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as preparing a site and planting some seeds. Planting outdoors needn't be as complicated as many make it. Far too much emphasis these days is placed on cloning, when growing from seed is infinitely more interesting. Direct seeding outdoors may not be for everyone, but it is certainly a simple and time honoured method of growing our favourite plant. Why direct seeding? In nature, female cannabis plants grow together with their male counterparts, becoming impregnated by the golden pollen come fall. As the calyx shrinks back and starts to rot away at the end of the season, the mature seed falls to the ground, where it remains until conditions are right for its germination. One of the main effects of cloning is that each plant is exactly the same as its sibling. While this may be an advantage indoors, it can work against you outdoors. A strain's gene pool provides the ability to adapt to different climates and conditions. For example, we might have a very wet autumn one year, causing a large outbreak of Botrytis (mold) in your bud. Out of one hundred plants grown from seed, twenty of them may be relatively free of mold, while the others are destroyed. These twenty plants have some inherited trait making them resistant to Botrytis, and this adaptability is what allows plants to reproduce and survive from year to year under varying conditions. Should you have chosen only two mothers and cloned from them, the odds are that you would have suffered a full crop loss. This genetic diversity is much more pronounced in true breeding lines rather than F1 hybrids, but luckily this works with us as many of the available outdoor seed strains are in fact true breeding. One reason to choose direct seeding over simply starting plants from seed under lights and then transplanting them outside is that a plant's roots adjust to the conditions it grows in. For example, the roots of plants grown in a hydroponics set-up will not perform well if suddenly placed in soil. Plants started inside are spoiled, they are given water whenever they want it, never being forced to do anything for themselves. Then they are thrown outside one day, and left at the mercy of Mother Nature. Plants seeded outside develop roots suited to their exact soil and moisture conditions, never producing more plant mass than the roots can support. In most areas, directly seeded cannabis need never be watered throughout the season, though irrigation will of course increase yield, especially during flowering. Direct seeding also eliminates the carrying of suspicious and cumbersome boxes of plants into hard to reach areas, a major hassle of guerrilla growing. Choosing a Location Once you have a general idea of where you want to grow, a good place to visit is your local university, library or map supplier. Here you can find detailed topographical maps of the area, as well as soil maps indicating whether it is suitable for growing (many soil maps will indicate whether an area is farmable). Look for areas with some access to water in case of drought.
River valleys are ideal locations as good soil usually accumulates there, and there is also easy access to water. If planting in valleys, make sure not to choose a location at the very bottom, as this is where frost will settle. Preparing the Site Ideally, the site should be prepared the previous summer or fall, giving organic fertilizers time to break down into useable nutrients and eliminating hectic spring preparations. This is especially important when direct seeding, as turning the soil right before planting dries out the top layer, losing precious moisture needed for germination. Stay clear of blood and bone meal, as they attract bears, raccoons and a host of other creatures to the site, where they will dig up plants and destroy seedlings while searching for the source of the smell. Other things to avoid are perlite, vermiculite and rockwool, as they stand out like a sore thumb in the off-season, attracting the attention of potential thieves of next year's crop. Dig holes or trenches two to three feet deep, and at least two feet wide. A good mix of several organic fertilizers is the best bet, as different ingredients release fertilizers at different rates. Worm castings and sheep manure are good sources for nitrogen, as well as having excellent waterholding capacities. However, be careful not to overdo it with manure, as a large amount of the nitrogen is in the ammonium form, which will cause stretched, disease-susceptible plants in too large a dose. Phosphorous is best supplied with rock phosphate or bat guano, or a mixture of both. Follow recommended label rates, and again, be careful not to overdo. Although phosphorous is necessary for proper growth of cannabis, too much emphasis is placed on it in marijuana cultivation. Excess amounts lead to long internodes and acidified soil. Potassium can be added with the addition of muriate of potash, kelp meal or wood ash. Care is needed here as overdoing an application can raise your soil EC too high, burning your plants, especially delicate seedlings. This applies to kelp meal in particular, as it also contains large amounts of sodium. A final addition beneficial to most soils is dolomite or horticultural lime, which keeps your ph in check as well as supplying calcium and magnesium. If in doubt of your soil ph, simply mix some soil with a similar amount of distilled water, let it sit for thirty minutes, and then check with a ph meter or test strip. Anything between 5.5 and 7 will work fine for our purposes. In a commercial garden it might make sense to send a soil sample to be tested, especially if using the same spot for several years. This can be done at any agricultural university or a variety of businesses advertised in gardening magazines. Simply tell them it is for your vegetable garden and ask for organic recommendations. Sowing your seed This technique is best used by those who have access to a large amount of seeds. If you only have a pack of ten seeds do not even bother. A minimum sowing should be about 40 to 50 seeds for a small crop, as many will not germinate and about half will be male. For best results, soak seeds the night before in a covered glass of water, and then plant outside, pointed end up, at a spacing of about one seed for every four inches of area. Seeds can be planted anywhere from 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches deep depending on soil type � too shallow a planting will cause poor germination due to lack of moisture. Soil temperature is the major determining factor in deciding when to sow � it is best to wait until it
has reached 10-12�C (50-54�F). A soil thermometer can be obtained from many garden supply stores for about thirty dollars, or just use your judgement. Generally you want to plant about two weeks before you would normally transplant clones or seedlings. Small seedlings are actually much more cold-hardy than their adult counterparts, Indicas more so than Sativas due to the cold springs where they originate. Fungicides should not be needed provided the soil is properly warmed. If damping off does become a problem, drench with chamomile tea or no-damp. Thinning It is usually necessary to thin crowded or weak plants about a month after planting, but be careful not to pull too many before males indicate. Once all males are removed you want to be left with only vigorous plants, spaced wide enough to reach their maximum potential, yet close enough to make efficient use of your area. Outdoor threats Animals - Deer, rabbits and mice are the main menaces to a cannabis crop. Fences work, but can draw unwelcome attention to your garden. Luckily, the best defense is invisible � simply add scent to your garden that animals relate to predators. Fox or coyote urine can be bought from hunting supply stores (usually fall only), spray it around your plants on a regular basis and mice and rabbits will quickly vacate the area. Small pieces of soap placed or hung around the perimeter works well for repelling deer. It is important to scent the area well before you plant and a good idea to change brands of soap every three weeks so animals do not become accustomed to the scent. Flower Police - Police helicopters in most areas go up towards the end of August and are usually winding down by the third week of September. For the most part they simply act as common thieves, grabbing and running. Arrests are rare, but they have been known to stake out large crops. Always completely check out the surrounding area before entering a garden. Other Thieves - Not much you can do about these low-lifes other than tell no one about the garden, camouflage it well and leave no trails. Choosing a Strain Two things make direct seeding much easier: producing your own seed and growing a pure breeding strain. Luckily these go hand in hand, and many of today's outdoor strains are true breeding (although this is rarely advertised by seed companies). True breeding strains such as Durban, Early Girl or Holland's Hope are an advantage as the plants will all sex out and mature at the same time, minimizing trips to the garden. Once you have found a strain you like, stick with it and keep records, this way you will know from one year to the next when it is time to pull males or harvest. Other issues to look at are mold susceptibility, maturity dates, where it was bred and personal preference. Generally Sativas or strains with Ruderalis in them are less susceptible to molds because of their airier bud structure, while dense Indica-type floral clusters take a long time to dry after a rain, giving mold spores plenty of time to germinate. Maturity dates will vary depending on your latitude, most strains sold for outdoors generally finish from about September 5 to October 15. Keep in mind that even if you can have plants out into mid-October, the light level diminishes quickly after the
If making an F1 hybrid. Never underestimate the damage potential of a bag of pollen in an unseeded garden. with the fate of Dutch seed companies up in the air. Pollen may also be very carefully painted onto pistils with a small brush. Try to select at least a few male plants and pollinate limbs on as many females as is convenient.second or third week of September. When removing seed from ripened colas. simply choose your nicest male plant from one strain and cross it with a choice female of another. Seed should be allowed to dry for at least a month then stored in a cool dry place with some dessicant until later use. both of which will adversely affect yields. and heavy rains are much more likely. this will keep the gene pool somewhat diverse. Once your males begin to show. . For outdoor strains it is best to pollinate about three weeks before harvest. Providing they are vigorous and to your liking. these can then simply be tied tightly over female colas and left for three days to kill any unused pollen. If you grow in the same region year after year your strain will gradually become acclimatized to your particular climate. This allows colas some time to fill out before pollination as well as providing seeds with plenty of time to ripen properly. transplant them to a location well away from any sinsemilla crops where they can be grown on until pollen release. Saving Your Seed Especially now. This works well for separating the seed as well as collecting a tasty sample of trichomes as reward for your hard work. Paper bags are good for collection of pollen. dry bud until very dry then rub between your palms over a stretched silk screen. it is time to take control of your own seed supply.
The best indoor buds are soil grown. The perfectly moistened mix will hold together as clumps when squeezed but will not release any more than a drop or two of water. The more natural elements are by far preferred. Unlike hydro systems. depending on if the soil will hold a plant in vegetative or flower cycle. Many fertilizers are made from industrial chemical sources and do not. The two main additives I use are worm castings and a bat/seabird guano mix. There are a number of such commercial and specialty brands of potting soil on the market today. practice makes perfect. The mixture then needs to be moistened. Superior soil It is possible to grow plants in specially prepared soil that will require no fertilizers in the water later on. bats. Quite the contrary. Any rich green manure will do. happy buds. When one gets to know one's local products well and gets the mix down just right. The final 5% is made up of a mixture of about equal parts trace mineral elements. is another excellent source of food for plants. granulated charcoal. About 10% of the finished product is made up of some kind of organic compost. Organic manic As for nutrients and supplements. As for where to find a reliable organic garden supply store.Root your toot by DJ Short." then you are not in a reliable organic garden supply store. it don't make no difference. Green manure. It is up to the consumer to shop around in their area and get familiarized with the brands available in the local market. Actual organic earth allows buds to produce flavours. Most are not completely organic and may contain unwanted chemicals. plants and seaweed. soil is not meant to be a sterile medium. washed sand and volcanic ash. or rich�composted plant matter. As with many other aspects of life. fish. Then worm castings are mixed in to about 15% of the finished product. These come from the more obvious natural sources such as worms. or bat/seabird guano or seaweed for that matter. either green or brown. To this mix a specific dry fertilizer may be added. photos by Barge (04 May. Even the good local products tend to skimp on some of their ingredients. There are some smaller companies up and down the West Coast. The bulk of the mix � about 70% of the finished product � is made up of equal parts peat or sphagnum moss (I prefer coarse cut sphagnum moss) and perlite. For soil used in the bud cycle it's the opposite . This is why I like to supplement any commercial soil I use. among other areas. the resulting success becomes evident. if the store clerk says anything to the affect of: "chemical or compost. produce the highest quality. tastes and effects which cannot yet be reproduced in hydroponic systems. birds. It is a large consumer market to be explored. My preference is for the most natural and organic substance available. in my opinion. 2001) The right soil and nutrients are key components to having phat. there are many on the market. the best soils are very much alive and thriving. that do make clean products.more bat/seabird guano than worm castings. For soil used in the vegetative stage I like to add more worm castings than bat/seabird guano. The following is a simple recipe for a soil mix that has proven successful for me in the past. . well.
