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as preparing a site and planting some seeds. Planting outdoors needn't be as complicated as many make it. Far too much emphasis these days is placed on cloning, when growing from seed is infinitely more interesting. Direct seeding outdoors may not be for everyone, but it is certainly a simple and time honoured method of growing our favourite plant. Why direct seeding? In nature, female cannabis plants grow together with their male counterparts, becoming impregnated by the golden pollen come fall. As the calyx shrinks back and starts to rot away at the end of the season, the mature seed falls to the ground, where it remains until conditions are right for its germination. One of the main effects of cloning is that each plant is exactly the same as its sibling. While this may be an advantage indoors, it can work against you outdoors. A strain's gene pool provides the ability to adapt to different climates and conditions. For example, we might have a very wet autumn one year, causing a large outbreak of Botrytis (mold) in your bud. Out of one hundred plants grown from seed, twenty of them may be relatively free of mold, while the others are destroyed. These twenty plants have some inherited trait making them resistant to Botrytis, and this adaptability is what allows plants to reproduce and survive from year to year under varying conditions. Should you have chosen only two mothers and cloned from them, the odds are that you would have suffered a full crop loss. This genetic diversity is much more pronounced in true breeding lines rather than F1 hybrids, but luckily this works with us as many of the available outdoor seed strains are in fact true breeding. One reason to choose direct seeding over simply starting plants from seed under lights and then transplanting them outside is that a plant's roots adjust to the conditions it grows in. For example, the roots of plants grown in a hydroponics set-up will not perform well if suddenly placed in soil. Plants started inside are spoiled, they are given water whenever they want it, never being forced to do anything for themselves. Then they are thrown outside one day, and left at the mercy of Mother Nature. Plants seeded outside develop roots suited to their exact soil and moisture conditions, never producing more plant mass than the roots can support. In most areas, directly seeded cannabis need never be watered throughout the season, though irrigation will of course increase yield, especially during flowering. Direct seeding also eliminates the carrying of suspicious and cumbersome boxes of plants into hard to reach areas, a major hassle of guerrilla growing. Choosing a Location Once you have a general idea of where you want to grow, a good place to visit is your local university, library or map supplier. Here you can find detailed topographical maps of the area, as well as soil maps indicating whether it is suitable for growing (many soil maps will indicate whether an area is farmable). Look for areas with some access to water in case of drought.
River valleys are ideal locations as good soil usually accumulates there, and there is also easy access to water. If planting in valleys, make sure not to choose a location at the very bottom, as this is where frost will settle. Preparing the Site Ideally, the site should be prepared the previous summer or fall, giving organic fertilizers time to break down into useable nutrients and eliminating hectic spring preparations. This is especially important when direct seeding, as turning the soil right before planting dries out the top layer, losing precious moisture needed for germination. Stay clear of blood and bone meal, as they attract bears, raccoons and a host of other creatures to the site, where they will dig up plants and destroy seedlings while searching for the source of the smell. Other things to avoid are perlite, vermiculite and rockwool, as they stand out like a sore thumb in the off-season, attracting the attention of potential thieves of next year's crop. Dig holes or trenches two to three feet deep, and at least two feet wide. A good mix of several organic fertilizers is the best bet, as different ingredients release fertilizers at different rates. Worm castings and sheep manure are good sources for nitrogen, as well as having excellent waterholding capacities. However, be careful not to overdo it with manure, as a large amount of the nitrogen is in the ammonium form, which will cause stretched, disease-susceptible plants in too large a dose. Phosphorous is best supplied with rock phosphate or bat guano, or a mixture of both. Follow recommended label rates, and again, be careful not to overdo. Although phosphorous is necessary for proper growth of cannabis, too much emphasis is placed on it in marijuana cultivation. Excess amounts lead to long internodes and acidified soil. Potassium can be added with the addition of muriate of potash, kelp meal or wood ash. Care is needed here as overdoing an application can raise your soil EC too high, burning your plants, especially delicate seedlings. This applies to kelp meal in particular, as it also contains large amounts of sodium. A final addition beneficial to most soils is dolomite or horticultural lime, which keeps your ph in check as well as supplying calcium and magnesium. If in doubt of your soil ph, simply mix some soil with a similar amount of distilled water, let it sit for thirty minutes, and then check with a ph meter or test strip. Anything between 5.5 and 7 will work fine for our purposes. In a commercial garden it might make sense to send a soil sample to be tested, especially if using the same spot for several years. This can be done at any agricultural university or a variety of businesses advertised in gardening magazines. Simply tell them it is for your vegetable garden and ask for organic recommendations. Sowing your seed This technique is best used by those who have access to a large amount of seeds. If you only have a pack of ten seeds do not even bother. A minimum sowing should be about 40 to 50 seeds for a small crop, as many will not germinate and about half will be male. For best results, soak seeds the night before in a covered glass of water, and then plant outside, pointed end up, at a spacing of about one seed for every four inches of area. Seeds can be planted anywhere from 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches deep depending on soil type � too shallow a planting will cause poor germination due to lack of moisture. Soil temperature is the major determining factor in deciding when to sow � it is best to wait until it
has reached 10-12�C (50-54�F). A soil thermometer can be obtained from many garden supply stores for about thirty dollars, or just use your judgement. Generally you want to plant about two weeks before you would normally transplant clones or seedlings. Small seedlings are actually much more cold-hardy than their adult counterparts, Indicas more so than Sativas due to the cold springs where they originate. Fungicides should not be needed provided the soil is properly warmed. If damping off does become a problem, drench with chamomile tea or no-damp. Thinning It is usually necessary to thin crowded or weak plants about a month after planting, but be careful not to pull too many before males indicate. Once all males are removed you want to be left with only vigorous plants, spaced wide enough to reach their maximum potential, yet close enough to make efficient use of your area. Outdoor threats Animals - Deer, rabbits and mice are the main menaces to a cannabis crop. Fences work, but can draw unwelcome attention to your garden. Luckily, the best defense is invisible � simply add scent to your garden that animals relate to predators. Fox or coyote urine can be bought from hunting supply stores (usually fall only), spray it around your plants on a regular basis and mice and rabbits will quickly vacate the area. Small pieces of soap placed or hung around the perimeter works well for repelling deer. It is important to scent the area well before you plant and a good idea to change brands of soap every three weeks so animals do not become accustomed to the scent. Flower Police - Police helicopters in most areas go up towards the end of August and are usually winding down by the third week of September. For the most part they simply act as common thieves, grabbing and running. Arrests are rare, but they have been known to stake out large crops. Always completely check out the surrounding area before entering a garden. Other Thieves - Not much you can do about these low-lifes other than tell no one about the garden, camouflage it well and leave no trails. Choosing a Strain Two things make direct seeding much easier: producing your own seed and growing a pure breeding strain. Luckily these go hand in hand, and many of today's outdoor strains are true breeding (although this is rarely advertised by seed companies). True breeding strains such as Durban, Early Girl or Holland's Hope are an advantage as the plants will all sex out and mature at the same time, minimizing trips to the garden. Once you have found a strain you like, stick with it and keep records, this way you will know from one year to the next when it is time to pull males or harvest. Other issues to look at are mold susceptibility, maturity dates, where it was bred and personal preference. Generally Sativas or strains with Ruderalis in them are less susceptible to molds because of their airier bud structure, while dense Indica-type floral clusters take a long time to dry after a rain, giving mold spores plenty of time to germinate. Maturity dates will vary depending on your latitude, most strains sold for outdoors generally finish from about September 5 to October 15. Keep in mind that even if you can have plants out into mid-October, the light level diminishes quickly after the
it is time to take control of your own seed supply.second or third week of September. Pollen may also be very carefully painted onto pistils with a small brush. this will keep the gene pool somewhat diverse. transplant them to a location well away from any sinsemilla crops where they can be grown on until pollen release. these can then simply be tied tightly over female colas and left for three days to kill any unused pollen. dry bud until very dry then rub between your palms over a stretched silk screen. Seed should be allowed to dry for at least a month then stored in a cool dry place with some dessicant until later use. simply choose your nicest male plant from one strain and cross it with a choice female of another. If making an F1 hybrid. For outdoor strains it is best to pollinate about three weeks before harvest. Paper bags are good for collection of pollen. both of which will adversely affect yields. Providing they are vigorous and to your liking. When removing seed from ripened colas. . with the fate of Dutch seed companies up in the air. If you grow in the same region year after year your strain will gradually become acclimatized to your particular climate. and heavy rains are much more likely. Never underestimate the damage potential of a bag of pollen in an unseeded garden. This works well for separating the seed as well as collecting a tasty sample of trichomes as reward for your hard work. Once your males begin to show. This allows colas some time to fill out before pollination as well as providing seeds with plenty of time to ripen properly. Try to select at least a few male plants and pollinate limbs on as many females as is convenient. Saving Your Seed Especially now.
that do make clean products. either green or brown. As with many other aspects of life. Many fertilizers are made from industrial chemical sources and do not. well. 2001) The right soil and nutrients are key components to having phat. there are many on the market. These come from the more obvious natural sources such as worms. produce the highest quality. or rich�composted plant matter. Quite the contrary. depending on if the soil will hold a plant in vegetative or flower cycle. or bat/seabird guano or seaweed for that matter. Organic manic As for nutrients and supplements. granulated charcoal. The perfectly moistened mix will hold together as clumps when squeezed but will not release any more than a drop or two of water. Superior soil It is possible to grow plants in specially prepared soil that will require no fertilizers in the water later on. birds. The following is a simple recipe for a soil mix that has proven successful for me in the past. the resulting success becomes evident. As for where to find a reliable organic garden supply store. Unlike hydro systems. The best indoor buds are soil grown. Green manure. soil is not meant to be a sterile medium. happy buds. tastes and effects which cannot yet be reproduced in hydroponic systems. Most are not completely organic and may contain unwanted chemicals. The more natural elements are by far preferred. About 10% of the finished product is made up of some kind of organic compost. To this mix a specific dry fertilizer may be added. The final 5% is made up of a mixture of about equal parts trace mineral elements. the best soils are very much alive and thriving.more bat/seabird guano than worm castings.Root your toot by DJ Short. For soil used in the vegetative stage I like to add more worm castings than bat/seabird guano. it don't make no difference. It is a large consumer market to be explored. The two main additives I use are worm castings and a bat/seabird guano mix. For soil used in the bud cycle it's the opposite . is another excellent source of food for plants. This is why I like to supplement any commercial soil I use. When one gets to know one's local products well and gets the mix down just right. It is up to the consumer to shop around in their area and get familiarized with the brands available in the local market. if the store clerk says anything to the affect of: "chemical or compost. The bulk of the mix � about 70% of the finished product � is made up of equal parts peat or sphagnum moss (I prefer coarse cut sphagnum moss) and perlite. Even the good local products tend to skimp on some of their ingredients. There are a number of such commercial and specialty brands of potting soil on the market today. practice makes perfect. photos by Barge (04 May. bats." then you are not in a reliable organic garden supply store. . among other areas. Then worm castings are mixed in to about 15% of the finished product. washed sand and volcanic ash. Actual organic earth allows buds to produce flavours. in my opinion. plants and seaweed. There are some smaller companies up and down the West Coast. The mixture then needs to be moistened. My preference is for the most natural and organic substance available. Any rich green manure will do. fish.
Beneficial nematodes are cultivated and sold live. when it is finally consumed. These are the three main nutrients that plants need to thrive. bud and fruit growth in the bud or flower cycle. Next. An additive I like to use with every fertilizing is a Bvitamin hormone supplement such as Super Thrive. but sometimes green as with green manures). This is the preferred method of adding organic nutrient during watering. especially during the flowering stage. That is 30 parts N (nitrogen)-10 parts P (phosphorous)-10 parts K (potassium) is what is in a 30-10-10 fertilizer. The tea is applied the same way the water is during watering. high phosphorous. Therefore. low potassium fertilizers stimulate foliar and stem growth in the vegetative stage. it is important. add the bat/bird guano. Finding the "perfect amount" to add will take some practice. low phosphorous. They must be kept refrigerated until they are ready to be used. I like to end all nitrogen to the plant at least five to six weeks prior to harvest. These teas are simple to make and easy to use. . But I highly recommend a pure water flush for at least the last two watering times. And I like to end all additives to the plant two to three weeks prior to harvest. Most fertilizers have a number consisting of three numbers such as: 30-10-10. living organisms are found at the more complete organic garden centers. or what exactly that residue may be. Though "foliar feeding" does work. Nutrient knowledge The primary knowledge concerning fertilizer and nutrient (other than its source) are its N. The tea will color the water similar to the shade of the nutrient (usually brown. They usually come in a sponge. N stands for Nitrogen. A B-vitamin hormone such as Super Thrive may be given up to the last week. The concentrate is then added to the full amount of water for watering. and to not allow them to stand too long and stagnate. phosphorous and potassium (in that order) in the product. P stands for Phosphorous and K stands for Potassium. or some other porous medium. and most are organic. Foliar feeding during the vegetative stage on the larger shade leaves that will be discarded is a relatively safe practice. These microscopic. High nitrogen. The teas are considered fresh when made. Another method is to use the full amount of nutrient in a smaller amount of water to create a concentrate. It is important to use them immediately when they are ready. The steeping takes anywhere from one day to several days. In contrast. There is no guarantee as to how much residue remains upon the foliage. worm castings and/or green manure to the water. high potassium fertilizers promote lush flower. Another great additive for the organic garden are beneficial nematodes. These numbers represent the ratio of nitrogen. It is only necessary to use a small portion each time as they will reproduce profusely if properly introduced into the soil. and K levels. This product helps the plant better metabolize its nutrient uptake. Nematodes and tea Teas made from bat/bird guano and/or worm castings and/or green manure are an excellent source of organic nutrient. Prepare a container with enough water for a full watering. or 5-37-15. I tend to avoid doing it due to the fact that the foliage is inevitably going to be smoked.Some people choose to feed their plants by spraying a nutrient solution onto the plant and having it absorbed through the foliage. The nutrient is allowed to sit and "steep" in the water releasing the nutrients' water soluble properties. not to use the foliar feeding method on any part of the plant that is destined to be consumed. P. low nitrogen. usually refrigerated.
spores. while leaving the plant to thrive. Hydroponic systems are famous for producing the largest amount of foliage and fruit. nutrient and additives. however. and bacteria. . perlite. Once in the soil. These are the basics when it comes to growing medium. The incessant regimen tends to produce more of a bland finished product. volcanic pumice. Hydro Power Hydroponic medium is any sterile medium that will hold some water. yet to sample a hydroponic grown product that surpassed a soil grown product in overall quality and flavor. beneficial nematodes may be added as often as desired. Ideally. and are experimenting with many new nutrient products to achieve this end. back into the reservoir. rockwool. the nematodes do their thing by multiplying and consuming the things detrimental to the plant. when grown outdoors in the right environment the finished bud is usually superior to its identical twin grown indoors. These systems consist of a reservoir. Most hydroponic systems provide nutrients via the water that is passed over the rocks several times daily. rock corn and sand are some examples of hydroponic mediums.not too hot. tubing to carry the fluid to the plants. (tepid . not too cold) with or without the organic fertilizer. the pots and medium that hold the roots of the plants. However. I have. and soaked into the soil. Most systems also utilize a timer to automate this process. The water soluble nutrient is mixed with the water in the reservoir and delivered to the plants via the pump and tubing several times a day. That is. such as fungus. a pump (or pumps). wick and various other passive systems.A small portion of the nematode colony is simply introduced into the water. Also. Now it is your turn. This information was gained via experimentation on advice given to me in the past. There are also ebb and flow. The entrepreneurs in the hydroponic industry are striving for the most natural hydro system. and some way for the water to flow. or be pumped. The plant does not have to put as much energy into its roots and therefore has more energy for foliar and bud growth. the roots are regularly aerated and thus have excellent oxygen exposure. insect larvae. but they are much less common. Gravel. mold. The same can be said about indoor versus outdoor growth. but allows water and air to pass through. as well. but once every month or two is sufficient. PVC pipe.
