomas C. Daley ‘75 1976 No Award 1977 Lawrence A. Smith ‘77 1978 Timothy M. McNamara ‘78 1979 Colin C. Campbell ‘79 1980 John E. Graham ‘80 1981 Daniel J. Roock ‘81 1982 Philip M. Jacobs ‘82 William W. Somers ‘82 1983 Eric L. Horschman ‘83 1984 Mark Wilson ‘84 1985 John C. Feudtner ‘85 1986 Matthew F. Corcoran ‘86 Steven J. Spear ‘86 1987 William H. Chung ‘87 William N. Sheehan ‘87 1988 Philip A. Jones ‘88 1989 Paul J. Caminiti ‘89 1990 Andrew D. Morrow ‘90 1991 Eric K. Karplus ‘91 1992 E. Wyman Morriss ‘92 1993 Tyler Dann ‘93 1994 James Z. Fawcett ‘94 1995 Donald F. Fornes ‘95 1996 Colin M.Farmer ’96 1997 Tedman K. Carson ’97 Timothy J. Richter ’97 1998 Christian P. Ahrens ’98 1999 Thomas R. Welsh ’99 2000 David C. Bordeau ’00

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1928 LIGHTWEIGHT CREWS
LIGHTWEIGHTS BEAT HARVARD & YALE
Goldthwait Cup May 19, 1928
Princeton 6:56; Harvard 6:57; Yale 7:01

A stirring finish in the lightweight boatrace for the eastern “big three,” rowed at New Haven, Ct., on May 19, Princeton winning with Harvard second and Yale third.

VARSITY
J.H.W.Thompson ’28, D.D.Smith ’28, A.Knapp ’28, T.B.Kerr ’29, E.S.Reynolds ’28, O.B.Willcox ’28, G.C.Voorhees ’30, H.E.Mole ’29 (Stroke), R.E.Nevius ’28 (Cox), N.J.Beaudries ’29 (Mgr.), G.G.Sikes ’16 (Coach)

WINTHROP RUTHERFURD ’28
Varsity Heavyweight Oarsman National Sculling Champion Diamond Scull Finalist – Henley

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Review of the 1928 Crew Season
Beginning the season with an entire boatload of Varsity veterans and a husky 1930 crew from which to build a championship crew, Coach Logg was justified in feeling a bit confident, but alas! Pride goeth before a fall. Bad weather and rough water hindered the first workouts and the first crews were tardy in rounding into form. However, on April 28, in their debut, three Princeton crews swept to victory over their M.I.T. opponents. The 1931 crew and the 150 pounders triumphed by long leads but the Varsity race was a fight all the way, and only a dogged spurt at the finish saved the Tiger lead. Two weeks later, after sweeping the boards in the Childs Cup preliminaries, Princeton went down in defeat in the main race before the powerful sweeps of Columbia and Penn because, as Dr. Spaeth, former crew coach, said, they didn’t row fast enough. Illness and lethargy having undermined the potency and power that was the Varsity, Coach Logg decided to use Lloyd’s Jayvee boat in the Carnegie Cup race, but this combination, stroking cleanly and fighting gamely, trailed Yale and Cornell. The 150 pound crew, undaunted by the Varsity’s set-back, out-fought the Harvard lightweights to bring the Goldthwait Cup to Princeton while the Tiger Freshmen furnished the thrill of the afternoon when, after catching two “crabs,” they sprinted for almost a mile to leave the Yale boat a length behind at the finish. Winding up the season, the 150 pound crew took third in the American Henley Regatta at Philadelphia while the third Varsity was nosed out at the finish by a powerful Yale crew. Oarsmen from the Varsity, Junior Varsity and Freshman crews went into training after exams for the Olympic trials and, while meeting with fair success, were no match for the great California crew. 1930 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1929 HEAVYWEIGHT CREWS
VARSITY
J.B. Ballantine ’29, A.A. Jones ’31, J.F. Lawrence ’29, G.G. Merrill ’31, R.Burkham ’31, J.M. Thompson ’29 (Capt.) J.O. Pease ’31, J.W. Clingerman ’31, R.L.Colmore ’31 (Cox)

JUNIOR VARSITY
A.B. Wolfe ’31, T.W. Armitage ’29, A. Uihlein ’31, D. Chamberlain ’30, J.D. Winsor ’29, R.T. Miller ’31, J.C. McPherson ’29, C.B. Bromley ’29, C. Meneely ’29 (Cox)

FRESHMEN
—Class of 1932
D.H. Hooker, R.M. McIver, C. Schieffelin, J.P. Rutherfurd, F.R. Zundel, F.B. Kellogg, M. West, J.G. Shennan, A.M. Alvord (Cox)

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Review of the 1929 Crew Season
With but four 1928 Varsity men returning, Coach Logg was faced with a difficult task. But on April 27, over a new course on the Charles, the Varsity beat M.I.T., keeping a high stroke on rough water. The Junior Varsity and 150 pound crews were likewise successful. Although maintaining a slower stroke, they had good drive and run. On May 11, at Princeton, however, the story was a different one. Columbia, by dint of superior oarsmanship, took all honors, winning every race by a comfortable margin. In the evening a dinner was held to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of The Childs Cup Races, in 1879. The historic cup was on exhibition, showing that Columbia’s victory was its sixth since the revival of the races in eights. Princeton and Penn have each won five times. The following week Princeton contended with Cornell and Yale for the Carnegie Cup at Ithaca. The sons of Eli came in first in both the Varsity and Junior Varsity races, Princeton coming in second in the latter event. The Third Varsity took third place in The American Henley Regatta held May 25 at Philadelphia. The 150-Pound Crews also trailed the leaders. Lack of better success was largely due to poor judgement in timing, and the absence of speed in the individual members of the crews. 1931 BRIC-A-BRAC

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1929 LIGHTWEIGHT CREWS
VARSITY
S.VanDuyne ’30, T.F.Wimberly ’30, J.P.Kipp ’31, T.B.Kerr ’29 (Capt.), P.H.Steinmetz ’30, O.B.Willcox ’30, L.F.Hallett ’31, C.H.Moore ’31, H.M.Hipple ’29 (Cox)

INDOOR ROWING MACHINE
Crews work out daily under the direction of Coach ‘Chuck’ Logg. Machines are mounted in a new gym atop the Athletic Building

CLEMENT B. NEWBOLD ’28
Volunteer Freshman Coach 1931-34

COACH

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