and K levels. or 5-37-15. worm castings and/or green manure to the water. An additive I like to use with every fertilizing is a Bvitamin hormone supplement such as Super Thrive. Nutrient knowledge The primary knowledge concerning fertilizer and nutrient (other than its source) are its N. Next. Though "foliar feeding" does work. P. Another great additive for the organic garden are beneficial nematodes. The teas are considered fresh when made. These microscopic. bud and fruit growth in the bud or flower cycle. The nutrient is allowed to sit and "steep" in the water releasing the nutrients' water soluble properties. This is the preferred method of adding organic nutrient during watering. not to use the foliar feeding method on any part of the plant that is destined to be consumed. add the bat/bird guano. usually refrigerated. I tend to avoid doing it due to the fact that the foliage is inevitably going to be smoked. Therefore. when it is finally consumed. low phosphorous. In contrast. These numbers represent the ratio of nitrogen. The tea is applied the same way the water is during watering. I like to end all nitrogen to the plant at least five to six weeks prior to harvest. These teas are simple to make and easy to use. and most are organic.Some people choose to feed their plants by spraying a nutrient solution onto the plant and having it absorbed through the foliage. living organisms are found at the more complete organic garden centers. phosphorous and potassium (in that order) in the product. low potassium fertilizers stimulate foliar and stem growth in the vegetative stage. Foliar feeding during the vegetative stage on the larger shade leaves that will be discarded is a relatively safe practice. Another method is to use the full amount of nutrient in a smaller amount of water to create a concentrate. That is 30 parts N (nitrogen)-10 parts P (phosphorous)-10 parts K (potassium) is what is in a 30-10-10 fertilizer. Nematodes and tea Teas made from bat/bird guano and/or worm castings and/or green manure are an excellent source of organic nutrient. They usually come in a sponge. high potassium fertilizers promote lush flower. The concentrate is then added to the full amount of water for watering. or some other porous medium. but sometimes green as with green manures). it is important. low nitrogen. Prepare a container with enough water for a full watering. This product helps the plant better metabolize its nutrient uptake. There is no guarantee as to how much residue remains upon the foliage. The steeping takes anywhere from one day to several days. But I highly recommend a pure water flush for at least the last two watering times. They must be kept refrigerated until they are ready to be used. or what exactly that residue may be. high phosphorous. The tea will color the water similar to the shade of the nutrient (usually brown. P stands for Phosphorous and K stands for Potassium. High nitrogen. and to not allow them to stand too long and stagnate. Beneficial nematodes are cultivated and sold live. N stands for Nitrogen. Most fertilizers have a number consisting of three numbers such as: 30-10-10. It is only necessary to use a small portion each time as they will reproduce profusely if properly introduced into the soil. These are the three main nutrients that plants need to thrive. . Finding the "perfect amount" to add will take some practice. And I like to end all additives to the plant two to three weeks prior to harvest. It is important to use them immediately when they are ready. A B-vitamin hormone such as Super Thrive may be given up to the last week. especially during the flowering stage.
but allows water and air to pass through. The same can be said about indoor versus outdoor growth. Most systems also utilize a timer to automate this process. and soaked into the soil. as well. however. and are experimenting with many new nutrient products to achieve this end. while leaving the plant to thrive. yet to sample a hydroponic grown product that surpassed a soil grown product in overall quality and flavor. That is. Ideally. the pots and medium that hold the roots of the plants. or be pumped. a pump (or pumps). when grown outdoors in the right environment the finished bud is usually superior to its identical twin grown indoors. and bacteria. Now it is your turn. volcanic pumice. insect larvae. There are also ebb and flow. The water soluble nutrient is mixed with the water in the reservoir and delivered to the plants via the pump and tubing several times a day. the roots are regularly aerated and thus have excellent oxygen exposure. This information was gained via experimentation on advice given to me in the past. perlite. The entrepreneurs in the hydroponic industry are striving for the most natural hydro system. These systems consist of a reservoir. PVC pipe. back into the reservoir. mold. Once in the soil. The plant does not have to put as much energy into its roots and therefore has more energy for foliar and bud growth. The incessant regimen tends to produce more of a bland finished product. (tepid .not too hot. spores. and some way for the water to flow. I have. However. beneficial nematodes may be added as often as desired. These are the basics when it comes to growing medium. tubing to carry the fluid to the plants. such as fungus. . rock corn and sand are some examples of hydroponic mediums. Most hydroponic systems provide nutrients via the water that is passed over the rocks several times daily. Gravel.A small portion of the nematode colony is simply introduced into the water. but once every month or two is sufficient. not too cold) with or without the organic fertilizer. nutrient and additives. wick and various other passive systems. Hydro Power Hydroponic medium is any sterile medium that will hold some water. but they are much less common. the nematodes do their thing by multiplying and consuming the things detrimental to the plant. rockwool. Hydroponic systems are famous for producing the largest amount of foliage and fruit. Also.
Under the shell is a thin sheath that may also need coaxing to get off. practice is the best guide for this skill. I would also like to point out that though this phenomenon is rare. Shelled sprouts I've found that these rare anomalies need help in shedding their shell or sheath in order to survive. especially if breeding is intended with the sprouts. eventually causing its death if not properly dealt with. Roots and planting pots At first.Sprouting and planting by DJ Short (24 Aug. Keep the pad wet and the seeds will usually sprout in one to ten days. The seeds will sprout. They will each need five or more drainage holes to be added to their bottom. I like to wait for the root to grow an inch or two before transplanting the sprouts to soil (while keeping the paper towel pad continuously moist with water until this time). and it transplants fine. One more bit of advice concerns certain seeds which do not want to release from their shell. I have found the common turkey-baster to be of great value for this purpose. the heat will also increase mold. So it is worth the effort. So keep a watchful eye open in a warmer situation. so be patient!) I have found the ideal temperature for sprouting most seeds to be around average room temperature (70-78�F or 21-25�C) . . I like to bury them right up to the head of the plant so the head is right at the soil level. (On some occasions I've had seeds take up to two weeks to sprout. The shell seems to harden on the head of the sprout. It takes a very gentle yet firm hand to remove the shell without damaging or killing the plant. the sprout will grow root. fungus and bacteria levels. Take six sheets of white (nonprinted) paper towel and fold them to a roughly five by six inch square (about 24 layers thick). When I do set the sprouts to soil. Stacking ten to twenty cups at a time will hasten this process. 2000) How to turn your seeds into healthy young plants Sprouting the seeds My preferred method of seed sprouting is the wet paper towel method. Again. However the seed shell does not come off of the sprout on its own. These cups can be bought cheaply in bulk amounts at any discount or grocery store. It is important to gently water and feed the sprouts from this point on so as not to disturb the new roots too much. A great substitute for planting pots are the sixteen to twenty-four ounce disposable plastic drink cups. The method of planting into soil that I use is very basic and simple to understand. this can easily be done with an electric drill and a quarter to a three-eights inch drill bit. two to four inch pots. with twelve layers both above and below. I like to use small.the plants that develop from these stubborn sprouts are usually very desirable. the seeds crack open along their seam and send out a white root. Though higher temperatures may hasten the sprouting time. Soak this square pad in pure water and place the seeds in the center fold.
the soil may be gently packed around the sprout stem to hold it firmly in place.The cup or pot is filled with the soil mix. there should be an adequate space between the top of the soil and the top of the cup or pot. Despite the fact that the soil is saturated to its maximum capacity. New roots will sprout and grow from the soil-covered stem in a week or two. Just prior to this saturation point. The baster is handy for the first few waterings. Into each hole more nutrient solution is added to fully soak the medium and prepare it for the sprout. Once the sprout is situated in its hole. Next. as deep as the sprout roots are long. Larger operations may require some kind of pump and tubing device to aid in the watering. this first watering helps stabilize the root in the soil. it's time to begin the planting process. The common turkey-baster is once again the best tool available to evenly soak all of the cups or pots. using the chopstick if necessary. In other words. This step also promotes and stimulates adequate root growth. Take one sprout at a time from the paper towel. into the middle of the soil. In one to two weeks. This is to allow for more soil to be added later as the main stem grows. Carefully guide the root tip all the way down the hole. If the grow flat and all of the pots are relatively clean. usually a high nitrogen variety for sprouts. It is also important not to leave any standing water in the grow flat. handling it as gently as possible by the stem just below the sprout head. The soil level should end up to be two-thirds to three quarter of the cup or pot capacity. Once the sprouts are adequately set in the moisture-saturated soil. and the soil is gently yet thoroughly tapped and shaken down to fill all vacant spaces equally. J root may be fatal to the sprout. then any excess solution may be re-used until all of the soil is at its fullest saturation point. This tip helps deal with the problem of spindly plants by giving them more base support during their early development. I'll fill the appropriate sized bucket or container with the water/nutrient mix. This again is gently and carefully done using the turkey baster (or whatever gentle watering device is available) as a watering tool. pre-made hole in the soil. to help hasten its dry time. and transfer it to the moist. Once the soil is sufficiently tapped down to at least two-thirds full. Hydro sprouting . Once the entire flat is ready. Grow flats and turkey basters I'll put anywhere from one to two dozen cups or pots per standard grow flat (or tray). the root is running down the hole and the sprout head is above and as near to the soil level as possible. Be certain that the root tip is pointing down and not curved up in what is called a J root. it is time to moisten it. Water and soil Next. I like to use a standard chopstick to poke a hole. The turkey baster is also useful for sucking the excess water from the bottom of the grow flat. they will not need watering again until after the soil dries a little. It is after this time that more soil may be added to help give the sprout more stability and root room. the healthy sprouts will stretch and grow up over the top of the cup or pot. the sprouts will need to be watered. when a gentle touch is still beneficial.
