ackissues -> CC24 -> Sow the wild seed by DMT, photos by Barge (17 Feb, 2000) Growing outdoors can be as simple

as preparing a site and planting some seeds. Planting outdoors needn't be as complicated as many make it. Far too much emphasis these days is placed on cloning, when growing from seed is infinitely more interesting. Direct seeding outdoors may not be for everyone, but it is certainly a simple and time honoured method of growing our favourite plant. Why direct seeding? In nature, female cannabis plants grow together with their male counterparts, becoming impregnated by the golden pollen come fall. As the calyx shrinks back and starts to rot away at the end of the season, the mature seed falls to the ground, where it remains until conditions are right for its germination. One of the main effects of cloning is that each plant is exactly the same as its sibling. While this may be an advantage indoors, it can work against you outdoors. A strain's gene pool provides the ability to adapt to different climates and conditions. For example, we might have a very wet autumn one year, causing a large outbreak of Botrytis (mold) in your bud. Out of one hundred plants grown from seed, twenty of them may be relatively free of mold, while the others are destroyed. These twenty plants have some inherited trait making them resistant to Botrytis, and this adaptability is what allows plants to reproduce and survive from year to year under varying conditions. Should you have chosen only two mothers and cloned from them, the odds are that you would have suffered a full crop loss. This genetic diversity is much more pronounced in true breeding lines rather than F1 hybrids, but luckily this works with us as many of the available outdoor seed strains are in fact true breeding. One reason to choose direct seeding over simply starting plants from seed under lights and then transplanting them outside is that a plant's roots adjust to the conditions it grows in. For example, the roots of plants grown in a hydroponics set-up will not perform well if suddenly placed in soil. Plants started inside are spoiled, they are given water whenever they want it, never being forced to do anything for themselves. Then they are thrown outside one day, and left at the mercy of Mother Nature. Plants seeded outside develop roots suited to their exact soil and moisture conditions, never producing more plant mass than the roots can support. In most areas, directly seeded cannabis need never be watered throughout the season, though irrigation will of course increase yield, especially during flowering. Direct seeding also eliminates the carrying of suspicious and cumbersome boxes of plants into hard to reach areas, a major hassle of guerrilla growing. Choosing a Location Once you have a general idea of where you want to grow, a good place to visit is your local university, library or map supplier. Here you can find detailed topographical maps of the area, as well as soil maps indicating whether it is suitable for growing (many soil maps will indicate whether an area is farmable). Look for areas with some access to water in case of drought.

River valleys are ideal locations as good soil usually accumulates there, and there is also easy access to water. If planting in valleys, make sure not to choose a location at the very bottom, as this is where frost will settle. Preparing the Site Ideally, the site should be prepared the previous summer or fall, giving organic fertilizers time to break down into useable nutrients and eliminating hectic spring preparations. This is especially important when direct seeding, as turning the soil right before planting dries out the top layer, losing precious moisture needed for germination. Stay clear of blood and bone meal, as they attract bears, raccoons and a host of other creatures to the site, where they will dig up plants and destroy seedlings while searching for the source of the smell. Other things to avoid are perlite, vermiculite and rockwool, as they stand out like a sore thumb in the off-season, attracting the attention of potential thieves of next year's crop. Dig holes or trenches two to three feet deep, and at least two feet wide. A good mix of several organic fertilizers is the best bet, as different ingredients release fertilizers at different rates. Worm castings and sheep manure are good sources for nitrogen, as well as having excellent waterholding capacities. However, be careful not to overdo it with manure, as a large amount of the nitrogen is in the ammonium form, which will cause stretched, disease-susceptible plants in too large a dose. Phosphorous is best supplied with rock phosphate or bat guano, or a mixture of both. Follow recommended label rates, and again, be careful not to overdo. Although phosphorous is necessary for proper growth of cannabis, too much emphasis is placed on it in marijuana cultivation. Excess amounts lead to long internodes and acidified soil. Potassium can be added with the addition of muriate of potash, kelp meal or wood ash. Care is needed here as overdoing an application can raise your soil EC too high, burning your plants, especially delicate seedlings. This applies to kelp meal in particular, as it also contains large amounts of sodium. A final addition beneficial to most soils is dolomite or horticultural lime, which keeps your ph in check as well as supplying calcium and magnesium. If in doubt of your soil ph, simply mix some soil with a similar amount of distilled water, let it sit for thirty minutes, and then check with a ph meter or test strip. Anything between 5.5 and 7 will work fine for our purposes. In a commercial garden it might make sense to send a soil sample to be tested, especially if using the same spot for several years. This can be done at any agricultural university or a variety of businesses advertised in gardening magazines. Simply tell them it is for your vegetable garden and ask for organic recommendations. Sowing your seed This technique is best used by those who have access to a large amount of seeds. If you only have a pack of ten seeds do not even bother. A minimum sowing should be about 40 to 50 seeds for a small crop, as many will not germinate and about half will be male. For best results, soak seeds the night before in a covered glass of water, and then plant outside, pointed end up, at a spacing of about one seed for every four inches of area. Seeds can be planted anywhere from 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches deep depending on soil type � too shallow a planting will cause poor germination due to lack of moisture. Soil temperature is the major determining factor in deciding when to sow � it is best to wait until it

has reached 10-12�C (50-54�F). A soil thermometer can be obtained from many garden supply stores for about thirty dollars, or just use your judgement. Generally you want to plant about two weeks before you would normally transplant clones or seedlings. Small seedlings are actually much more cold-hardy than their adult counterparts, Indicas more so than Sativas due to the cold springs where they originate. Fungicides should not be needed provided the soil is properly warmed. If damping off does become a problem, drench with chamomile tea or no-damp. Thinning It is usually necessary to thin crowded or weak plants about a month after planting, but be careful not to pull too many before males indicate. Once all males are removed you want to be left with only vigorous plants, spaced wide enough to reach their maximum potential, yet close enough to make efficient use of your area. Outdoor threats Animals - Deer, rabbits and mice are the main menaces to a cannabis crop. Fences work, but can draw unwelcome attention to your garden. Luckily, the best defense is invisible � simply add scent to your garden that animals relate to predators. Fox or coyote urine can be bought from hunting supply stores (usually fall only), spray it around your plants on a regular basis and mice and rabbits will quickly vacate the area. Small pieces of soap placed or hung around the perimeter works well for repelling deer. It is important to scent the area well before you plant and a good idea to change brands of soap every three weeks so animals do not become accustomed to the scent. Flower Police - Police helicopters in most areas go up towards the end of August and are usually winding down by the third week of September. For the most part they simply act as common thieves, grabbing and running. Arrests are rare, but they have been known to stake out large crops. Always completely check out the surrounding area before entering a garden. Other Thieves - Not much you can do about these low-lifes other than tell no one about the garden, camouflage it well and leave no trails. Choosing a Strain Two things make direct seeding much easier: producing your own seed and growing a pure breeding strain. Luckily these go hand in hand, and many of today's outdoor strains are true breeding (although this is rarely advertised by seed companies). True breeding strains such as Durban, Early Girl or Holland's Hope are an advantage as the plants will all sex out and mature at the same time, minimizing trips to the garden. Once you have found a strain you like, stick with it and keep records, this way you will know from one year to the next when it is time to pull males or harvest. Other issues to look at are mold susceptibility, maturity dates, where it was bred and personal preference. Generally Sativas or strains with Ruderalis in them are less susceptible to molds because of their airier bud structure, while dense Indica-type floral clusters take a long time to dry after a rain, giving mold spores plenty of time to germinate. Maturity dates will vary depending on your latitude, most strains sold for outdoors generally finish from about September 5 to October 15. Keep in mind that even if you can have plants out into mid-October, the light level diminishes quickly after the

Try to select at least a few male plants and pollinate limbs on as many females as is convenient. Paper bags are good for collection of pollen. it is time to take control of your own seed supply. Never underestimate the damage potential of a bag of pollen in an unseeded garden. both of which will adversely affect yields. Pollen may also be very carefully painted onto pistils with a small brush. For outdoor strains it is best to pollinate about three weeks before harvest.second or third week of September. If you grow in the same region year after year your strain will gradually become acclimatized to your particular climate. with the fate of Dutch seed companies up in the air. transplant them to a location well away from any sinsemilla crops where they can be grown on until pollen release. this will keep the gene pool somewhat diverse. and heavy rains are much more likely. Once your males begin to show. If making an F1 hybrid. dry bud until very dry then rub between your palms over a stretched silk screen. simply choose your nicest male plant from one strain and cross it with a choice female of another. When removing seed from ripened colas. This works well for separating the seed as well as collecting a tasty sample of trichomes as reward for your hard work. This allows colas some time to fill out before pollination as well as providing seeds with plenty of time to ripen properly. these can then simply be tied tightly over female colas and left for three days to kill any unused pollen. Providing they are vigorous and to your liking. Saving Your Seed Especially now. Seed should be allowed to dry for at least a month then stored in a cool dry place with some dessicant until later use. .

This is why I like to supplement any commercial soil I use. Then worm castings are mixed in to about 15% of the finished product. When one gets to know one's local products well and gets the mix down just right. happy buds. Organic manic As for nutrients and supplements. It is a large consumer market to be explored. As for where to find a reliable organic garden supply store. Many fertilizers are made from industrial chemical sources and do not. practice makes perfect. or bat/seabird guano or seaweed for that matter. Any rich green manure will do. granulated charcoal. among other areas. tastes and effects which cannot yet be reproduced in hydroponic systems. the resulting success becomes evident. if the store clerk says anything to the affect of: "chemical or compost. The more natural elements are by far preferred. Superior soil It is possible to grow plants in specially prepared soil that will require no fertilizers in the water later on. The following is a simple recipe for a soil mix that has proven successful for me in the past. is another excellent source of food for plants. About 10% of the finished product is made up of some kind of organic compost. For soil used in the vegetative stage I like to add more worm castings than bat/seabird guano. Unlike hydro systems. birds. it don't make no difference. produce the highest quality. or rich�composted plant matter. bats. Green manure. It is up to the consumer to shop around in their area and get familiarized with the brands available in the local market. that do make clean products. For soil used in the bud cycle it's the opposite . Actual organic earth allows buds to produce flavours. in my opinion. There are some smaller companies up and down the West Coast. photos by Barge (04 May. These come from the more obvious natural sources such as worms. Most are not completely organic and may contain unwanted chemicals.Root your toot by DJ Short. soil is not meant to be a sterile medium. To this mix a specific dry fertilizer may be added. there are many on the market. fish. As with many other aspects of life. The mixture then needs to be moistened. washed sand and volcanic ash. 2001) The right soil and nutrients are key components to having phat. . plants and seaweed. depending on if the soil will hold a plant in vegetative or flower cycle.more bat/seabird guano than worm castings. My preference is for the most natural and organic substance available. The two main additives I use are worm castings and a bat/seabird guano mix. The perfectly moistened mix will hold together as clumps when squeezed but will not release any more than a drop or two of water. The best indoor buds are soil grown. well. Even the good local products tend to skimp on some of their ingredients. The final 5% is made up of a mixture of about equal parts trace mineral elements. There are a number of such commercial and specialty brands of potting soil on the market today. Quite the contrary. the best soils are very much alive and thriving. The bulk of the mix � about 70% of the finished product � is made up of equal parts peat or sphagnum moss (I prefer coarse cut sphagnum moss) and perlite." then you are not in a reliable organic garden supply store. either green or brown.

That is 30 parts N (nitrogen)-10 parts P (phosphorous)-10 parts K (potassium) is what is in a 30-10-10 fertilizer. Another method is to use the full amount of nutrient in a smaller amount of water to create a concentrate. Foliar feeding during the vegetative stage on the larger shade leaves that will be discarded is a relatively safe practice. especially during the flowering stage. low potassium fertilizers stimulate foliar and stem growth in the vegetative stage. An additive I like to use with every fertilizing is a Bvitamin hormone supplement such as Super Thrive. In contrast. There is no guarantee as to how much residue remains upon the foliage. and to not allow them to stand too long and stagnate. low phosphorous. high potassium fertilizers promote lush flower. it is important. bud and fruit growth in the bud or flower cycle. This is the preferred method of adding organic nutrient during watering. The teas are considered fresh when made. And I like to end all additives to the plant two to three weeks prior to harvest. Nematodes and tea Teas made from bat/bird guano and/or worm castings and/or green manure are an excellent source of organic nutrient. phosphorous and potassium (in that order) in the product. They must be kept refrigerated until they are ready to be used. N stands for Nitrogen. But I highly recommend a pure water flush for at least the last two watering times. and most are organic. It is important to use them immediately when they are ready. add the bat/bird guano. Another great additive for the organic garden are beneficial nematodes. Most fertilizers have a number consisting of three numbers such as: 30-10-10. P. and K levels. P stands for Phosphorous and K stands for Potassium. low nitrogen. These microscopic. not to use the foliar feeding method on any part of the plant that is destined to be consumed. Finding the "perfect amount" to add will take some practice. or what exactly that residue may be. These are the three main nutrients that plants need to thrive. Nutrient knowledge The primary knowledge concerning fertilizer and nutrient (other than its source) are its N. These teas are simple to make and easy to use. or some other porous medium. worm castings and/or green manure to the water. high phosphorous. or 5-37-15. usually refrigerated. A B-vitamin hormone such as Super Thrive may be given up to the last week. High nitrogen. I like to end all nitrogen to the plant at least five to six weeks prior to harvest.Some people choose to feed their plants by spraying a nutrient solution onto the plant and having it absorbed through the foliage. This product helps the plant better metabolize its nutrient uptake. living organisms are found at the more complete organic garden centers. Beneficial nematodes are cultivated and sold live. The tea is applied the same way the water is during watering. The tea will color the water similar to the shade of the nutrient (usually brown. Prepare a container with enough water for a full watering. The nutrient is allowed to sit and "steep" in the water releasing the nutrients' water soluble properties. when it is finally consumed. These numbers represent the ratio of nitrogen. Therefore. I tend to avoid doing it due to the fact that the foliage is inevitably going to be smoked. Though "foliar feeding" does work. The concentrate is then added to the full amount of water for watering. but sometimes green as with green manures). . The steeping takes anywhere from one day to several days. It is only necessary to use a small portion each time as they will reproduce profusely if properly introduced into the soil. Next. They usually come in a sponge.

and some way for the water to flow. while leaving the plant to thrive. tubing to carry the fluid to the plants. as well. (tepid . volcanic pumice. The entrepreneurs in the hydroponic industry are striving for the most natural hydro system. and soaked into the soil. and bacteria. the pots and medium that hold the roots of the plants. The same can be said about indoor versus outdoor growth. back into the reservoir. These are the basics when it comes to growing medium. Ideally. rockwool. The water soluble nutrient is mixed with the water in the reservoir and delivered to the plants via the pump and tubing several times a day. Once in the soil. Most systems also utilize a timer to automate this process. mold. These systems consist of a reservoir. nutrient and additives. the roots are regularly aerated and thus have excellent oxygen exposure. but once every month or two is sufficient.A small portion of the nematode colony is simply introduced into the water. spores. and are experimenting with many new nutrient products to achieve this end. a pump (or pumps). I have. rock corn and sand are some examples of hydroponic mediums.not too hot. Also. or be pumped. yet to sample a hydroponic grown product that surpassed a soil grown product in overall quality and flavor. however. The plant does not have to put as much energy into its roots and therefore has more energy for foliar and bud growth. insect larvae. Gravel. There are also ebb and flow. Hydroponic systems are famous for producing the largest amount of foliage and fruit. Most hydroponic systems provide nutrients via the water that is passed over the rocks several times daily. beneficial nematodes may be added as often as desired. PVC pipe. but they are much less common. Hydro Power Hydroponic medium is any sterile medium that will hold some water. the nematodes do their thing by multiplying and consuming the things detrimental to the plant. The incessant regimen tends to produce more of a bland finished product. wick and various other passive systems. Now it is your turn. This information was gained via experimentation on advice given to me in the past. but allows water and air to pass through. such as fungus. However. . That is. when grown outdoors in the right environment the finished bud is usually superior to its identical twin grown indoors. perlite. not too cold) with or without the organic fertilizer.