the seeds crack open along their seam and send out a white root.the plants that develop from these stubborn sprouts are usually very desirable. I would also like to point out that though this phenomenon is rare. So keep a watchful eye open in a warmer situation. The method of planting into soil that I use is very basic and simple to understand. It takes a very gentle yet firm hand to remove the shell without damaging or killing the plant. The shell seems to harden on the head of the sprout. Take six sheets of white (nonprinted) paper towel and fold them to a roughly five by six inch square (about 24 layers thick). Roots and planting pots At first. (On some occasions I've had seeds take up to two weeks to sprout. Shelled sprouts I've found that these rare anomalies need help in shedding their shell or sheath in order to survive. Though higher temperatures may hasten the sprouting time. 2000) How to turn your seeds into healthy young plants Sprouting the seeds My preferred method of seed sprouting is the wet paper towel method. I have found the common turkey-baster to be of great value for this purpose. Again. Keep the pad wet and the seeds will usually sprout in one to ten days. I like to use small. practice is the best guide for this skill. A great substitute for planting pots are the sixteen to twenty-four ounce disposable plastic drink cups. the heat will also increase mold. It is important to gently water and feed the sprouts from this point on so as not to disturb the new roots too much. fungus and bacteria levels. The seeds will sprout. However the seed shell does not come off of the sprout on its own. Stacking ten to twenty cups at a time will hasten this process. so be patient!) I have found the ideal temperature for sprouting most seeds to be around average room temperature (70-78�F or 21-25�C) .Sprouting and planting by DJ Short (24 Aug. When I do set the sprouts to soil. the sprout will grow root. So it is worth the effort. I like to wait for the root to grow an inch or two before transplanting the sprouts to soil (while keeping the paper towel pad continuously moist with water until this time). eventually causing its death if not properly dealt with. two to four inch pots. Soak this square pad in pure water and place the seeds in the center fold. These cups can be bought cheaply in bulk amounts at any discount or grocery store. . They will each need five or more drainage holes to be added to their bottom. I like to bury them right up to the head of the plant so the head is right at the soil level. Under the shell is a thin sheath that may also need coaxing to get off. especially if breeding is intended with the sprouts. One more bit of advice concerns certain seeds which do not want to release from their shell. with twelve layers both above and below. and it transplants fine. this can easily be done with an electric drill and a quarter to a three-eights inch drill bit.
there should be an adequate space between the top of the soil and the top of the cup or pot. I like to use a standard chopstick to poke a hole. Next. New roots will sprout and grow from the soil-covered stem in a week or two. In other words. when a gentle touch is still beneficial. This tip helps deal with the problem of spindly plants by giving them more base support during their early development. Be certain that the root tip is pointing down and not curved up in what is called a J root. Once the sprout is situated in its hole. In one to two weeks. The baster is handy for the first few waterings. then any excess solution may be re-used until all of the soil is at its fullest saturation point. Hydro sprouting . The soil level should end up to be two-thirds to three quarter of the cup or pot capacity. Once the entire flat is ready. they will not need watering again until after the soil dries a little. This step also promotes and stimulates adequate root growth. it's time to begin the planting process. it is time to moisten it. Water and soil Next. as deep as the sprout roots are long. to help hasten its dry time. The common turkey-baster is once again the best tool available to evenly soak all of the cups or pots. This is to allow for more soil to be added later as the main stem grows. J root may be fatal to the sprout. the sprouts will need to be watered. This again is gently and carefully done using the turkey baster (or whatever gentle watering device is available) as a watering tool. Take one sprout at a time from the paper towel. It is also important not to leave any standing water in the grow flat. using the chopstick if necessary. Once the sprouts are adequately set in the moisture-saturated soil. handling it as gently as possible by the stem just below the sprout head. Grow flats and turkey basters I'll put anywhere from one to two dozen cups or pots per standard grow flat (or tray). Into each hole more nutrient solution is added to fully soak the medium and prepare it for the sprout. Once the soil is sufficiently tapped down to at least two-thirds full. the soil may be gently packed around the sprout stem to hold it firmly in place. It is after this time that more soil may be added to help give the sprout more stability and root room. Despite the fact that the soil is saturated to its maximum capacity. The turkey baster is also useful for sucking the excess water from the bottom of the grow flat. into the middle of the soil. pre-made hole in the soil. and transfer it to the moist. this first watering helps stabilize the root in the soil. Carefully guide the root tip all the way down the hole. and the soil is gently yet thoroughly tapped and shaken down to fill all vacant spaces equally. Just prior to this saturation point. the healthy sprouts will stretch and grow up over the top of the cup or pot. I'll fill the appropriate sized bucket or container with the water/nutrient mix. usually a high nitrogen variety for sprouts. If the grow flat and all of the pots are relatively clean. the root is running down the hole and the sprout head is above and as near to the soil level as possible.The cup or pot is filled with the soil mix. Larger operations may require some kind of pump and tubing device to aid in the watering.
semi-moist medium. growing among itself and beginning to turn brown. and accompanying growth will develop in the plant. weak stemmed plants up. I like to transplant when the root system is semi-dry. such as stakes or poles to hold the top-heavy. This is evident by checking one or two of the average plants roots. Hydro systems often need extra supports. When the white root wad is becoming entwined. new medium. Ideally. it is time to transplant. The seeds will sprout and root automatically in this porous and nutrient-rich medium. a day or two before a usual watering. Happy growing! . The pellet is placed in a larger rockwool cube or gravel medium and the roots grow quickly into the new material. Transplant time Transplanting becomes necessary when the roots outgrow the medium. the fresh transplant is completely watered to its saturation point. the fresh medium will cover the old soil level by a bit. I like to gently shake the soil fully into place and level the soil top by hand. and the rest of the space in the larger pot is filled with fresh.Hydroponic sprouting is as simple as placing a seed in a rockwool cube or fiber pellet and keeping it moist. Hydro transplanting is also quite simple. The semidry rootwad is placed firmly into the saturated fresh medium. and the loose soil is gently packed into place throughout. Special care needs to be taken when transplanting into larger containers to avoid as much trauma as possible. As with the original planting. New roots will quickly and eagerly find their way into the fresh. The medium in the larger container should be saturated to its maximum density with nutrient-rich water. Tying the plants up to stakes will be the only way to deal with stretched or spindly growth in the hydroponic system.
especially with "purple" varieties. So if you are letting your day temperatures drop below 24�C or your night drop below 22�C. It is during the first 2-3 weeks of the flower cycle that most strains begin to lengthen internodes. the shorter your internodes will be. as this is when the framework for future colas is built. provided it does not exceed optimal. Lets look at putting this to play in your grow room. you are costing yourself in overall weight and harvest. which intensifies the colour of the floral clusters and makes for a showier bud. Space heaters on timers work well for this. This final temperature change is not always feasible and can be omitted. long internodes long internodes As floral development begins we need to keep in mind that the total size of your buds is determined largely by average daily temperature. and 22�C when the lights are off. making it a very important time to control temperature. Once your buds have reached optimal size and and you have begun the flushing period.Control your cannabis by DMT. The temperature technique is most effective under a 12/12 light regime. so you must do everything you can to prevent your room getting too hot (run lights at night. photos by Barge (25 Apr. 2000) Fine-tuning temperature and water for maximum quantity and quality. as this is where the plant is happiest. An ideal temperature range is 24-25�C when the lights are on. which is ideal as this is when cannabis stretches the most. This drop in temperature triggers anthocyanin production. . and max/min type thermometers are ideal for tracking temperatures. After this 2-3 week window we need to drop the night temperature back down to 22�C. When the light cycle is brought to 12/12 we will raise the night temperature to the daytime level of 24-25�C. air conditioners. Why waste light and electricity growing stem? Stretched-out plants are the bane of indoor growers. more efficient buds. etc). Ever notice how as the warmer summer months approach. Maximum temperatures should ideally never rise above 26�C. the greater your internode length will be. tight internodes tight internodes Temperature control The easiest and most under-used way to control internodal stretch is temperature control. but a larger factor is the increased difference between day and night temperatures. use exhaust fans. The opposite also holds true. you may consider dropping temperature down to 17-19�C for the final week or two. the closer your day and night temperatures. your plants begin to stretch? Part of this problem may lie in an overall hotter grow-room. Plant internodal length is directly related to the difference between day and night temperatures � the warmer your day cycle is as compared to your night cycle. There are several ways to reduce internodal length and thus grow denser.
For extreme height control you may even use warmer night temperature than day. potassium nitrate 0. Be sure to bring your EC back down once you enter floral stage. Most marijuana strains are happiest when grown at an EC of between 1.095 grams. A plant's roots act much like a pump. Slowly raise your EC during veg stage. Both of these factors are controlling the same thing. There is also the chlorosis if this is done for too long. upwards during warm days and downwards during warm nights. the ability of a plant to uptake water and nutrients from the growth medium. and in order to do this it requires water. Please note that when doing this they use special nutrient formulas designed for this purpose. micromix . leaf chlorosis (yellowing) leaf chlorosis (yellowing) Moisture and conductivity Whether you're growing hydro or in soil.02 grams. By allowing the EC to drop below ideal during this stage we are wasting valuable space growing stem instead of bud. mono potassium phosphate 2. Both the amount of water you give your plants and the EC at which you grow them control the uptake of water. I would not recommend going above 3 or 4 EC. but be very careful when running settings like this. (EC measures the level of fertilizer salts in the water. During the vegetative stage we want our plants to form very tight internodes. Neither of these symptoms is nutrient related and will fix themselves when the temperature is changed back.25 grams. This can work for you by keeping your internodes close together. the electrical conductivity (EC) and moisture of your medium are two key elements that should be manipulated to meet your needs. as too much nitrate at this high an EC will easily damage a plant. so when the medium's level of salt rises above the roots'. Try growing one of your plants using straight water for a week or so.) A plant grows by first dividing cells then expanding them. using osmotic pressure to move water into the plant. potassium sulphate 9. the plant will wilt. but different strains have different preferences. Some things you will notice while using this technique are a change in the leaf angle. it is usually called "six pack formula". you will see the internode length stretch dramatically compared to the ones on a regular fertilizer regime. In order for this to work there must be a larger concentration of fertilizer salts in the plant's roots than in the soil or hydroponic solution. Raising the salt level in the medium closer to that which is in the roots limits the water availability just the same as if we had provided less water. especially under artificial lighting. magnesium sulphate 5 grams. (Try this formula if you're interested: calcium nitrate 7 grams.8. as even a zero difference between night and day temperatures will lead to leaf chlorosis (yellowing) after 2-3 weeks. All of these ingredients should be available at your local hydroponics store. most of which have potassium to nitrogen ratios of 4:1. much higher than normal.5 and 1. by the time . examples of long internodes (closeup) examples of long internodes (closeup) Hydroponic tomato growers sometimes will grow their transplants at extremely high EC's (up to 6 EC!) in order to get really nice stocky production plants. By limiting the amount of water available to a plant you limit the expansion of cells. or against you by limiting bud growth. This is experimental! Do not try on all of your plants at once until you are sure your strain can handle it.2 gram.
8 and then dries out completely the amount of salt remains the same. as the sudden change in salt level will harm the roots. It is not feasible in soil to maintain an exact EC at all times. Control your cannabis! . Many growers are under the mistaken impression that the EC and pH of their nutrient solution remains the same when applied to the soil. while in soil we may also use the moisture level of the medium to the same ends.4 (this takes into account the dilution and the pore space factor) this will give you an accurate picture of the EC the roots are actually being exposed to. causing the EC to double or more. creating a shorter noded plant structure capable of creating a dense bud cluster in the floral stage. Mix the soil with 2 equal parts distilled water and let sit for 20 minutes. As a general rule. as will having too high an EC in the medium. This also goes during your final flushing period when you want to eliminate all fertilizer from the medium � lower the EC over a couple of days. When growing hydroponically.) Try not to change the EC too quickly as a sharp drop can cause root damage.) Maintain this level of moisture into the first 14 to 20 days of 12/12 to minimize internode stretch. (Unless of course you are using the high EC method described above. The pH should also be checked at this time. This in not the case.tufts of pistils are visible you want to be at your ideal EC of 1. in this case you must not let your soil get too dry because of the increased fertilizer level you will create. examples of tight internodes (closeup) examples of tight internodes (closeup) To test your soil. As soon as early flowering begins you need to increase soil moisture to a nice evenly moist (not soaked) level to maximize bud expansion. Once the time is up take an EC reading and multiply this number by 2. take a sample from the center of the root zone at the side of the pot (don't worry the torn roots will be fine). during the vegetative stage you should keep your plants a little on the drier side as this will restrict cell elongation. A frequent mistake marijuana growers make is over-emphasizing the need for a plant grown in soil to dry out completely between waterings. the only way of manipulating water availability is with the EC. Cannabis does like dry feet but this simply means that the root zone must not be kept extremely wet at all times. Growing marijuana too dry during this stage will adversely affect your overall yield. what we need to try and avoid is EC's climbing much above what we want and plants going for long periods with very low EC's. In these times of government oppression we must make the most efficient use of available growing space in order to produce the copious amounts of cannabis necessary to overflow the boundaries placed upon us.5-1. and you must test the soil in order to have a true picture.8. Keep in mind that if the soil has an EC of 1.
When the root medium is heavy with moisture. This can be done by the disciplined hand. how recently they were planted or transplanted. depending on the amount and type of medium. 2000) Food and water are two critical components to a successful garden. Regard the process as an ongoing education. the size of the plants. the amount of light. but a timer and pump will eliminate the need. A lighter soil is generally more perlite or vermiculite. is of utmost importance. These problems must be addressed immediately upon finding them. Different brands have different ingredients (and even the same brand may have different ingredients at different times). the reservoirs usually need to be topped off regularly. This mix seems to be the . The optimum mix Soil mediums. Passive hydro systems allow the roots of the plant to reach the reservoir. but learning to zero in on the optimum times to feed and water is dependent on this simple fact. If you use the basic soil mix I recommend. and close attention to them. are capable of blocking the aerobic quality of the hydro medium and suffocating the plant via its roots. Better still is to take the necessary precautions to insure that they don't begin. Algae. it doesn't. but it does require a care and attention to learn the needs of your plants. When the plant is dry and thirsty. As with any other aspect of this industry. especially organic varieties. Learning to condition the soil you are working with is the first step to success. Algae can clog hydroponic medium and its tubing. It doesn't involve mysticism by any means. then you have the optimum mix. it may be heavy or light. eliminating the need for watering altogether. Hydro systems Hydroponic systems are usually automated and should have the simplest schedule to satisfy. where equal parts of perlite and coarse cut sphagnum moss make up about 70% of the overall mix. Depending on the "mix" of your soil. One of the simplest ways to increase the quantity of your harvest while maintaining quality is knowing the right times to water and feed. heat and ventilation in the room. This is to help eliminate the nemesis to all hydro systems: algae. it needs water. fungus and bacteria. and it will go fine. Active hydro systems merely need the nutrient solution passed over the medium three or four times a day. are the trickiest to learn to deal with. along with other pests such as mold.Feed your head-stash by DJ Short (27 Oct. The difficulty is the many variables related to the problem. hands-on contact with the plants. and the nutrient solution will need to be changed at least once every two to three weeks. This may seem obvious. Heavy soil is generally more moss than perlite and holds water longer. and other factors such as humidity and air pressure. Different needs will present themselves in regard to feeding and watering times. and therefore releases its moisture quicker. In both types of hydro systems.
wilting can also contribute to stunting. Next. Less is more The main focus of feeding should be the concentration and mix of fertilizers in the solution. Some may hold a dozen small plants while others may hold twenty or thirty large plants. This method requires that the buckets be placed within the confines of a watertight container. there is one more important tip to best maintain the proper watering schedule for your plants. We want to avoid wilting as much as possible. The trick is in realizing when the plant is going to wilt. I've seen wilted plants revived within twenty minutes when relieved of their thirst. but this causes much more tedium during watering. available on the market these days. lay out a layer of 2-inch thick Styrofoam insulation panels larger than the intended pool. Only experience can reveal what exactly the weight of the dry pot is. the garden needs to be checked a few hours after watering to see if the plants need more. such as a solid grow tray or a kiddie pool. watering many plants at once. and watering it the day prior. Individual mini-trays may be used for each individual container. The solution is then sucked up by the roots through the holes in the bottom of the buckets. There are a number of trays. Plant containers may be placed directly in the pool and watered all at once. First. check the weight of its bucket to see what too far is. I cannot . The nutrient solution is then dumped or pumped right into the tray. or weight. The plant will suck its bucket of medium dry and then begin to wilt. However. but a minor wilt is by no means fatal to the plant. a swimming pool liner or landscaping pond liner is laid over the area and over the edges of the wood frame. Bottom feeding After getting the soil mix down and learning the right watering time by the dryness. It takes the plants anywhere from an hour to a few hours to soak up all of the moisture that they need. If a plant does happen to wilt due to drying out. I call this tip the bottom feeder method. Not merely because the method was perfected in a white-trash trailer park. but because it serves the nutrient and solution to the outside-bottom of the medium container. Dry weight Vegetating plants in small containers (two to four inch pots. or 16 to 24 ounce cups) may need watering as often as daily. from large to small and of varying styles and sturdiness.perfect blend for a regulated watering schedule. Therefore. or if the excess solution needs to be removed from the pool. Finally. of the medium container. Plants in larger containers (2 gallon and up) may go anywhere from three to six days between watering. it would be nearly impossible to judge exactly how much water these plants would consume in any given watering. others may be fine for a couple of days. Please note that although this method allows the greatest ease of watering a large number of plants. a basic wood frame is constructed to the exact size of the desired pool on top of the Styrofoam. This is done by physically lifting the plant container and judging its weight. after being fitted to the space. An entire grow room may be water-proofed as well.