Hydroponic sprouting is as simple as placing a seed in a rockwool cube or fiber pellet and keeping it moist. new medium. Special care needs to be taken when transplanting into larger containers to avoid as much trauma as possible. I like to gently shake the soil fully into place and level the soil top by hand. When the white root wad is becoming entwined. Hydro transplanting is also quite simple. As with the original planting. The medium in the larger container should be saturated to its maximum density with nutrient-rich water. The semidry rootwad is placed firmly into the saturated fresh medium. the fresh medium will cover the old soil level by a bit. it is time to transplant. Happy growing! . growing among itself and beginning to turn brown. and accompanying growth will develop in the plant. a day or two before a usual watering. weak stemmed plants up. The pellet is placed in a larger rockwool cube or gravel medium and the roots grow quickly into the new material. semi-moist medium. New roots will quickly and eagerly find their way into the fresh. and the rest of the space in the larger pot is filled with fresh. and the loose soil is gently packed into place throughout. Ideally. Tying the plants up to stakes will be the only way to deal with stretched or spindly growth in the hydroponic system. Hydro systems often need extra supports. Transplant time Transplanting becomes necessary when the roots outgrow the medium. the fresh transplant is completely watered to its saturation point. This is evident by checking one or two of the average plants roots. such as stakes or poles to hold the top-heavy. I like to transplant when the root system is semi-dry. The seeds will sprout and root automatically in this porous and nutrient-rich medium.
you may consider dropping temperature down to 17-19�C for the final week or two. The temperature technique is most effective under a 12/12 light regime. and 22�C when the lights are off. etc). long internodes long internodes As floral development begins we need to keep in mind that the total size of your buds is determined largely by average daily temperature. provided it does not exceed optimal. the greater your internode length will be. but a larger factor is the increased difference between day and night temperatures.Control your cannabis by DMT. This final temperature change is not always feasible and can be omitted. An ideal temperature range is 24-25�C when the lights are on. you are costing yourself in overall weight and harvest. your plants begin to stretch? Part of this problem may lie in an overall hotter grow-room. Ever notice how as the warmer summer months approach. There are several ways to reduce internodal length and thus grow denser. The opposite also holds true. as this is when the framework for future colas is built. When the light cycle is brought to 12/12 we will raise the night temperature to the daytime level of 24-25�C. as this is where the plant is happiest. Once your buds have reached optimal size and and you have begun the flushing period. This drop in temperature triggers anthocyanin production. Lets look at putting this to play in your grow room. more efficient buds. and max/min type thermometers are ideal for tracking temperatures. which intensifies the colour of the floral clusters and makes for a showier bud. Maximum temperatures should ideally never rise above 26�C. tight internodes tight internodes Temperature control The easiest and most under-used way to control internodal stretch is temperature control. use exhaust fans. the closer your day and night temperatures. Why waste light and electricity growing stem? Stretched-out plants are the bane of indoor growers. After this 2-3 week window we need to drop the night temperature back down to 22�C. making it a very important time to control temperature. 2000) Fine-tuning temperature and water for maximum quantity and quality. air conditioners. Plant internodal length is directly related to the difference between day and night temperatures � the warmer your day cycle is as compared to your night cycle. especially with "purple" varieties. which is ideal as this is when cannabis stretches the most. photos by Barge (25 Apr. . So if you are letting your day temperatures drop below 24�C or your night drop below 22�C. It is during the first 2-3 weeks of the flower cycle that most strains begin to lengthen internodes. the shorter your internodes will be. Space heaters on timers work well for this. so you must do everything you can to prevent your room getting too hot (run lights at night.
Some things you will notice while using this technique are a change in the leaf angle. In order for this to work there must be a larger concentration of fertilizer salts in the plant's roots than in the soil or hydroponic solution. and in order to do this it requires water. you will see the internode length stretch dramatically compared to the ones on a regular fertilizer regime. Try growing one of your plants using straight water for a week or so. Slowly raise your EC during veg stage. it is usually called "six pack formula". magnesium sulphate 5 grams. Both the amount of water you give your plants and the EC at which you grow them control the uptake of water. but different strains have different preferences. so when the medium's level of salt rises above the roots'. or against you by limiting bud growth. I would not recommend going above 3 or 4 EC.02 grams. micromix . By allowing the EC to drop below ideal during this stage we are wasting valuable space growing stem instead of bud. as even a zero difference between night and day temperatures will lead to leaf chlorosis (yellowing) after 2-3 weeks. Most marijuana strains are happiest when grown at an EC of between 1. During the vegetative stage we want our plants to form very tight internodes. the electrical conductivity (EC) and moisture of your medium are two key elements that should be manipulated to meet your needs.For extreme height control you may even use warmer night temperature than day. the ability of a plant to uptake water and nutrients from the growth medium.8. This can work for you by keeping your internodes close together.095 grams. Raising the salt level in the medium closer to that which is in the roots limits the water availability just the same as if we had provided less water. Both of these factors are controlling the same thing. potassium nitrate 0. Neither of these symptoms is nutrient related and will fix themselves when the temperature is changed back. examples of long internodes (closeup) examples of long internodes (closeup) Hydroponic tomato growers sometimes will grow their transplants at extremely high EC's (up to 6 EC!) in order to get really nice stocky production plants. upwards during warm days and downwards during warm nights. the plant will wilt.5 and 1. All of these ingredients should be available at your local hydroponics store. especially under artificial lighting. (Try this formula if you're interested: calcium nitrate 7 grams. potassium sulphate 9. most of which have potassium to nitrogen ratios of 4:1. much higher than normal. as too much nitrate at this high an EC will easily damage a plant. Be sure to bring your EC back down once you enter floral stage. Please note that when doing this they use special nutrient formulas designed for this purpose. A plant's roots act much like a pump.2 gram. but be very careful when running settings like this.) A plant grows by first dividing cells then expanding them. There is also the chlorosis if this is done for too long. using osmotic pressure to move water into the plant. mono potassium phosphate 2. This is experimental! Do not try on all of your plants at once until you are sure your strain can handle it. By limiting the amount of water available to a plant you limit the expansion of cells. leaf chlorosis (yellowing) leaf chlorosis (yellowing) Moisture and conductivity Whether you're growing hydro or in soil.25 grams. by the time . (EC measures the level of fertilizer salts in the water.
Control your cannabis! . (Unless of course you are using the high EC method described above. as will having too high an EC in the medium. while in soil we may also use the moisture level of the medium to the same ends. as the sudden change in salt level will harm the roots. It is not feasible in soil to maintain an exact EC at all times.5-1.) Maintain this level of moisture into the first 14 to 20 days of 12/12 to minimize internode stretch. In these times of government oppression we must make the most efficient use of available growing space in order to produce the copious amounts of cannabis necessary to overflow the boundaries placed upon us. Growing marijuana too dry during this stage will adversely affect your overall yield. the only way of manipulating water availability is with the EC. This also goes during your final flushing period when you want to eliminate all fertilizer from the medium � lower the EC over a couple of days. Many growers are under the mistaken impression that the EC and pH of their nutrient solution remains the same when applied to the soil. A frequent mistake marijuana growers make is over-emphasizing the need for a plant grown in soil to dry out completely between waterings. Once the time is up take an EC reading and multiply this number by 2. Keep in mind that if the soil has an EC of 1. This in not the case. what we need to try and avoid is EC's climbing much above what we want and plants going for long periods with very low EC's. in this case you must not let your soil get too dry because of the increased fertilizer level you will create. and you must test the soil in order to have a true picture. examples of tight internodes (closeup) examples of tight internodes (closeup) To test your soil.) Try not to change the EC too quickly as a sharp drop can cause root damage.tufts of pistils are visible you want to be at your ideal EC of 1. As a general rule. When growing hydroponically.4 (this takes into account the dilution and the pore space factor) this will give you an accurate picture of the EC the roots are actually being exposed to. Cannabis does like dry feet but this simply means that the root zone must not be kept extremely wet at all times.8 and then dries out completely the amount of salt remains the same. Mix the soil with 2 equal parts distilled water and let sit for 20 minutes. during the vegetative stage you should keep your plants a little on the drier side as this will restrict cell elongation. As soon as early flowering begins you need to increase soil moisture to a nice evenly moist (not soaked) level to maximize bud expansion. creating a shorter noded plant structure capable of creating a dense bud cluster in the floral stage. take a sample from the center of the root zone at the side of the pot (don't worry the torn roots will be fine). causing the EC to double or more.8. The pH should also be checked at this time.
but it does require a care and attention to learn the needs of your plants. the reservoirs usually need to be topped off regularly.Feed your head-stash by DJ Short (27 Oct. Passive hydro systems allow the roots of the plant to reach the reservoir. and it will go fine. is of utmost importance. along with other pests such as mold. it needs water. are the trickiest to learn to deal with. eliminating the need for watering altogether. It doesn't involve mysticism by any means. but a timer and pump will eliminate the need. Depending on the "mix" of your soil. A lighter soil is generally more perlite or vermiculite. but learning to zero in on the optimum times to feed and water is dependent on this simple fact. Different needs will present themselves in regard to feeding and watering times. heat and ventilation in the room. This can be done by the disciplined hand. This is to help eliminate the nemesis to all hydro systems: algae. then you have the optimum mix. This mix seems to be the . Algae can clog hydroponic medium and its tubing. Regard the process as an ongoing education. Better still is to take the necessary precautions to insure that they don't begin. depending on the amount and type of medium. the size of the plants. When the root medium is heavy with moisture. it may be heavy or light. Algae. Hydro systems Hydroponic systems are usually automated and should have the simplest schedule to satisfy. In both types of hydro systems. and the nutrient solution will need to be changed at least once every two to three weeks. Different brands have different ingredients (and even the same brand may have different ingredients at different times). the amount of light. As with any other aspect of this industry. especially organic varieties. and therefore releases its moisture quicker. where equal parts of perlite and coarse cut sphagnum moss make up about 70% of the overall mix. One of the simplest ways to increase the quantity of your harvest while maintaining quality is knowing the right times to water and feed. The optimum mix Soil mediums. it doesn't. Learning to condition the soil you are working with is the first step to success. and other factors such as humidity and air pressure. and close attention to them. 2000) Food and water are two critical components to a successful garden. are capable of blocking the aerobic quality of the hydro medium and suffocating the plant via its roots. When the plant is dry and thirsty. hands-on contact with the plants. Heavy soil is generally more moss than perlite and holds water longer. The difficulty is the many variables related to the problem. If you use the basic soil mix I recommend. These problems must be addressed immediately upon finding them. This may seem obvious. how recently they were planted or transplanted. fungus and bacteria. Active hydro systems merely need the nutrient solution passed over the medium three or four times a day.