The method of planting into soil that I use is very basic and simple to understand. I have found the common turkey-baster to be of great value for this purpose. I like to use small. so be patient!) I have found the ideal temperature for sprouting most seeds to be around average room temperature (70-78�F or 21-25�C) . So keep a watchful eye open in a warmer situation. practice is the best guide for this skill. Under the shell is a thin sheath that may also need coaxing to get off. 2000) How to turn your seeds into healthy young plants Sprouting the seeds My preferred method of seed sprouting is the wet paper towel method.the plants that develop from these stubborn sprouts are usually very desirable. Though higher temperatures may hasten the sprouting time. the sprout will grow root. They will each need five or more drainage holes to be added to their bottom. Stacking ten to twenty cups at a time will hasten this process. When I do set the sprouts to soil. especially if breeding is intended with the sprouts. One more bit of advice concerns certain seeds which do not want to release from their shell. . Shelled sprouts I've found that these rare anomalies need help in shedding their shell or sheath in order to survive. two to four inch pots. fungus and bacteria levels. (On some occasions I've had seeds take up to two weeks to sprout. Again. Keep the pad wet and the seeds will usually sprout in one to ten days. However the seed shell does not come off of the sprout on its own. The shell seems to harden on the head of the sprout. It takes a very gentle yet firm hand to remove the shell without damaging or killing the plant. the seeds crack open along their seam and send out a white root. I like to bury them right up to the head of the plant so the head is right at the soil level. The seeds will sprout. Soak this square pad in pure water and place the seeds in the center fold. I like to wait for the root to grow an inch or two before transplanting the sprouts to soil (while keeping the paper towel pad continuously moist with water until this time). A great substitute for planting pots are the sixteen to twenty-four ounce disposable plastic drink cups. So it is worth the effort. Take six sheets of white (nonprinted) paper towel and fold them to a roughly five by six inch square (about 24 layers thick).Sprouting and planting by DJ Short (24 Aug. I would also like to point out that though this phenomenon is rare. the heat will also increase mold. this can easily be done with an electric drill and a quarter to a three-eights inch drill bit. and it transplants fine. with twelve layers both above and below. It is important to gently water and feed the sprouts from this point on so as not to disturb the new roots too much. eventually causing its death if not properly dealt with. Roots and planting pots At first. These cups can be bought cheaply in bulk amounts at any discount or grocery store.

as deep as the sprout roots are long. Larger operations may require some kind of pump and tubing device to aid in the watering. Take one sprout at a time from the paper towel. Be certain that the root tip is pointing down and not curved up in what is called a J root. when a gentle touch is still beneficial. The turkey baster is also useful for sucking the excess water from the bottom of the grow flat. then any excess solution may be re-used until all of the soil is at its fullest saturation point. Next. If the grow flat and all of the pots are relatively clean. the healthy sprouts will stretch and grow up over the top of the cup or pot. Into each hole more nutrient solution is added to fully soak the medium and prepare it for the sprout. This step also promotes and stimulates adequate root growth. It is also important not to leave any standing water in the grow flat. to help hasten its dry time. This again is gently and carefully done using the turkey baster (or whatever gentle watering device is available) as a watering tool. usually a high nitrogen variety for sprouts. In one to two weeks. into the middle of the soil. using the chopstick if necessary. This is to allow for more soil to be added later as the main stem grows. the root is running down the hole and the sprout head is above and as near to the soil level as possible. the soil may be gently packed around the sprout stem to hold it firmly in place. Just prior to this saturation point. there should be an adequate space between the top of the soil and the top of the cup or pot. In other words. Once the sprouts are adequately set in the moisture-saturated soil. they will not need watering again until after the soil dries a little. it is time to moisten it. This tip helps deal with the problem of spindly plants by giving them more base support during their early development. this first watering helps stabilize the root in the soil. The baster is handy for the first few waterings. It is after this time that more soil may be added to help give the sprout more stability and root room. Once the entire flat is ready. Despite the fact that the soil is saturated to its maximum capacity. and the soil is gently yet thoroughly tapped and shaken down to fill all vacant spaces equally. I like to use a standard chopstick to poke a hole. Water and soil Next. Hydro sprouting . handling it as gently as possible by the stem just below the sprout head. and transfer it to the moist.The cup or pot is filled with the soil mix. New roots will sprout and grow from the soil-covered stem in a week or two. Once the sprout is situated in its hole. I'll fill the appropriate sized bucket or container with the water/nutrient mix. pre-made hole in the soil. J root may be fatal to the sprout. it's time to begin the planting process. The soil level should end up to be two-thirds to three quarter of the cup or pot capacity. Once the soil is sufficiently tapped down to at least two-thirds full. Grow flats and turkey basters I'll put anywhere from one to two dozen cups or pots per standard grow flat (or tray). The common turkey-baster is once again the best tool available to evenly soak all of the cups or pots. Carefully guide the root tip all the way down the hole. the sprouts will need to be watered.

The pellet is placed in a larger rockwool cube or gravel medium and the roots grow quickly into the new material. Transplant time Transplanting becomes necessary when the roots outgrow the medium. weak stemmed plants up. Happy growing! . it is time to transplant. a day or two before a usual watering. new medium. the fresh medium will cover the old soil level by a bit. Hydro systems often need extra supports. Special care needs to be taken when transplanting into larger containers to avoid as much trauma as possible. Ideally. and accompanying growth will develop in the plant. This is evident by checking one or two of the average plants roots. Hydro transplanting is also quite simple. and the loose soil is gently packed into place throughout. I like to transplant when the root system is semi-dry. When the white root wad is becoming entwined. As with the original planting. New roots will quickly and eagerly find their way into the fresh. and the rest of the space in the larger pot is filled with fresh. I like to gently shake the soil fully into place and level the soil top by hand. such as stakes or poles to hold the top-heavy. semi-moist medium. growing among itself and beginning to turn brown.Hydroponic sprouting is as simple as placing a seed in a rockwool cube or fiber pellet and keeping it moist. Tying the plants up to stakes will be the only way to deal with stretched or spindly growth in the hydroponic system. The medium in the larger container should be saturated to its maximum density with nutrient-rich water. the fresh transplant is completely watered to its saturation point. The semidry rootwad is placed firmly into the saturated fresh medium. The seeds will sprout and root automatically in this porous and nutrient-rich medium.

etc). It is during the first 2-3 weeks of the flower cycle that most strains begin to lengthen internodes. as this is where the plant is happiest. the greater your internode length will be. provided it does not exceed optimal. the closer your day and night temperatures. use exhaust fans. The opposite also holds true. you may consider dropping temperature down to 17-19�C for the final week or two. Maximum temperatures should ideally never rise above 26�C. and 22�C when the lights are off. air conditioners. you are costing yourself in overall weight and harvest. which intensifies the colour of the floral clusters and makes for a showier bud. . your plants begin to stretch? Part of this problem may lie in an overall hotter grow-room. After this 2-3 week window we need to drop the night temperature back down to 22�C. but a larger factor is the increased difference between day and night temperatures. especially with "purple" varieties. so you must do everything you can to prevent your room getting too hot (run lights at night. Why waste light and electricity growing stem? Stretched-out plants are the bane of indoor growers. So if you are letting your day temperatures drop below 24�C or your night drop below 22�C. as this is when the framework for future colas is built.Control your cannabis by DMT. There are several ways to reduce internodal length and thus grow denser. long internodes long internodes As floral development begins we need to keep in mind that the total size of your buds is determined largely by average daily temperature. Space heaters on timers work well for this. making it a very important time to control temperature. and max/min type thermometers are ideal for tracking temperatures. more efficient buds. Plant internodal length is directly related to the difference between day and night temperatures � the warmer your day cycle is as compared to your night cycle. Once your buds have reached optimal size and and you have begun the flushing period. The temperature technique is most effective under a 12/12 light regime. which is ideal as this is when cannabis stretches the most. An ideal temperature range is 24-25�C when the lights are on. When the light cycle is brought to 12/12 we will raise the night temperature to the daytime level of 24-25�C. Ever notice how as the warmer summer months approach. tight internodes tight internodes Temperature control The easiest and most under-used way to control internodal stretch is temperature control. the shorter your internodes will be. Lets look at putting this to play in your grow room. 2000) Fine-tuning temperature and water for maximum quantity and quality. This drop in temperature triggers anthocyanin production. This final temperature change is not always feasible and can be omitted. photos by Barge (25 Apr.

095 grams. Some things you will notice while using this technique are a change in the leaf angle. Both of these factors are controlling the same thing. the ability of a plant to uptake water and nutrients from the growth medium. most of which have potassium to nitrogen ratios of 4:1.8.For extreme height control you may even use warmer night temperature than day. but be very careful when running settings like this. potassium sulphate 9. Most marijuana strains are happiest when grown at an EC of between 1.) A plant grows by first dividing cells then expanding them. I would not recommend going above 3 or 4 EC. much higher than normal. the electrical conductivity (EC) and moisture of your medium are two key elements that should be manipulated to meet your needs. upwards during warm days and downwards during warm nights. examples of long internodes (closeup) examples of long internodes (closeup) Hydroponic tomato growers sometimes will grow their transplants at extremely high EC's (up to 6 EC!) in order to get really nice stocky production plants. Try growing one of your plants using straight water for a week or so. (Try this formula if you're interested: calcium nitrate 7 grams. In order for this to work there must be a larger concentration of fertilizer salts in the plant's roots than in the soil or hydroponic solution. Both the amount of water you give your plants and the EC at which you grow them control the uptake of water. This is experimental! Do not try on all of your plants at once until you are sure your strain can handle it. by the time . but different strains have different preferences. as too much nitrate at this high an EC will easily damage a plant. This can work for you by keeping your internodes close together. Raising the salt level in the medium closer to that which is in the roots limits the water availability just the same as if we had provided less water. so when the medium's level of salt rises above the roots'. mono potassium phosphate 2. There is also the chlorosis if this is done for too long. During the vegetative stage we want our plants to form very tight internodes.02 grams.25 grams. Slowly raise your EC during veg stage. and in order to do this it requires water. leaf chlorosis (yellowing) leaf chlorosis (yellowing) Moisture and conductivity Whether you're growing hydro or in soil. especially under artificial lighting. as even a zero difference between night and day temperatures will lead to leaf chlorosis (yellowing) after 2-3 weeks. it is usually called "six pack formula".5 and 1. (EC measures the level of fertilizer salts in the water. A plant's roots act much like a pump. Please note that when doing this they use special nutrient formulas designed for this purpose. By limiting the amount of water available to a plant you limit the expansion of cells. magnesium sulphate 5 grams. the plant will wilt.2 gram. All of these ingredients should be available at your local hydroponics store. Neither of these symptoms is nutrient related and will fix themselves when the temperature is changed back. potassium nitrate 0. Be sure to bring your EC back down once you enter floral stage. micromix . By allowing the EC to drop below ideal during this stage we are wasting valuable space growing stem instead of bud. or against you by limiting bud growth. using osmotic pressure to move water into the plant. you will see the internode length stretch dramatically compared to the ones on a regular fertilizer regime.

8 and then dries out completely the amount of salt remains the same. The pH should also be checked at this time. Keep in mind that if the soil has an EC of 1. Many growers are under the mistaken impression that the EC and pH of their nutrient solution remains the same when applied to the soil. during the vegetative stage you should keep your plants a little on the drier side as this will restrict cell elongation. take a sample from the center of the root zone at the side of the pot (don't worry the torn roots will be fine). while in soil we may also use the moisture level of the medium to the same ends. in this case you must not let your soil get too dry because of the increased fertilizer level you will create. and you must test the soil in order to have a true picture. as will having too high an EC in the medium. This also goes during your final flushing period when you want to eliminate all fertilizer from the medium � lower the EC over a couple of days.4 (this takes into account the dilution and the pore space factor) this will give you an accurate picture of the EC the roots are actually being exposed to. examples of tight internodes (closeup) examples of tight internodes (closeup) To test your soil. Mix the soil with 2 equal parts distilled water and let sit for 20 minutes.tufts of pistils are visible you want to be at your ideal EC of 1.) Try not to change the EC too quickly as a sharp drop can cause root damage. When growing hydroponically. (Unless of course you are using the high EC method described above. As a general rule. It is not feasible in soil to maintain an exact EC at all times. As soon as early flowering begins you need to increase soil moisture to a nice evenly moist (not soaked) level to maximize bud expansion. causing the EC to double or more.8. as the sudden change in salt level will harm the roots. Cannabis does like dry feet but this simply means that the root zone must not be kept extremely wet at all times.5-1. the only way of manipulating water availability is with the EC. what we need to try and avoid is EC's climbing much above what we want and plants going for long periods with very low EC's. In these times of government oppression we must make the most efficient use of available growing space in order to produce the copious amounts of cannabis necessary to overflow the boundaries placed upon us. Once the time is up take an EC reading and multiply this number by 2.) Maintain this level of moisture into the first 14 to 20 days of 12/12 to minimize internode stretch. This in not the case. Control your cannabis! . Growing marijuana too dry during this stage will adversely affect your overall yield. A frequent mistake marijuana growers make is over-emphasizing the need for a plant grown in soil to dry out completely between waterings. creating a shorter noded plant structure capable of creating a dense bud cluster in the floral stage.

then you have the optimum mix. Active hydro systems merely need the nutrient solution passed over the medium three or four times a day. and therefore releases its moisture quicker. The difficulty is the many variables related to the problem. When the plant is dry and thirsty. and other factors such as humidity and air pressure. it may be heavy or light. but learning to zero in on the optimum times to feed and water is dependent on this simple fact. the size of the plants. Passive hydro systems allow the roots of the plant to reach the reservoir. are the trickiest to learn to deal with. hands-on contact with the plants. it doesn't. Heavy soil is generally more moss than perlite and holds water longer. but it does require a care and attention to learn the needs of your plants. especially organic varieties. and close attention to them. heat and ventilation in the room. eliminating the need for watering altogether. Different needs will present themselves in regard to feeding and watering times. This is to help eliminate the nemesis to all hydro systems: algae. A lighter soil is generally more perlite or vermiculite. Different brands have different ingredients (and even the same brand may have different ingredients at different times). This may seem obvious. are capable of blocking the aerobic quality of the hydro medium and suffocating the plant via its roots. It doesn't involve mysticism by any means. the amount of light. One of the simplest ways to increase the quantity of your harvest while maintaining quality is knowing the right times to water and feed. Algae. is of utmost importance. When the root medium is heavy with moisture. but a timer and pump will eliminate the need. where equal parts of perlite and coarse cut sphagnum moss make up about 70% of the overall mix. If you use the basic soil mix I recommend.Feed your head-stash by DJ Short (27 Oct. how recently they were planted or transplanted. it needs water. Regard the process as an ongoing education. Learning to condition the soil you are working with is the first step to success. Depending on the "mix" of your soil. and the nutrient solution will need to be changed at least once every two to three weeks. along with other pests such as mold. the reservoirs usually need to be topped off regularly. and it will go fine. The optimum mix Soil mediums. fungus and bacteria. As with any other aspect of this industry. Better still is to take the necessary precautions to insure that they don't begin. This can be done by the disciplined hand. These problems must be addressed immediately upon finding them. 2000) Food and water are two critical components to a successful garden. In both types of hydro systems. Hydro systems Hydroponic systems are usually automated and should have the simplest schedule to satisfy. Algae can clog hydroponic medium and its tubing. depending on the amount and type of medium. This mix seems to be the .