Most indoor plants do not remain in the same container for any longer than two months. I like to use half of what the directions call for. The plants should look like they are thriving if they are properly fed. If signs of overfertilization appear. at worst. with unnatural looking colors from bright yellow to dusty brown. is liable to ruin the entire crop. Both may be added to soil to enhance its nutrient level. When the fertilizer concentration is low enough. So once the right soil mix is obtained then water alone will suffice. and the old growth should last as long as possible. The leaves may become curled. Too much fertilizer. healthy glow. then fertilizer may be added during each watering (except. but this same logic should be applied to phosphorous and potassium concentrations as well. The best organic substances I've found are bat and seabird guano and pure worm castings. There are organic soil additives on the market that eliminate the need for any extra fertilizer additives in the water. then even a smaller ratio of each is needed. If two or more nitrogen fertilizers are used during the same feeding. while pure worm castings are like a very rich manure. . All in all. however. but overfertilized plants may look burned or splotchy. Most fertilizer companies print their maximum allowed amounts for mixing.emphasize enough that "less is more" when it comes to fertilizing plants. an overfertilized plant will look unhealthy and deeply in need. of course. Their color should be bright and consistent with a shiny. The leaves should stretch up and out to receive the light. if two nitrogen fertilizers are mixed together during one feeding. then only a quarter the recommended amount of each is needed to make the final concentration truly half strength. New growth should be obvious daily. It is generally recommended to use less fertilizer than the instructions call for. For one or two waterings flush the plants with water only. If too little fertilizer is used the only problem will be a slightly smaller yield. or they may harden and solidify. it may be necessary to dilute the concentration with pure water. Fossilized bat and bird guano come in a powder form. Nitrogen is the most commonly abused fertilizer additive. Underfertilized plants will merely be slow or. This is especially true if one is mixing different nitrogen fertilizers. Plants grown using this method produce some of the most outstanding flavors and desirable palate and head. or water with a B-vitamin supplement to help the plant best metabolize the nutrients available to it. and see if the situation improves. The stems may stretch and turn dark. small. Many of these fertilizer additives are made up of harsh petrochemicals. That is. stunting growth. the last few weeks of pure water flushes).
One of the main tricks to the re-green method is to begin the process as early as possible. Photo-receptivity refers to the way in which a plant is destined to respond to a light schedule. Doing the re-green The only preparation for the re-green process is to be sure to leave a few of the lower branch and leaf nodes of the plant intact during harvesting. this isn't really why you should be using the re-green method. Although sometimes this doesn't happen or the clone attempt may fail. This is very important information for anyone seriously interested in breeding plants. meaning that they will respond more readily to changes in light-cycle timing. The catch here is that it will take a certain amount of time in order to determine the desirability of a given plant. these non-photo-receptive varieties are difficult. it is removed from the bud room and harvested down to above the lower. Once the plant has "proven itself worthy" of re-greening. Generally speaking. That is. An important process to be learned by the serious pot horticulturist is the revitalization of a budded and mature plant back to its vegetative state. even when constantly under light. while extremely non-photoreceptive plants will flower regardless of light cycle. The usual reason to re-green is to continue the existence of a highly desirable plant.Re-green your garden by DJ Short (25 Apr. intact branch and leaf nodes. So the re-green method is capable of helping to determine which of your potential breeding and cloning stock will be the most productive. However. 2000) Rejuvinating plants will bring back your best buds. Although useful for guerrilla outdoor gardening when you want the plants to mature early. The re-green technique is most useful in determining which of your desirable plants are the most photoreceptive. it is time to begin the process. Sometimes all that is left at the bottom of the plant are buds. if not impossible. This technique is called the "re-green" method. However. Some strains are more photo-receptive than others. Less photo-receptive strains become "stuck" in their bud or flower cycle. most Indica varieties will almost fully express their desirability by the sixth week in the flowering cycle indoors (11 to 13 hours of light per 24 hours). If a plant is more photo-receptive and easily re-vegetates. simply leave the lowest healthy looking set of buds and harvest all above that point. to re-green. By desirability I am referring to the overall quality of the finished product � how good does it taste? Look? Smell? Feel? How good is the finished product? Once a plant has declared its overall finished product desirability. It is the more photo-receptive strains that we want to focus on when attempting the re-green method. the wise pharmer will clone all potentially desirable plants while they are in the veggie stage. then it will more than likely clone well and grow more vigorously than one that does not. the plant is harvested. This is fine. (Note that this early-harvested bud can . but the lower branches and nodes are left for the new growth to (hopefully) rejuvenate from. many Sativas may take up to nine or more weeks in the flowering cycle indoors to fully express their individual desirability.
buds and/or branches need to be as close to the fluorescent bulb as possible without touching the bulb. As the new shoots develop. (As a general rule of thumb. or near. branches or buds. Usually the dictates of space will determine how long one will want to attempt the process for each individual plant. from one to three to five and so on. There is however. The more leaflets-per-leaf that can be coaxed from the plant before cloning. If the plant was in a smaller container (two gallon or less) and is showing signs of root bind. Extra care needs to be practiced as these new shoots may be very delicate and fragile.) As the plant matures through the flowering cycle. Experienced pharmers know that as a plant matures through its flowering cycle the number of leaflets. the number of leaflets-per-leaf decreases from nine to seven to five to three and finally to one leaflet per leaf on the fully mature plant. Others will never rejuvenate at all. In my opinion.provide an excellent and somewhat rare finished product that usually exhibits a more "head" or "psychedelic" experience. another criteria that helps to fully determine a given plant's photoreceptivity � its ability to fully return to a vegetive stage. stretching beyond the bud or leaf node that contains it. and the leaflet-per-leaf ratio increases as the new leaf sets present themselves. As in the veggie cycle. a high nitrogen. More fingers Generally speaking. All attention is focused on the fresh growth making certain that this growth has the best access to the light. the next consideration involves increasing the plant's nitrogen uptake. nine. Some Sativa may have leaves with as many as 13 or more leaflets-per-leaf. then transplanting to a larger pot may be in order. This stage consists of nurturing the fresh growth and eventually pruning away the old growth. while others may take a month or more to show new growth. the plant is not considered rejuvenated until at least five leaflets per leaf are apparent. In time the new shoots will grow to dominate the remaining plant. Once the highly desirable candidate plant has declared its re-green ability by sending out fresh green growth. Sativa plants are capable of producing more leaflets-per-leaf than Indica. per leaf decrease in number. During the successful re-green process this factor reverses itself. root bind. leaves. A healthy vegetive plant may have seven. then the same container may work fine. whereas most Indica will never have more than five or seven. The regreener plant is kept on a high nitrogen fertilizer all the way through this process. worthy of connoisseur appreciation!) The remaining stump with a few nodes attached will need to be moved to a separate space. low potassium and phosphorous fertilizer is required to inspire fresh growth. it is time for the next stage in the process. the old and matured bud and leaf material are cleared and trimmed from around it. Either way. consisting of fluorescent lights set for a vegetative cycle (18 or more hours of light per 24 hours). the faster and more completely a plant expresses this process. But if the plant's container is large enough and the plant does not appear to be suffering from. I have seen some plants declare rejuvenation within a couple of days. the new growth will sprout from within one of the leftover nodes. the re-green shoots will probably be ready for . A "surgeon's hand" with a pair of precision scissors is most definitely an advantage at this stage. the less desirable and slower re-greener plants will need to be thinned out accordingly. eleven or more leaflets-per-leaf. As space demands increase. or "fingers". the more photoreceptive it is. The remaining nodes. the better. By the time the plant is back to showing at least five leaflets-per-leaf. If the candidate plant is going to rejuvenate.
most highly photoreceptive plants make excellent clone-producing mothers. At this point it is important that the shoot or shoots be developed enough to both produce a successful clone. patience is indeed a virtue. Generally speaking. or may be returned to the bud room to flower again. due to their productive ability. The "mother" plant. To satisfy both of these ends it is always best to wait until the re-green shoots are large and healthy enough.cloning. the plants will yield their superior productivity. and leave enough rejuvenated material on the regreened "mother" to continue growth (and keep the mother alive). . may be maintained to act as a clone producer. it is time to consider cloning of the shoots. As long as the proper conditions for the plants' health are maintained. As with so many other aspects of this hobby. Cloning the shoots Once the rejuvenated plant has produced adequate shoots that have successfully returned to a vegetive state. or any of its rooted clones. any standard or desired cloning procedure will work. Once a shoot is satisfactory for cutting. for that matter.
An important aspect to consider when growing plants indoors is proper ventilation. happy plants. squirrel-cage fans move air either in and/or out of the room. Careful planning will help avoid costly mistakes. I usually employ several thermometers in different areas in and around the grow room. Proper aeration of organic based soils is crucial in high temp/humidity areas. If necessary. photos by Jorge Cervantes (01 Jul. Ideally. Thermometers are cheap and accurate enough for our purposes. store the reservoir outside of or below the grow room. And only above the root level. Still. The two most common types of fan are the squirrel-cage and what I call the "common house fan" (box or oscillating fans). Generally speaking. Also. cool air drops" rule. Perlite and vermiculite. A soil thermometer may be a wise investment. down and around the room. focussed specifically on the root systems. In hydroponic systems make sure that the nutrient water temp is below 21�C (70�F). and so they're usually large enough to help shade and cool their root areas. there is no real substitute for a thermometer and humidity gauge. any time the temperature exceeds 32�C (90�F). one can figure out the right solution. are the tips here � add more to the soil if need be. The Perfect Temperature Though sense of feel is adequate to gauge the "perfect climate" for a given plant. Proper research and smart shopping will net the best purchases. in very small spaces. There are also neat little "muffin" fans that can be used for many things such as light-hood venting and passive ventilation systems. The perfect temperature would be somewhere between 24-29�C (75-85�F). air circulation and temperature control. but not for any longer than a half hour or so. or if the humidity gets too high. The fact that warm air rises and cool air sinks works to our advantage in this case. 1998) Proper ventilation and air circulation are essential to growing healthy. Using the "hot air rises.Let them breathe! by DJ Short. while common house fans move the air up. Squirrel Cage and House Fans There are many different types of fans and air movers available on the market. Both come in a seeming endless variety of shapes and sizes. Peaks of 38�C (100�F) are allowable for most strains. the plants end up under the larger lights by the flowering cycle. This practice becomes especially necessary when working with lights over 400 watts. Most fans can be purchased at the average home improvement store. Somewhere between 32-35�C (90-95�F) is the absolute highest room temperature your plants would care to tolerate. . Roots and Aeration The main area of concern involving temperature are the roots of the plants. the roots should be kept at as constant a temperature below 21�C and above 10�C (70-50�F) as possible. or fans. some rooms build up sufficient heat to require a separate circulating fan.
A well-stocked. depending on the innovation and imagination of the user. Home improvement centres carry a large array of various types and styles of airmoving fans. and turn off at another. and turn them off if the temperature dropped below 21�C (70�F). There are wall-mounted styles available as well.4 minutes to fully circulate the air in that room. A fan with a rating of 100 CFM is able to move 100 cubic feet of air per minute. Bigger fans usually will work more efficiently. This would give further aid in the specific control of air volume and ventilation. This will help move the hot air out. Automation The ideal ventilation system utilizes automation in the form of thermostats and regulators. A common placement for this fan is inside of the room. it would take an optimally running 100 CFM fan 6. blowing out. It is a simple step further in this type of system to add an oscillating fan or two on the floor. would cause the fans to turn on at a certain temp. high-tech grow shop will have several types of thermostats available in a variety of systems. dry air outside of the grow room. or a "volume control". That is. Experimentation will yield the most efficient uses for these devices. The room is not sealed and so air exchange is allowed free movement from inside and outside the room. This is the simplest of vent systems and works quite well. Box fans are self explanatory. could be installed in the power line of the larger fans to adjust the fan speed. A thermostat. some relatively inexpensive. These fans tend to keep anaerobic molds down by constantly freshening any potentially stagnant air. Choosing the correct squirrel-cage fan is part of the trick to success. as with the common household thermostat. Other hardware such as dryer-vent tubing or muffin fans may be used to best access the cool. A room that is eight by ten feet and eight feet tall holds 8 X 10 X 8. Potentiometers. or 640 cubic feet of air. up high. Box and Oscillating Common summer house fans also come in a wide array of types and sizes. They can be used in a variety of ways. Therefore. The most common being the box and the oscillating. . Oscillating fans are perhaps the most efficient devices for circulating air in a room. Measuring Air Movement Squrrel cage fans are rated by their volume of air movement in cubic feet per minute or CFM.A passive ventilation system is one that moves air either in out of room (not both). Generally speaking. most fans move a little less than their rated CFM due to intake resistance or a dirty fan cage. The gentle back and forth sway of the fan is very beneficial for the developing plants. to help circulate the cooler air up and around the plants. pointing at any angle up. a sensor would turn on the fans on at around 30�C (86�F). Squirrel Cages The squirrel-cage fan is the most popular fan for moving large volumes of air into or out of a room or rooms. This method is what is used to stimulate the passive intake of cool air with vent holes cut in the floor or lower walls to access the cooler areas outside of the room.
A warning needs to be expressed concerning the cheaper, discount-store, oscillating fans (or any cheap fan for that matter) that have a tendency to burn out after a period of time. Some of these products are potentially dangerous if left plugged in and turned on after they burn out. Therefore, it is a wise idea to check one's fans (and all electric devices and equipment for that matter) on a regular basis as often as possible. Noise Concerns Another fan consideration is noise. Some fans, especially the squirrel cage, may be a bit too noisy for a given situation. There are higher quality fans available that do run more quietly � expect to pay more, of course. It also helps to mount the fan directly to a main stud or support, by at least two of its support holes, and preferably more. Rubber dampers and gaskets can be easily made and used on the support holes or around the overall mounting surface. Keep the fan's bearings sufficiently lubricated as well. High Humidity Humidity is another factor that influences the overall quality and quantity of a crop. Generally speaking, high humidity (over 80 or 90%) is bad. It inhibits plant transpiration and ultimately stunts growth. Mold and fungus love high humidity as well. Note that warmer air holds more moisture than cooler air. There are a few simple practices to help reduce humidity. First and foremost, keep the room as dry as possible. When watering, use just as much as the plants need. Pump, siphon or mop up any remaining water and remove it from the room. Keeping the room clean also helps. Moisture likes to hide and store itself in material such as dead leaves, spilled dirt or any garbage. Therefore, keeping the room clean and free of debris will help keep moisture and organisms such as mold, fungus and bacteria down. Temperature and moisture levels directly affect the plant's ability to metabolize nutrients and supplements such as fertilizer and carbon dioxide. If these practices fail to lower humidity enough, the only solution may be a de-humidifier. However, de-humidifiers are expensive, consume a large amount of electricity and produce heat. These factors will need to be considered in choosing whether or not to employ one. Ventilation and Circulation are Essential Proper ventilation and air circulation are essential to maintaining a healthy indoor grow environment. The basic rule of thumb is to move the warm, moist air out and to move the cool, dry air in and around the plants and their roots. Many various types of fans and devices are available to achieve this goal. Careful planning, basic research and smart shopping will acquire all that one needs to keep it cool and dry, and experimentation will fine tune the system to provide the most perfect indoor environment possible.