I've seen wilted plants revived within twenty minutes when relieved of their thirst. Plant containers may be placed directly in the pool and watered all at once. It takes the plants anywhere from an hour to a few hours to soak up all of the moisture that they need. I cannot . Therefore. but because it serves the nutrient and solution to the outside-bottom of the medium container. a basic wood frame is constructed to the exact size of the desired pool on top of the Styrofoam. lay out a layer of 2-inch thick Styrofoam insulation panels larger than the intended pool. the garden needs to be checked a few hours after watering to see if the plants need more. or 16 to 24 ounce cups) may need watering as often as daily. but this causes much more tedium during watering. of the medium container. from large to small and of varying styles and sturdiness. This is done by physically lifting the plant container and judging its weight. If a plant does happen to wilt due to drying out. There are a number of trays. Finally. First. Dry weight Vegetating plants in small containers (two to four inch pots. I call this tip the bottom feeder method. The trick is in realizing when the plant is going to wilt. The plant will suck its bucket of medium dry and then begin to wilt. Not merely because the method was perfected in a white-trash trailer park. Plants in larger containers (2 gallon and up) may go anywhere from three to six days between watering. Bottom feeding After getting the soil mix down and learning the right watering time by the dryness. check the weight of its bucket to see what too far is.perfect blend for a regulated watering schedule. Some may hold a dozen small plants while others may hold twenty or thirty large plants. An entire grow room may be water-proofed as well. Next. or if the excess solution needs to be removed from the pool. wilting can also contribute to stunting. available on the market these days. Please note that although this method allows the greatest ease of watering a large number of plants. We want to avoid wilting as much as possible. a swimming pool liner or landscaping pond liner is laid over the area and over the edges of the wood frame. there is one more important tip to best maintain the proper watering schedule for your plants. The nutrient solution is then dumped or pumped right into the tray. it would be nearly impossible to judge exactly how much water these plants would consume in any given watering. However. This method requires that the buckets be placed within the confines of a watertight container. and watering it the day prior. Only experience can reveal what exactly the weight of the dry pot is. but a minor wilt is by no means fatal to the plant. watering many plants at once. Individual mini-trays may be used for each individual container. The solution is then sucked up by the roots through the holes in the bottom of the buckets. Less is more The main focus of feeding should be the concentration and mix of fertilizers in the solution. such as a solid grow tray or a kiddie pool. after being fitted to the space. or weight. others may be fine for a couple of days.
So once the right soil mix is obtained then water alone will suffice. All in all. There are organic soil additives on the market that eliminate the need for any extra fertilizer additives in the water. it may be necessary to dilute the concentration with pure water. If signs of overfertilization appear. The stems may stretch and turn dark. That is. . The plants should look like they are thriving if they are properly fed.emphasize enough that "less is more" when it comes to fertilizing plants. the last few weeks of pure water flushes). with unnatural looking colors from bright yellow to dusty brown. of course. and see if the situation improves. If two or more nitrogen fertilizers are used during the same feeding. healthy glow. but this same logic should be applied to phosphorous and potassium concentrations as well. When the fertilizer concentration is low enough. Many of these fertilizer additives are made up of harsh petrochemicals. however. Fossilized bat and bird guano come in a powder form. This is especially true if one is mixing different nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen is the most commonly abused fertilizer additive. stunting growth. Too much fertilizer. small. is liable to ruin the entire crop. It is generally recommended to use less fertilizer than the instructions call for. If too little fertilizer is used the only problem will be a slightly smaller yield. an overfertilized plant will look unhealthy and deeply in need. but overfertilized plants may look burned or splotchy. Plants grown using this method produce some of the most outstanding flavors and desirable palate and head. then fertilizer may be added during each watering (except. Most fertilizer companies print their maximum allowed amounts for mixing. The leaves should stretch up and out to receive the light. For one or two waterings flush the plants with water only. at worst. I like to use half of what the directions call for. Most indoor plants do not remain in the same container for any longer than two months. while pure worm castings are like a very rich manure. The best organic substances I've found are bat and seabird guano and pure worm castings. if two nitrogen fertilizers are mixed together during one feeding. or water with a B-vitamin supplement to help the plant best metabolize the nutrients available to it. Underfertilized plants will merely be slow or. The leaves may become curled. Their color should be bright and consistent with a shiny. then even a smaller ratio of each is needed. New growth should be obvious daily. then only a quarter the recommended amount of each is needed to make the final concentration truly half strength. and the old growth should last as long as possible. or they may harden and solidify. Both may be added to soil to enhance its nutrient level.
Generally speaking. (Note that this early-harvested bud can . The usual reason to re-green is to continue the existence of a highly desirable plant.Re-green your garden by DJ Short (25 Apr. these non-photo-receptive varieties are difficult. The re-green technique is most useful in determining which of your desirable plants are the most photoreceptive. Although useful for guerrilla outdoor gardening when you want the plants to mature early. 2000) Rejuvinating plants will bring back your best buds. Once the plant has "proven itself worthy" of re-greening. if not impossible. An important process to be learned by the serious pot horticulturist is the revitalization of a budded and mature plant back to its vegetative state. intact branch and leaf nodes. That is. Less photo-receptive strains become "stuck" in their bud or flower cycle. If a plant is more photo-receptive and easily re-vegetates. Sometimes all that is left at the bottom of the plant are buds. to re-green. Although sometimes this doesn't happen or the clone attempt may fail. This is very important information for anyone seriously interested in breeding plants. meaning that they will respond more readily to changes in light-cycle timing. The catch here is that it will take a certain amount of time in order to determine the desirability of a given plant. Doing the re-green The only preparation for the re-green process is to be sure to leave a few of the lower branch and leaf nodes of the plant intact during harvesting. By desirability I am referring to the overall quality of the finished product � how good does it taste? Look? Smell? Feel? How good is the finished product? Once a plant has declared its overall finished product desirability. Photo-receptivity refers to the way in which a plant is destined to respond to a light schedule. It is the more photo-receptive strains that we want to focus on when attempting the re-green method. However. One of the main tricks to the re-green method is to begin the process as early as possible. So the re-green method is capable of helping to determine which of your potential breeding and cloning stock will be the most productive. This is fine. then it will more than likely clone well and grow more vigorously than one that does not. However. most Indica varieties will almost fully express their desirability by the sixth week in the flowering cycle indoors (11 to 13 hours of light per 24 hours). but the lower branches and nodes are left for the new growth to (hopefully) rejuvenate from. the plant is harvested. the wise pharmer will clone all potentially desirable plants while they are in the veggie stage. this isn't really why you should be using the re-green method. simply leave the lowest healthy looking set of buds and harvest all above that point. many Sativas may take up to nine or more weeks in the flowering cycle indoors to fully express their individual desirability. it is time to begin the process. it is removed from the bud room and harvested down to above the lower. Some strains are more photo-receptive than others. while extremely non-photoreceptive plants will flower regardless of light cycle. even when constantly under light. This technique is called the "re-green" method.
This stage consists of nurturing the fresh growth and eventually pruning away the old growth. buds and/or branches need to be as close to the fluorescent bulb as possible without touching the bulb. leaves. The more leaflets-per-leaf that can be coaxed from the plant before cloning. while others may take a month or more to show new growth. Extra care needs to be practiced as these new shoots may be very delicate and fragile. The regreener plant is kept on a high nitrogen fertilizer all the way through this process. the old and matured bud and leaf material are cleared and trimmed from around it. A "surgeon's hand" with a pair of precision scissors is most definitely an advantage at this stage. the less desirable and slower re-greener plants will need to be thinned out accordingly. By the time the plant is back to showing at least five leaflets-per-leaf. low potassium and phosphorous fertilizer is required to inspire fresh growth. then transplanting to a larger pot may be in order. whereas most Indica will never have more than five or seven. In my opinion. the better. stretching beyond the bud or leaf node that contains it. If the plant was in a smaller container (two gallon or less) and is showing signs of root bind. As the new shoots develop. I have seen some plants declare rejuvenation within a couple of days.provide an excellent and somewhat rare finished product that usually exhibits a more "head" or "psychedelic" experience. Either way. and the leaflet-per-leaf ratio increases as the new leaf sets present themselves. During the successful re-green process this factor reverses itself. There is however. A healthy vegetive plant may have seven. root bind.) As the plant matures through the flowering cycle. the re-green shoots will probably be ready for . from one to three to five and so on. As space demands increase. Sativa plants are capable of producing more leaflets-per-leaf than Indica. it is time for the next stage in the process. another criteria that helps to fully determine a given plant's photoreceptivity � its ability to fully return to a vegetive stage. As in the veggie cycle. Some Sativa may have leaves with as many as 13 or more leaflets-per-leaf. In time the new shoots will grow to dominate the remaining plant. per leaf decrease in number. then the same container may work fine. Experienced pharmers know that as a plant matures through its flowering cycle the number of leaflets. or near. Others will never rejuvenate at all. the faster and more completely a plant expresses this process. the new growth will sprout from within one of the leftover nodes. or "fingers". The remaining nodes. (As a general rule of thumb. the number of leaflets-per-leaf decreases from nine to seven to five to three and finally to one leaflet per leaf on the fully mature plant. a high nitrogen. the plant is not considered rejuvenated until at least five leaflets per leaf are apparent. the more photoreceptive it is. branches or buds. the next consideration involves increasing the plant's nitrogen uptake. eleven or more leaflets-per-leaf. Once the highly desirable candidate plant has declared its re-green ability by sending out fresh green growth. But if the plant's container is large enough and the plant does not appear to be suffering from. consisting of fluorescent lights set for a vegetative cycle (18 or more hours of light per 24 hours). nine. If the candidate plant is going to rejuvenate. All attention is focused on the fresh growth making certain that this growth has the best access to the light. More fingers Generally speaking. worthy of connoisseur appreciation!) The remaining stump with a few nodes attached will need to be moved to a separate space. Usually the dictates of space will determine how long one will want to attempt the process for each individual plant.