The plant will suck its bucket of medium dry and then begin to wilt. I cannot . of the medium container. a swimming pool liner or landscaping pond liner is laid over the area and over the edges of the wood frame. Plants in larger containers (2 gallon and up) may go anywhere from three to six days between watering. there is one more important tip to best maintain the proper watering schedule for your plants. but a minor wilt is by no means fatal to the plant. but because it serves the nutrient and solution to the outside-bottom of the medium container. This method requires that the buckets be placed within the confines of a watertight container. First. but this causes much more tedium during watering. wilting can also contribute to stunting. check the weight of its bucket to see what too far is. We want to avoid wilting as much as possible. There are a number of trays. Finally. from large to small and of varying styles and sturdiness. or 16 to 24 ounce cups) may need watering as often as daily.perfect blend for a regulated watering schedule. Not merely because the method was perfected in a white-trash trailer park. Individual mini-trays may be used for each individual container. it would be nearly impossible to judge exactly how much water these plants would consume in any given watering. such as a solid grow tray or a kiddie pool. available on the market these days. the garden needs to be checked a few hours after watering to see if the plants need more. Only experience can reveal what exactly the weight of the dry pot is. Plant containers may be placed directly in the pool and watered all at once. This is done by physically lifting the plant container and judging its weight. watering many plants at once. Please note that although this method allows the greatest ease of watering a large number of plants. However. Bottom feeding After getting the soil mix down and learning the right watering time by the dryness. Some may hold a dozen small plants while others may hold twenty or thirty large plants. and watering it the day prior. others may be fine for a couple of days. I've seen wilted plants revived within twenty minutes when relieved of their thirst. lay out a layer of 2-inch thick Styrofoam insulation panels larger than the intended pool. a basic wood frame is constructed to the exact size of the desired pool on top of the Styrofoam. Less is more The main focus of feeding should be the concentration and mix of fertilizers in the solution. Dry weight Vegetating plants in small containers (two to four inch pots. I call this tip the bottom feeder method. or weight. The solution is then sucked up by the roots through the holes in the bottom of the buckets. An entire grow room may be water-proofed as well. The trick is in realizing when the plant is going to wilt. Next. The nutrient solution is then dumped or pumped right into the tray. If a plant does happen to wilt due to drying out. Therefore. It takes the plants anywhere from an hour to a few hours to soak up all of the moisture that they need. or if the excess solution needs to be removed from the pool. after being fitted to the space.

For one or two waterings flush the plants with water only. So once the right soil mix is obtained then water alone will suffice. while pure worm castings are like a very rich manure. When the fertilizer concentration is low enough. it may be necessary to dilute the concentration with pure water. and the old growth should last as long as possible. at worst.emphasize enough that "less is more" when it comes to fertilizing plants. Plants grown using this method produce some of the most outstanding flavors and desirable palate and head. New growth should be obvious daily. It is generally recommended to use less fertilizer than the instructions call for. stunting growth. Too much fertilizer. then fertilizer may be added during each watering (except. Nitrogen is the most commonly abused fertilizer additive. The plants should look like they are thriving if they are properly fed. This is especially true if one is mixing different nitrogen fertilizers. Many of these fertilizer additives are made up of harsh petrochemicals. Most fertilizer companies print their maximum allowed amounts for mixing. or they may harden and solidify. then even a smaller ratio of each is needed. Both may be added to soil to enhance its nutrient level. The best organic substances I've found are bat and seabird guano and pure worm castings. If two or more nitrogen fertilizers are used during the same feeding. Their color should be bright and consistent with a shiny. however. but this same logic should be applied to phosphorous and potassium concentrations as well. There are organic soil additives on the market that eliminate the need for any extra fertilizer additives in the water. The stems may stretch and turn dark. The leaves may become curled. If too little fertilizer is used the only problem will be a slightly smaller yield. is liable to ruin the entire crop. but overfertilized plants may look burned or splotchy. I like to use half of what the directions call for. an overfertilized plant will look unhealthy and deeply in need. healthy glow. small. the last few weeks of pure water flushes). then only a quarter the recommended amount of each is needed to make the final concentration truly half strength. of course. If signs of overfertilization appear. and see if the situation improves. if two nitrogen fertilizers are mixed together during one feeding. . Fossilized bat and bird guano come in a powder form. That is. The leaves should stretch up and out to receive the light. with unnatural looking colors from bright yellow to dusty brown. Most indoor plants do not remain in the same container for any longer than two months. Underfertilized plants will merely be slow or. or water with a B-vitamin supplement to help the plant best metabolize the nutrients available to it. All in all.

most Indica varieties will almost fully express their desirability by the sixth week in the flowering cycle indoors (11 to 13 hours of light per 24 hours). Doing the re-green The only preparation for the re-green process is to be sure to leave a few of the lower branch and leaf nodes of the plant intact during harvesting. these non-photo-receptive varieties are difficult. By desirability I am referring to the overall quality of the finished product � how good does it taste? Look? Smell? Feel? How good is the finished product? Once a plant has declared its overall finished product desirability. It is the more photo-receptive strains that we want to focus on when attempting the re-green method. simply leave the lowest healthy looking set of buds and harvest all above that point. If a plant is more photo-receptive and easily re-vegetates. even when constantly under light. many Sativas may take up to nine or more weeks in the flowering cycle indoors to fully express their individual desirability. Some strains are more photo-receptive than others. An important process to be learned by the serious pot horticulturist is the revitalization of a budded and mature plant back to its vegetative state. That is. intact branch and leaf nodes. This technique is called the "re-green" method. Although sometimes this doesn't happen or the clone attempt may fail. (Note that this early-harvested bud can . it is time to begin the process. the plant is harvested. to re-green. However. Less photo-receptive strains become "stuck" in their bud or flower cycle. Sometimes all that is left at the bottom of the plant are buds. it is removed from the bud room and harvested down to above the lower. while extremely non-photoreceptive plants will flower regardless of light cycle. Generally speaking. 2000) Rejuvinating plants will bring back your best buds. if not impossible. One of the main tricks to the re-green method is to begin the process as early as possible. meaning that they will respond more readily to changes in light-cycle timing. Although useful for guerrilla outdoor gardening when you want the plants to mature early. this isn't really why you should be using the re-green method. then it will more than likely clone well and grow more vigorously than one that does not. The usual reason to re-green is to continue the existence of a highly desirable plant. So the re-green method is capable of helping to determine which of your potential breeding and cloning stock will be the most productive. This is fine. Photo-receptivity refers to the way in which a plant is destined to respond to a light schedule. The re-green technique is most useful in determining which of your desirable plants are the most photoreceptive. However. Once the plant has "proven itself worthy" of re-greening. The catch here is that it will take a certain amount of time in order to determine the desirability of a given plant. but the lower branches and nodes are left for the new growth to (hopefully) rejuvenate from. This is very important information for anyone seriously interested in breeding plants.Re-green your garden by DJ Short (25 Apr. the wise pharmer will clone all potentially desirable plants while they are in the veggie stage.

By the time the plant is back to showing at least five leaflets-per-leaf. buds and/or branches need to be as close to the fluorescent bulb as possible without touching the bulb. then transplanting to a larger pot may be in order. root bind. another criteria that helps to fully determine a given plant's photoreceptivity � its ability to fully return to a vegetive stage. consisting of fluorescent lights set for a vegetative cycle (18 or more hours of light per 24 hours). the re-green shoots will probably be ready for . the less desirable and slower re-greener plants will need to be thinned out accordingly. or near. Sativa plants are capable of producing more leaflets-per-leaf than Indica. from one to three to five and so on. A healthy vegetive plant may have seven. per leaf decrease in number. During the successful re-green process this factor reverses itself. Others will never rejuvenate at all.) As the plant matures through the flowering cycle. Experienced pharmers know that as a plant matures through its flowering cycle the number of leaflets. the new growth will sprout from within one of the leftover nodes. The regreener plant is kept on a high nitrogen fertilizer all the way through this process. and the leaflet-per-leaf ratio increases as the new leaf sets present themselves. But if the plant's container is large enough and the plant does not appear to be suffering from. or "fingers". In time the new shoots will grow to dominate the remaining plant. eleven or more leaflets-per-leaf. a high nitrogen. This stage consists of nurturing the fresh growth and eventually pruning away the old growth. (As a general rule of thumb. Extra care needs to be practiced as these new shoots may be very delicate and fragile. the better. the next consideration involves increasing the plant's nitrogen uptake. the faster and more completely a plant expresses this process. the number of leaflets-per-leaf decreases from nine to seven to five to three and finally to one leaflet per leaf on the fully mature plant. Usually the dictates of space will determine how long one will want to attempt the process for each individual plant. All attention is focused on the fresh growth making certain that this growth has the best access to the light. Either way. Once the highly desirable candidate plant has declared its re-green ability by sending out fresh green growth. The remaining nodes. stretching beyond the bud or leaf node that contains it. If the plant was in a smaller container (two gallon or less) and is showing signs of root bind. the more photoreceptive it is. Some Sativa may have leaves with as many as 13 or more leaflets-per-leaf. As the new shoots develop.provide an excellent and somewhat rare finished product that usually exhibits a more "head" or "psychedelic" experience. branches or buds. worthy of connoisseur appreciation!) The remaining stump with a few nodes attached will need to be moved to a separate space. More fingers Generally speaking. then the same container may work fine. the plant is not considered rejuvenated until at least five leaflets per leaf are apparent. low potassium and phosphorous fertilizer is required to inspire fresh growth. leaves. while others may take a month or more to show new growth. There is however. whereas most Indica will never have more than five or seven. I have seen some plants declare rejuvenation within a couple of days. As space demands increase. As in the veggie cycle. The more leaflets-per-leaf that can be coaxed from the plant before cloning. A "surgeon's hand" with a pair of precision scissors is most definitely an advantage at this stage. the old and matured bud and leaf material are cleared and trimmed from around it. nine. If the candidate plant is going to rejuvenate. In my opinion. it is time for the next stage in the process.

for that matter. the plants will yield their superior productivity. any standard or desired cloning procedure will work. patience is indeed a virtue. To satisfy both of these ends it is always best to wait until the re-green shoots are large and healthy enough. As with so many other aspects of this hobby. The "mother" plant. At this point it is important that the shoot or shoots be developed enough to both produce a successful clone.cloning. As long as the proper conditions for the plants' health are maintained. it is time to consider cloning of the shoots. or any of its rooted clones. most highly photoreceptive plants make excellent clone-producing mothers. or may be returned to the bud room to flower again. and leave enough rejuvenated material on the regreened "mother" to continue growth (and keep the mother alive). may be maintained to act as a clone producer. Once a shoot is satisfactory for cutting. due to their productive ability. Cloning the shoots Once the rejuvenated plant has produced adequate shoots that have successfully returned to a vegetive state. Generally speaking. .

Proper aeration of organic based soils is crucial in high temp/humidity areas. down and around the room. happy plants. This practice becomes especially necessary when working with lights over 400 watts. Squirrel Cage and House Fans There are many different types of fans and air movers available on the market. the roots should be kept at as constant a temperature below 21�C and above 10�C (70-50�F) as possible. . Most fans can be purchased at the average home improvement store. store the reservoir outside of or below the grow room. The two most common types of fan are the squirrel-cage and what I call the "common house fan" (box or oscillating fans). cool air drops" rule. photos by Jorge Cervantes (01 Jul. There are also neat little "muffin" fans that can be used for many things such as light-hood venting and passive ventilation systems. but not for any longer than a half hour or so. Somewhere between 32-35�C (90-95�F) is the absolute highest room temperature your plants would care to tolerate.Let them breathe! by DJ Short. The perfect temperature would be somewhere between 24-29�C (75-85�F). Proper research and smart shopping will net the best purchases. An important aspect to consider when growing plants indoors is proper ventilation. any time the temperature exceeds 32�C (90�F). If necessary. squirrel-cage fans move air either in and/or out of the room. 1998) Proper ventilation and air circulation are essential to growing healthy. And only above the root level. Using the "hot air rises. Generally speaking. while common house fans move the air up. Ideally. Thermometers are cheap and accurate enough for our purposes. the plants end up under the larger lights by the flowering cycle. Both come in a seeming endless variety of shapes and sizes. Roots and Aeration The main area of concern involving temperature are the roots of the plants. are the tips here � add more to the soil if need be. air circulation and temperature control. there is no real substitute for a thermometer and humidity gauge. The fact that warm air rises and cool air sinks works to our advantage in this case. or if the humidity gets too high. I usually employ several thermometers in different areas in and around the grow room. one can figure out the right solution. focussed specifically on the root systems. Perlite and vermiculite. and so they're usually large enough to help shade and cool their root areas. Peaks of 38�C (100�F) are allowable for most strains. In hydroponic systems make sure that the nutrient water temp is below 21�C (70�F). The Perfect Temperature Though sense of feel is adequate to gauge the "perfect climate" for a given plant. A soil thermometer may be a wise investment. some rooms build up sufficient heat to require a separate circulating fan. in very small spaces. Careful planning will help avoid costly mistakes. Still. Also. or fans.

blowing out. pointing at any angle up.4 minutes to fully circulate the air in that room. high-tech grow shop will have several types of thermostats available in a variety of systems. Squirrel Cages The squirrel-cage fan is the most popular fan for moving large volumes of air into or out of a room or rooms. A fan with a rating of 100 CFM is able to move 100 cubic feet of air per minute. Oscillating fans are perhaps the most efficient devices for circulating air in a room. dry air outside of the grow room. and turn them off if the temperature dropped below 21�C (70�F). A thermostat. it would take an optimally running 100 CFM fan 6. most fans move a little less than their rated CFM due to intake resistance or a dirty fan cage. The most common being the box and the oscillating. This is the simplest of vent systems and works quite well. to help circulate the cooler air up and around the plants. Generally speaking. or a "volume control". . Therefore. The gentle back and forth sway of the fan is very beneficial for the developing plants. would cause the fans to turn on at a certain temp. These fans tend to keep anaerobic molds down by constantly freshening any potentially stagnant air. up high. That is. and turn off at another. A well-stocked. It is a simple step further in this type of system to add an oscillating fan or two on the floor. could be installed in the power line of the larger fans to adjust the fan speed. Box fans are self explanatory. A common placement for this fan is inside of the room.A passive ventilation system is one that moves air either in out of room (not both). Automation The ideal ventilation system utilizes automation in the form of thermostats and regulators. as with the common household thermostat. some relatively inexpensive. Box and Oscillating Common summer house fans also come in a wide array of types and sizes. There are wall-mounted styles available as well. Experimentation will yield the most efficient uses for these devices. This method is what is used to stimulate the passive intake of cool air with vent holes cut in the floor or lower walls to access the cooler areas outside of the room. depending on the innovation and imagination of the user. Measuring Air Movement Squrrel cage fans are rated by their volume of air movement in cubic feet per minute or CFM. This will help move the hot air out. Home improvement centres carry a large array of various types and styles of airmoving fans. This would give further aid in the specific control of air volume and ventilation. Bigger fans usually will work more efficiently. Other hardware such as dryer-vent tubing or muffin fans may be used to best access the cool. Choosing the correct squirrel-cage fan is part of the trick to success. Potentiometers. The room is not sealed and so air exchange is allowed free movement from inside and outside the room. a sensor would turn on the fans on at around 30�C (86�F). They can be used in a variety of ways. or 640 cubic feet of air. A room that is eight by ten feet and eight feet tall holds 8 X 10 X 8.

A warning needs to be expressed concerning the cheaper, discount-store, oscillating fans (or any cheap fan for that matter) that have a tendency to burn out after a period of time. Some of these products are potentially dangerous if left plugged in and turned on after they burn out. Therefore, it is a wise idea to check one's fans (and all electric devices and equipment for that matter) on a regular basis as often as possible. Noise Concerns Another fan consideration is noise. Some fans, especially the squirrel cage, may be a bit too noisy for a given situation. There are higher quality fans available that do run more quietly � expect to pay more, of course. It also helps to mount the fan directly to a main stud or support, by at least two of its support holes, and preferably more. Rubber dampers and gaskets can be easily made and used on the support holes or around the overall mounting surface. Keep the fan's bearings sufficiently lubricated as well. High Humidity Humidity is another factor that influences the overall quality and quantity of a crop. Generally speaking, high humidity (over 80 or 90%) is bad. It inhibits plant transpiration and ultimately stunts growth. Mold and fungus love high humidity as well. Note that warmer air holds more moisture than cooler air. There are a few simple practices to help reduce humidity. First and foremost, keep the room as dry as possible. When watering, use just as much as the plants need. Pump, siphon or mop up any remaining water and remove it from the room. Keeping the room clean also helps. Moisture likes to hide and store itself in material such as dead leaves, spilled dirt or any garbage. Therefore, keeping the room clean and free of debris will help keep moisture and organisms such as mold, fungus and bacteria down. Temperature and moisture levels directly affect the plant's ability to metabolize nutrients and supplements such as fertilizer and carbon dioxide. If these practices fail to lower humidity enough, the only solution may be a de-humidifier. However, de-humidifiers are expensive, consume a large amount of electricity and produce heat. These factors will need to be considered in choosing whether or not to employ one. Ventilation and Circulation are Essential Proper ventilation and air circulation are essential to maintaining a healthy indoor grow environment. The basic rule of thumb is to move the warm, moist air out and to move the cool, dry air in and around the plants and their roots. Many various types of fans and devices are available to achieve this goal. Careful planning, basic research and smart shopping will acquire all that one needs to keep it cool and dry, and experimentation will fine tune the system to provide the most perfect indoor environment possible.