DJ Short is the breeder of the famed Flo and Blueberry strains. He welcomes feedback and questions, especially relating to the cultivation of those varieties. He can be contacted through Cannabis Culture.
CO2 for you by DJ Short (27 Dec, 2000) Carbon Dioxide is an excellent way to increase your bud bounty. Carbon dioxide (CO2) generators are perhaps the single most powerful increasers of plant production. During the daylight hours plants breathe in and use CO2 much the same way we animals metabolize oxygen. By adding CO2 to the air of the grow room we are capable of greatly stimulating plant growth and vigor. Overexposure to CO2 by humans is very capable of proving fatal. Therefore, also remember that monitoring of the air with a CO2 or gas detection device is mandatory when using a commercial CO2 distribution system. There are two main types of commercial CO2 delivery systems, bottled and propane generators. Bottled CO2 The bottled CO2 system delivers pure CO2 via a tank that is rented or bought and refilled when empty at any bottled gas distributor or grow shop. The purchases of a regulator and tubing, along with a specialized timer, are necessary to complete the system. The timer opens the regulator to dispense the gas that is delivered to the room among the plants via the tubing (or whatever duct system is chosen for its delivery). The timer usually is on for brief periods of a few seconds per minute, hence the need for the specialized timer. The bottled systems are relatively efficient and once set up, easy to use. When used in conjunction with some kind of CO2 metering device, to monitor the amount of CO2 in the air, the system is relatively safe. The main drawback is having to deal with filling the heavy, bulky tank when needed. The initial expense is a bit of a sticker shock as well. Propane generator Propane generators of CO2 have been gaining popularity since their introduction to the industry some time ago. Bottled propane is connected to a device that burns the gas, slowly and evenly, to produce CO2. The device is usually a box that will hang in the room and is connected to the propane bottle via the appropriate tubing and coupling. It is possible to time and regulate most propane generators to efficiently produce CO2 gas when needed. These devices are usually much simpler and less expensive than the bottled CO2 systems. Propane is also easily available in most places. There are, however, a few dangers to the propane generator that need to be addressed. First of all, the device utilizes a small flame for CO2 production. Special care needs to be taken whenever dealing with fire, and necessary precautions including location of the device need to be made prior to operation. second, this flame will produce some heat and humidity. The humidity is in the form of water vapor, the other by-product of the process. Proper venting and air circulation will help minimize these factors. As with the bottled system, monitoring the amount of CO2 in the air will be necessary to regulate the proper and safe amount of the gas delivered to the room. Air circulation
In a day or two the yeast will begin to grow and CO2 gas will be a by-product in the jug. too much CO2 around the roots may actually suffocate the plants. A simple rule of thumb is: blue flame = CO2 or what we want. This system uses water. The daily shaking stimulates the mix to produce a surge of CO2 gas. hot water heater. shake the jug to thoroughly mix the contents. closet or �box� systems. that is. So a home brew kit or home wine making system could also be used to add CO2 gas to the grow room air. It is also very inexpensive to configure and maintain. etc. On its own. would efficiently move the gas. I have found this system to be more than adequate and perfectly safe for smaller grow spaces (twenty square feet or less). Mix until the sugar is dissolved and add a little bit of active yeast. yellow flame = CO or carbon monoxide. . Also. Once the yeast begins to grow. Oscillating fans placed on the floor with their fan pointing up (or any upward movement of air from the floor) is also recommended to best circulate the CO2 among the leaves of the plants. bottle or jar. Therefore. sugar and yeast mixed together in a jug. Recycled CO2 A source of recycled CO2 may be found in any natural gas or propane appliance. as well. This way the gas passes by the leaves of the plants on its way down. CO2 production for larger scale operations requires a certain amount of knowledge unobtainable by any other means than an education. the more surges of CO2 that will erupt into the room. Poke a small hole in the lid and replace it on top of the jug. via some form of tube or duct or by hanging the propane generator up high. Small and simple For those of you running smaller systems such as cupboard. Put about five or six cups of sugar in a clean one-gallon plastic jug. Once a day. If the appliance (furnace. The roots of the plants DO NOT like CO2.) is anywhere near the grow room.Because CO2 is a gas that is heavier than air. deadly poisonous! It is merely a question of how to get the CO2 gas from the appliance to the grow room. Remember. allowing them to absorb as much as possible. the more times the jug is shaken. then a simple duct system of dryer vent tubing running from the bottom of the appliance (remember. CO2 is heavier than air) to the grow room will suffice. any form of brewing (beer production) or fermenting (wine making) produces CO2. �growstores� selling the devices offer plenty of advice and/or literature pertaining to the specifics of their products. there is a simple CO2 system that is easy to make and use. I like to use one-gallon plastic jugs due to their size and availability. the device will slowly produce CO2 as long as there is enough sugar in the mix and the yeast stays active. So be wary of these facts and circulate the air well. Therefore. Finally. or as often as possible. All such appliances produce CO2. A muffin fan placed on the room end of the tube. Generally speaking it is best to introduce the gas up higher in the room. blowing into the room. The mix will need to be changed or refreshed every two to three weeks. especially those with a pilot light. To this add about a half gallon of water. In fact. the shaking of the contents will produce a gaseous eruption through the hole in the lid. when properly functioning. There are a number of books and manuals on the market today that deal with the specifics and �how to�s� of carbon dioxide production for commercial (and home) use. stove. I highly recommend that one research thoroughly before one purchases and uses a system. a word needs to be said about the delivery system and air circulation in the room.
If this happens then it could suffocate you in your sleep! But properly used. CO2 can be a safe and easy way to increase the yield of your garden. .Remember to be very careful not to overdo the CO2 and let the gas fill your house.
and how to best maintain their uniqueness. or quantity. If you want to grow some of the finest herb on the planet. the more one decreases this ratio and. with no additives or nutrients. there are situations where a hydroponic system may be superior to an organic one. 1999) If you want the most fragrant. as I am the goddess-father of these fine products. while greatly increasing the quality of the finished product. This will only slightly decrease production. use organic nutrients and flush your buds. Therefore. There are those in the hydroponic industry who will argue that certain hydroponic methods are nearly organic and very productive. (as opposed to chemical and most hydroponic methods). the main focus of the hydroponic industry is that of production. there is no real substitute for the complex relationship of plants and organic soil. Sadly. I have had an excellent and productive relationship with the herb since my early teens in the very early 1970's. I don't disagree. I cannot emphasize enough the fact that it takes the purest of environments to grow the purest of herbs. I think that my breeding successes are primarily due to a very discerning palate and sense of smell. The quality of the hydroponic product may be increased greatly by employing the simple "two week flush" method prior to harvest. This means that only pure water. compared to the overall fibre production of the plant. and the greater potency of the product. which have all come to me from various sources and locations throughout the years. or they simply don't care. the fact is also that many people simply cannot tell the difference between hydro and organic products. originality and quality. therefore. I have had the fortunate opportunity to not merely sample many of the great cannabis strains. whereas my focus is on quality. are an excellent place to start.Grow organic by DJ Short (29 Dec. Simply put. Granted. Potency ratios I have found that generally the potency of a given variety of cannabis has to do with the ratio of glandular secreted resins. Bio vs Hydro The purpose of this article is to help guide you in understanding the basic needs of these and other fragrant varieties. in order to maintain potency while increasing production. Blue Velvet and Flo. especially when the grower wants only one crop and the absolutely highest yield. I speak from experience. but to have saved and grown their seeds. this ratio must be maintained. delicious pot on the planet. It has been my experience that the more one increases the fibre production and overall size of a given plant. such as Blueberry. However." or what the Europeans like to call "bio" methods of production. The last time I used any seed stock outside of my own was in 1982. then the True Fragrant varieties of cannabis. decreases potency. be given to the plant for two weeks prior to harvest. But you must remember that subtle and subjective characteristics such as "fragrance" and "bouquet" are dependent upon their environment as much as their genetics. . The key word to this understanding is "organic. A strong and pleasing odor is the dominant feature expressed in the True Fragrant varieties. A higher ratio of resin to fibre generally indicates the superior quality and chemical composition of the resin.
Flush your buds! The most important. and the Hindu Kush. and perhaps the most simple. we will once again see and experience some of the truly finest examples the planet has to offer.This quality/quantity ratio is much less of a concern to the grower who is producing in the great outdoors. However. fish. fungus. Guerrero. These plants lost little of their overall appeal despite the increase in production. Never apply anything toxic to your plants once they're in the budding cycle. herbicides and fungicides) are synthesized from petrochemical by-products and are not truly natural products." Indoor organics Indoor environments are extremely limited in comparison to the great outdoors. the islands of Hawaii. Yet here are a variety of adequate organic pesticides and fungicides on the market today. Yet although properly providing and maintaining an organic environment indoors is truly a challenge to face. Consult your local or favorite organic garden centre for more detail. highland and valley Colombia. I can honestly say from experience that all of the "True Fragrant" varieties are major producers when grown in their particular "sweet spot. algae and bacteria are just a few of the organisms that can attack a crop and seriously weaken production. other than pure water. aspect to consider involves the last two to three weeks of the bud cycle � the last two to three weeks of the plant's life prior to harvest. The bulk of commercial fertilizers and vitalizers (along with most commercial pesticides. Airborne. varied strains. the highland Michoacan. the product of the smaller plants still tended to be more desirable than the larger ones in the outdoor environment. There are also living organisms such as specific predator insects and nematodes. Selective inbreeding hardens the desirable characteristics and gives us specific. bat and bird guano. seaweed. when we are allowed to properly produce herb in the great outdoors. try to find the least toxic one available for the purpose. It is in these "sweet spots" that the most favorable and specifically desirable characteristics are acclimated phenotypical. green manures and most of their by-products are examples of substances that are naturally produced that provide plenty of good. I am very curious to see and experience exactly what our years and multi-generations of indoor breeding are going to produce when returned to these great outdoor "sweet spots. multi-harvested between October 1 and November 7. grown near the 45th parallel in the Pacific Northwest. clean nutrients to the plant. mold. It is often too easy to treat these maladies with simple applications of toxic chemicals. The outdoors is a complete and complex system. and use sparingly." Blueberry and Flo have both reached 500 grams per plant. soil-born. There are now many specific products suited for the indoor organic gardener. This is especially important if you have been using chemical fertilizers. If you feel you must use a commercial chemical product. balanced by many various circumstances." Certain examples would be: The Northern Californian-Southern Oregon coastal regions. be given to the plant. Oaxaca and Chiapas regions of Mexico. and water-born pests. . These "fine herbs" come from very specific geographic locations which I refer to as "sweet spots. Nepal. It is during this time that absolutely NO additives. Someday. parts of Afghanistan. it is not impossible. and a bit more difficult to solve the problem in a clean and organic way. Thailand. It is sometimes difficult enough to help provide and maintain the proper balances organically in an outdoor garden. Worms. Another factor to consider is what to use as vitalizers and fertilizers. to name but a few.
burns easily. it is very important to give the plant as much pure water as possible during this crucial period. Thus. is easier on the throat and is much more pleasurable to smoke. is hard to keep lit and burns your throat. This is to purge unwanted impurities from the plant. Pot which has been organically grown and properly flushed is more flavourful and fragrant. Un-flushed pot leaves black ash. Pot that has been fertilized right up to harvest is harsh to smoke.This is the time when the bulk of the final. sometimes the joint will even sizzle and pop as unmetabolized fertilizer salts combust. I like to remember it as the "rinse" and "flush" cycle. leaves grey ash. Simply remember to give the plants only water for the last two to three weeks in order to rinse and flush them clean. there are over four hundred separate chemicals associated with cannabis and her effects. As you may well already know. It is during the final bud-building stage that most of these chemicals are produced. . "useable" part of the plant is produced.
But is aeroponics really unnatural? Perhaps not. by nature. photos by Barge (01 Sept. and low cost but reliable sump pump (otherwise known as a jet pump). Be prepared for some watery catastrophes and have a wet and dry shop vacuum on hand.Aeroponic Supersonic by Ashera Jones. The 4 Elements of Aeroponic Gardening AIR In an aeroponic system. by means of aeroponics and cooled lights. With aeroponics the sky is the limit. Photo Jorge Cervantes I first heard of aeroponics through a friend. and hydroponics will deliver around 80% oxygen. 1998) Aeroponics creates dense. The aeroponic . nutrients and water are sprayed onto the roots in an atomized or mist form by a high-pressure pump. A dense soil may only deliver 30% oxygen to the roots. I have measured aeroponic plant growth against soil. or with a bit of effort you can compose your own. with no medium in-between to hamper nutrient uptake or foster the growth of bacterial organisms. This creates quickly-moving water which is capable of delivering more oxygen because it is well agitated. One which. The layout is important. Make sure your floor is protected. the lights. is quick to respond to whatever nutrients you introduce into the system. I thought "how unnatural. One of the advantages with this system is that there is little to dispose of later. When I learned that the roots just hang in the air and are misted by atomized water and nutrient particles.There are kits and contraptions you can buy. compact and abundant buds that will amaze you Commercial Aeroflo operation. who told me of military experiments in growing enormous tomato plants indoors. where the coral provided a natural aeroponics system. this brings less police heat and so less stress for you. and everything grew to an enormous size. Other than some basic plumbing supplies. and the humming birds were the size of Robins. or anything that is sealed and opaque. The presence of more oxygen also discourages bacterial and fungal growth. Aeroponic can get big buds out of small plants. like a waterfall. Aeroponics also allows nutrients to reach the roots directly. Photo Jorge Cervantes Commercial Aeroflo operation. soilless mix and hydroponic drip. environment and electrical are all the same as a regular grow op. you literally receive 99% possible oxygen to the roots. The oranges were the size of grapefruits. buckets. The most effective root medium is the one which delivers the most oxygen to the roots. My aeroponic system reminds me of my visit to floating coral islands in the Bahamas. while a soilless mix will deliver up to 50%." Then I saw a system set up: it was so clean and efficient! I saw that this was a very effective nutrient and oxygen delivery system. making both feeding and curing more time-efficient and accurate. Aeroponic can get big buds out of small plants. You can grow aeroponically in tubes.