most highly photoreceptive plants make excellent clone-producing mothers. may be maintained to act as a clone producer. As with so many other aspects of this hobby. the plants will yield their superior productivity.cloning. it is time to consider cloning of the shoots. Once a shoot is satisfactory for cutting. or any of its rooted clones. and leave enough rejuvenated material on the regreened "mother" to continue growth (and keep the mother alive). As long as the proper conditions for the plants' health are maintained. At this point it is important that the shoot or shoots be developed enough to both produce a successful clone. Cloning the shoots Once the rejuvenated plant has produced adequate shoots that have successfully returned to a vegetive state. . The "mother" plant. Generally speaking. any standard or desired cloning procedure will work. due to their productive ability. patience is indeed a virtue. for that matter. To satisfy both of these ends it is always best to wait until the re-green shoots are large and healthy enough. or may be returned to the bud room to flower again.
while common house fans move the air up. happy plants. Squirrel Cage and House Fans There are many different types of fans and air movers available on the market. The Perfect Temperature Though sense of feel is adequate to gauge the "perfect climate" for a given plant. I usually employ several thermometers in different areas in and around the grow room. there is no real substitute for a thermometer and humidity gauge.Let them breathe! by DJ Short. Still. Proper aeration of organic based soils is crucial in high temp/humidity areas. some rooms build up sufficient heat to require a separate circulating fan. one can figure out the right solution. And only above the root level. focussed specifically on the root systems. A soil thermometer may be a wise investment. The fact that warm air rises and cool air sinks works to our advantage in this case. in very small spaces. Roots and Aeration The main area of concern involving temperature are the roots of the plants. This practice becomes especially necessary when working with lights over 400 watts. the plants end up under the larger lights by the flowering cycle. Peaks of 38�C (100�F) are allowable for most strains. or fans. . the roots should be kept at as constant a temperature below 21�C and above 10�C (70-50�F) as possible. and so they're usually large enough to help shade and cool their root areas. Most fans can be purchased at the average home improvement store. Careful planning will help avoid costly mistakes. The perfect temperature would be somewhere between 24-29�C (75-85�F). photos by Jorge Cervantes (01 Jul. cool air drops" rule. store the reservoir outside of or below the grow room. but not for any longer than a half hour or so. are the tips here � add more to the soil if need be. squirrel-cage fans move air either in and/or out of the room. In hydroponic systems make sure that the nutrient water temp is below 21�C (70�F). Ideally. If necessary. or if the humidity gets too high. Also. down and around the room. Both come in a seeming endless variety of shapes and sizes. any time the temperature exceeds 32�C (90�F). 1998) Proper ventilation and air circulation are essential to growing healthy. There are also neat little "muffin" fans that can be used for many things such as light-hood venting and passive ventilation systems. air circulation and temperature control. Thermometers are cheap and accurate enough for our purposes. Somewhere between 32-35�C (90-95�F) is the absolute highest room temperature your plants would care to tolerate. An important aspect to consider when growing plants indoors is proper ventilation. Proper research and smart shopping will net the best purchases. The two most common types of fan are the squirrel-cage and what I call the "common house fan" (box or oscillating fans). Perlite and vermiculite. Generally speaking. Using the "hot air rises.
A thermostat. Automation The ideal ventilation system utilizes automation in the form of thermostats and regulators. .A passive ventilation system is one that moves air either in out of room (not both). dry air outside of the grow room. Home improvement centres carry a large array of various types and styles of airmoving fans. as with the common household thermostat. The most common being the box and the oscillating. a sensor would turn on the fans on at around 30�C (86�F). most fans move a little less than their rated CFM due to intake resistance or a dirty fan cage. That is. This method is what is used to stimulate the passive intake of cool air with vent holes cut in the floor or lower walls to access the cooler areas outside of the room. Potentiometers. could be installed in the power line of the larger fans to adjust the fan speed. Choosing the correct squirrel-cage fan is part of the trick to success. blowing out. Measuring Air Movement Squrrel cage fans are rated by their volume of air movement in cubic feet per minute or CFM. pointing at any angle up. A well-stocked. would cause the fans to turn on at a certain temp. depending on the innovation and imagination of the user. Experimentation will yield the most efficient uses for these devices. to help circulate the cooler air up and around the plants. There are wall-mounted styles available as well. The room is not sealed and so air exchange is allowed free movement from inside and outside the room. A room that is eight by ten feet and eight feet tall holds 8 X 10 X 8. Squirrel Cages The squirrel-cage fan is the most popular fan for moving large volumes of air into or out of a room or rooms. Oscillating fans are perhaps the most efficient devices for circulating air in a room. It is a simple step further in this type of system to add an oscillating fan or two on the floor. They can be used in a variety of ways. Box and Oscillating Common summer house fans also come in a wide array of types and sizes. This will help move the hot air out. The gentle back and forth sway of the fan is very beneficial for the developing plants. These fans tend to keep anaerobic molds down by constantly freshening any potentially stagnant air. and turn off at another. some relatively inexpensive. high-tech grow shop will have several types of thermostats available in a variety of systems. and turn them off if the temperature dropped below 21�C (70�F). This is the simplest of vent systems and works quite well. A fan with a rating of 100 CFM is able to move 100 cubic feet of air per minute. Box fans are self explanatory. or 640 cubic feet of air. This would give further aid in the specific control of air volume and ventilation. Therefore. or a "volume control". up high.4 minutes to fully circulate the air in that room. Other hardware such as dryer-vent tubing or muffin fans may be used to best access the cool. Generally speaking. Bigger fans usually will work more efficiently. it would take an optimally running 100 CFM fan 6. A common placement for this fan is inside of the room.
A warning needs to be expressed concerning the cheaper, discount-store, oscillating fans (or any cheap fan for that matter) that have a tendency to burn out after a period of time. Some of these products are potentially dangerous if left plugged in and turned on after they burn out. Therefore, it is a wise idea to check one's fans (and all electric devices and equipment for that matter) on a regular basis as often as possible. Noise Concerns Another fan consideration is noise. Some fans, especially the squirrel cage, may be a bit too noisy for a given situation. There are higher quality fans available that do run more quietly � expect to pay more, of course. It also helps to mount the fan directly to a main stud or support, by at least two of its support holes, and preferably more. Rubber dampers and gaskets can be easily made and used on the support holes or around the overall mounting surface. Keep the fan's bearings sufficiently lubricated as well. High Humidity Humidity is another factor that influences the overall quality and quantity of a crop. Generally speaking, high humidity (over 80 or 90%) is bad. It inhibits plant transpiration and ultimately stunts growth. Mold and fungus love high humidity as well. Note that warmer air holds more moisture than cooler air. There are a few simple practices to help reduce humidity. First and foremost, keep the room as dry as possible. When watering, use just as much as the plants need. Pump, siphon or mop up any remaining water and remove it from the room. Keeping the room clean also helps. Moisture likes to hide and store itself in material such as dead leaves, spilled dirt or any garbage. Therefore, keeping the room clean and free of debris will help keep moisture and organisms such as mold, fungus and bacteria down. Temperature and moisture levels directly affect the plant's ability to metabolize nutrients and supplements such as fertilizer and carbon dioxide. If these practices fail to lower humidity enough, the only solution may be a de-humidifier. However, de-humidifiers are expensive, consume a large amount of electricity and produce heat. These factors will need to be considered in choosing whether or not to employ one. Ventilation and Circulation are Essential Proper ventilation and air circulation are essential to maintaining a healthy indoor grow environment. The basic rule of thumb is to move the warm, moist air out and to move the cool, dry air in and around the plants and their roots. Many various types of fans and devices are available to achieve this goal. Careful planning, basic research and smart shopping will acquire all that one needs to keep it cool and dry, and experimentation will fine tune the system to provide the most perfect indoor environment possible.
DJ Short is the breeder of the famed Flo and Blueberry strains. He welcomes feedback and questions, especially relating to the cultivation of those varieties. He can be contacted through Cannabis Culture.