DJ Short is the breeder of the famed Flo and Blueberry strains. He welcomes feedback and questions, especially relating to the cultivation of those varieties. He can be contacted through Cannabis Culture.

CO2 for you by DJ Short (27 Dec, 2000) Carbon Dioxide is an excellent way to increase your bud bounty. Carbon dioxide (CO2) generators are perhaps the single most powerful increasers of plant production. During the daylight hours plants breathe in and use CO2 much the same way we animals metabolize oxygen. By adding CO2 to the air of the grow room we are capable of greatly stimulating plant growth and vigor. Overexposure to CO2 by humans is very capable of proving fatal. Therefore, also remember that monitoring of the air with a CO2 or gas detection device is mandatory when using a commercial CO2 distribution system. There are two main types of commercial CO2 delivery systems, bottled and propane generators. Bottled CO2 The bottled CO2 system delivers pure CO2 via a tank that is rented or bought and refilled when empty at any bottled gas distributor or grow shop. The purchases of a regulator and tubing, along with a specialized timer, are necessary to complete the system. The timer opens the regulator to dispense the gas that is delivered to the room among the plants via the tubing (or whatever duct system is chosen for its delivery). The timer usually is on for brief periods of a few seconds per minute, hence the need for the specialized timer. The bottled systems are relatively efficient and once set up, easy to use. When used in conjunction with some kind of CO2 metering device, to monitor the amount of CO2 in the air, the system is relatively safe. The main drawback is having to deal with filling the heavy, bulky tank when needed. The initial expense is a bit of a sticker shock as well. Propane generator Propane generators of CO2 have been gaining popularity since their introduction to the industry some time ago. Bottled propane is connected to a device that burns the gas, slowly and evenly, to produce CO2. The device is usually a box that will hang in the room and is connected to the propane bottle via the appropriate tubing and coupling. It is possible to time and regulate most propane generators to efficiently produce CO2 gas when needed. These devices are usually much simpler and less expensive than the bottled CO2 systems. Propane is also easily available in most places. There are, however, a few dangers to the propane generator that need to be addressed. First of all, the device utilizes a small flame for CO2 production. Special care needs to be taken whenever dealing with fire, and necessary precautions including location of the device need to be made prior to operation. second, this flame will produce some heat and humidity. The humidity is in the form of water vapor, the other by-product of the process. Proper venting and air circulation will help minimize these factors. As with the bottled system, monitoring the amount of CO2 in the air will be necessary to regulate the proper and safe amount of the gas delivered to the room. Air circulation

All such appliances produce CO2. allowing them to absorb as much as possible. A simple rule of thumb is: blue flame = CO2 or what we want. �growstores� selling the devices offer plenty of advice and/or literature pertaining to the specifics of their products. Therefore. as well. Mix until the sugar is dissolved and add a little bit of active yeast. Recycled CO2 A source of recycled CO2 may be found in any natural gas or propane appliance. Put about five or six cups of sugar in a clean one-gallon plastic jug. In fact. This way the gas passes by the leaves of the plants on its way down. stove. would efficiently move the gas. Generally speaking it is best to introduce the gas up higher in the room. The daily shaking stimulates the mix to produce a surge of CO2 gas. any form of brewing (beer production) or fermenting (wine making) produces CO2. So be wary of these facts and circulate the air well. Small and simple For those of you running smaller systems such as cupboard. there is a simple CO2 system that is easy to make and use. deadly poisonous! It is merely a question of how to get the CO2 gas from the appliance to the grow room. Also. then a simple duct system of dryer vent tubing running from the bottom of the appliance (remember. On its own. the more times the jug is shaken. too much CO2 around the roots may actually suffocate the plants. shake the jug to thoroughly mix the contents.) is anywhere near the grow room. If the appliance (furnace. Poke a small hole in the lid and replace it on top of the jug. There are a number of books and manuals on the market today that deal with the specifics and �how to�s� of carbon dioxide production for commercial (and home) use. To this add about a half gallon of water. Once the yeast begins to grow. bottle or jar. Oscillating fans placed on the floor with their fan pointing up (or any upward movement of air from the floor) is also recommended to best circulate the CO2 among the leaves of the plants. It is also very inexpensive to configure and maintain. I have found this system to be more than adequate and perfectly safe for smaller grow spaces (twenty square feet or less). The mix will need to be changed or refreshed every two to three weeks. hot water heater. So a home brew kit or home wine making system could also be used to add CO2 gas to the grow room air. especially those with a pilot light.Because CO2 is a gas that is heavier than air. . Finally. a word needs to be said about the delivery system and air circulation in the room. closet or �box� systems. that is. the device will slowly produce CO2 as long as there is enough sugar in the mix and the yeast stays active. via some form of tube or duct or by hanging the propane generator up high. This system uses water. yellow flame = CO or carbon monoxide. CO2 is heavier than air) to the grow room will suffice. or as often as possible. etc. Remember. blowing into the room. sugar and yeast mixed together in a jug. the more surges of CO2 that will erupt into the room. the shaking of the contents will produce a gaseous eruption through the hole in the lid. when properly functioning. I like to use one-gallon plastic jugs due to their size and availability. A muffin fan placed on the room end of the tube. I highly recommend that one research thoroughly before one purchases and uses a system. The roots of the plants DO NOT like CO2. Once a day. Therefore. In a day or two the yeast will begin to grow and CO2 gas will be a by-product in the jug. CO2 production for larger scale operations requires a certain amount of knowledge unobtainable by any other means than an education.

CO2 can be a safe and easy way to increase the yield of your garden. . If this happens then it could suffocate you in your sleep! But properly used.Remember to be very careful not to overdo the CO2 and let the gas fill your house.

The last time I used any seed stock outside of my own was in 1982. I cannot emphasize enough the fact that it takes the purest of environments to grow the purest of herbs. I think that my breeding successes are primarily due to a very discerning palate and sense of smell. This will only slightly decrease production. A strong and pleasing odor is the dominant feature expressed in the True Fragrant varieties. Potency ratios I have found that generally the potency of a given variety of cannabis has to do with the ratio of glandular secreted resins. I have had the fortunate opportunity to not merely sample many of the great cannabis strains. The key word to this understanding is "organic. Simply put. use organic nutrients and flush your buds. and the greater potency of the product. the more one decreases this ratio and. Bio vs Hydro The purpose of this article is to help guide you in understanding the basic needs of these and other fragrant varieties. then the True Fragrant varieties of cannabis. with no additives or nutrients. are an excellent place to start. but to have saved and grown their seeds. Sadly. therefore. There are those in the hydroponic industry who will argue that certain hydroponic methods are nearly organic and very productive. such as Blueberry. compared to the overall fibre production of the plant.Grow organic by DJ Short (29 Dec. as I am the goddess-father of these fine products. Therefore. whereas my focus is on quality. . or they simply don't care. A higher ratio of resin to fibre generally indicates the superior quality and chemical composition of the resin. decreases potency. originality and quality. 1999) If you want the most fragrant. I don't disagree. the fact is also that many people simply cannot tell the difference between hydro and organic products. I speak from experience. which have all come to me from various sources and locations throughout the years. Granted. But you must remember that subtle and subjective characteristics such as "fragrance" and "bouquet" are dependent upon their environment as much as their genetics. Blue Velvet and Flo. (as opposed to chemical and most hydroponic methods). be given to the plant for two weeks prior to harvest. and how to best maintain their uniqueness. especially when the grower wants only one crop and the absolutely highest yield. the main focus of the hydroponic industry is that of production. I have had an excellent and productive relationship with the herb since my early teens in the very early 1970's. there is no real substitute for the complex relationship of plants and organic soil. in order to maintain potency while increasing production. This means that only pure water. while greatly increasing the quality of the finished product. or quantity. However. there are situations where a hydroponic system may be superior to an organic one. The quality of the hydroponic product may be increased greatly by employing the simple "two week flush" method prior to harvest. this ratio must be maintained. If you want to grow some of the finest herb on the planet. It has been my experience that the more one increases the fibre production and overall size of a given plant." or what the Europeans like to call "bio" methods of production. delicious pot on the planet.

There are now many specific products suited for the indoor organic gardener. If you feel you must use a commercial chemical product. varied strains. and the Hindu Kush." Blueberry and Flo have both reached 500 grams per plant. the islands of Hawaii. and a bit more difficult to solve the problem in a clean and organic way. multi-harvested between October 1 and November 7. bat and bird guano. the highland Michoacan. fungus. Airborne. it is not impossible. and water-born pests." Indoor organics Indoor environments are extremely limited in comparison to the great outdoors. fish. I can honestly say from experience that all of the "True Fragrant" varieties are major producers when grown in their particular "sweet spot. Worms. mold. when we are allowed to properly produce herb in the great outdoors. herbicides and fungicides) are synthesized from petrochemical by-products and are not truly natural products. It is sometimes difficult enough to help provide and maintain the proper balances organically in an outdoor garden. Nepal. highland and valley Colombia. Someday. and perhaps the most simple. soil-born. parts of Afghanistan. These plants lost little of their overall appeal despite the increase in production. other than pure water. Consult your local or favorite organic garden centre for more detail. algae and bacteria are just a few of the organisms that can attack a crop and seriously weaken production." Certain examples would be: The Northern Californian-Southern Oregon coastal regions. It is often too easy to treat these maladies with simple applications of toxic chemicals. However. be given to the plant. aspect to consider involves the last two to three weeks of the bud cycle � the last two to three weeks of the plant's life prior to harvest. Flush your buds! The most important. clean nutrients to the plant. . Yet here are a variety of adequate organic pesticides and fungicides on the market today. The outdoors is a complete and complex system. Thailand. Never apply anything toxic to your plants once they're in the budding cycle. grown near the 45th parallel in the Pacific Northwest.This quality/quantity ratio is much less of a concern to the grower who is producing in the great outdoors. the product of the smaller plants still tended to be more desirable than the larger ones in the outdoor environment. Guerrero. balanced by many various circumstances. green manures and most of their by-products are examples of substances that are naturally produced that provide plenty of good. and use sparingly. Selective inbreeding hardens the desirable characteristics and gives us specific. There are also living organisms such as specific predator insects and nematodes. The bulk of commercial fertilizers and vitalizers (along with most commercial pesticides. seaweed. Oaxaca and Chiapas regions of Mexico. we will once again see and experience some of the truly finest examples the planet has to offer. try to find the least toxic one available for the purpose. Yet although properly providing and maintaining an organic environment indoors is truly a challenge to face. This is especially important if you have been using chemical fertilizers. to name but a few. It is during this time that absolutely NO additives. Another factor to consider is what to use as vitalizers and fertilizers. It is in these "sweet spots" that the most favorable and specifically desirable characteristics are acclimated phenotypical. I am very curious to see and experience exactly what our years and multi-generations of indoor breeding are going to produce when returned to these great outdoor "sweet spots. These "fine herbs" come from very specific geographic locations which I refer to as "sweet spots.

This is to purge unwanted impurities from the plant. Pot that has been fertilized right up to harvest is harsh to smoke. As you may well already know. is easier on the throat and is much more pleasurable to smoke. I like to remember it as the "rinse" and "flush" cycle. burns easily. . sometimes the joint will even sizzle and pop as unmetabolized fertilizer salts combust.This is the time when the bulk of the final. there are over four hundred separate chemicals associated with cannabis and her effects. is hard to keep lit and burns your throat. Pot which has been organically grown and properly flushed is more flavourful and fragrant. it is very important to give the plant as much pure water as possible during this crucial period. Thus. It is during the final bud-building stage that most of these chemicals are produced. leaves grey ash. "useable" part of the plant is produced. Un-flushed pot leaves black ash. Simply remember to give the plants only water for the last two to three weeks in order to rinse and flush them clean.

The layout is important. or with a bit of effort you can compose your own. Photo Jorge Cervantes I first heard of aeroponics through a friend. The oranges were the size of grapefruits. by means of aeroponics and cooled lights. and everything grew to an enormous size. soilless mix and hydroponic drip. is quick to respond to whatever nutrients you introduce into the system. buckets. Aeroponic can get big buds out of small plants. photos by Barge (01 Sept. making both feeding and curing more time-efficient and accurate. With aeroponics the sky is the limit. 1998) Aeroponics creates dense.There are kits and contraptions you can buy. But is aeroponics really unnatural? Perhaps not. with no medium in-between to hamper nutrient uptake or foster the growth of bacterial organisms. environment and electrical are all the same as a regular grow op. you literally receive 99% possible oxygen to the roots.Aeroponic Supersonic by Ashera Jones. and the humming birds were the size of Robins. The 4 Elements of Aeroponic Gardening AIR In an aeroponic system. This creates quickly-moving water which is capable of delivering more oxygen because it is well agitated. I have measured aeroponic plant growth against soil. compact and abundant buds that will amaze you Commercial Aeroflo operation. Other than some basic plumbing supplies. A dense soil may only deliver 30% oxygen to the roots. One of the advantages with this system is that there is little to dispose of later. this brings less police heat and so less stress for you. Be prepared for some watery catastrophes and have a wet and dry shop vacuum on hand. where the coral provided a natural aeroponics system. and hydroponics will deliver around 80% oxygen. nutrients and water are sprayed onto the roots in an atomized or mist form by a high-pressure pump. The aeroponic . Photo Jorge Cervantes Commercial Aeroflo operation. and low cost but reliable sump pump (otherwise known as a jet pump). One which. The most effective root medium is the one which delivers the most oxygen to the roots." Then I saw a system set up: it was so clean and efficient! I saw that this was a very effective nutrient and oxygen delivery system. the lights. The presence of more oxygen also discourages bacterial and fungal growth. I thought "how unnatural. who told me of military experiments in growing enormous tomato plants indoors. You can grow aeroponically in tubes. When I learned that the roots just hang in the air and are misted by atomized water and nutrient particles. like a waterfall. My aeroponic system reminds me of my visit to floating coral islands in the Bahamas. Aeroponics also allows nutrients to reach the roots directly. by nature. Make sure your floor is protected. while a soilless mix will deliver up to 50%. or anything that is sealed and opaque. Aeroponic can get big buds out of small plants.