and give all the potential budding sites fair exposure.system doubles the growth rate of plants as compared to a soil system. and is about one-third faster than a hydroponic system. are necessary. A cool room temperature usually means a nice. EARTH Just like all plants. I use a few strategically placed four-hundred watt lights. The usual basket size used in hydroponic systems is 3. which although limited in an aeroponic system. stadium structure around the lights. we also have the growth mediums. keeping them stable and standing. In the earth category. The aeroponic garden prefers a lower nutrient solution of between 700-900 parts per million. It is essential to have a "parts-per-million pen" so that you can monitor the amount of food your babies are eating and prevent burning of the roots by a solution that is too acidic and full of mineral salts. which means that you will generally need to add a PH down. There are natural alternatives for the open minded that I will talk about later. I have found that the plants tend to uptake less nutrients when they are changing from vegetative to flowering. The layout of your room will determine light availability and the ideal situation is to have all plants receiving as much light as possible. Personally. the search for light. I personally use the 3 inch size because I like to grow 3 foot bushes that become weighted with fat. and I will suggest other substances you can add to enhance the nutrient quality your plants are getting from aeroponic feeding. Healthy roots make happy plants and rapid growth. almost hardwoodstalked plants. while discouraging phototropism. which vary in size. with the plants in a stepped. These store-bought nutrients are limited in content. Nutrient uptake varies depending on the growth stage of your plants. FIRE The element of fire in aeroponic gardening includes light and heat. plants in an aeroponic system fuel their growth with natural elements from the earth.5 inches. so a good balance is necessary. WATER .8. I use rockwool cubes and baskets. Healthy roots make happy plants and rapid growth. because all the baskets and wool are doing is supporting the plants. which are easily obtained in liquid solutions. However. bushy. without burning. cool water temperature. But excess heat can bring fungus and bacteria. juicy buds. and an acid ph of 5. but you can use 2 inch baskets for mature plants in an aeroponic system. which is also important. the type of nutrient that they require changes. Light brings photosynthesis and also Ultra Violet "C" rays which discourage some types of bacteria. The ambient room temperature is no more than 80�F but preferably closer to 70�F (20�C). and at the same time. and they require a little bit of support. My experience is that it has been easy to grow fat.5 to 5. The placement of plants in what is known as a "stadium" ensures that I get the lights right in there. This will also encourage the dense bushy-type plant that you want to grow.
and you want to get the 35% variety. Farmers in the US use peroxide for everything from disinfection of the dairy barn and hog pens to increasing crop yields by 20 to 30%. H2O2 replicates nature's own antibacterial mechanism and prevents water from growing putrefactive bacteria which can cause the dreaded bacterial wilt. but you need spend no more than $200 to buy yourself a pump that puts out 60psi. Stadium set up with central array of sodium and metal halide bulbs. People will try to sell you very expensive pumps. which is appropriate for atomized nutrients. You would usually add peroxide to your system and let that run through for 1/2 hour before adding nutrients. The plants thrived while gnats and other organisms did not. and put in one teaspoon hydrogen peroxide per gallon of water. This will give the peroxide time to kill off bacteria with its extra oxygen molecules and become stabilized before you add the dissolved mineral salts (stock fertilizer). but it costs less. root rot and countless other diseases. and then rest for 4 or so minutes. as this will ensure that there have been no "stabilizers" added. as is generally done to the 3% variety that you can buy in a pharmacy. Without water there is no air. Hydrogen peroxide will most definitely reduce any possibility of bacterial and fungal contamination. Your pump is meant to run intermittently. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) or "Oxygen Water" Hydrogen peroxide created by humans is inferior to that created by nature. Stadium set up with central array of sodium and metal halide bulbs. H2O2 will also forcibly cause the out-gassing of chlorine and fluoride from municipal water. Humanmade peroxide comes in a variety of percentages. The burning and whitening sensation felt when it touches the skin . This kind of pump is available in the local plumbing department of a Home De-pot or similar hardware store near you. I suggest you keep it cool and clean.The element of water in aeroponics is the great transport system. But beware. a bunch of high-pressure spray heads and some hose. In the aeroponic system. Do not bother using the pressure-tank system that can be purchased in conjunction with your pump. To get your water to the roots. Be sure not to get any in your eyes. 35% hydrogen peroxide can and should be used in hydroponic drip and soil systems at the rate of one teaspoon per gallon. You will need an hour timer that will allow your pump to spray for 30 seconds to 2 minutes. All that your plants receive comes to them through water. I have used 35% hydrogen peroxide diluted to a 1% solution on a plant in soil that had an infestation of fungus gnats. Let water sit a day before adding it to the nutrient tank. root rot and unknown other problems. It is also commonly added to the drinking water of animals to reduce the need for antibiotics. to make sure it is free from unfriendly organisms. This will prevent your pump from burning out and your system from flooding. H2O2 is powerful and experiments can be dangerous to your whole crop. you will need a pump.
How many people are using animal-based fertilizers whose origin they know nothing about? There is less restriction on the source of these "bone and blood meals" than there is in the pet food or agricultural industry. then boil them. To achieve an 0. Be careful to avoid creating a giant toxic soup by adding nutrients all at once. as you will want to dilute it to about 0. The same can be done with "meals" like soybean meal and others. Bad Results . I would rather use plant sources of nutrients to help the persons who ingest my buds avoid contracting Mad Plant Disease! Beautiful aeroponic bud. test the PH and parts per million so you know what percentages to add. You can provide your plants with their requirements as organically as possible by making your own nutrient teas with plants that you know "fix" certain types of minerals into themselves. You should dilute 1 part peroxide to 11 parts distilled water to create a 3% solution for less worrisome handling. Wear latex. You can safely create a 1% peroxide solution to feed your plants for a few cycles. To make a 1% solution. You will be amazed how readily your plants will gobble up the food you give them. Beautiful aeroponic bud. Add one and then wait before you add the other. No indoor gardening can be completely organic.. Applying H2O2 to Your system. meaning that the indestructible "prion" particles responsible for "transmissible spongiform encephalophathy" (mad cow disease) are likely also present in bone and blood-meal plant fertilizers. and then introduce them to your aeroponic garden.can be irritating but is not damaging. I do not like to use blood and bone meals because I am not sure of the source. Let them sit for a few days. Aeroponically. and with aeroponics you can expect near immediate results. hydroponic mixes. let them cool.25% solution add 140 parts of water to 1 part 35% peroxide. add 35 parts water to 1 part 35% hydrogen peroxide. First dry the plants you want. you're best to introduce partial organics which provide micronutrients not available in standard inorganic. If there are parasitic invaders then you will know because there will be a profuse bubbling and frothing. mineral-salt based. then put them into water. You can kill bacteria that might be living in your nutrient tank by wiping out the empty container with a 3% peroxide solution. good or bad. Little clones in aeroponic tube system. or add 3 parts water to one part 1% peroxide. and can find their way into plants fertilized with these products. Liquid organic multivitamins for plants are useful and I would suggest using them in combination and in low concentrations. which is the hydrogen peroxide oxidizing putrefactive organisms that are not oxygen compatible.25% for longer use. Little clones in aeroponic tube system. but fill less than a quarter of your nutrient tank with this solution. put them through a fine particle filter. ORGANIC AEROPONIC Organic aeroponic is at least partially possible with little or no hassle.
To avoid such a problem. Everything should be visibly back to normal within a day. What are in those ph up and ph down bottles anyways? Who cares! Nature's best solution is simple. The problem with introducing organics into an aeroponic system is that there is always some other organism that wants to cash in on the good life. which will be trying to heal from chemical insult. Then about a day later. Hydrogen peroxide kills unwanted freeloaders. sometimes 3 or more hours. Having an acidic.8ph. I let them run through for half a day. Ph Balance Aeroponically grown plants prefer a rather acidic solution of between 5. Long. the ones you buy at the store. Then I add my stock nutrients. and then it is time to clear the system and add the hydrogen peroxide again. the food and water get eaten. So using hydrogen peroxide will bring your ph up. cheap and has inherently less packaging. By adding Kombucha. Another way to raise ph is by adding a small quantity of baking soda. when I am low on nutrients and water. depending on how much I have added. and I mean small! . then I add my organics again. and then add the altered medium to your solution. providing the plant with easy to assimilate nutrients. With a 900 parts per million nutrient solution you will still need to add some ph down. Shock can precipitate root rot and you must remember that plants have an immune system and do respond to stress. Kombucha is an oxygen producing bacteria that is compatible with both the human and vegetative world because it metabolizes nutrients in the tea itself. Long. lush healthy roots. so try to avoid disasters. green or herbal tea. you may have a problem unrelated to feeding. a living nutrient.If you have bad results after feeding. Another plump aeroponic bud. I run my organic fertilizers through the system first. A higher concentration of mineral salts generally makes the water more acidic and brings ph down and parts per million up. Kombucha also has beneficial health effects for the human organism. Another plump aeroponic bud. Lowering the ph can be done with apple cider vinegar but I like to use Kombucha fungus. low-ph environment will reduce funguses like root rot. you can lower ph while still providing oxygen and bringing micronutrients to your plants that they would not regularly get. which is problematic because "Kali weed" likes low ph in the aeroponic environment. lush healthy roots. Basically. It is important to note that oxygen creates a high ph or neutral environment. or you may have added too much nutrient solution. If you see no positive results after a day. The gods. Too much nutrients and only the gods can save you. as their energy will then be concentrated down in the roots. you grow a particular bacterium in a medium of black. you have probably developed root rot. If the leaves start yellowing. I let those run through for a day. Unplug a light or two and give you plants a chance to recover. remove all nutrients and run a low peroxide solution through your system. and maybe a little less lighting. I drain the system and put my hydrogen peroxide solution in and let it run for 1/2 hour. as it creates a wonderful selection of living interacted nutrients that are amazing and affordable.5 and 5.
if you run a low ph through while leeching. The standard powders. your plants will release their mineral salts at a much faster rate. . but these ones are particular to aeroponics. hopping flies and dust them with death at the first sign. little. Such backwards attitudes aside. clean source of micronutrients. Kombucha with its low ph. and I also use this in my flowering formulas. Leeching is easily done with aeroponics by changing the water daily for three to seven days. or you can even grow your Kombucha on it. you will want to leech the unused mineral salts out of your plants. menstrual blood is not plant based and is arguably a secondary source to phyto-estrogen. They prefer using bone and blood meal which they know nothing about. inexpensive pump in the corner. is a good source of estrogen and is as organic as the donor. I can say that there is a part of me in every plant I have ever grown. This is a personal choice. It facilitates the release of mineral salts.. It is annoying that some. but it is not mine. also work. including diatomaceous earth. as just running the same water through won't work! Because mineral salts concentrate in the plants at a high ph. which is no good for them. while also providing the plants with a continued. usually young.Clearing Your Plants Before harvest. It can easily be introduced in the form of tea. Decreasing other fertilizer levels before introducing blood will reduce the possibility of the blood feeding unwanted organisms in your system. other than that it came from a dead animal who had a miserable life and ate less organically than most of the women you know. inexpensive pump in the corner.. however. Blue Cohosh is a herb which contains plant estrogens. square men think this is disgusting. Menstrual blood. Phyto Estrogens Some people use birth control pills to raise the estrogen level in their plants. Fungus Gnats Curing your aeroponic garden of diseases is very easy. A small. Fungus gnats cannot get very far and are generally not a problem. Note that you do have to change the water every day. is thus the ideal thing to add to your water during leeching. so keep your eyes peeled for the evil. Try Aeroponics and have a "mist"-ifying experience! SATIVA DIVA --A small. They can only go a few inches into the rockwool before they meet the nutrient solution. These pills are synthetic and cause a lot of trouble for women and generally I have a certain disdain for them. Get real.. Ultimately. DISEASES COMMON TO AEROPONIC SYSTEMS There are lots of other problems gardeners face..
These are readily available at well-equipped grow stores. increasing both growth and resin production while countering the effects of photo and geotropism (the effects which lead to increased internodal spaces). Not enough UV. Hopefully wilt never happens to you. with a clear viscous goo oozing out of the plant's pores. Root Rot Root rot is particularly dangerous in aeroponic systems. There is always a margin of time before your plants will die. If it does.. . a black spot and/or a powdery mildew. That sounds radical but so is the problem. Wilt is not common. These cooled lights can be placed really close to plants. and a portion of the stem directly below the yellowing will be entirely lifeless. brown and mushy. A sure sign is a browning of the roots. One way to avoid root rot is to inoculate your plants' medium with a predator fungus. There are products which can be introduced through either the leaves or roots. It is a fungus that shows up as rust. .. Once you have it. delivering lots of light. depending on your response. which can be increased depending on your knowledge. They are inexpensive and may give you a better chance at recreating what nature delivers. Yet such lights negate the healing effects of both light heat and UV rays..If you notice that you have more than five in your room. pray and change everything. Bacterial wilt causes yellowing of leaves and flowers. both of which are effective. Ultra-Violet light is a natural part of the spectrum and kills bacteria. Another sure sign is black spots on the roots. add a UV light or two. Water-cooled lights have a tendency to cut out a lot of UV.can be used to feed 8 tubes with 20 plants each! Bacterial Wilt This is a weird one. not to be confused with the staining caused by certain nutrient solutions. and even in gardening books it is rarely mentioned. which accompanies the brown discolouration. may lead to bacterial wilt. yet if environmental conditions are right it can affect your plants..can be used to feed 8 tubes with 20 plants each! . I would definitely run a 1/2% solution of peroxide and no nutrients through for one day to help the plants and kill any gnat larvae that may have made it into the medium. Check your roots regularly. and air which is too cool. The larvae will also be filtered out by the fine particle spray filter before long. It might also come as a simple yellowing of the leaves and kill your babies in a short period of time.
while it can. This stage has a shorter daytime and an increased nighttime. The key element is the timing of the light cycle. and just consumed whatever presented itself. Like humans. such as late summer and fall.Timing is Everything by DJ Short (19 Jun. Prior to this. The young plants will grow with vigor.a harsh and unpleasant tasting substance that produced little high and plenty of headache. our product's quality began to increase. many of us simply grew big plants. either outdoors or under some form of artificial light. Once Mel and Ed set us straight. if outdoors. The plant needs to use as much food from the available light as it can. As a general rule of thumb. 2000) Getting your plants to produce fine buds is a simple as night and day. It is during this vegetative stage that the plants send out much new growth. Vegetative stage Sprouts. The nitrogen. fresh clones and young plants live in what we refer to as the vegetative stage. This period has a long daytime and a short nighttime. Food from light and nitrogen decreases. Young cannabis will flourish practically anywhere. and a specific set of circumstances. in order to properly mature. Even though High Times began publication in 1974. acts as building blocks to the overall structure of the plant. turning sunlight into fiber for new growth. The rest of us often learned the hard way what bunkweed was . This is why high nitrogen fertilizers are so beneficial during this period. When I first started growing pot in the early 1970's. A thorough understanding of this simple fact is crucial to more fully understanding the nature of cannabis. the relationship between light timing and flowering was virtually unknown by the apprentice grower. plants have two worlds in which they exist: night and day. called "nodes. Cannabis needs to properly mature in order to be of value. Large shade leaves form and act as sugar factories for the plant. The floral clusters sprout from the areas where the leaves attach to the stems. cycle. would be coming at a lower angle as the season progressed. coupled with the extra light. It is during this period that the plants declare their sex and produce large floral clusters that become the buds. Day is when it is light and night is when it is dark. and the demand for phosphorous and potassium increases to fuel the process. or bud. Those lucky enough to be able to grow outdoors and all the way into October were blessed with some pleasant surprises. The large shade leaves begin to die and fall off as the plant shifts its energy from producing leaves and stem to producing floral clusters. like summer. like a weed." The buds . under almost any conditions � but it takes a special environment. During the early flower stage the plant will go through what appears to be a growth spurt as the stems stretch to catch the light that. Bud cycle shift At some point in the young plant's development it becomes time to begin the shift to what is called the flowering. in the indoor garden the average light cycle for the vegetative stage is 18 hours on and 6 hours off. the concept of 'bud cycle' was not apparent until Ed Rosenthal and Mel Frank published their first works in 1976.