CO2 for you by DJ Short (27 Dec, 2000) Carbon Dioxide is an excellent way to increase your bud bounty. Carbon dioxide (CO2) generators are perhaps the single most powerful increasers of plant production. During the daylight hours plants breathe in and use CO2 much the same way we animals metabolize oxygen. By adding CO2 to the air of the grow room we are capable of greatly stimulating plant growth and vigor. Overexposure to CO2 by humans is very capable of proving fatal. Therefore, also remember that monitoring of the air with a CO2 or gas detection device is mandatory when using a commercial CO2 distribution system. There are two main types of commercial CO2 delivery systems, bottled and propane generators. Bottled CO2 The bottled CO2 system delivers pure CO2 via a tank that is rented or bought and refilled when empty at any bottled gas distributor or grow shop. The purchases of a regulator and tubing, along with a specialized timer, are necessary to complete the system. The timer opens the regulator to dispense the gas that is delivered to the room among the plants via the tubing (or whatever duct system is chosen for its delivery). The timer usually is on for brief periods of a few seconds per minute, hence the need for the specialized timer. The bottled systems are relatively efficient and once set up, easy to use. When used in conjunction with some kind of CO2 metering device, to monitor the amount of CO2 in the air, the system is relatively safe. The main drawback is having to deal with filling the heavy, bulky tank when needed. The initial expense is a bit of a sticker shock as well. Propane generator Propane generators of CO2 have been gaining popularity since their introduction to the industry some time ago. Bottled propane is connected to a device that burns the gas, slowly and evenly, to produce CO2. The device is usually a box that will hang in the room and is connected to the propane bottle via the appropriate tubing and coupling. It is possible to time and regulate most propane generators to efficiently produce CO2 gas when needed. These devices are usually much simpler and less expensive than the bottled CO2 systems. Propane is also easily available in most places. There are, however, a few dangers to the propane generator that need to be addressed. First of all, the device utilizes a small flame for CO2 production. Special care needs to be taken whenever dealing with fire, and necessary precautions including location of the device need to be made prior to operation. second, this flame will produce some heat and humidity. The humidity is in the form of water vapor, the other by-product of the process. Proper venting and air circulation will help minimize these factors. As with the bottled system, monitoring the amount of CO2 in the air will be necessary to regulate the proper and safe amount of the gas delivered to the room. Air circulation
�growstores� selling the devices offer plenty of advice and/or literature pertaining to the specifics of their products. It is also very inexpensive to configure and maintain. the device will slowly produce CO2 as long as there is enough sugar in the mix and the yeast stays active. All such appliances produce CO2. via some form of tube or duct or by hanging the propane generator up high. blowing into the room. Mix until the sugar is dissolved and add a little bit of active yeast. This way the gas passes by the leaves of the plants on its way down. There are a number of books and manuals on the market today that deal with the specifics and �how to�s� of carbon dioxide production for commercial (and home) use. If the appliance (furnace. Finally. allowing them to absorb as much as possible. the shaking of the contents will produce a gaseous eruption through the hole in the lid. deadly poisonous! It is merely a question of how to get the CO2 gas from the appliance to the grow room. too much CO2 around the roots may actually suffocate the plants. Small and simple For those of you running smaller systems such as cupboard. any form of brewing (beer production) or fermenting (wine making) produces CO2. the more surges of CO2 that will erupt into the room. CO2 is heavier than air) to the grow room will suffice. as well. Poke a small hole in the lid and replace it on top of the jug. Also. Therefore.Because CO2 is a gas that is heavier than air. sugar and yeast mixed together in a jug. Put about five or six cups of sugar in a clean one-gallon plastic jug. the more times the jug is shaken. A muffin fan placed on the room end of the tube. Recycled CO2 A source of recycled CO2 may be found in any natural gas or propane appliance. shake the jug to thoroughly mix the contents. etc. The mix will need to be changed or refreshed every two to three weeks. especially those with a pilot light. In a day or two the yeast will begin to grow and CO2 gas will be a by-product in the jug. when properly functioning. Generally speaking it is best to introduce the gas up higher in the room. yellow flame = CO or carbon monoxide. or as often as possible. I highly recommend that one research thoroughly before one purchases and uses a system. On its own. a word needs to be said about the delivery system and air circulation in the room. The roots of the plants DO NOT like CO2. Once the yeast begins to grow. I have found this system to be more than adequate and perfectly safe for smaller grow spaces (twenty square feet or less). CO2 production for larger scale operations requires a certain amount of knowledge unobtainable by any other means than an education. hot water heater. closet or �box� systems.) is anywhere near the grow room. Remember. I like to use one-gallon plastic jugs due to their size and availability. bottle or jar. Once a day. stove. A simple rule of thumb is: blue flame = CO2 or what we want. So be wary of these facts and circulate the air well. To this add about a half gallon of water. would efficiently move the gas. then a simple duct system of dryer vent tubing running from the bottom of the appliance (remember. that is. . there is a simple CO2 system that is easy to make and use. Oscillating fans placed on the floor with their fan pointing up (or any upward movement of air from the floor) is also recommended to best circulate the CO2 among the leaves of the plants. The daily shaking stimulates the mix to produce a surge of CO2 gas. In fact. Therefore. So a home brew kit or home wine making system could also be used to add CO2 gas to the grow room air. This system uses water.
Remember to be very careful not to overdo the CO2 and let the gas fill your house. CO2 can be a safe and easy way to increase the yield of your garden. . If this happens then it could suffocate you in your sleep! But properly used.
decreases potency. I don't disagree. therefore. and the greater potency of the product. Simply put." or what the Europeans like to call "bio" methods of production. but to have saved and grown their seeds. the main focus of the hydroponic industry is that of production. I cannot emphasize enough the fact that it takes the purest of environments to grow the purest of herbs. there are situations where a hydroponic system may be superior to an organic one. There are those in the hydroponic industry who will argue that certain hydroponic methods are nearly organic and very productive. Granted. Potency ratios I have found that generally the potency of a given variety of cannabis has to do with the ratio of glandular secreted resins. This means that only pure water. the more one decreases this ratio and. Blue Velvet and Flo. This will only slightly decrease production. this ratio must be maintained. I have had the fortunate opportunity to not merely sample many of the great cannabis strains. The last time I used any seed stock outside of my own was in 1982. Bio vs Hydro The purpose of this article is to help guide you in understanding the basic needs of these and other fragrant varieties. be given to the plant for two weeks prior to harvest. while greatly increasing the quality of the finished product. delicious pot on the planet. (as opposed to chemical and most hydroponic methods). are an excellent place to start. and how to best maintain their uniqueness. or quantity. which have all come to me from various sources and locations throughout the years. A strong and pleasing odor is the dominant feature expressed in the True Fragrant varieties. with no additives or nutrients. as I am the goddess-father of these fine products. . A higher ratio of resin to fibre generally indicates the superior quality and chemical composition of the resin. Therefore. then the True Fragrant varieties of cannabis. or they simply don't care. 1999) If you want the most fragrant. It has been my experience that the more one increases the fibre production and overall size of a given plant. I speak from experience. especially when the grower wants only one crop and the absolutely highest yield. compared to the overall fibre production of the plant. such as Blueberry. If you want to grow some of the finest herb on the planet.Grow organic by DJ Short (29 Dec. use organic nutrients and flush your buds. The quality of the hydroponic product may be increased greatly by employing the simple "two week flush" method prior to harvest. I think that my breeding successes are primarily due to a very discerning palate and sense of smell. in order to maintain potency while increasing production. originality and quality. there is no real substitute for the complex relationship of plants and organic soil. However. But you must remember that subtle and subjective characteristics such as "fragrance" and "bouquet" are dependent upon their environment as much as their genetics. the fact is also that many people simply cannot tell the difference between hydro and organic products. whereas my focus is on quality. Sadly. I have had an excellent and productive relationship with the herb since my early teens in the very early 1970's. The key word to this understanding is "organic.
Thailand. It is during this time that absolutely NO additives. It is often too easy to treat these maladies with simple applications of toxic chemicals. Consult your local or favorite organic garden centre for more detail. Guerrero. highland and valley Colombia. and use sparingly. when we are allowed to properly produce herb in the great outdoors. If you feel you must use a commercial chemical product. Nepal. However. aspect to consider involves the last two to three weeks of the bud cycle � the last two to three weeks of the plant's life prior to harvest. it is not impossible. soil-born. we will once again see and experience some of the truly finest examples the planet has to offer. mold. I can honestly say from experience that all of the "True Fragrant" varieties are major producers when grown in their particular "sweet spot. There are now many specific products suited for the indoor organic gardener. and perhaps the most simple. There are also living organisms such as specific predator insects and nematodes. bat and bird guano. algae and bacteria are just a few of the organisms that can attack a crop and seriously weaken production. and water-born pests. grown near the 45th parallel in the Pacific Northwest. Never apply anything toxic to your plants once they're in the budding cycle. other than pure water. the product of the smaller plants still tended to be more desirable than the larger ones in the outdoor environment. varied strains. The outdoors is a complete and complex system. to name but a few." Blueberry and Flo have both reached 500 grams per plant. and a bit more difficult to solve the problem in a clean and organic way. the highland Michoacan. Selective inbreeding hardens the desirable characteristics and gives us specific. It is in these "sweet spots" that the most favorable and specifically desirable characteristics are acclimated phenotypical. Worms. parts of Afghanistan. Oaxaca and Chiapas regions of Mexico. This is especially important if you have been using chemical fertilizers. These "fine herbs" come from very specific geographic locations which I refer to as "sweet spots. Yet although properly providing and maintaining an organic environment indoors is truly a challenge to face. seaweed. These plants lost little of their overall appeal despite the increase in production. fungus. the islands of Hawaii. clean nutrients to the plant. . Flush your buds! The most important.This quality/quantity ratio is much less of a concern to the grower who is producing in the great outdoors. balanced by many various circumstances. I am very curious to see and experience exactly what our years and multi-generations of indoor breeding are going to produce when returned to these great outdoor "sweet spots. Another factor to consider is what to use as vitalizers and fertilizers. and the Hindu Kush. Someday. Airborne." Certain examples would be: The Northern Californian-Southern Oregon coastal regions. herbicides and fungicides) are synthesized from petrochemical by-products and are not truly natural products. Yet here are a variety of adequate organic pesticides and fungicides on the market today. be given to the plant. It is sometimes difficult enough to help provide and maintain the proper balances organically in an outdoor garden. multi-harvested between October 1 and November 7. green manures and most of their by-products are examples of substances that are naturally produced that provide plenty of good. try to find the least toxic one available for the purpose." Indoor organics Indoor environments are extremely limited in comparison to the great outdoors. The bulk of commercial fertilizers and vitalizers (along with most commercial pesticides. fish.
. As you may well already know.This is the time when the bulk of the final. Un-flushed pot leaves black ash. I like to remember it as the "rinse" and "flush" cycle. Pot which has been organically grown and properly flushed is more flavourful and fragrant. sometimes the joint will even sizzle and pop as unmetabolized fertilizer salts combust. it is very important to give the plant as much pure water as possible during this crucial period. It is during the final bud-building stage that most of these chemicals are produced. This is to purge unwanted impurities from the plant. Simply remember to give the plants only water for the last two to three weeks in order to rinse and flush them clean. Thus. is hard to keep lit and burns your throat. leaves grey ash. burns easily. there are over four hundred separate chemicals associated with cannabis and her effects. is easier on the throat and is much more pleasurable to smoke. "useable" part of the plant is produced. Pot that has been fertilized right up to harvest is harsh to smoke.