and give all the potential budding sites fair exposure. with the plants in a stepped. so a good balance is necessary. keeping them stable and standing.5 to 5. because all the baskets and wool are doing is supporting the plants. while discouraging phototropism. and an acid ph of 5. almost hardwoodstalked plants. These store-bought nutrients are limited in content. bushy.system doubles the growth rate of plants as compared to a soil system. My experience is that it has been easy to grow fat. the search for light. This will also encourage the dense bushy-type plant that you want to grow. In the earth category. However. stadium structure around the lights. and they require a little bit of support. The placement of plants in what is known as a "stadium" ensures that I get the lights right in there. EARTH Just like all plants. There are natural alternatives for the open minded that I will talk about later.5 inches.8. without burning. which means that you will generally need to add a PH down. are necessary. which vary in size. cool water temperature. Nutrient uptake varies depending on the growth stage of your plants. A cool room temperature usually means a nice. I personally use the 3 inch size because I like to grow 3 foot bushes that become weighted with fat. but you can use 2 inch baskets for mature plants in an aeroponic system. Healthy roots make happy plants and rapid growth. I use rockwool cubes and baskets. I have found that the plants tend to uptake less nutrients when they are changing from vegetative to flowering. and at the same time. The layout of your room will determine light availability and the ideal situation is to have all plants receiving as much light as possible. we also have the growth mediums. which although limited in an aeroponic system. I use a few strategically placed four-hundred watt lights. the type of nutrient that they require changes. plants in an aeroponic system fuel their growth with natural elements from the earth. The usual basket size used in hydroponic systems is 3. WATER . It is essential to have a "parts-per-million pen" so that you can monitor the amount of food your babies are eating and prevent burning of the roots by a solution that is too acidic and full of mineral salts. FIRE The element of fire in aeroponic gardening includes light and heat. juicy buds. The aeroponic garden prefers a lower nutrient solution of between 700-900 parts per million. which are easily obtained in liquid solutions. Healthy roots make happy plants and rapid growth. Light brings photosynthesis and also Ultra Violet "C" rays which discourage some types of bacteria. and is about one-third faster than a hydroponic system. The ambient room temperature is no more than 80�F but preferably closer to 70�F (20�C). and I will suggest other substances you can add to enhance the nutrient quality your plants are getting from aeroponic feeding. But excess heat can bring fungus and bacteria. Personally. which is also important.

as this will ensure that there have been no "stabilizers" added. Hydrogen peroxide will most definitely reduce any possibility of bacterial and fungal contamination. Humanmade peroxide comes in a variety of percentages. and you want to get the 35% variety. Farmers in the US use peroxide for everything from disinfection of the dairy barn and hog pens to increasing crop yields by 20 to 30%. Do not bother using the pressure-tank system that can be purchased in conjunction with your pump. People will try to sell you very expensive pumps. root rot and countless other diseases. This will give the peroxide time to kill off bacteria with its extra oxygen molecules and become stabilized before you add the dissolved mineral salts (stock fertilizer). Stadium set up with central array of sodium and metal halide bulbs. Let water sit a day before adding it to the nutrient tank. to make sure it is free from unfriendly organisms. This kind of pump is available in the local plumbing department of a Home De-pot or similar hardware store near you. Without water there is no air. I suggest you keep it cool and clean. In the aeroponic system. a bunch of high-pressure spray heads and some hose. Your pump is meant to run intermittently. 35% hydrogen peroxide can and should be used in hydroponic drip and soil systems at the rate of one teaspoon per gallon. H2O2 replicates nature's own antibacterial mechanism and prevents water from growing putrefactive bacteria which can cause the dreaded bacterial wilt. H2O2 is powerful and experiments can be dangerous to your whole crop. Be sure not to get any in your eyes. but it costs less. But beware. You would usually add peroxide to your system and let that run through for 1/2 hour before adding nutrients. and put in one teaspoon hydrogen peroxide per gallon of water.The element of water in aeroponics is the great transport system. The plants thrived while gnats and other organisms did not. You will need an hour timer that will allow your pump to spray for 30 seconds to 2 minutes. as is generally done to the 3% variety that you can buy in a pharmacy. To get your water to the roots. H2O2 will also forcibly cause the out-gassing of chlorine and fluoride from municipal water. The burning and whitening sensation felt when it touches the skin . Stadium set up with central array of sodium and metal halide bulbs. This will prevent your pump from burning out and your system from flooding. and then rest for 4 or so minutes. which is appropriate for atomized nutrients. root rot and unknown other problems. I have used 35% hydrogen peroxide diluted to a 1% solution on a plant in soil that had an infestation of fungus gnats. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) or "Oxygen Water" Hydrogen peroxide created by humans is inferior to that created by nature. you will need a pump. but you need spend no more than $200 to buy yourself a pump that puts out 60psi. All that your plants receive comes to them through water. It is also commonly added to the drinking water of animals to reduce the need for antibiotics.

or add 3 parts water to one part 1% peroxide. meaning that the indestructible "prion" particles responsible for "transmissible spongiform encephalophathy" (mad cow disease) are likely also present in bone and blood-meal plant fertilizers. and then introduce them to your aeroponic garden. Be careful to avoid creating a giant toxic soup by adding nutrients all at once. Little clones in aeroponic tube system. Aeroponically. let them cool. First dry the plants you want. Applying H2O2 to Your system. Liquid organic multivitamins for plants are useful and I would suggest using them in combination and in low concentrations. You can provide your plants with their requirements as organically as possible by making your own nutrient teas with plants that you know "fix" certain types of minerals into themselves. To make a 1% solution. add 35 parts water to 1 part 35% hydrogen peroxide. Add one and then wait before you add the other. I would rather use plant sources of nutrients to help the persons who ingest my buds avoid contracting Mad Plant Disease! Beautiful aeroponic bud. which is the hydrogen peroxide oxidizing putrefactive organisms that are not oxygen compatible.25% for longer use. then boil them.. To achieve an 0. The same can be done with "meals" like soybean meal and others. You should dilute 1 part peroxide to 11 parts distilled water to create a 3% solution for less worrisome handling. How many people are using animal-based fertilizers whose origin they know nothing about? There is less restriction on the source of these "bone and blood meals" than there is in the pet food or agricultural industry. then put them into water. If there are parasitic invaders then you will know because there will be a profuse bubbling and frothing. Let them sit for a few days. I do not like to use blood and bone meals because I am not sure of the source. Wear latex. You can safely create a 1% peroxide solution to feed your plants for a few cycles. but fill less than a quarter of your nutrient tank with this solution. Little clones in aeroponic tube system. test the PH and parts per million so you know what percentages to add.can be irritating but is not damaging. and with aeroponics you can expect near immediate results. you're best to introduce partial organics which provide micronutrients not available in standard inorganic. No indoor gardening can be completely organic. Bad Results . ORGANIC AEROPONIC Organic aeroponic is at least partially possible with little or no hassle. Beautiful aeroponic bud. as you will want to dilute it to about 0. mineral-salt based. You will be amazed how readily your plants will gobble up the food you give them. put them through a fine particle filter. good or bad. hydroponic mixes.25% solution add 140 parts of water to 1 part 35% peroxide. You can kill bacteria that might be living in your nutrient tank by wiping out the empty container with a 3% peroxide solution. and can find their way into plants fertilized with these products.

lush healthy roots. when I am low on nutrients and water. low-ph environment will reduce funguses like root rot. as it creates a wonderful selection of living interacted nutrients that are amazing and affordable. I drain the system and put my hydrogen peroxide solution in and let it run for 1/2 hour. I let them run through for half a day. and I mean small! . By adding Kombucha. Long. To avoid such a problem. you have probably developed root rot. Everything should be visibly back to normal within a day. depending on how much I have added. If the leaves start yellowing. Unplug a light or two and give you plants a chance to recover. Kombucha is an oxygen producing bacteria that is compatible with both the human and vegetative world because it metabolizes nutrients in the tea itself. and maybe a little less lighting. the food and water get eaten. I let those run through for a day. What are in those ph up and ph down bottles anyways? Who cares! Nature's best solution is simple. a living nutrient.5 and 5. Having an acidic. The gods. Then I add my stock nutrients. cheap and has inherently less packaging. you can lower ph while still providing oxygen and bringing micronutrients to your plants that they would not regularly get. Another plump aeroponic bud. I run my organic fertilizers through the system first. Shock can precipitate root rot and you must remember that plants have an immune system and do respond to stress. remove all nutrients and run a low peroxide solution through your system. Basically. you grow a particular bacterium in a medium of black. Then about a day later. providing the plant with easy to assimilate nutrients. or you may have added too much nutrient solution. Too much nutrients and only the gods can save you. Hydrogen peroxide kills unwanted freeloaders. If you see no positive results after a day. and then add the altered medium to your solution.If you have bad results after feeding. Lowering the ph can be done with apple cider vinegar but I like to use Kombucha fungus. So using hydrogen peroxide will bring your ph up. The problem with introducing organics into an aeroponic system is that there is always some other organism that wants to cash in on the good life. as their energy will then be concentrated down in the roots. and then it is time to clear the system and add the hydrogen peroxide again. Kombucha also has beneficial health effects for the human organism. you may have a problem unrelated to feeding. which is problematic because "Kali weed" likes low ph in the aeroponic environment. sometimes 3 or more hours. A higher concentration of mineral salts generally makes the water more acidic and brings ph down and parts per million up. then I add my organics again. Ph Balance Aeroponically grown plants prefer a rather acidic solution of between 5. It is important to note that oxygen creates a high ph or neutral environment. Another way to raise ph is by adding a small quantity of baking soda. Another plump aeroponic bud. so try to avoid disasters.8ph. Long. which will be trying to heal from chemical insult. lush healthy roots. the ones you buy at the store. green or herbal tea. With a 900 parts per million nutrient solution you will still need to add some ph down.

is thus the ideal thing to add to your water during leeching. square men think this is disgusting. Fungus gnats cannot get very far and are generally not a problem. I can say that there is a part of me in every plant I have ever grown. while also providing the plants with a continued. Ultimately. It is annoying that some. if you run a low ph through while leeching. Get real. Blue Cohosh is a herb which contains plant estrogens. your plants will release their mineral salts at a much faster rate. Phyto Estrogens Some people use birth control pills to raise the estrogen level in their plants. as just running the same water through won't work! Because mineral salts concentrate in the plants at a high ph. usually young. however. including diatomaceous earth. which is no good for them.. Decreasing other fertilizer levels before introducing blood will reduce the possibility of the blood feeding unwanted organisms in your system. A small. Note that you do have to change the water every day. also work. . but these ones are particular to aeroponics. little. Menstrual blood. They prefer using bone and blood meal which they know nothing about. This is a personal choice. Kombucha with its low ph. and I also use this in my flowering formulas.. is a good source of estrogen and is as organic as the donor.. hopping flies and dust them with death at the first sign. clean source of micronutrients. DISEASES COMMON TO AEROPONIC SYSTEMS There are lots of other problems gardeners face. Such backwards attitudes aside. It facilitates the release of mineral salts. but it is not mine. It can easily be introduced in the form of tea. or you can even grow your Kombucha on it. you will want to leech the unused mineral salts out of your plants. Fungus Gnats Curing your aeroponic garden of diseases is very easy. They can only go a few inches into the rockwool before they meet the nutrient solution.. Try Aeroponics and have a "mist"-ifying experience! SATIVA DIVA --A small. Leeching is easily done with aeroponics by changing the water daily for three to seven days. so keep your eyes peeled for the evil. other than that it came from a dead animal who had a miserable life and ate less organically than most of the women you know. These pills are synthetic and cause a lot of trouble for women and generally I have a certain disdain for them. menstrual blood is not plant based and is arguably a secondary source to phyto-estrogen. inexpensive pump in the corner. The standard powders.Clearing Your Plants Before harvest. inexpensive pump in the corner.

A sure sign is a browning of the roots. They are inexpensive and may give you a better chance at recreating what nature delivers. Ultra-Violet light is a natural part of the spectrum and kills bacteria. brown and mushy. delivering lots of light. both of which are effective. Yet such lights negate the healing effects of both light heat and UV rays. increasing both growth and resin production while countering the effects of photo and geotropism (the effects which lead to increased internodal spaces). depending on your response. There is always a margin of time before your plants will die. Not enough UV. It is a fungus that shows up as rust. . a black spot and/or a powdery mildew. It might also come as a simple yellowing of the leaves and kill your babies in a short period of time. Root Rot Root rot is particularly dangerous in aeroponic systems.. Hopefully wilt never happens to you. pray and change everything.. with a clear viscous goo oozing out of the plant's pores. The larvae will also be filtered out by the fine particle spray filter before long. Bacterial wilt causes yellowing of leaves and flowers. and even in gardening books it is rarely mentioned. That sounds radical but so is the problem. There are products which can be introduced through either the leaves or roots. which accompanies the brown discolouration. One way to avoid root rot is to inoculate your plants' medium with a predator fungus. add a UV light or two. Water-cooled lights have a tendency to cut out a lot of UV. Another sure sign is black spots on the roots. . If it does.. and air which is too cool. These cooled lights can be placed really close to plants.can be used to feed 8 tubes with 20 plants each! Bacterial Wilt This is a weird one. Once you have it. not to be confused with the staining caused by certain nutrient solutions. may lead to bacterial wilt. which can be increased depending on your knowledge. I would definitely run a 1/2% solution of peroxide and no nutrients through for one day to help the plants and kill any gnat larvae that may have made it into the medium. These are readily available at well-equipped grow stores..If you notice that you have more than five in your room.can be used to feed 8 tubes with 20 plants each! . and a portion of the stem directly below the yellowing will be entirely lifeless. yet if environmental conditions are right it can affect your plants. Check your roots regularly. Wilt is not common.

Even though High Times began publication in 1974." The buds . Once Mel and Ed set us straight. like summer. This period has a long daytime and a short nighttime. The young plants will grow with vigor. cycle. like a weed. Those lucky enough to be able to grow outdoors and all the way into October were blessed with some pleasant surprises. the relationship between light timing and flowering was virtually unknown by the apprentice grower. As a general rule of thumb. and just consumed whatever presented itself. The plant needs to use as much food from the available light as it can. such as late summer and fall. Large shade leaves form and act as sugar factories for the plant. It is during this period that the plants declare their sex and produce large floral clusters that become the buds. A thorough understanding of this simple fact is crucial to more fully understanding the nature of cannabis. The nitrogen. either outdoors or under some form of artificial light.Timing is Everything by DJ Short (19 Jun. Bud cycle shift At some point in the young plant's development it becomes time to begin the shift to what is called the flowering. the concept of 'bud cycle' was not apparent until Ed Rosenthal and Mel Frank published their first works in 1976. Prior to this. while it can. under almost any conditions � but it takes a special environment. coupled with the extra light. Vegetative stage Sprouts. The key element is the timing of the light cycle. The large shade leaves begin to die and fall off as the plant shifts its energy from producing leaves and stem to producing floral clusters. and a specific set of circumstances. During the early flower stage the plant will go through what appears to be a growth spurt as the stems stretch to catch the light that. or bud. This stage has a shorter daytime and an increased nighttime. Like humans. many of us simply grew big plants. When I first started growing pot in the early 1970's. called "nodes. and the demand for phosphorous and potassium increases to fuel the process. It is during this vegetative stage that the plants send out much new growth. Food from light and nitrogen decreases. in order to properly mature. in the indoor garden the average light cycle for the vegetative stage is 18 hours on and 6 hours off. would be coming at a lower angle as the season progressed.a harsh and unpleasant tasting substance that produced little high and plenty of headache. 2000) Getting your plants to produce fine buds is a simple as night and day. This is why high nitrogen fertilizers are so beneficial during this period. Day is when it is light and night is when it is dark. Young cannabis will flourish practically anywhere. our product's quality began to increase. The floral clusters sprout from the areas where the leaves attach to the stems. plants have two worlds in which they exist: night and day. The rest of us often learned the hard way what bunkweed was . if outdoors. acts as building blocks to the overall structure of the plant. Cannabis needs to properly mature in order to be of value. turning sunlight into fiber for new growth. fresh clones and young plants live in what we refer to as the vegetative stage.