Under these indoor conditions the plant is forced to make the shift quickly. Perhaps it has to do with the unmatchable light intensity of the Sun. is capable of producing an ounce or two of finished product in two short months. plants do most of their fiber production at night. to check for light leaks. it is strictly the female plants that develop into our high quality and most desired sensimilla. or photoreactive rate. thus aiding production. in the southern hemisphere). which is why the average length of the indoor flowering cycle is eight to nine weeks. Oddly enough.fill in the nodes and progress out. Indoors. Outdoors. The room must be thoroughly sealed to be completely dark when the lights are off. the moon and streetlights glowing through the low clouds over an urban area don't seem to hinder the outdoor plant all that much. Sativa variations Another aspect to consider is that Indica and Sativa varieties differ in their photo period expression. Indica became the herb of choice early on in the industry due to its fast maturation and large production abilities under the HID lights. The vegetative stage may be 13 hours of day and 11 hours of night. Doing so may interrupt the long. six inch tall veggie plant (a plant in the vegetative stage) placed immediately into the bud cycle. Indoors. the typical light cycle used in the bud stage is 12 hours on and 12 hours off. For whatever reason. food and root space. Nights of total darkness An important thing to remember about the indoor bud cycle is that the dark period must be absolute and uninterrupted. This forced flowering has its advantages as the plants are made to finish up quickly. The transition between the plants' stages is therefore more drawn out and gradual. as we all know. Sativa originates from equatorial regions. The plant may react by having to restart the process and seriously delay the scheduled maturation time. it . indoor plants tend to be ultra-sensitive to nighttime interruptions of light. a little bit more every day. Indica is a variety from the 30th parallel and above. which may help to explain why such small vegetative plants are capable of producing so much bud in such a relatively short period of time. A well formed. And although outdoor equatorial crops take such a long time to mature. slow process of change that the plant had been working on up to that point. the change in light cycle timing is gradual and slow. between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south. the change in light cycle is usually instant: one day is 18 hours long and the next (and all those to follow) is 12 hours long. 11 hours of day and 13 hours of night. either during the day or with any lights outside the room on. and this timing cycle is more akin to locations north of the 30th latitude (or south. So remember to make it dark and keep it dark. The only way to test this is to sit in the room in the dark. It is advisable to allow your eyes to adjust to the darkness before declaring the room adequately sealed. given adequate light. even for a short period of time. The typical 18/6 and 12/12 light cycles are primarily beneficial to Indica varieties. There are pure Sativa strains that require three to four months to mature in the flowering cycle indoors. And. Around the equator there is a much smaller difference between seasonal day lengths. whereas the flowering cycle may be the opposite. Stars. I don't understand why it is that outdoor plants are not as sensitive to these nighttime interruptions. Once the bud cycle has begun it is important to never interrupt the dark period with any light.
would produce.is often possible in the right areas to produce two to four crops per year. In the meantime. Once implemented. It will be interesting to see what specialized grow rooms. More interesting will be what the wonderful and great outdoors will produce in all of her various environments. the global environment will surely reveal interesting and desirable variations. via careful selective breeding. developed to provide a wider range of photo periods. Light fortified greenhouses are capable of producing high quality herb just about anywhere on the planet. thanks to the tropical environments. . further experimentation and research using different indoor light timing cycles would be very worthwhile.
then an early harvested Sativa might do best. Indoors. Sativas and early window harvests tend to be more of a head high. If a very narcotic body high is desired. Last. By DJ Short. is the concept of "the window of harvest". make make up between 75% and 90% of the total hairs. where I will begin. Head High or Body Stone? An important consideration has to do with one's preference for a "head" high or more of a "body" high. if you prefer a very psychedelic head high. My favorite time to harvest a nice Blueberry Indica outdoors is in the second to third week of October. As to outdoors I can only speak from experience at the 45th parallel and the bloom times there. For most Indicas grown indoors. and running until the end of October. the window of harvest is about two weeks long give or take a couple of days for various strains. whereas a good body high is more similar to a narcotic effect. Generally. Harvest6. That is. but not least. The window "opens" when the plant is first ripe. The red hairs are plump and full. The red hairs are plump and full. There is the difference between Sativas and Indicas in bloom duration and final effect. Some Sativas take up to thirteen weeks to mature indoors. Outdoors many will go well into November and even December. Suffice it to say that a good healthy mix of the two is a fine goal to achieve. if conditions are right (again. most indicas take about eight weeks to fully mature. sometimes running into November during mild years or in a greenhouse. The Window of Harvest This term indicates the period during which the plant is at its optimum state of ripeness. All photos by Barge There are several important points to consider when choosing the optimum time to harvest your cannabis crop. then a late harvest indicas would probably do . A good head high can positively influence one's mental state much like a psychedelic. There is the difference between early and late harvest to encourage head to body high respectively. Given this rule of thumb you can pretty much come up with what you want. sometimes very late September. this is near or at the 45th parallel). There are different factors to consider between indoor and outdoor plants. Somewhere along the line the plant becomes over-ripe which signifies the "closing" of the window of harvest. whereas Indicas and late window harvests tend to be more of a body high.jpg These buds are near peak maturity. For Sativa grown either indoors or outdoors. if going directly from an 18/6 hour vegetative light cycle to a 12/12 hour bud cycle. the window may be open much longer.jpg These buds are near peak maturity. At the 45th parallel I've found most Indicas to be at peak harvest starting at the beginning of October. make make up between 75% and 90% of the total hairs.Harvest Your Herb Harvest3. There is the issue of chemistry because what we are really considering in terms of the "ripeness" relates directly to the chemical nature and state of the plant at harvest. head highs tend to be more up and body highs tend to be more down.
At the same time. clear. starting in or around the fourth week of the bud cycle. For that best-of-both worlds high. which lowers the trichome-to-fibre ratio and overall potency for a little while. More and more of these trichomes develop as the plant matures. we are noting variations in plant chemistry. Magnify your Buds When we speak of various highs experienced by different products. bracts and stems. bracts. some Sativas have windows of peak harvest that actually open and close. It is about this time that the calyxes begin to swell. However. illuminated magnifier. The Cycle of Plant Maturity Starting in the third or fourth week of the flowering light cycle. These can be found at most local electronics stores. As far as trichomes are concerned.jpg Ready for harvest! . they are so fat. Remember . Changes in Chemistry Harvest1. Three quarters to 90% of the pistils will have turned reddish brown as well. often for under fifteen dollars. The pistils of the young flowers are bright white and turn reddish brown with age. more and more flowers (also called calyxes) develop into densely-packed floral clusters. With the aid of the magnifier one can learn more about the detail of trichome development and ripeness. The pistils and flowers develop from the bottom of the bud to the top. By the end of the eighth week most of the calyxes will have swollen and a surge of trichome development has coated most of the buds. youngest flowers on each bud. except extended over a longer period of time. glandular stalked trichomes will begin to form along the surfaces of leaves. for a week or so the plant may exhibit signs of peak ripeness. The lowest. flowers. The chemicals we enjoy are produced within the glandular stalked trichomes. I highly recommend that the serious cannabis student acquire a 30X power.patience is a virtue and often a discipline. Occasionally. Again. a week later the plant may have a growth spurt. The ripening signs for most Sativas are highly similar. For a basic Indica this takes well into the seventh week of the flowering cycle. lower pistils are the first to turn reddish brown. time and experience are the key elements in this regard. along the surfaces of the bud flowers (calyxes). That is. The older. Calyx swelling is a major indicator of peak maturity. For most basic indicas this usually happens by the sixth week in the flowering cycle. At peak maturity about 90% of the calyxes will almost look seeded. bulbous heads are what to shoot for. The denser the concentration. experimentation with late harvested sativas and early-to-mid harvested indicas usually proves interesting. Usually a fibrous growth spurt is accompanied by a corresponding trichome increase. leaves and stems. the greater the potency. oldest calyxes swell first and the swelling works its way up to the highest. the tall ones with swollen.best. It is now that the development of a very discerning palate comes into play to determine the finest harvest time.
As the window closes. Another important point is that much can be done to further enhance the chemical process. whereas a narcotic late-window Indica may work better as an evening medicinal herb. Send inquiries to Question DJ c/o Cannabis Canada. Blue Velvet or Flo. The main point is that these differences are chemical in nature and more research is needed to more fully understand this phenomenon.As the plant matures through its window of harvest its chemistry changes. Which particular combination of chemicals is the most desirable is purely a matter of taste and choice. the more desirable compounds begin breaking down into less desirable ones. especially if have grown or tried the strains Blueberry. Primarily it is THC breaking down in CBNs and CBDs. aroma and flavour. Set and setting also play an important role in determining which type of product is best appreciated. given the proper curing process (see CC #10). DJ Short is interested in hearing your experiences and questions. Pleasant head highs are often desirable for social occasions. especially in regard to bouquet. I look forward to providing what information I can. developed over time and with experience. finis .
When the larger shade leaves become dry and brittle to the touch it is time to gently clip them off. Some of the buds. The buds should still be a little wet at this point. A few small folds at the top of the bag. the smaller ones in particular. regular checking is key.gif hangingb. for ventilation. Leave the larger shade leaves on and they will gently droop and wrap around the plant. dry. an unwanted chemical. Re-hang the branches in the drying room and regularly check them until the smaller leaves and bud tips become dry and brittle to the touch. ever-socarefully turning the buds. Once again. you may want to try placing them on a suspended screen for a little while. If you are in a more humid area.gif baggedbu.jpg Brown Bagging It Once the buds are crisp on the outside but still moist on the inside it is time for the next step in the process: the paper bag. It is then time to remove the buds from the branch and remove the rest of the leaf material as best as possible. moonicon. Don't pack the buds down and do not fold the bag too tight. Simply fill a paper bag a few inches deep with the manicured buds. Light must be avoided from this point on. regular checking to decide when they are ready for the next stage is crucial. The bags should be gently shaken. and most importantly dark place.jpg Dark & Dry After cutting the plant or branch. but the outer part of the buds should be starting to feel dry. or if the buds are still feeling heavy with moisture. As the buds dry they will naturally compact into the selfpreserving state that we all know and love. you might want to consider cutting a few small holes in the bag. This will help to hasten the drying process. . should suffice. As with proper manicuring. They should now be fully smokable. might even be smokable at this point. This is also a skill that is developed more with time and experience. especially on the inside. Now you have a few choices as to what to do with your manicured buds. though perhaps still slightly damp at the core. so practice! bagicon.Proper curing can exponentially increase the quality and desirability of your harvest. above the level of the buds. at least once a day. like a lunch bag. This requires regular checking to determine when to proceed. hang it upside down in a cool. The key word to remember is "slow". protecting the buds. The time to the next step depends on how dry your hanging area is. This is what is referred to as "manicuring". It is at this time that the buds can be more compacted together and the bag folded down tighter. I like to use brown paper shopping bags due to their not being bleached. If the buds are a tad wet or if humid conditions dominate.
go back to the screen. depending on your climate. cured.jpg Ready to go! A bud is completely dry. I like to dump them all out of the jar and gently fluff them up at least once a day at first. always remember to keep the product in the dark.jpg A final curing stage. He can be contacted care of Cannabis Canada. Whenever mold is found it must be dealt with immediately. I like when it takes six to eight weeks from harvest to the finished product. finis . a dehumidifier in the drying room may be the answer. DJ Short welcomes questions and feedback. The snap is easy to detect with practice. jaricon. such as very arid deserts or tropical humid areas. may take more or less time. usually for a week to ten days. preferred by most connoisseurs. Aside from watching and smelling for mold. You will be able to detect the fragrance of the product becoming more and more desirable as time progresses.The entire process. The longer you can stretch out this process. the better. It is at this stage that the product can safely be sealed and stored for an indefinite period of time. if the mold was detected in the jar stage simply put the rest of the product back to the bag stage for awhile (after removing the contaminated product from the batch). Watch for Mold The main thing to watch (and smell) for throughout all of the curing process is mold.gif The Final Stage jarbud. It is very important in the early jar-stage to check the buds at least once a day. especially in the cultivation of the Blueberry and Flo varieties. and the jar is sealed. The screen is the driest process that I know of. while also avoiding mold. should take anywhere from two to four weeks. It is important to be as gentle as possible so as not to damage too many of the resin glands. and the rest of the product needs to be exposed to a drier environment for a while. After a week or so all I do is simply open the jar and check the buds on a daily basis. involves sealable jars. There is no substitute for consistent. The nearly ready buds are transferred from the bag to the jar. finalbud. If problems with the mold occur prior to this. For example. hands-on checking. from harvest to these first smokable products. packed in very loosely. and ready for sale or consumption when the stem in the middle of the bud snaps when the bud is cracked with the fingers. then less often as time progresses. The simplest solution is to go back one step. If the mold is detected in the bag stage. The moldy bud needs to be removed. Extremes in climate.
For best breeding results you use true-breeding stabilized strains as your P1's. sometimes green/yellow. region-of-origin land-race variety. Thick side-branching is another characteristic of this variety. Thai Thai The entirety of the "thread" and bud structure was coated with sweet/fruity aromatic resin glands. called the P1 generation. long-lasting and exquisitely flavoured herb with little or no ceiling. one was taken in early-mid December from a greenhouse. It was a powerful. I used three P1 strains to breed Blueberry. The high could last up to seven hours! The flavour. Juicy Fruit Juicy Fruit The Highland Thai was a joy to grow and behold. It had the longest and skinniest leaves out of all the plants I have worked with. They were the Highland Thai (also called Juicy Fruit Thai. body high. The overall plant color was dark. 12 to 16 weeks and beyond in the bud period for most. a cross called Purple Thai which was a first generation land-race Chocolate Thai crossed once with a first generation landrace Highland Oaxaca Gold. Each single thread averaged anywhere from five to ten inches long. Choosing your parents The place for breeding to begin is with choosing the parent plants. or no more than one generation removed. It was a very slow finisher. Flo and others. I was never able to get a Juicy Fruit Highland Thai to "over mature". For me. with some sporting long. Many of these spindles resemble threads protruding from a semi-formed bud. and crossed with itself or another highly similar. the outcome was fully worth the effort. and an Afghani Indica which came to me one generation removed from Afghanistan via the California/Southern Oregon growing community. while the bud structures matured a lighter shade of green. The only difference was that the later harvest was a more stony. region-of-origin land-race variety. slender shoots of widely-spaced single female flowers in a row (especially when grown hydroponically under halide lights.) This bud structure is known as "spindly". The plant only periodically produced any kind of "tight" bud structure. filling in any empty spaces with lush.On the origins of Blueberry by DJ Short (01 Sept. Most of the buds were very loose. I have very high standards for my P1 generation. Outdoors. aroma and . some even longer. alternating bract and flower in single file. Different breeders have different standards as to what qualifies as a P1. This plant grew fast. I took one to almost twenty weeks into its flower cycle and she just kept pumping it out. 1999) A case study on how to go about breeding fine marijuana. and consisted of a row of evenly-spaced female flowers and their corresponding bract leaves. despite its hermaphroditism. Though difficult to trim and cure. a first-generation Thai seed grown in the Pacific Northwest). The finished product from the Highland Thai was an all-around champion herb. the P1 must be either a fully acclimated. anywhere from a quarter inch to one inch apart. green growth.