I have measured aeroponic plant growth against soil. buckets. with no medium in-between to hamper nutrient uptake or foster the growth of bacterial organisms. Aeroponic can get big buds out of small plants. making both feeding and curing more time-efficient and accurate. photos by Barge (01 Sept.Aeroponic Supersonic by Ashera Jones. Photo Jorge Cervantes Commercial Aeroflo operation. Photo Jorge Cervantes I first heard of aeroponics through a friend. soilless mix and hydroponic drip. by means of aeroponics and cooled lights. The presence of more oxygen also discourages bacterial and fungal growth. and hydroponics will deliver around 80% oxygen. When I learned that the roots just hang in the air and are misted by atomized water and nutrient particles. A dense soil may only deliver 30% oxygen to the roots. With aeroponics the sky is the limit. you literally receive 99% possible oxygen to the roots. this brings less police heat and so less stress for you. But is aeroponics really unnatural? Perhaps not. and the humming birds were the size of Robins. The 4 Elements of Aeroponic Gardening AIR In an aeroponic system. by nature. Aeroponic can get big buds out of small plants. and everything grew to an enormous size. while a soilless mix will deliver up to 50%. or with a bit of effort you can compose your own. One of the advantages with this system is that there is little to dispose of later. I thought "how unnatural. where the coral provided a natural aeroponics system. Aeroponics also allows nutrients to reach the roots directly. or anything that is sealed and opaque. the lights.There are kits and contraptions you can buy. nutrients and water are sprayed onto the roots in an atomized or mist form by a high-pressure pump. who told me of military experiments in growing enormous tomato plants indoors. You can grow aeroponically in tubes. This creates quickly-moving water which is capable of delivering more oxygen because it is well agitated. Be prepared for some watery catastrophes and have a wet and dry shop vacuum on hand. environment and electrical are all the same as a regular grow op. My aeroponic system reminds me of my visit to floating coral islands in the Bahamas. compact and abundant buds that will amaze you Commercial Aeroflo operation. is quick to respond to whatever nutrients you introduce into the system. The aeroponic ." Then I saw a system set up: it was so clean and efficient! I saw that this was a very effective nutrient and oxygen delivery system. 1998) Aeroponics creates dense. Make sure your floor is protected. The layout is important. Other than some basic plumbing supplies. like a waterfall. and low cost but reliable sump pump (otherwise known as a jet pump). The oranges were the size of grapefruits. The most effective root medium is the one which delivers the most oxygen to the roots. One which.
and give all the potential budding sites fair exposure. WATER . are necessary. I use a few strategically placed four-hundred watt lights. bushy.5 inches. but you can use 2 inch baskets for mature plants in an aeroponic system. The aeroponic garden prefers a lower nutrient solution of between 700-900 parts per million.8. which is also important. Personally.5 to 5. Healthy roots make happy plants and rapid growth. Healthy roots make happy plants and rapid growth. There are natural alternatives for the open minded that I will talk about later. A cool room temperature usually means a nice. plants in an aeroponic system fuel their growth with natural elements from the earth. My experience is that it has been easy to grow fat. I personally use the 3 inch size because I like to grow 3 foot bushes that become weighted with fat. The placement of plants in what is known as a "stadium" ensures that I get the lights right in there. and at the same time. But excess heat can bring fungus and bacteria. which vary in size. Nutrient uptake varies depending on the growth stage of your plants. and is about one-third faster than a hydroponic system. keeping them stable and standing. so a good balance is necessary. In the earth category. the search for light. which although limited in an aeroponic system. almost hardwoodstalked plants. and I will suggest other substances you can add to enhance the nutrient quality your plants are getting from aeroponic feeding. stadium structure around the lights. which means that you will generally need to add a PH down. juicy buds. the type of nutrient that they require changes. These store-bought nutrients are limited in content. which are easily obtained in liquid solutions. The usual basket size used in hydroponic systems is 3. The layout of your room will determine light availability and the ideal situation is to have all plants receiving as much light as possible. EARTH Just like all plants. because all the baskets and wool are doing is supporting the plants. This will also encourage the dense bushy-type plant that you want to grow. It is essential to have a "parts-per-million pen" so that you can monitor the amount of food your babies are eating and prevent burning of the roots by a solution that is too acidic and full of mineral salts. cool water temperature.system doubles the growth rate of plants as compared to a soil system. and they require a little bit of support. while discouraging phototropism. I use rockwool cubes and baskets. Light brings photosynthesis and also Ultra Violet "C" rays which discourage some types of bacteria. The ambient room temperature is no more than 80�F but preferably closer to 70�F (20�C). with the plants in a stepped. However. FIRE The element of fire in aeroponic gardening includes light and heat. I have found that the plants tend to uptake less nutrients when they are changing from vegetative to flowering. we also have the growth mediums. without burning. and an acid ph of 5.
root rot and unknown other problems. This will prevent your pump from burning out and your system from flooding. and you want to get the 35% variety. and then rest for 4 or so minutes. H2O2 is powerful and experiments can be dangerous to your whole crop. 35% hydrogen peroxide can and should be used in hydroponic drip and soil systems at the rate of one teaspoon per gallon. Stadium set up with central array of sodium and metal halide bulbs. which is appropriate for atomized nutrients. The burning and whitening sensation felt when it touches the skin . a bunch of high-pressure spray heads and some hose.The element of water in aeroponics is the great transport system. you will need a pump. Without water there is no air. I have used 35% hydrogen peroxide diluted to a 1% solution on a plant in soil that had an infestation of fungus gnats. You would usually add peroxide to your system and let that run through for 1/2 hour before adding nutrients. You will need an hour timer that will allow your pump to spray for 30 seconds to 2 minutes. and put in one teaspoon hydrogen peroxide per gallon of water. H2O2 will also forcibly cause the out-gassing of chlorine and fluoride from municipal water. I suggest you keep it cool and clean. as this will ensure that there have been no "stabilizers" added. Hydrogen peroxide will most definitely reduce any possibility of bacterial and fungal contamination. but you need spend no more than $200 to buy yourself a pump that puts out 60psi. This kind of pump is available in the local plumbing department of a Home De-pot or similar hardware store near you. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) or "Oxygen Water" Hydrogen peroxide created by humans is inferior to that created by nature. Let water sit a day before adding it to the nutrient tank. as is generally done to the 3% variety that you can buy in a pharmacy. But beware. but it costs less. Humanmade peroxide comes in a variety of percentages. The plants thrived while gnats and other organisms did not. Stadium set up with central array of sodium and metal halide bulbs. to make sure it is free from unfriendly organisms. Farmers in the US use peroxide for everything from disinfection of the dairy barn and hog pens to increasing crop yields by 20 to 30%. H2O2 replicates nature's own antibacterial mechanism and prevents water from growing putrefactive bacteria which can cause the dreaded bacterial wilt. Do not bother using the pressure-tank system that can be purchased in conjunction with your pump. Your pump is meant to run intermittently. It is also commonly added to the drinking water of animals to reduce the need for antibiotics. This will give the peroxide time to kill off bacteria with its extra oxygen molecules and become stabilized before you add the dissolved mineral salts (stock fertilizer). In the aeroponic system. All that your plants receive comes to them through water. People will try to sell you very expensive pumps. Be sure not to get any in your eyes. root rot and countless other diseases. To get your water to the roots.
25% for longer use. then put them into water. I would rather use plant sources of nutrients to help the persons who ingest my buds avoid contracting Mad Plant Disease! Beautiful aeroponic bud. add 35 parts water to 1 part 35% hydrogen peroxide. Beautiful aeroponic bud. You can safely create a 1% peroxide solution to feed your plants for a few cycles. You should dilute 1 part peroxide to 11 parts distilled water to create a 3% solution for less worrisome handling. and with aeroponics you can expect near immediate results.. and can find their way into plants fertilized with these products. which is the hydrogen peroxide oxidizing putrefactive organisms that are not oxygen compatible. put them through a fine particle filter. You will be amazed how readily your plants will gobble up the food you give them. meaning that the indestructible "prion" particles responsible for "transmissible spongiform encephalophathy" (mad cow disease) are likely also present in bone and blood-meal plant fertilizers. Applying H2O2 to Your system.25% solution add 140 parts of water to 1 part 35% peroxide. Little clones in aeroponic tube system. You can provide your plants with their requirements as organically as possible by making your own nutrient teas with plants that you know "fix" certain types of minerals into themselves. but fill less than a quarter of your nutrient tank with this solution. Add one and then wait before you add the other. You can kill bacteria that might be living in your nutrient tank by wiping out the empty container with a 3% peroxide solution. Let them sit for a few days. let them cool. If there are parasitic invaders then you will know because there will be a profuse bubbling and frothing. hydroponic mixes. How many people are using animal-based fertilizers whose origin they know nothing about? There is less restriction on the source of these "bone and blood meals" than there is in the pet food or agricultural industry. The same can be done with "meals" like soybean meal and others. or add 3 parts water to one part 1% peroxide. Liquid organic multivitamins for plants are useful and I would suggest using them in combination and in low concentrations. mineral-salt based. Wear latex. and then introduce them to your aeroponic garden. then boil them. No indoor gardening can be completely organic. test the PH and parts per million so you know what percentages to add. Bad Results . good or bad. ORGANIC AEROPONIC Organic aeroponic is at least partially possible with little or no hassle. Be careful to avoid creating a giant toxic soup by adding nutrients all at once. you're best to introduce partial organics which provide micronutrients not available in standard inorganic.can be irritating but is not damaging. as you will want to dilute it to about 0. To make a 1% solution. Aeroponically. I do not like to use blood and bone meals because I am not sure of the source. Little clones in aeroponic tube system. First dry the plants you want. To achieve an 0.
so try to avoid disasters. Another plump aeroponic bud. when I am low on nutrients and water. providing the plant with easy to assimilate nutrients. With a 900 parts per million nutrient solution you will still need to add some ph down. Another way to raise ph is by adding a small quantity of baking soda.8ph. a living nutrient. and I mean small! . you have probably developed root rot. Too much nutrients and only the gods can save you. Lowering the ph can be done with apple cider vinegar but I like to use Kombucha fungus. I run my organic fertilizers through the system first. remove all nutrients and run a low peroxide solution through your system. Basically. cheap and has inherently less packaging.5 and 5. I let those run through for a day. Long. sometimes 3 or more hours. Ph Balance Aeroponically grown plants prefer a rather acidic solution of between 5. and then it is time to clear the system and add the hydrogen peroxide again. I drain the system and put my hydrogen peroxide solution in and let it run for 1/2 hour. A higher concentration of mineral salts generally makes the water more acidic and brings ph down and parts per million up. If the leaves start yellowing. the ones you buy at the store. Having an acidic. and maybe a little less lighting. By adding Kombucha. depending on how much I have added. The gods. you can lower ph while still providing oxygen and bringing micronutrients to your plants that they would not regularly get. Kombucha also has beneficial health effects for the human organism. then I add my organics again. and then add the altered medium to your solution. Hydrogen peroxide kills unwanted freeloaders. Everything should be visibly back to normal within a day. low-ph environment will reduce funguses like root rot. To avoid such a problem. I let them run through for half a day. or you may have added too much nutrient solution. the food and water get eaten. which will be trying to heal from chemical insult. Long. as it creates a wonderful selection of living interacted nutrients that are amazing and affordable. Kombucha is an oxygen producing bacteria that is compatible with both the human and vegetative world because it metabolizes nutrients in the tea itself. Unplug a light or two and give you plants a chance to recover. green or herbal tea. Shock can precipitate root rot and you must remember that plants have an immune system and do respond to stress. you grow a particular bacterium in a medium of black. which is problematic because "Kali weed" likes low ph in the aeroponic environment. you may have a problem unrelated to feeding. lush healthy roots. What are in those ph up and ph down bottles anyways? Who cares! Nature's best solution is simple.If you have bad results after feeding. Then about a day later. It is important to note that oxygen creates a high ph or neutral environment. as their energy will then be concentrated down in the roots. Another plump aeroponic bud. The problem with introducing organics into an aeroponic system is that there is always some other organism that wants to cash in on the good life. If you see no positive results after a day. lush healthy roots. Then I add my stock nutrients. So using hydrogen peroxide will bring your ph up.