The transition between the plants' stages is therefore more drawn out and gradual. plants do most of their fiber production at night. The room must be thoroughly sealed to be completely dark when the lights are off. And. Indoors. Indoors. 11 hours of day and 13 hours of night. The only way to test this is to sit in the room in the dark. the typical light cycle used in the bud stage is 12 hours on and 12 hours off. which is why the average length of the indoor flowering cycle is eight to nine weeks. The typical 18/6 and 12/12 light cycles are primarily beneficial to Indica varieties. Nights of total darkness An important thing to remember about the indoor bud cycle is that the dark period must be absolute and uninterrupted. or photoreactive rate. I don't understand why it is that outdoor plants are not as sensitive to these nighttime interruptions. Around the equator there is a much smaller difference between seasonal day lengths. This forced flowering has its advantages as the plants are made to finish up quickly. Once the bud cycle has begun it is important to never interrupt the dark period with any light. And although outdoor equatorial crops take such a long time to mature. between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south. There are pure Sativa strains that require three to four months to mature in the flowering cycle indoors. thus aiding production. indoor plants tend to be ultra-sensitive to nighttime interruptions of light. and this timing cycle is more akin to locations north of the 30th latitude (or south. Indica is a variety from the 30th parallel and above. It is advisable to allow your eyes to adjust to the darkness before declaring the room adequately sealed. So remember to make it dark and keep it dark. it is strictly the female plants that develop into our high quality and most desired sensimilla. given adequate light. Indica became the herb of choice early on in the industry due to its fast maturation and large production abilities under the HID lights. the change in light cycle is usually instant: one day is 18 hours long and the next (and all those to follow) is 12 hours long.fill in the nodes and progress out. slow process of change that the plant had been working on up to that point. Sativa variations Another aspect to consider is that Indica and Sativa varieties differ in their photo period expression. food and root space. The vegetative stage may be 13 hours of day and 11 hours of night. Oddly enough. whereas the flowering cycle may be the opposite. which may help to explain why such small vegetative plants are capable of producing so much bud in such a relatively short period of time. even for a short period of time. a little bit more every day. six inch tall veggie plant (a plant in the vegetative stage) placed immediately into the bud cycle. is capable of producing an ounce or two of finished product in two short months. it . to check for light leaks. as we all know. in the southern hemisphere). A well formed. For whatever reason. Stars. Doing so may interrupt the long. Sativa originates from equatorial regions. The plant may react by having to restart the process and seriously delay the scheduled maturation time. Under these indoor conditions the plant is forced to make the shift quickly. the moon and streetlights glowing through the low clouds over an urban area don't seem to hinder the outdoor plant all that much. Perhaps it has to do with the unmatchable light intensity of the Sun. Outdoors. either during the day or with any lights outside the room on. the change in light cycle timing is gradual and slow.

would produce. thanks to the tropical environments. It will be interesting to see what specialized grow rooms. More interesting will be what the wonderful and great outdoors will produce in all of her various environments. via careful selective breeding. Once implemented. further experimentation and research using different indoor light timing cycles would be very worthwhile. the global environment will surely reveal interesting and desirable often possible in the right areas to produce two to four crops per year. In the meantime. developed to provide a wider range of photo periods. . Light fortified greenhouses are capable of producing high quality herb just about anywhere on the planet.

Sativas and early window harvests tend to be more of a head high. There are different factors to consider between indoor and outdoor plants.jpg These buds are near peak maturity. if conditions are right (again. My favorite time to harvest a nice Blueberry Indica outdoors is in the second to third week of October. make make up between 75% and 90% of the total hairs. By DJ Short. Head High or Body Stone? An important consideration has to do with one's preference for a "head" high or more of a "body" high. At the 45th parallel I've found most Indicas to be at peak harvest starting at the beginning of October. For most Indicas grown indoors. where I will begin. Last. if going directly from an 18/6 hour vegetative light cycle to a 12/12 hour bud cycle. The Window of Harvest This term indicates the period during which the plant is at its optimum state of ripeness. The red hairs are plump and full. Harvest6. That is. make make up between 75% and 90% of the total hairs. Outdoors many will go well into November and even December. Generally. Indoors. There is the issue of chemistry because what we are really considering in terms of the "ripeness" relates directly to the chemical nature and state of the plant at harvest. if you prefer a very psychedelic head high. this is near or at the 45th parallel). The window "opens" when the plant is first ripe. sometimes running into November during mild years or in a greenhouse. Somewhere along the line the plant becomes over-ripe which signifies the "closing" of the window of harvest.jpg These buds are near peak maturity. A good head high can positively influence one's mental state much like a psychedelic. but not least. There is the difference between early and late harvest to encourage head to body high respectively. All photos by Barge There are several important points to consider when choosing the optimum time to harvest your cannabis crop. The red hairs are plump and full. then a late harvest indicas would probably do . then an early harvested Sativa might do best. most indicas take about eight weeks to fully mature. the window may be open much longer. If a very narcotic body high is desired.Harvest Your Herb Harvest3. For Sativa grown either indoors or outdoors. Given this rule of thumb you can pretty much come up with what you want. There is the difference between Sativas and Indicas in bloom duration and final effect. and running until the end of October. whereas Indicas and late window harvests tend to be more of a body high. sometimes very late September. As to outdoors I can only speak from experience at the 45th parallel and the bloom times there. the window of harvest is about two weeks long give or take a couple of days for various strains. head highs tend to be more up and body highs tend to be more down. is the concept of "the window of harvest". Suffice it to say that a good healthy mix of the two is a fine goal to achieve. whereas a good body high is more similar to a narcotic effect. Some Sativas take up to thirteen weeks to mature indoors.

The pistils of the young flowers are bright white and turn reddish brown with age. some Sativas have windows of peak harvest that actually open and close. bulbous heads are what to shoot for. leaves and stems. As far as trichomes are concerned. The lowest. These can be found at most local electronics stores. the tall ones with swollen. Calyx swelling is a major indicator of peak maturity. It is about this time that the calyxes begin to swell. a week later the plant may have a growth spurt. The chemicals we enjoy are produced within the glandular stalked trichomes. youngest flowers on each bud. Magnify your Buds When we speak of various highs experienced by different products. they are so fat. flowers. Remember . the greater the potency. illuminated magnifier. The ripening signs for most Sativas are highly similar.patience is a virtue and often a discipline. more and more flowers (also called calyxes) develop into densely-packed floral clusters. lower pistils are the first to turn reddish brown. For most basic indicas this usually happens by the sixth week in the flowering cycle. Changes in Chemistry Harvest1. The It is now that the development of a very discerning palate comes into play to determine the finest harvest time. Usually a fibrous growth spurt is accompanied by a corresponding trichome increase. Three quarters to 90% of the pistils will have turned reddish brown as well. we are noting variations in plant chemistry. At peak maturity about 90% of the calyxes will almost look seeded. starting in or around the fourth week of the bud cycle. bracts and stems. That is. However. often for under fifteen dollars. The pistils and flowers develop from the bottom of the bud to the top. For that best-of-both worlds high. glandular stalked trichomes will begin to form along the surfaces of leaves. More and more of these trichomes develop as the plant matures. time and experience are the key elements in this regard. At the same time. experimentation with late harvested sativas and early-to-mid harvested indicas usually proves interesting. Occasionally. Again. With the aid of the magnifier one can learn more about the detail of trichome development and ripeness. along the surfaces of the bud flowers (calyxes). By the end of the eighth week most of the calyxes will have swollen and a surge of trichome development has coated most of the buds. which lowers the trichome-to-fibre ratio and overall potency for a little while. For a basic Indica this takes well into the seventh week of the flowering cycle. for a week or so the plant may exhibit signs of peak ripeness. except extended over a longer period of time. clear. The Cycle of Plant Maturity Starting in the third or fourth week of the flowering light cycle. The denser the concentration.jpg Ready for harvest! . bracts. oldest calyxes swell first and the swelling works its way up to the highest. I highly recommend that the serious cannabis student acquire a 30X power.

Which particular combination of chemicals is the most desirable is purely a matter of taste and choice. especially in regard to bouquet. Send inquiries to Question DJ c/o Cannabis Canada. given the proper curing process (see CC #10). especially if have grown or tried the strains Blueberry. whereas a narcotic late-window Indica may work better as an evening medicinal herb. developed over time and with experience. Another important point is that much can be done to further enhance the chemical process. I look forward to providing what information I can. As the window closes. aroma and flavour. The main point is that these differences are chemical in nature and more research is needed to more fully understand this phenomenon. Pleasant head highs are often desirable for social occasions.As the plant matures through its window of harvest its chemistry changes. Set and setting also play an important role in determining which type of product is best appreciated. Blue Velvet or Flo. Primarily it is THC breaking down in CBNs and CBDs. DJ Short is interested in hearing your experiences and questions. the more desirable compounds begin breaking down into less desirable ones. finis .

A few small folds at the top of the bag. regular checking to decide when they are ready for the next stage is crucial. When the larger shade leaves become dry and brittle to the touch it is time to gently clip them off. The time to the next step depends on how dry your hanging area is. ever-socarefully turning the buds. for ventilation. Simply fill a paper bag a few inches deep with the manicured buds.gif baggedbu. The bags should be gently shaken. . They should now be fully smokable. protecting the buds. you may want to try placing them on a suspended screen for a little while. or if the buds are still feeling heavy with moisture. dry. Re-hang the branches in the drying room and regularly check them until the smaller leaves and bud tips become dry and brittle to the touch. Don't pack the buds down and do not fold the bag too tight. This will help to hasten the drying process. Leave the larger shade leaves on and they will gently droop and wrap around the plant. It is at this time that the buds can be more compacted together and the bag folded down tighter. It is then time to remove the buds from the branch and remove the rest of the leaf material as best as possible. Now you have a few choices as to what to do with your manicured buds. This requires regular checking to determine when to proceed. you might want to consider cutting a few small holes in the bag. The buds should still be a little wet at this point. hang it upside down in a cool. The key word to remember is "slow".jpg Brown Bagging It Once the buds are crisp on the outside but still moist on the inside it is time for the next step in the process: the paper bag. Light must be avoided from this point on.Proper curing can exponentially increase the quality and desirability of your harvest. at least once a day. the smaller ones in particular. This is what is referred to as "manicuring". If the buds are a tad wet or if humid conditions dominate. might even be smokable at this point. but the outer part of the buds should be starting to feel dry. moonicon.gif hangingb. Once again. As with proper manicuring. As the buds dry they will naturally compact into the selfpreserving state that we all know and love. If you are in a more humid area. like a lunch bag. so practice! bagicon. should suffice. I like to use brown paper shopping bags due to their not being bleached. an unwanted chemical. regular checking is key. This is also a skill that is developed more with time and experience. especially on the inside. Some of the buds. though perhaps still slightly damp at the core.jpg Dark & Dry After cutting the plant or branch. and most importantly dark place. above the level of the buds.

Aside from watching and smelling for mold. if the mold was detected in the jar stage simply put the rest of the product back to the bag stage for awhile (after removing the contaminated product from the batch).jpg A final curing stage. from harvest to these first smokable products. The screen is the driest process that I know of. finis . If problems with the mold occur prior to this. The moldy bud needs to be removed. especially in the cultivation of the Blueberry and Flo varieties. He can be contacted care of Cannabis Canada. After a week or so all I do is simply open the jar and check the buds on a daily basis. may take more or less time.The entire process. a dehumidifier in the drying room may be the answer. preferred by most connoisseurs. There is no substitute for consistent. and the jar is sealed. The longer you can stretch out this process. If the mold is detected in the bag stage. The simplest solution is to go back one step. always remember to keep the product in the dark. cured. Extremes in climate. It is important to be as gentle as possible so as not to damage too many of the resin glands. Watch for Mold The main thing to watch (and smell) for throughout all of the curing process is mold. You will be able to detect the fragrance of the product becoming more and more desirable as time progresses. usually for a week to ten days. such as very arid deserts or tropical humid areas. packed in very loosely. I like when it takes six to eight weeks from harvest to the finished product. finalbud. while also avoiding mold. The nearly ready buds are transferred from the bag to the jar. and the rest of the product needs to be exposed to a drier environment for a while. I like to dump them all out of the jar and gently fluff them up at least once a day at first. hands-on checking. involves sealable jars. For example. should take anywhere from two to four weeks. go back to the screen. Whenever mold is found it must be dealt with immediately. It is very important in the early jar-stage to check the buds at least once a day. DJ Short welcomes questions and feedback. and ready for sale or consumption when the stem in the middle of the bud snaps when the bud is cracked with the fingers.gif The Final Stage jarbud. It is at this stage that the product can safely be sealed and stored for an indefinite period of time. the better. then less often as time progresses. jaricon.jpg Ready to go! A bud is completely dry. depending on your climate. The snap is easy to detect with practice.

They were the Highland Thai (also called Juicy Fruit Thai. and crossed with itself or another highly similar. Juicy Fruit Juicy Fruit The Highland Thai was a joy to grow and behold. It was a powerful. Thick side-branching is another characteristic of this variety. the P1 must be either a fully acclimated. The high could last up to seven hours! The flavour. region-of-origin land-race variety. while the bud structures matured a lighter shade of green. This plant grew fast. I took one to almost twenty weeks into its flower cycle and she just kept pumping it out. with some sporting long. Flo and others. The only difference was that the later harvest was a more stony. It was a very slow finisher. called the P1 generation. The finished product from the Highland Thai was an all-around champion herb. 1999) A case study on how to go about breeding fine marijuana. body high. Though difficult to trim and cure. Many of these spindles resemble threads protruding from a semi-formed bud.On the origins of Blueberry by DJ Short (01 Sept. Outdoors. slender shoots of widely-spaced single female flowers in a row (especially when grown hydroponically under halide lights. I was never able to get a Juicy Fruit Highland Thai to "over mature". a first-generation Thai seed grown in the Pacific Northwest). The plant only periodically produced any kind of "tight" bud structure. despite its hermaphroditism. For me. Different breeders have different standards as to what qualifies as a P1. and an Afghani Indica which came to me one generation removed from Afghanistan via the California/Southern Oregon growing community.) This bud structure is known as "spindly". The overall plant color was dark. I have very high standards for my P1 generation. some even longer. Each single thread averaged anywhere from five to ten inches long. the outcome was fully worth the effort. one was taken in early-mid December from a greenhouse. 12 to 16 weeks and beyond in the bud period for most. region-of-origin land-race variety. It had the longest and skinniest leaves out of all the plants I have worked with. or no more than one generation removed. and consisted of a row of evenly-spaced female flowers and their corresponding bract leaves. filling in any empty spaces with lush. For best breeding results you use true-breeding stabilized strains as your P1's. green growth. Most of the buds were very loose. long-lasting and exquisitely flavoured herb with little or no ceiling. I used three P1 strains to breed Blueberry. Choosing your parents The place for breeding to begin is with choosing the parent plants. alternating bract and flower in single file. sometimes green/yellow. a cross called Purple Thai which was a first generation land-race Chocolate Thai crossed once with a first generation landrace Highland Oaxaca Gold. aroma and . anywhere from a quarter inch to one inch apart. Thai Thai The entirety of the "thread" and bud structure was coated with sweet/fruity aromatic resin glands.

pungent herb that smelled like a skunk and produced a narcotic-knockout stone that was tremendously novel. indica. dense. At larger doses the Juicy Fruit could evoke quite a terror. The Purple Thai was one of the first to show resin gland production in the early bud cycle. Afghani Afghani The entire plant of the Purple Thai was very dark-coloured and would express a deep royal purple colour at the slightest exposure to cold. They were huge. It did not exhibit any of the spindly bud syndrome of the Juicy Fruit Thai. It is this initial genetic diversity that leads to the most possibilities in succeeding lines. Such were the three main P1's I used for my breeding lines. the Purple Thai seemed easier to handle. and the strains virtually disappeared from the commercial markets. It has early to very early maturation. Few people maintained their sativa lines. Afghani male Afghani male The f1 cross The f1 cross is the first cross between two distinctly different P1 parents. early-maturing and body-powerful indica has dominated the scene since 1983 � a matter of disjointed economics. including when tripping. I believe more indicas should be made into hashish. with a strong smoke that is generally sedative or "down" in effect. The "f" stands for filial (child). The short. Though no less potent. I preferred the Purple Thai to the Juicy Fruit Highland Thai. its appeal is somewhat limited in my opinion. stout and thick-stemmed. at roughly three to four weeks into the cycle. It also matured at 10 to 12 weeks indoor. which is where the finer qualities of the indica appear. The triad of sinsemilla. if left alone (untopped) the main stalk (meristem) remained the dominant shoot. dense buds that smell earthen to skunk. sticky. The Purple Thai was the other sativa in my repertoire. producing large. The Afghani Indica plant is short with large. wide leaves. I cannot overstress the importance of the two P1 parents being as genetically different as is possible. This was a first generation cross between the Highland Oaxaca Gold and the Chocolate Thai. and early to mid November outdoors. The side branches were shorter and. I believe that the Purple Thai was emotionally kinder or gentler than the Juicy Fruit. dense buds of potent. For whatever aesthetic reason. Though consistent in its growth and overall effect. stinky. all wreaked havoc on the breeding programs of most pot-entrepeneurs. The finished product was equally as fruity and strong as the Juicy Fruit. and the finished buds were a medium and compact sativa type. green. This cross grew medium/tall and was very symmetric in structure. . This was right after sinsemilla herb hit the market with big appeal. also without ceiling. and the advent of high powered halide and HPS lights.taste were a totally sweet tropical punch � tutti-fruity all the way. especially when combined with psychedelics. Blueberry x Afghani Blueberry x Afghani The sinsemilla Afghani Indica first showed up on the market in 1979. when compared to all the sativas that had come before.