It is this initial genetic diversity that leads to the most possibilities in succeeding lines. producing large. Few people maintained their sativa lines. green. The triad of sinsemilla. stinky. The short. especially when combined with psychedelics. pungent herb that smelled like a skunk and produced a narcotic-knockout stone that was tremendously novel. its appeal is somewhat limited in my opinion. the Purple Thai seemed easier to handle. Blueberry x Afghani Blueberry x Afghani The sinsemilla Afghani Indica first showed up on the market in 1979. also without ceiling. This was right after sinsemilla herb hit the market with big appeal. This was a first generation cross between the Highland Oaxaca Gold and the Chocolate Thai. and early to mid November outdoors. I preferred the Purple Thai to the Juicy Fruit Highland Thai. Afghani male Afghani male The f1 cross The f1 cross is the first cross between two distinctly different P1 parents. The Purple Thai was the other sativa in my repertoire. Though consistent in its growth and overall effect. The "f" stands for filial (child). Such were the three main P1's I used for my breeding lines. wide leaves. It also matured at 10 to 12 weeks indoor. I cannot overstress the importance of the two P1 parents being as genetically different as is possible. . all wreaked havoc on the breeding programs of most pot-entrepeneurs. if left alone (untopped) the main stalk (meristem) remained the dominant shoot. The side branches were shorter and. I believe that the Purple Thai was emotionally kinder or gentler than the Juicy Fruit. indica. stout and thick-stemmed. and the finished buds were a medium and compact sativa type. with a strong smoke that is generally sedative or "down" in effect. They were huge. early-maturing and body-powerful indica has dominated the scene since 1983 � a matter of disjointed economics. and the strains virtually disappeared from the commercial markets. Though no less potent. when compared to all the sativas that had come before. I believe more indicas should be made into hashish. It has early to very early maturation.taste were a totally sweet tropical punch � tutti-fruity all the way. The Purple Thai was one of the first to show resin gland production in the early bud cycle. at roughly three to four weeks into the cycle. For whatever aesthetic reason. including when tripping. sticky. dense buds of potent. dense. At larger doses the Juicy Fruit could evoke quite a terror. The Afghani Indica plant is short with large. This cross grew medium/tall and was very symmetric in structure. and the advent of high powered halide and HPS lights. which is where the finer qualities of the indica appear. Afghani Afghani The entire plant of the Purple Thai was very dark-coloured and would express a deep royal purple colour at the slightest exposure to cold. dense buds that smell earthen to skunk. It did not exhibit any of the spindly bud syndrome of the Juicy Fruit Thai. The finished product was equally as fruity and strong as the Juicy Fruit.
expressing a near total uniformity and great vigor. The plants of The Cross grew uniform. The maturation rates were uniform as well. indoors. That is. with a wide window of harvest being between weeks eight to eleven in the bud cycle. Afghani Afghani The f2 cross The f2 is the second filial generation. It is in the crosses beyond the initial f1 (especially the f1xf1=f2 cross) that specific traits are sought. gin. The diversity was spectacular. Thus there were two possible routes to essentially the same finished product.If the P1's are sufficiently diverse. wide to narrow leaves. On average. while Blue Moonshine seems more accessible through the Juicy Fruit lineage. and so they're easier to "find". bract and calyx tips showed red. energy and money was spent from this point to isolate and stabilize the desired traits. This is the f1 generation. plump to slender. Large. The buds were lighter. then the f1 will be a true hybrid. aromas. Only a very few of The Cross expressed hermaphroditism. about 1 out of every 25 females. From sativa to indica. So far this observation has proven fruitful. both in structure and aesthetics. There is a tremendous amount of work between the f2's and the f4's and f5's. ellipsoid and mottled with dark stripes upon a grayish brown shell. the opposite cross (female Afghani indica crossed with pollen from male Thai sativa) was not nearly as interesting. while the (usually male) indica contributes the amount of aroma and flavour to the prodigy. especially among the Purple Thai cross. almost yellow to the centres. The Blueberry (among others) was discovered and stabilized from an f1 cross between the P1 parents of a female Juicy Fruit Thai or a female Purple Thai and a male Afghani Indica. Trial and error is the rule. there are . They were also more hermaphroditic and subsequent breeding revealed them to be less desirable. wile the outer leaf. round to oval. The seed is uniformly sized and shaped. The f2 seeds collected were equally diverse. striped to solid. The f1's from this cross were more leafy and less desirable. certain paths prove futile while others bear further examination. early to late maturation. purple and blue hues. A grand amount of time. with almost every characteristic of the cannabis plant being expressed in some of the plants. tastes and highs. short to tall. There will be a tremendous amount of variance in the f2 crosses of f1's obtained from a female pure sativa and a male pure indica. ranging from large to small. there is a higher probability of occurence of the specific traits which I'm seeking. Blue Moonshine Blue Moonshine So the Thai female is pollinated with the Afghani male and an abundance of seed is produced. A single female is capable of producing thousands of seed. the (usually female) sativa contributes the type of aroma and flavour. Blue Velvet and Flo seem more accessible via the Purple Thai route. It has been my observation that in a successful cross. The finished bud had a very strong "astringent" chemical/terpene aroma that bordered between pine. licorice and paint. small. dark to light. There was a wide palate of colours. long buds formed along the branches. which I called simply "The Cross". simply a cross between any two of the f1 stock. medium-tall "spear" structures of many competing sidebranches around one main (meristem) stalk. along with an extensive array of flavours. leaving plenty for experimentation. With my f2 crosses the outcome was extreme. Oddly enough.
Another trade secret is the art of selecting the best males for breeding. where and how that is done remains a trade secret for now. but when it comes to herb I much prefer Luther Burbank's philosophy: "Select the best and reject all others!" This simple phrase is worth much consideration. It was however. Double wrap the seed in paper. brown glass jars with a little rice or other non-toxic desiccant seems to work best. a fun and worthwhile occupation to sample all the research material. it was a difficult task to accomplish. The fridge is extremely useful in extending the longevity of seed and pollen. especially concerning P1 and f1 crosses. Now the seed is ready for the deep-freeze. Then there's the wait for the cured sample. little manilla envelopes work great. were placed under a vegetative light cycle to stimulate new growth for cloning. I like to do small amounts. Blueberry x NL#5 Blueberry x NL#5 I like to do one backcross somewhere between the f3 and f5 generation. then place the freezer bag into a plastic tub or tupperware container. delicate cell structures within the seed. Mendel's work is useful. The slightest shock may shatter crucial. Then place the wrap into a plastic freezer bag. But beyond the f2 and f3 cross. reject all others Mendelian procedures are fine for sweet peas. f4 and f5. I have had pollen last for years in a deep freeze. Many sacrifices were endured by my family and friends. It must be frozen immediately after fresh collection from the plant. Have phun! Select the best. in one-time-use packets. The most desirable samples were used for further breeding to f3. A pollen-to-flour ratio of 1:10 or even . storing seed in airtight. It was hard work and dedication to record the findings and attempt to create useful categories and find patterns and traits to specific characteristics. to keep waste to a minimum. The pollen pile is sifted to rid the unwanted plant material from the pure powder. These topics and others will be covered in future articles. I like to shake the productive male flowers over a flat and clean piece of glass.about nine errors to each success. Mendel's theories add copius complexity to the equation. cut above the lowest few nodes. It is also useful to cut pollen with flour to stretch the amount. Hard frozen objects are very fragile. Afghani clones Afghani clones Your friend the freezer A benevolent tool in our trade is the refrigerator and freezer. The trick to successful freezing is to freeze deep (-10 to -40�F/-20 to -35�C) and then keep the seed undisturbed. Exactly when. in as low a humidity as possible (preferably 0%). In the fridge. The harvested plants. If the sample passed "the test" then the plant was kept for further consideration. Coupled with the difficult clandestine aspects of the trade through the 80's and 90's.
Therefore the sativa room will edintense overhead lighting with a straight track mover. may positively influence the outcome of the finished product. As jungle (lowland) herb requires only a thin layer of nutrient soil. The frozen pollen must be applied to the live female flower immediately after thawing to increase viability. Some of these conditions include: a different light cycle than the standard 18/6 vegetative 12/12 bud cycles. . a higher angle of light (using a straight track shuttle instead of a circular one). Different variations may be tried. Blue Velvet Blue Velvet The sweet sativa room I recommend the creation of a special "sativa room" for indoor breeding of such strains. Light cycle is one of the key considerations for those wishing to breed truly fine quality cannabis indoors under lights. and a more lowland sativa-friendly environment. perhaps a four-to-eight inch layer of soil over clay or concrete (with some form of drain system) would encourage lateral root growth. The goal is to replicate the equatorial conditions of the world�s various "sweet spots". stationary plants. If successful. humidity control set on low for the highland and high for the lowland. Be prepared for much fine tuning. one-time-use amounts. the sativa-friendly room can be used to acclimate an indoor sativa variety. especially through the bud cycle. The 18/6 veggie and 12/12 bud cycles are perhaps the main influence towards the indica dominant strains and generic blandness of the indoor commercial product. Equatorial strains also experience a higher arch of sunlight than those grown beyond 38� north or south � with a sunrise almost due east and sunset nearly due west. such as 15/9 veggie and 10/14 flowering cycle. A true equatorial sativa will require closer to a 13/11 vegetative and a long (four to six month) 11/13 flower cycle. Keeping the plant in a stationary position.1:100 works best. This room needs to consider and satisfy the unique needs of the sativa variety. which expands the possibilities of your breeding operation. stored in a flap of paper and frozen the same way as the seed. and variations in soil composition and depth. The cut pollen may then be separated into small.
A terrible sight indeed. Prevention The key to a mite-free garden is prevention. Almost every grower has heard of and used many home remedies. Bring only clean tools and sterilized growing medium into your growroom. At higher temperatures they become very active and mobile. and start again with a renewed interest in prevention. The vegetation that surrounds our dwellings supports an everpresent threat of invasion. Their persistence is incredible. The problem. The gardener also claimed to be too tired after work to carry water into his attic regularly. They may even wipe the mites out entirely and then starve to death themselves. Remember that if you have houseplants they may be supporting a population of mites as well. if they persist and you shudder at the prospect of starting all over again then you should introduce predator mites. Note that the predators may not be as effective if the mite population is too high . Once mites get into your garden. Having clean clothes and shoes is important. reducing the quantity and quality of your harvest.MITES BITE By Breeder Steve of the Spice of Life Seed Company Spider mites bite! You must get rid of them. Mite growth slows dramatically at lower temperatures. However. your friends. Webs & Eggs Spidermites spin webs which facilitate movement among the plant's branches and neighbouring plant's branches for the shortlegged demons. well ventilated rooms. as pests may enter the grow space on you. is that every garden on the West Coast is under siege. especially if the place gets dry. The best growrooms are cool. Vapour barriers and finely screened vents for intake and exhaust fans are essential to avoid sucking in bugs from the outside. If you have mites you will know it by the very small white dots on top of your leaves. as a friend recently pointed out. and your pets. Just don't let them in. A hot growroom with poor ventilation is a breeding ground for mites. given the proper cool temperatures. they are nearly impossible to get out. I once saw an attic garden that was full of plants but had no ventilation. Predator Mites Once you've got mites bad the best solution is to tear down. as well as the commercially available alternatives. If you look closely underneath the leaf you will see the little white eggs clinging to the underside and most likely the little white or reddish brown spidermites walking around or sucking the sweet juice of your plant. so the plants were bone dry and covered with tents. clean up. A garden started in a frozen climate is safe provided that the mites don't tag along in a bag of compost. Formally known as Phytoseilus Persimillis. or at least try to keep their numbers down. They breed quickly and can develop resistance to certain sprays. Ventilation Ventilation fans are essential for healthy plant growth as well as discouraging the mites. predator mites will eat the evil spidermites and their eggs. They are like little mosquitoes that suck the lifeblood from your plants. Wipe off any signs of webs immediately and repeatedly.
find out. Spray Solutions Any one of a number of spray solutions may be used to knock down their population to a level where the predators will be able to take over. it's a white dust that attracts the bugs. ceiling and floor. commercial or home made. Its razorlike edges slice the carapace or shell of the mites' bodies and then they dehydrate. Pentac or Kelthane are sprays that may be used while the plants are in vegetative cycle. something that they get stuck in. It sounds nasty but it is merely fine sand with very sharp edges. A new spray is being touted as killing spidermites but not the predator mites. Never use systemic pesticides. The real key is prevention. Insecticidal Soaps and Sprays Eternal vigilance is the cost of freedom from spidermites. also known as diotomecious earth. Companion planting is an interesting idea.when they are introduced. they eat it and then get sliced inside and out. Wilson's insecticidal soap does a pretty good job at cleaning them up. and in fact it's best to avoid all chemical solutions. If in doubt. It is fairly safe in composition and has the advantage of being in a nifty new aerosol can that can be sprayed upside down. The dust is harmless to plants and animals (ourselves included) but very destructive to small crawling insects such as mites. The active ingredient is from a natural source and not harmful to humans. Very frightening indeed is the "ultimate mite killer" Avid. especially with some elbow grease and a J cloth. which usually only provides a short term remedy. Pokon is the most popular commercially available mite spray on the market today. very convenient for spraying the bottoms of leaves. avoid! A new organic spray that is very effective is made from orange oils. while the dusty . I've heard very good reports about it. do not spray buds! Silicon Dioxide A great natural way to kill the little devils is with Silicone Dioxide. even Pokon. filtered and than sprayed is the favourite miticide of one crazy Dutchman I know. Put two-sided tape on the walls. as well as on stalks. mined from fossilized material. it is called SM90. A few cigarette butts soaked in a litre of water. The mites killed the marigolds in no time. Although this is only a band aid solution it can't hurt. branches and pots. but wait a few days after spraying before introducing the predators or the residual miticide will also harm them. This is a dangerous and harmful product. and dusty millers. ground pumice. Sprinkle this on the leaves and the soil. but follow the instructions with any pesticide! I say again. I've tried garlic. I strongly recommend that you spray nothing on your buds except the mildest home remedies such as a small amount of Listerine and Sunlight dishsoap dissolved in water and sprayed or scrubbed onto the plants. and use it myself. marigolds. as going the extra mile during the construction of the grow room can save a marathon cleanup later. and you will rejoice one battle won. People should not be messing around with Malathion or Diazinon. however I'm not convinced of its effectiveness. Traps & Companions Traps are another possibility. the mites will die a hideous death. In the stores look for Insecolo.
while outdoors the elements and naturally occurring predators make them less of a threat. A healthy plant. Frequent spraying of water on plants impedes the mites' progress. . For best results the plants should dance inside just as much as they would dance outside. as do heavy gusts of wind. Too much or too little of any one of these will cause difficulties. Remember. so make sure it (and you) have a healthy and balanced diet. earth. but neither thrived as well as the mites.millers lived as did the garlic. Plenty of wind is essential in the grow room. fire. One grower I know of uses a compressed air blower once a week to blow any mites off of his plants. To grow successfully these elements must be balanced. and thank your lucky stars. so put oscillating fans all over the place. You must remember the four basic elements. If you don't have mites. Outdoors Indoors Spider mites are a plague on indoor gardens. take precautions to keep it that way. and water. Of what is up to you. like a healthy person. wind. growing inside is the art and science of creating nature. If you have mites try not to spread them. is less likely to have problems.
and during the day the sides could be lifted to let the cool breeze reach the plants. When you have a drying shed on-site. you are losing and damaging the most valuable part: the trichomes! What I didn�t do the first season was build myself a drying shed. that lack of planning was disastrous. only taking out finished product or dried bud ready for manicuring. I had to be careful not to pull the plants down too soon�act too early and mold can still break out in your buds. If the plant is big. As one plant can have up to ten larger-sized branches on it. By cutting off the main stems and laying the entire plants on top of each other. drying them as it went. Many people cut the branches off individually but all that does is increase the amount of work you have to do later. As I recounted. Sound travels in the forest. you take the heaps of harvested pot inside the shed and hang the plants up by strings or rope. the more the plant is disturbed during harvest. but being underground muffled the sound of the generator. Harvesting should be straightforward. and here's how to harvest properly When you are growing guerilla jungle style you must be set up to process everything in the forest. the more damage you do. The following season I developed a method that for my purposes was perfect. I had to shovel big holes and it was backbreaking work. In the event of heavy rain the plants were protected.How To Harvest Outdoors by Joe Walsh (19 Sept. I excavated the earth. Remember. the plants will break either straight away or not at all. and as cool as possible as heat destroys the THC. 2006) Growing in the bush requires a lot of planning. It�s the only way to have a generator operate outdoors�it�s got to be quiet and stealth. I made my first drying shed with a timber frame and covered the walls and roof in heavy-duty black builders plastic. yet I have seen so many people do it the wrong way. I could get 50 pounds (22 kg) of dry weight in 14 days. It required money but by that stage I had it. cut off the top half of it and hang the two parts of the plant separately. . the pot should be left in total darkness for the whole time of curing. The very best way is to cut the plants as low to the ground as possible. Ideally. You will find the larger branches provide adequate strength to support the weight of the plant. you reduce the disruption of the resin heads. With this method. As the drying process almost instantly reduces weight. creating an underground shed to house a small generator that provided me with ample electricity for my growing compound�s communications and lighting (as described and pictured in CC #60). making life harder later on. every time you touch your plants.