Trial and error is the rule. The diversity was spectacular. wile the outer leaf. then the f1 will be a true hybrid. expressing a near total uniformity and great vigor. There will be a tremendous amount of variance in the f2 crosses of f1's obtained from a female pure sativa and a male pure indica. energy and money was spent from this point to isolate and stabilize the desired traits. there is a higher probability of occurence of the specific traits which I'm seeking. long buds formed along the branches. which I called simply "The Cross". early to late maturation. Thus there were two possible routes to essentially the same finished product. The seed is uniformly sized and shaped. licorice and paint. while Blue Moonshine seems more accessible through the Juicy Fruit lineage. plump to slender. gin. there are . The Blueberry (among others) was discovered and stabilized from an f1 cross between the P1 parents of a female Juicy Fruit Thai or a female Purple Thai and a male Afghani Indica. ellipsoid and mottled with dark stripes upon a grayish brown shell. On average. It is in the crosses beyond the initial f1 (especially the f1xf1=f2 cross) that specific traits are sought. wide to narrow leaves. A grand amount of time. simply a cross between any two of the f1 stock. with a wide window of harvest being between weeks eight to eleven in the bud cycle. leaving plenty for experimentation. The maturation rates were uniform as well.If the P1's are sufficiently diverse. A single female is capable of producing thousands of seed. This is the f1 generation. The finished bud had a very strong "astringent" chemical/terpene aroma that bordered between pine. the opposite cross (female Afghani indica crossed with pollen from male Thai sativa) was not nearly as interesting. So far this observation has proven fruitful. That is. The plants of The Cross grew uniform. striped to solid. while the (usually male) indica contributes the amount of aroma and flavour to the prodigy. Blue Velvet and Flo seem more accessible via the Purple Thai route. The f1's from this cross were more leafy and less desirable. With my f2 crosses the outcome was extreme. They were also more hermaphroditic and subsequent breeding revealed them to be less desirable. dark to light. and so they're easier to "find". indoors. Only a very few of The Cross expressed hermaphroditism. about 1 out of every 25 females. From sativa to indica. both in structure and aesthetics. Oddly enough. Large. The buds were lighter. round to oval. medium-tall "spear" structures of many competing sidebranches around one main (meristem) stalk. with almost every characteristic of the cannabis plant being expressed in some of the plants. There was a wide palate of colours. ranging from large to small. There is a tremendous amount of work between the f2's and the f4's and f5's. the (usually female) sativa contributes the type of aroma and flavour. aromas. tastes and highs. short to tall. Blue Moonshine Blue Moonshine So the Thai female is pollinated with the Afghani male and an abundance of seed is produced. small. certain paths prove futile while others bear further examination. Afghani Afghani The f2 cross The f2 is the second filial generation. It has been my observation that in a successful cross. especially among the Purple Thai cross. purple and blue hues. almost yellow to the centres. along with an extensive array of flavours. bract and calyx tips showed red. The f2 seeds collected were equally diverse.

The slightest shock may shatter crucial. But beyond the f2 and f3 cross. Afghani clones Afghani clones Your friend the freezer A benevolent tool in our trade is the refrigerator and freezer. delicate cell structures within the seed. Then place the wrap into a plastic freezer bag.about nine errors to each success. Blueberry x NL#5 Blueberry x NL#5 I like to do one backcross somewhere between the f3 and f5 generation. in one-time-use packets. I like to do small amounts. The fridge is extremely useful in extending the longevity of seed and pollen. Have phun! Select the best. brown glass jars with a little rice or other non-toxic desiccant seems to work best. A pollen-to-flour ratio of 1:10 or even . Mendel's work is useful. cut above the lowest few nodes. then place the freezer bag into a plastic tub or tupperware container. If the sample passed "the test" then the plant was kept for further consideration. The most desirable samples were used for further breeding to f3. It is also useful to cut pollen with flour to stretch the amount. It must be frozen immediately after fresh collection from the plant. The pollen pile is sifted to rid the unwanted plant material from the pure powder. Mendel's theories add copius complexity to the equation. The harvested plants. Another trade secret is the art of selecting the best males for breeding. little manilla envelopes work great. to keep waste to a minimum. It was hard work and dedication to record the findings and attempt to create useful categories and find patterns and traits to specific characteristics. but when it comes to herb I much prefer Luther Burbank's philosophy: "Select the best and reject all others!" This simple phrase is worth much consideration. where and how that is done remains a trade secret for now. reject all others Mendelian procedures are fine for sweet peas. in as low a humidity as possible (preferably 0%). it was a difficult task to accomplish. were placed under a vegetative light cycle to stimulate new growth for cloning. Many sacrifices were endured by my family and friends. I have had pollen last for years in a deep freeze. Double wrap the seed in paper. I like to shake the productive male flowers over a flat and clean piece of glass. f4 and f5. These topics and others will be covered in future articles. The trick to successful freezing is to freeze deep (-10 to -40�F/-20 to -35�C) and then keep the seed undisturbed. Then there's the wait for the cured sample. Exactly when. Hard frozen objects are very fragile. storing seed in airtight. Coupled with the difficult clandestine aspects of the trade through the 80's and 90's. Now the seed is ready for the deep-freeze. a fun and worthwhile occupation to sample all the research material. In the fridge. especially concerning P1 and f1 crosses. It was however.

1:100 works best. a higher angle of light (using a straight track shuttle instead of a circular one). This room needs to consider and satisfy the unique needs of the sativa variety. humidity control set on low for the highland and high for the lowland. Be prepared for much fine tuning. which expands the possibilities of your breeding operation. The frozen pollen must be applied to the live female flower immediately after thawing to increase viability. Light cycle is one of the key considerations for those wishing to breed truly fine quality cannabis indoors under lights. A true equatorial sativa will require closer to a 13/11 vegetative and a long (four to six month) 11/13 flower cycle. The cut pollen may then be separated into small. As jungle (lowland) herb requires only a thin layer of nutrient soil. Some of these conditions include: a different light cycle than the standard 18/6 vegetative 12/12 bud cycles. Blue Velvet Blue Velvet The sweet sativa room I recommend the creation of a special "sativa room" for indoor breeding of such strains. The 18/6 veggie and 12/12 bud cycles are perhaps the main influence towards the indica dominant strains and generic blandness of the indoor commercial product. the sativa-friendly room can be used to acclimate an indoor sativa variety. . stored in a flap of paper and frozen the same way as the seed. The goal is to replicate the equatorial conditions of the world�s various "sweet spots". If successful. Keeping the plant in a stationary position. such as 15/9 veggie and 10/14 flowering cycle. perhaps a four-to-eight inch layer of soil over clay or concrete (with some form of drain system) would encourage lateral root growth. especially through the bud cycle. stationary plants. Equatorial strains also experience a higher arch of sunlight than those grown beyond 38� north or south � with a sunrise almost due east and sunset nearly due west. may positively influence the outcome of the finished product. and variations in soil composition and depth. Different variations may be tried. one-time-use amounts. Therefore the sativa room will edintense overhead lighting with a straight track mover. and a more lowland sativa-friendly environment.

as well as the commercially available alternatives. The best growrooms are cool. They may even wipe the mites out entirely and then starve to death themselves. predator mites will eat the evil spidermites and their eggs. clean up. given the proper cool temperatures. especially if the place gets dry. The vegetation that surrounds our dwellings supports an everpresent threat of invasion. Their persistence is incredible. your friends. They breed quickly and can develop resistance to certain sprays. reducing the quantity and quality of your harvest. Almost every grower has heard of and used many home remedies. or at least try to keep their numbers down. I once saw an attic garden that was full of plants but had no ventilation. as a friend recently pointed out. The gardener also claimed to be too tired after work to carry water into his attic regularly. and your pets. Having clean clothes and shoes is important. Wipe off any signs of webs immediately and repeatedly. Vapour barriers and finely screened vents for intake and exhaust fans are essential to avoid sucking in bugs from the outside. Ventilation Ventilation fans are essential for healthy plant growth as well as discouraging the mites. A terrible sight indeed. The problem.MITES BITE By Breeder Steve of the Spice of Life Seed Company Spider mites bite! You must get rid of them. Prevention The key to a mite-free garden is prevention. well ventilated rooms. so the plants were bone dry and covered with tents. and start again with a renewed interest in prevention. Webs & Eggs Spidermites spin webs which facilitate movement among the plant's branches and neighbouring plant's branches for the shortlegged demons. If you look closely underneath the leaf you will see the little white eggs clinging to the underside and most likely the little white or reddish brown spidermites walking around or sucking the sweet juice of your plant. they are nearly impossible to get out. Predator Mites Once you've got mites bad the best solution is to tear down. Bring only clean tools and sterilized growing medium into your growroom. Mite growth slows dramatically at lower temperatures. Once mites get into your garden. if they persist and you shudder at the prospect of starting all over again then you should introduce predator mites. as pests may enter the grow space on you. Remember that if you have houseplants they may be supporting a population of mites as well. At higher temperatures they become very active and mobile. Formally known as Phytoseilus Persimillis. Note that the predators may not be as effective if the mite population is too high . A hot growroom with poor ventilation is a breeding ground for mites. They are like little mosquitoes that suck the lifeblood from your plants. However. is that every garden on the West Coast is under siege. A garden started in a frozen climate is safe provided that the mites don't tag along in a bag of compost. If you have mites you will know it by the very small white dots on top of your leaves. Just don't let them in.

also known as diotomecious earth. People should not be messing around with Malathion or Diazinon. the mites will die a hideous death. ground pumice. however I'm not convinced of its effectiveness. I've tried garlic. It is fairly safe in composition and has the advantage of being in a nifty new aerosol can that can be sprayed upside down. as well as on stalks. something that they get stuck in. Put two-sided tape on the walls. A few cigarette butts soaked in a litre of water. and you will rejoice one battle won. while the dusty . Insecticidal Soaps and Sprays Eternal vigilance is the cost of freedom from spidermites. Traps & Companions Traps are another possibility. and dusty millers. find out. they eat it and then get sliced inside and out. I've heard very good reports about it. The real key is prevention. it's a white dust that attracts the bugs. it is called SM90. Sprinkle this on the leaves and the soil. filtered and than sprayed is the favourite miticide of one crazy Dutchman I know. but follow the instructions with any pesticide! I say again. A new spray is being touted as killing spidermites but not the predator mites. as going the extra mile during the construction of the grow room can save a marathon cleanup later. and use it myself. If in doubt. The active ingredient is from a natural source and not harmful to humans. It sounds nasty but it is merely fine sand with very sharp edges. This is a dangerous and harmful product. Pokon is the most popular commercially available mite spray on the market today. The dust is harmless to plants and animals (ourselves included) but very destructive to small crawling insects such as mites. even Pokon. marigolds. Never use systemic pesticides. Although this is only a band aid solution it can't hurt. branches and pots. I strongly recommend that you spray nothing on your buds except the mildest home remedies such as a small amount of Listerine and Sunlight dishsoap dissolved in water and sprayed or scrubbed onto the plants. especially with some elbow grease and a J cloth. avoid! A new organic spray that is very effective is made from orange oils. very convenient for spraying the bottoms of leaves. which usually only provides a short term remedy. Wilson's insecticidal soap does a pretty good job at cleaning them up. Pentac or Kelthane are sprays that may be used while the plants are in vegetative cycle. The mites killed the marigolds in no time. ceiling and floor. Very frightening indeed is the "ultimate mite killer" Avid. mined from fossilized material. Companion planting is an interesting idea. do not spray buds! Silicon Dioxide A great natural way to kill the little devils is with Silicone Dioxide. and in fact it's best to avoid all chemical solutions. In the stores look for Insecolo.when they are introduced. Spray Solutions Any one of a number of spray solutions may be used to knock down their population to a level where the predators will be able to take over. commercial or home made. but wait a few days after spraying before introducing the predators or the residual miticide will also harm them. Its razorlike edges slice the carapace or shell of the mites' bodies and then they dehydrate.

Remember. like a healthy person. Frequent spraying of water on plants impedes the mites' progress. and water. as do heavy gusts of wind.millers lived as did the garlic. so make sure it (and you) have a healthy and balanced diet. growing inside is the art and science of creating nature. wind. fire. You must remember the four basic elements. If you have mites try not to spread them. Of what is up to you. Plenty of wind is essential in the grow room. but neither thrived as well as the mites. earth. so put oscillating fans all over the place. and thank your lucky stars. . while outdoors the elements and naturally occurring predators make them less of a threat. is less likely to have problems. One grower I know of uses a compressed air blower once a week to blow any mites off of his plants. Too much or too little of any one of these will cause difficulties. To grow successfully these elements must be balanced. For best results the plants should dance inside just as much as they would dance outside. Outdoors Indoors Spider mites are a plague on indoor gardens. take precautions to keep it that way. If you don't have mites. A healthy plant.

and during the day the sides could be lifted to let the cool breeze reach the plants. the plants will break either straight away or not at all. I excavated the earth. cut off the top half of it and hang the two parts of the plant separately. making life harder later on. I had to be careful not to pull the plants down too soon�act too early and mold can still break out in your buds. . but being underground muffled the sound of the generator. When you have a drying shed on-site. As one plant can have up to ten larger-sized branches on it. As I recounted. only taking out finished product or dried bud ready for manicuring. The following season I developed a method that for my purposes was perfect. the pot should be left in total darkness for the whole time of curing. you are losing and damaging the most valuable part: the trichomes! What I didn�t do the first season was build myself a drying shed. I made my first drying shed with a timber frame and covered the walls and roof in heavy-duty black builders plastic. Many people cut the branches off individually but all that does is increase the amount of work you have to do later. you reduce the disruption of the resin heads. drying them as it went. Remember. You will find the larger branches provide adequate strength to support the weight of the plant. With this method. I could get 50 pounds (22 kg) of dry weight in 14 days. It required money but by that stage I had it. and here's how to harvest properly When you are growing guerilla jungle style you must be set up to process everything in the forest. I had to shovel big holes and it was backbreaking work. Ideally. creating an underground shed to house a small generator that provided me with ample electricity for my growing compound�s communications and lighting (as described and pictured in CC #60). that lack of planning was disastrous. every time you touch your plants. If the plant is big. and as cool as possible as heat destroys the THC. the more the plant is disturbed during harvest. In the event of heavy rain the plants were protected. As the drying process almost instantly reduces weight. It�s the only way to have a generator operate outdoors�it�s got to be quiet and stealth. Harvesting should be straightforward. the more damage you do. you take the heaps of harvested pot inside the shed and hang the plants up by strings or rope. 2006) Growing in the bush requires a lot of planning.How To Harvest Outdoors by Joe Walsh (19 Sept. yet I have seen so many people do it the wrong way. Sound travels in the forest. By cutting off the main stems and laying the entire plants on top of each other. The very best way is to cut the plants as low to the ground as possible.

and supplies are always scarce. What I would do with my next crop is process the shake�as I had had over 2. I was able to stay anonymous. The generator had electric lines going to a heap of power outlets that connected industrial fans. When it was time to carry out the finished product. The de-humidifiers would remove moisture from the shed and then the cool air was sucked back into the generator shed. tied the tops. to repeat the process. and the product is very quickly turned over as the demand for bubble-hash is great. I put the buds into chaff bags. safe and clean as to be unbeatable. with another length of ducting carrying the cool moist air from the drying shed back to the generator so it could pump a constant stream of warm dry air to the harvested plants. and to change oil every 12 hours�I could dry 50 pounds in three days. and successful. inline fans. de-humidifiers and three fluorescent lights controlled by a switch. They could be stored like this for weeks or months. I learned from my first season growing in the bush that there are huge losses involved in poor planning. which started at around 3. I found that leaving them in the bags for a few weeks tended to make the quality a little better. I have seen this at work on-site in the Canadian outback. and then wrapped them in industrial cling wrap. I ran standard 6-inch diameter clothingdryer ducting from the generator shed into the drying shed. because mold is rendered harmless and is separated from the trichomes through this method.000 pounds of it�with the 20-gallon Bubblebag� ice-cold extraction system.I had also brought in a large generator to make the drying shed more efficient. but the ice cold water extraction method is so convenient. With this set-up. it is still a very efficient and very flexible method for fresh-cut trim. and although the plant material was fresh (it�s better to be dry for the Bubblebags�). circulated by the big industrial fans. With the generator going 24 hours a day� only stopping the machine to clear vapor locks from the fuel lines. within the bush for the second season even though it . fast. single-handedly drying the entire crop (about 300 pounds dry.000 pounds of wet bud) without any help at all. hot dry air would be sucked into the drying shed. I used to be very partial to making extracted THC oil using solvents. Pot damaged by mold is redeemed in some small way when put in the ice-cold extraction bags.

often rained heavily in the final weeks. . Learn from my experiences and next season you can do as I did. scaling harvesting requirements to your ability. and curing your cannabis to a perfect smoke.

After smoking a doobie with his friend one night and eating Pringles potato chips in the parents� basement. such as those employed by Eli Lily and Parke-Davis Company up to 1938. by 1977. but the gear hadn�t been put away. Every cannabis chemist we spoke to has an explosion story. Consequently. an old friend of mine was making oil outside with butane. The process had been completed. yet Puff Mama. Stepping slightly back from the table. The LaGuardia Mayor�s Committee provided cannabis extracts to New York City prisons in the 1930�s and 40�s. �It would have been fine if the bottom of the Pringles can wasn�t metal . severe physical burns. DO NOT MAKE MARIJUANA EXTRACTS! Controlling solvents. partial neighborhood blocks going up in flames. I found it impossible to locate a cannabis alchemist who isn�t sporting burn scars or fondly recalling the time so-and-so went up in flames. and even death� which are all tragedies used as arguments by prohibitionists against marijuana use in general. that attended university chemistry classes during the day and �studied� cannabis at night. For example. which. and a hazardous environment requires attentiveness. and Chris Goodwin all faced serious cannabis catastrophe. and/or occasionally leave the Volcano vaporizer on until the balloon is about to burst. When making extractions. have difficulty following directions. he lit a joint� and BOOM! The spark ignited fumes in the air and nearly blew him apart. (LaGuardia report) Medicinal cannabis extracts disappeared from store shelves in 1937. Fans still blew behind him as he checked out the end product. There are many ways to mess up! The original reefer revolutionaries of cannabis extraction were scientists. You must be ultra-careful when making oil with solvents. Never assume! Up In Smoke Cafe proprietor Chris �Goodster� Goodwin is a honey oil head. and what to do right When making cannabis oil or extractions. life-threatening injuries. Goodster was getting the very last drop of the honey oil from the Pringles can�which they unwisely used to contain the butane and plant matter� when it jarred on a metal table and created a spark. He had been standing in the fan�s air path and assumed he was safe. the objective is to get really high�safely. Eli Lily supplied the Office of Strategic Services (now the Central Intelligence Agency) with �potent marijuana oil created as a truth drug for interrogation purposes�. but since the heyday of THC extraction in the 1970�s.How To Make Weed Oil Without Blowing Yourself Up by Matt Mernagh (19 Sept. there have been hundreds of weed-oil explosions throughout North America over the last 30 years. Michigan with plants known as Cannabis Americana. advertised in High Times. the duo decided to make honey oil. The extraction-makers we profile in this article are all smart stoners. and recreational use of cannabis was unusual outside of jazz clubs and working-class black and Hispanic neighborhoods. The invention of the Internet accelerated the exchange of oil-making ideas. �red oil concentrates were used along with marijuana� to get the prisoners to talk about crimes or provide information they had not yet confessed. Early oilmaking technology like the ISO2 extractor were massproduced. and sold extensively. was printing almost a million copies. heat. Eli Lily and Parke-Davis jointly ran a farming co-operative in Rochester. If you�re slightly careless with measurements. Brian. you MUST approach with caution. used for medicinal extracts from 1913 to 1938. much inadequate and misguided information has circulated. 2006) A few examples of what can go wrong. are easily confused about explosive chemicals. resulting in completely blown-up houses. Cannabis extracts revived in the 1970�s facilitated by High Times Magazine.

which are widely available these days. because THC resin is heavier than alcohol or butane gas (which is also used to make oil�we�ll go over that soon) it will sink to the bottom of the new glass container. invest money into ordering proper lab equipment online or from a science retailer. which then dropped into the alcohol. Allow for a complete evaporation of solvents before harvesting your oil from the container.7% isopropyl) was placed in the basin of the metal container and heated by the bulb underneath. Pour the liquid through the screen into a second piece of glassware. As this happens. All cannabis cooking. I dropped the can. To make oil with butane. Slowly pour isopropyl alcohol up to a level slightly above the top of the trimmings. the poorer the quality. As it runs through the . Alcohol (99. Pour the liquid into a new container and back into another. or something else that creates heat with NO open flame (this is VERY important). Use a lava lamp stand. even outdoors. and attach a non-metal screen to the bottom with packing tape. �The base sparked on the table and the thing just went WHOOOSH. and then the alcohol evaporated into the air or was heated gently until only the THC oil remained. and gently shake the container to coat the marijuana with alcohol. obtain three glass beakers or bowls. until the color of the liquid begins to change to amber. After 30 to 60 minutes all the resin was transferred to the remaining alcohol in the basin. should be done far away from other people so if something goes wrong you�re the only one to suffer the consequences. similar to a lava lamp. Had Goodster gone to science class a few more times he might have learned better safety precautions and obtained the necessary glassware required to contain the volatile oilmaking mix of plant matter and butane! If you�re serious about making honey oil. The vapors came out of a twelveinch tower of carbon. like moonshining.too. they managed to put out the fire. When you�re planning to make weed oil with isopropyl alcohol (99. When alcohol is heated it turns into a vapor and rises. and very carefully pour the butane down the tube. stirring as the alcohol slowly evaporates. fill one piece of glassware with plant matter and secure the mesh screen over the top with packing tape. but it went WHOOSH again!� Luckily. without setting oneself on fire. Eliminating solvents just perfectly. �Naturally. You will need a SAFE heat source to make oil.� Goodster says. so in the ISO2 the vapor �melted� the resin. and packing tape�not duct tape. Fill a tube or hose-like container with trim or bud. you use the same sort of process. Then place it on your heat source. a coffee machine base. some mesh screen that is NOT made of metal (once again. is a critical part of the process. It is HIGHLY recommended that you always make oil OUTSIDE! When alcohol or gas is heated. inert and odorless. How to Make Oil The cannabis chemist is seeking to obtain the purest THC content for their oil while also providing a sweet taste to their product. Fumes can also cut off the flow of oxygen to the brain. In your chosen well-ventilated spot.� the sound Goodster uses to describe the flaming experience of honey oil going off in his face. Position the tube in or above a large glass container. Set up somewhere with ample ventilation and more than one exit. Suspended above the alcohol was a halforb mesh strainer filled with marijuana.7%). this is VERY important!). it creates fumes that can ignite an explosion with even the smallest spark or flame. The ISO2 was a fairly safe extracting device with a light bulb under the base connected to a dimmer switch. Many cannabis cookers work with two fans behind them to keep fumes going downwind. which can result in the chemist pass-ing out onto their lab equipment� so make sure you wear a gas mask. the resins take on a dark brown color characteristic of hash oil. The runnier or greener the oil is.

Cookie at �Clandestiny�. Ontario hospital where he spent weeks in intensive care. With cannabis use and tender loving care. Take the bowl and repour it through the tube into another container. Unfortunately. resin glands are dissolved along the way and carried out with the butane.horror-moviemess� and he is permanently physically scarred by his fiery experience. ala Emeril or The Iron Chef. She�s also a pot professional with a disastrous cannabiscooking story of her own to tell. Puff Mama decided to go out and have sushi with her mom while a batch of cannabutter slowly simmered in a pot on the stove. Toronto Police. Cookie�s Misfortune Brian is a great chef who knows how to cook up a storm. which he did often. fans. Upon his release. but unfortunately that ended one fateful day in 2005. an air conditioner. Ontario. two fridges. spider mites. Cookie. and what remains will be sweet honey oil! Mr. It should be ground up to crumbs. He also has a respectable ten years� experience in the oil business. She knew it was safe to turn the stove heat down to LOW and leave for a bit. You can experience delicious treats from Mr. Her new store Clandestiny is a hemp-friendly location with plenty of treats. She realized that when she ran out the door to see her mom. one year later Brian is healthy and looks scar-free. Of course. �how does she get pot into muffins and chocolate? � Because of a simple mistake. and repeat the process until the residue begins to take on a deep amber color. Then follow the same heating and evaporation process as isopropyl. Since then she�s opened Clandestiny and offers baked goods for sale (see her ad at the beginning of the magazine). the flammable substance he was evaporating suddenly went one degree too hot� and BOOM! The oil burst into flames and he threw the pot from the stove.5 L water . he turned his personal tragedy into opportunity by becoming a super-chef supplier of baked goods: Mr. which can be used in any food preparation (and this. is how pot gets in chocolate!) All cannabis used for cooking should be fully dried and free of mold. when she came home from a pleasant meal she found her home on fire. After his recovery. Canada. She has a pro kitchen with two stoves. she accidentally turned the stove on HIGH! The Toronto Fire Department had arrived to put out the fire. His burns and injuries were so life threatening he was flown 150 miles to a Hamilton. But being a weed wizard indeed. Puff Mama�s �Burning Down The House� CannaButter Puff Mama is another talented cannabis chef. her kitchen was ruined and she was charged for �possession�. Puff also turned her tragedy into a marijuana opportunity by hosting an extravagant fundraising effort to pay her kitchen replacement and legal bills. Puff Mama reminds everyone to make sure you watch the heat! CannaButter Ingredients: � 1 lb unsalted butter � dried cannabis (see * below) � 4 . Here Puff Mama shares her recipe for cannabutter. chemicals and/or debris. his hands were a �peelingbandaged. but not dust. While making oil.trimmings. but his hands became a fireball that quickly covered his entire body. and stainless steel pots and pans. wondering. 768 Queen Street East in Toronto. then the Toronto Police showed up and cleaned out the contents of her fridges.

slowly pour the brew into the cheesecloth. 3) When you are ready to strain. trim from buds Mild: 28 g Strong: 56 g Regular cannabis buds Mild: 14 g Strong: 28 g Powerful cannabis or hash Mild: 7 g Strong: 14 g Directions: 1) Place butter. it�ll safely dissolve THC from cannabis over several days. put the colander over the second pot or bowl. vodka. Don�t let the sides fall in. rye. Rum. put the pot on a large element on the lowest setting possible. You can dump the water and store the butter in the fridge. Using the spoon. Canna-Rum or Cooking Brandy A mint julip packs a bit more punch if you replace the mint with bud. then refrigerate the liquid in the pot. some stems Mild: 120 g Strong: 250 g Leaves. you get a .8 hours. The butter will want to cling between the leaves. Irish cream�whatever you like. Use the potato masher against the colander to squeeze out the precious juices. as butter will go bad. Line it with a large piece of cheesecloth. seeds. brandy. and all the THC is in the butter. Stir every 1/2 hour. If you don�t plan to use it within a week. Tequila is an excellent alcohol for absorbing THC. 4) Wrap the mixture tight and squeeze every last drop of juice out. freeze it. cannabis. The butter and water will separate. whisky. 5) Throw out the contents of the cheesecloth.� 1 large stockpot � a 2nd pot or large bowl � a colander (spaghetti strainer) that will fit in the 2nd pot or bowl � a large piece of cheesecloth � a big spoon and potato masher * If you have: Stems. and water in a large stockpot. 2) Simmer for 6 . and a steak will go nicely with cannabis brandy sauce! Mixing store-bought alcohol with bud is rather easy. and if you leave it for up to three months. leaves Mild potency use: 225 grams Strong potency use: 450 g Mostly leaves.

And they�re not doing so for medical reasons: this tincture is for Spiritual Exploration. British Columbia. The Sacrificial Tinctures of G-13 Located in the hippie enclave of Toronto�s Beaches neighborhood. that alcohol was neither a suitable medicinal binding agent nor strong enough for med pot patients. If you put shit in. the tinctures can also be mixed into summer drinks. the more it will break down and release its many valuable cannabinoids. Pharmaceuticals because they produce Sativex� in legal environs while compassionate chemists in Ontario. just drop the buds right down the neck of the bottle. �What you want is an euphoric state.proof food-grade alcohol to the Church for their tinctures.) The unfair advantage goes to G. If possible. well-cured smaller buds into a bottle of booze. Several Compassion Clubs began canna-spray research using Jamaican 150-proof rum to dissolve the plant trimmings. Trim to fit if need be! Shake�do not stir�the bottle every day once the bud is inside. people could be perfecting cannabis sprays for the benefit of the ill. Reverend Peter says the Church is really . The G -13 Church of the Universe produces the finest religious tinctures while fighting The Man. Most compassion clubs now use medical or food-grade alcohol to make their tinctures and mists. With government licenses.� The local liquor outlet sells 95. (Though the cannabis community showed some astonishment regarding the uniformity of Sativex�. which is what the five per cent of people who use the tinctures are looking for. The longer the cannabis is in the liquor. or those just seeking a good night�s sleep! However. trying to avoid disturbing the resin glands. is the only corporation in the world permitted to legally grow voluminous amounts of cannabis.W. And it�s no secret we�re following Ed Rosenthal�s recipes. Pharmaceuticals. �You can use them anyway you like. and other med-pot jurisdictions are doing so without permits. the makers of Sativex� prescription cannabis spray.very powerful and smooth drink. this will transfer the THC into the alcohol. the historical information available suggests that cannabis spray uniformity has been around since the turn of the century. and mist better. ganja generic knocks-offs from Compassion Clubs taste. �Just yesterday. you get shit out. Sativex� is the only pharmaceutical spray on the market using whole cannabis resin extract. medicate. and to experience the entire spiritual aspects of the cannabis plant. California. To make canna-liquor. and sell it. G. ala Romans versus Catholics. but we use only the finest of bud.W. but one spray can costs $125 in Canada (the only market where it is prescribed legally). Unfortunately. at affordable prices too. Sativex and Cannabis Sprays The Canadian medical marijuana movement has many clubs producing their own medical sprays. we had a lovely summer drink using the tincture with lemons. Reverend Peter of the G-13 Church of the Universe says. Oregon. The bud creates a more lucid state.God state. Though patients have the option of getting a Sativex� prescription.� Clearly not intended for newbies. as those who down a whole tincture are known to trance out into a lucid commune-with. Purchase all the ingredients for your desired drink and obtain about 1/4 to a half ounce of primo bud. they allow several days of extraction and/or cooking. G-13 prefers food-grade alcohol to break down their product versus 150-proof rum. This reefer religion stronghold�s tinctures are so powerful that only a few members opt to use them. you need to get about ten to fifteen very dry. bust down and stabilize the molecular structure. and that�s why we don�t use leaf.� he explains of the sacrificial substance.

bhangs� and some people even put it in their coffee.getting famous for its extra-virgin olive oil. �Just always use great bud.� . Just dump some oil in. then we can use it for making chocolates. it�s really very good.� he concludes. There�s no secret here. �We cook it for five days.

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