hot dry air would be sucked into the drying shed. and supplies are always scarce. with another length of ducting carrying the cool moist air from the drying shed back to the generator so it could pump a constant stream of warm dry air to the harvested plants. which started at around 3. When it was time to carry out the finished product. I have seen this at work on-site in the Canadian outback. I ran standard 6-inch diameter clothingdryer ducting from the generator shed into the drying shed. and although the plant material was fresh (it�s better to be dry for the Bubblebags�). safe and clean as to be unbeatable. de-humidifiers and three fluorescent lights controlled by a switch. I used to be very partial to making extracted THC oil using solvents. single-handedly drying the entire crop (about 300 pounds dry. and the product is very quickly turned over as the demand for bubble-hash is great. With the generator going 24 hours a day� only stopping the machine to clear vapor locks from the fuel lines. Pot damaged by mold is redeemed in some small way when put in the ice-cold extraction bags. because mold is rendered harmless and is separated from the trichomes through this method. I put the buds into chaff bags. and to change oil every 12 hours�I could dry 50 pounds in three days. fast. circulated by the big industrial fans. With this set-up. tied the tops. What I would do with my next crop is process the shake�as I had had over 2. to repeat the process. The de-humidifiers would remove moisture from the shed and then the cool air was sucked back into the generator shed.000 pounds of wet bud) without any help at all. I was able to stay anonymous. The generator had electric lines going to a heap of power outlets that connected industrial fans. I found that leaving them in the bags for a few weeks tended to make the quality a little better. I learned from my first season growing in the bush that there are huge losses involved in poor planning. within the bush for the second season even though it . it is still a very efficient and very flexible method for fresh-cut trim. They could be stored like this for weeks or months. inline fans.I had also brought in a large generator to make the drying shed more efficient. and successful. but the ice cold water extraction method is so convenient.000 pounds of it�with the 20-gallon Bubblebag� ice-cold extraction system. and then wrapped them in industrial cling wrap.
and curing your cannabis to a perfect smoke. . Learn from my experiences and next season you can do as I did.often rained heavily in the final weeks. scaling harvesting requirements to your ability.
that attended university chemistry classes during the day and �studied� cannabis at night. The process had been completed. have difficulty following directions. Brian. Cannabis extracts revived in the 1970�s facilitated by High Times Magazine. but the gear hadn�t been put away. and a hazardous environment requires attentiveness. resulting in completely blown-up houses. There are many ways to mess up! The original reefer revolutionaries of cannabis extraction were scientists. When making extractions. Never assume! Up In Smoke Cafe proprietor Chris �Goodster� Goodwin is a honey oil head. and recreational use of cannabis was unusual outside of jazz clubs and working-class black and Hispanic neighborhoods. an old friend of mine was making oil outside with butane. Fans still blew behind him as he checked out the end product. You must be ultra-careful when making oil with solvents. 2006) A few examples of what can go wrong. heat. Every cannabis chemist we spoke to has an explosion story. was printing almost a million copies. Early oilmaking technology like the ISO2 extractor were massproduced. life-threatening injuries. and what to do right When making cannabis oil or extractions. are easily confused about explosive chemicals. Eli Lily supplied the Office of Strategic Services (now the Central Intelligence Agency) with �potent marijuana oil created as a truth drug for interrogation purposes�. �red oil concentrates were used along with marijuana� to get the prisoners to talk about crimes or provide information they had not yet confessed. but since the heyday of THC extraction in the 1970�s. If you�re slightly careless with measurements. Eli Lily and Parke-Davis jointly ran a farming co-operative in Rochester. The extraction-makers we profile in this article are all smart stoners. yet Puff Mama. the objective is to get really high�safely. such as those employed by Eli Lily and Parke-Davis Company up to 1938. �It would have been fine if the bottom of the Pringles can wasn�t metal . Michigan with plants known as Cannabis Americana. by 1977. Goodster was getting the very last drop of the honey oil from the Pringles can�which they unwisely used to contain the butane and plant matter� when it jarred on a metal table and created a spark. The LaGuardia Mayor�s Committee provided cannabis extracts to New York City prisons in the 1930�s and 40�s. partial neighborhood blocks going up in flames.How To Make Weed Oil Without Blowing Yourself Up by Matt Mernagh (19 Sept. and Chris Goodwin all faced serious cannabis catastrophe. and/or occasionally leave the Volcano vaporizer on until the balloon is about to burst. For example. severe physical burns. Consequently. I found it impossible to locate a cannabis alchemist who isn�t sporting burn scars or fondly recalling the time so-and-so went up in flames. and even death� which are all tragedies used as arguments by prohibitionists against marijuana use in general. much inadequate and misguided information has circulated. used for medicinal extracts from 1913 to 1938. Stepping slightly back from the table. He had been standing in the fan�s air path and assumed he was safe. you MUST approach with caution. DO NOT MAKE MARIJUANA EXTRACTS! Controlling solvents. and sold extensively. the duo decided to make honey oil. After smoking a doobie with his friend one night and eating Pringles potato chips in the parents� basement. there have been hundreds of weed-oil explosions throughout North America over the last 30 years. advertised in High Times. which. (LaGuardia report) Medicinal cannabis extracts disappeared from store shelves in 1937. he lit a joint� and BOOM! The spark ignited fumes in the air and nearly blew him apart. The invention of the Internet accelerated the exchange of oil-making ideas.
As this happens. and very carefully pour the butane down the tube. but it went WHOOSH again!� Luckily. In your chosen well-ventilated spot.7%). The ISO2 was a fairly safe extracting device with a light bulb under the base connected to a dimmer switch. Pour the liquid through the screen into a second piece of glassware. similar to a lava lamp. When you�re planning to make weed oil with isopropyl alcohol (99. Eliminating solvents just perfectly. inert and odorless. invest money into ordering proper lab equipment online or from a science retailer. To make oil with butane. How to Make Oil The cannabis chemist is seeking to obtain the purest THC content for their oil while also providing a sweet taste to their product. it creates fumes that can ignite an explosion with even the smallest spark or flame. �Naturally. Many cannabis cookers work with two fans behind them to keep fumes going downwind. the poorer the quality. Position the tube in or above a large glass container. the resins take on a dark brown color characteristic of hash oil. even outdoors. Use a lava lamp stand. and attach a non-metal screen to the bottom with packing tape. Then place it on your heat source. is a critical part of the process. The vapors came out of a twelveinch tower of carbon. some mesh screen that is NOT made of metal (once again.too. and gently shake the container to coat the marijuana with alcohol.� Goodster says. Suspended above the alcohol was a halforb mesh strainer filled with marijuana. As it runs through the .� the sound Goodster uses to describe the flaming experience of honey oil going off in his face. Had Goodster gone to science class a few more times he might have learned better safety precautions and obtained the necessary glassware required to contain the volatile oilmaking mix of plant matter and butane! If you�re serious about making honey oil. because THC resin is heavier than alcohol or butane gas (which is also used to make oil�we�ll go over that soon) it will sink to the bottom of the new glass container. should be done far away from other people so if something goes wrong you�re the only one to suffer the consequences. without setting oneself on fire.7% isopropyl) was placed in the basin of the metal container and heated by the bulb underneath. Alcohol (99. �The base sparked on the table and the thing just went WHOOOSH. After 30 to 60 minutes all the resin was transferred to the remaining alcohol in the basin. All cannabis cooking. which are widely available these days. stirring as the alcohol slowly evaporates. Fill a tube or hose-like container with trim or bud. or something else that creates heat with NO open flame (this is VERY important). and packing tape�not duct tape. and then the alcohol evaporated into the air or was heated gently until only the THC oil remained. so in the ISO2 the vapor �melted� the resin. like moonshining. until the color of the liquid begins to change to amber. Slowly pour isopropyl alcohol up to a level slightly above the top of the trimmings. It is HIGHLY recommended that you always make oil OUTSIDE! When alcohol or gas is heated. a coffee machine base. fill one piece of glassware with plant matter and secure the mesh screen over the top with packing tape. Pour the liquid into a new container and back into another. The runnier or greener the oil is. Allow for a complete evaporation of solvents before harvesting your oil from the container. Fumes can also cut off the flow of oxygen to the brain. they managed to put out the fire. I dropped the can. obtain three glass beakers or bowls. which can result in the chemist pass-ing out onto their lab equipment� so make sure you wear a gas mask. this is VERY important!). Set up somewhere with ample ventilation and more than one exit. When alcohol is heated it turns into a vapor and rises. you use the same sort of process. You will need a SAFE heat source to make oil. which then dropped into the alcohol.
Puff also turned her tragedy into a marijuana opportunity by hosting an extravagant fundraising effort to pay her kitchen replacement and legal bills. which can be used in any food preparation (and this. While making oil. It should be ground up to crumbs. Ontario hospital where he spent weeks in intensive care. Canada. She realized that when she ran out the door to see her mom. Cookie�s Misfortune Brian is a great chef who knows how to cook up a storm. an air conditioner. Ontario. his hands were a �peelingbandaged. His burns and injuries were so life threatening he was flown 150 miles to a Hamilton. one year later Brian is healthy and looks scar-free. 768 Queen Street East in Toronto. Unfortunately. Take the bowl and repour it through the tube into another container. Puff Mama�s �Burning Down The House� CannaButter Puff Mama is another talented cannabis chef. which he did often.horror-moviemess� and he is permanently physically scarred by his fiery experience. Since then she�s opened Clandestiny and offers baked goods for sale (see her ad at the beginning of the magazine). Puff Mama reminds everyone to make sure you watch the heat! CannaButter Ingredients: � 1 lb unsalted butter � dried cannabis (see * below) � 4 . and repeat the process until the residue begins to take on a deep amber color. he turned his personal tragedy into opportunity by becoming a super-chef supplier of baked goods: Mr. spider mites.trimmings. but not dust. fans. but his hands became a fireball that quickly covered his entire body. �how does she get pot into muffins and chocolate? � Because of a simple mistake. and what remains will be sweet honey oil! Mr. You can experience delicious treats from Mr. Upon his release. then the Toronto Police showed up and cleaned out the contents of her fridges. Cookie at �Clandestiny�. Of course. He also has a respectable ten years� experience in the oil business. After his recovery. when she came home from a pleasant meal she found her home on fire. chemicals and/or debris. She has a pro kitchen with two stoves. she accidentally turned the stove on HIGH! The Toronto Fire Department had arrived to put out the fire. her kitchen was ruined and she was charged for �possession�. and stainless steel pots and pans. Cookie. Puff Mama decided to go out and have sushi with her mom while a batch of cannabutter slowly simmered in a pot on the stove. the flammable substance he was evaporating suddenly went one degree too hot� and BOOM! The oil burst into flames and he threw the pot from the stove. wondering. but unfortunately that ended one fateful day in 2005. two fridges. Then follow the same heating and evaporation process as isopropyl. With cannabis use and tender loving care. She knew it was safe to turn the stove heat down to LOW and leave for a bit. She�s also a pot professional with a disastrous cannabiscooking story of her own to tell. is how pot gets in chocolate!) All cannabis used for cooking should be fully dried and free of mold.5 L water . Here Puff Mama shares her recipe for cannabutter. ala Emeril or The Iron Chef. Her new store Clandestiny is a hemp-friendly location with plenty of treats. Toronto Police. But being a weed wizard indeed. resin glands are dissolved along the way and carried out with the butane.
Don�t let the sides fall in. vodka. freeze it. and a steak will go nicely with cannabis brandy sauce! Mixing store-bought alcohol with bud is rather easy. cannabis. trim from buds Mild: 28 g Strong: 56 g Regular cannabis buds Mild: 14 g Strong: 28 g Powerful cannabis or hash Mild: 7 g Strong: 14 g Directions: 1) Place butter. You can dump the water and store the butter in the fridge. then refrigerate the liquid in the pot. 2) Simmer for 6 . as butter will go bad. and if you leave it for up to three months. and all the THC is in the butter. Tequila is an excellent alcohol for absorbing THC. put the colander over the second pot or bowl. If you don�t plan to use it within a week. Canna-Rum or Cooking Brandy A mint julip packs a bit more punch if you replace the mint with bud. rye. 4) Wrap the mixture tight and squeeze every last drop of juice out. Using the spoon.� 1 large stockpot � a 2nd pot or large bowl � a colander (spaghetti strainer) that will fit in the 2nd pot or bowl � a large piece of cheesecloth � a big spoon and potato masher * If you have: Stems. Stir every 1/2 hour. Irish cream�whatever you like. 3) When you are ready to strain. put the pot on a large element on the lowest setting possible. seeds. slowly pour the brew into the cheesecloth. The butter and water will separate. 5) Throw out the contents of the cheesecloth. The butter will want to cling between the leaves. some stems Mild: 120 g Strong: 250 g Leaves. brandy. whisky. and water in a large stockpot. it�ll safely dissolve THC from cannabis over several days. Line it with a large piece of cheesecloth. Use the potato masher against the colander to squeeze out the precious juices. Rum.8 hours. leaves Mild potency use: 225 grams Strong potency use: 450 g Mostly leaves. you get a .
which is what the five per cent of people who use the tinctures are looking for. Reverend Peter of the G-13 Church of the Universe says. �What you want is an euphoric state. you get shit out. the tinctures can also be mixed into summer drinks. The bud creates a more lucid state. we had a lovely summer drink using the tincture with lemons. people could be perfecting cannabis sprays for the benefit of the ill. Several Compassion Clubs began canna-spray research using Jamaican 150-proof rum to dissolve the plant trimmings. this will transfer the THC into the alcohol. If possible. Sativex� is the only pharmaceutical spray on the market using whole cannabis resin extract. G. or those just seeking a good night�s sleep! However. With government licenses. the more it will break down and release its many valuable cannabinoids.� The local liquor outlet sells 95.very powerful and smooth drink.God state. and sell it.proof food-grade alcohol to the Church for their tinctures. Purchase all the ingredients for your desired drink and obtain about 1/4 to a half ounce of primo bud. Most compassion clubs now use medical or food-grade alcohol to make their tinctures and mists. Pharmaceuticals.� he explains of the sacrificial substance. and mist better. Sativex and Cannabis Sprays The Canadian medical marijuana movement has many clubs producing their own medical sprays. medicate. well-cured smaller buds into a bottle of booze. (Though the cannabis community showed some astonishment regarding the uniformity of Sativex�. and other med-pot jurisdictions are doing so without permits. they allow several days of extraction and/or cooking. British Columbia. as those who down a whole tincture are known to trance out into a lucid commune-with. This reefer religion stronghold�s tinctures are so powerful that only a few members opt to use them. Reverend Peter says the Church is really . bust down and stabilize the molecular structure. is the only corporation in the world permitted to legally grow voluminous amounts of cannabis. the makers of Sativex� prescription cannabis spray. and that�s why we don�t use leaf. And it�s no secret we�re following Ed Rosenthal�s recipes. The Sacrificial Tinctures of G-13 Located in the hippie enclave of Toronto�s Beaches neighborhood. �You can use them anyway you like. To make canna-liquor. that alcohol was neither a suitable medicinal binding agent nor strong enough for med pot patients. you need to get about ten to fifteen very dry. and to experience the entire spiritual aspects of the cannabis plant. �Just yesterday. The G -13 Church of the Universe produces the finest religious tinctures while fighting The Man. And they�re not doing so for medical reasons: this tincture is for Spiritual Exploration. Though patients have the option of getting a Sativex� prescription. but we use only the finest of bud. just drop the buds right down the neck of the bottle. Unfortunately. If you put shit in.W. California. The longer the cannabis is in the liquor. at affordable prices too. trying to avoid disturbing the resin glands. but one spray can costs $125 in Canada (the only market where it is prescribed legally). Pharmaceuticals because they produce Sativex� in legal environs while compassionate chemists in Ontario. the historical information available suggests that cannabis spray uniformity has been around since the turn of the century. Trim to fit if need be! Shake�do not stir�the bottle every day once the bud is inside.� Clearly not intended for newbies. ganja generic knocks-offs from Compassion Clubs taste. Oregon. ala Romans versus Catholics.) The unfair advantage goes to G. G-13 prefers food-grade alcohol to break down their product versus 150-proof rum.W.
then we can use it for making chocolates. bhangs� and some people even put it in their coffee.getting famous for its extra-virgin olive oil.� . There�s no secret here. �Just always use great bud. it�s really very good.� he concludes. �We cook it for five days. Just dump some oil in.
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