Such backwards attitudes aside. It is annoying that some. It can easily be introduced in the form of tea. so keep your eyes peeled for the evil. you will want to leech the unused mineral salts out of your plants. Leeching is easily done with aeroponics by changing the water daily for three to seven days.Clearing Your Plants Before harvest. or you can even grow your Kombucha on it. Kombucha with its low ph. as just running the same water through won't work! Because mineral salts concentrate in the plants at a high ph. menstrual blood is not plant based and is arguably a secondary source to phyto-estrogen. if you run a low ph through while leeching. clean source of micronutrients. inexpensive pump in the corner. however. The standard powders. hopping flies and dust them with death at the first sign. Note that you do have to change the water every day.. Ultimately. usually young. These pills are synthetic and cause a lot of trouble for women and generally I have a certain disdain for them. Blue Cohosh is a herb which contains plant estrogens. including diatomaceous earth. inexpensive pump in the corner. square men think this is disgusting.. while also providing the plants with a continued. is a good source of estrogen and is as organic as the donor. It facilitates the release of mineral salts. They can only go a few inches into the rockwool before they meet the nutrient solution. but these ones are particular to aeroponics.. They prefer using bone and blood meal which they know nothing about. I can say that there is a part of me in every plant I have ever grown.. Try Aeroponics and have a "mist"-ifying experience! SATIVA DIVA --A small. Menstrual blood. This is a personal choice. but it is not mine. also work. Get real. and I also use this in my flowering formulas. Fungus Gnats Curing your aeroponic garden of diseases is very easy. A small. is thus the ideal thing to add to your water during leeching. . Phyto Estrogens Some people use birth control pills to raise the estrogen level in their plants. Decreasing other fertilizer levels before introducing blood will reduce the possibility of the blood feeding unwanted organisms in your system. which is no good for them. your plants will release their mineral salts at a much faster rate. other than that it came from a dead animal who had a miserable life and ate less organically than most of the women you know. little. Fungus gnats cannot get very far and are generally not a problem. DISEASES COMMON TO AEROPONIC SYSTEMS There are lots of other problems gardeners face.
increasing both growth and resin production while countering the effects of photo and geotropism (the effects which lead to increased internodal spaces). They are inexpensive and may give you a better chance at recreating what nature delivers. . One way to avoid root rot is to inoculate your plants' medium with a predator fungus. delivering lots of light.can be used to feed 8 tubes with 20 plants each! . a black spot and/or a powdery mildew. Hopefully wilt never happens to you. which can be increased depending on your knowledge. Yet such lights negate the healing effects of both light heat and UV rays. depending on your response.. Bacterial wilt causes yellowing of leaves and flowers. both of which are effective.. may lead to bacterial wilt. pray and change everything. and a portion of the stem directly below the yellowing will be entirely lifeless. These cooled lights can be placed really close to plants. and air which is too cool. It might also come as a simple yellowing of the leaves and kill your babies in a short period of time. There are products which can be introduced through either the leaves or roots. Ultra-Violet light is a natural part of the spectrum and kills bacteria. Check your roots regularly. which accompanies the brown discolouration.If you notice that you have more than five in your room. Wilt is not common.can be used to feed 8 tubes with 20 plants each! Bacterial Wilt This is a weird one.. Another sure sign is black spots on the roots. I would definitely run a 1/2% solution of peroxide and no nutrients through for one day to help the plants and kill any gnat larvae that may have made it into the medium. The larvae will also be filtered out by the fine particle spray filter before long. There is always a margin of time before your plants will die. It is a fungus that shows up as rust. These are readily available at well-equipped grow stores. Not enough UV. If it does. A sure sign is a browning of the roots. Root Rot Root rot is particularly dangerous in aeroponic systems. and even in gardening books it is rarely mentioned. Water-cooled lights have a tendency to cut out a lot of UV. . add a UV light or two. with a clear viscous goo oozing out of the plant's pores. Once you have it.. That sounds radical but so is the problem. not to be confused with the staining caused by certain nutrient solutions. brown and mushy. yet if environmental conditions are right it can affect your plants.
The rest of us often learned the hard way what bunkweed was . the concept of 'bud cycle' was not apparent until Ed Rosenthal and Mel Frank published their first works in 1976. The nitrogen. 2000) Getting your plants to produce fine buds is a simple as night and day. Even though High Times began publication in 1974. in order to properly mature. Those lucky enough to be able to grow outdoors and all the way into October were blessed with some pleasant surprises. This period has a long daytime and a short nighttime. Young cannabis will flourish practically anywhere. It is during this vegetative stage that the plants send out much new growth. The key element is the timing of the light cycle. Prior to this. cycle. called "nodes. and just consumed whatever presented itself. Large shade leaves form and act as sugar factories for the plant. When I first started growing pot in the early 1970's. and a specific set of circumstances. the relationship between light timing and flowering was virtually unknown by the apprentice grower. while it can. fresh clones and young plants live in what we refer to as the vegetative stage. in the indoor garden the average light cycle for the vegetative stage is 18 hours on and 6 hours off. under almost any conditions � but it takes a special environment. The large shade leaves begin to die and fall off as the plant shifts its energy from producing leaves and stem to producing floral clusters. such as late summer and fall. coupled with the extra light. Once Mel and Ed set us straight. This is why high nitrogen fertilizers are so beneficial during this period. if outdoors. The young plants will grow with vigor. Vegetative stage Sprouts. The floral clusters sprout from the areas where the leaves attach to the stems. like summer. Like humans. As a general rule of thumb. would be coming at a lower angle as the season progressed. Bud cycle shift At some point in the young plant's development it becomes time to begin the shift to what is called the flowering. either outdoors or under some form of artificial light. like a weed. Cannabis needs to properly mature in order to be of value. turning sunlight into fiber for new growth. Food from light and nitrogen decreases. The plant needs to use as much food from the available light as it can. many of us simply grew big plants.Timing is Everything by DJ Short (19 Jun.a harsh and unpleasant tasting substance that produced little high and plenty of headache. acts as building blocks to the overall structure of the plant. During the early flower stage the plant will go through what appears to be a growth spurt as the stems stretch to catch the light that. our product's quality began to increase. This stage has a shorter daytime and an increased nighttime. plants have two worlds in which they exist: night and day." The buds . A thorough understanding of this simple fact is crucial to more fully understanding the nature of cannabis. It is during this period that the plants declare their sex and produce large floral clusters that become the buds. or bud. and the demand for phosphorous and potassium increases to fuel the process. Day is when it is light and night is when it is dark.
to check for light leaks. This forced flowering has its advantages as the plants are made to finish up quickly. or photoreactive rate. Under these indoor conditions the plant is forced to make the shift quickly. I don't understand why it is that outdoor plants are not as sensitive to these nighttime interruptions.fill in the nodes and progress out. a little bit more every day. Indica is a variety from the 30th parallel and above. Indica became the herb of choice early on in the industry due to its fast maturation and large production abilities under the HID lights. even for a short period of time. the moon and streetlights glowing through the low clouds over an urban area don't seem to hinder the outdoor plant all that much. which may help to explain why such small vegetative plants are capable of producing so much bud in such a relatively short period of time. whereas the flowering cycle may be the opposite. The transition between the plants' stages is therefore more drawn out and gradual. and this timing cycle is more akin to locations north of the 30th latitude (or south. Outdoors. slow process of change that the plant had been working on up to that point. For whatever reason. The plant may react by having to restart the process and seriously delay the scheduled maturation time. thus aiding production. plants do most of their fiber production at night. the typical light cycle used in the bud stage is 12 hours on and 12 hours off. Sativa originates from equatorial regions. the change in light cycle is usually instant: one day is 18 hours long and the next (and all those to follow) is 12 hours long. which is why the average length of the indoor flowering cycle is eight to nine weeks. So remember to make it dark and keep it dark. Indoors. indoor plants tend to be ultra-sensitive to nighttime interruptions of light. Nights of total darkness An important thing to remember about the indoor bud cycle is that the dark period must be absolute and uninterrupted. the change in light cycle timing is gradual and slow. It is advisable to allow your eyes to adjust to the darkness before declaring the room adequately sealed. between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south. given adequate light. The only way to test this is to sit in the room in the dark. And. And although outdoor equatorial crops take such a long time to mature. as we all know. in the southern hemisphere). Once the bud cycle has begun it is important to never interrupt the dark period with any light. Around the equator there is a much smaller difference between seasonal day lengths. either during the day or with any lights outside the room on. 11 hours of day and 13 hours of night. Stars. Sativa variations Another aspect to consider is that Indica and Sativa varieties differ in their photo period expression. it . food and root space. six inch tall veggie plant (a plant in the vegetative stage) placed immediately into the bud cycle. Oddly enough. A well formed. Perhaps it has to do with the unmatchable light intensity of the Sun. Indoors. Doing so may interrupt the long. There are pure Sativa strains that require three to four months to mature in the flowering cycle indoors. The vegetative stage may be 13 hours of day and 11 hours of night. The typical 18/6 and 12/12 light cycles are primarily beneficial to Indica varieties. it is strictly the female plants that develop into our high quality and most desired sensimilla. The room must be thoroughly sealed to be completely dark when the lights are off. is capable of producing an ounce or two of finished product in two short months.
developed to provide a wider range of photo periods.is often possible in the right areas to produce two to four crops per year. would produce. further experimentation and research using different indoor light timing cycles would be very worthwhile. It will be interesting to see what specialized grow rooms. Light fortified greenhouses are capable of producing high quality herb just about anywhere on the planet. thanks to the tropical environments. In the meantime. . More interesting will be what the wonderful and great outdoors will produce in all of her various environments. the global environment will surely reveal interesting and desirable variations. via careful selective breeding. Once implemented.
At the 45th parallel I've found most Indicas to be at peak harvest starting at the beginning of October.jpg These buds are near peak maturity. where I will begin. The red hairs are plump and full. Given this rule of thumb you can pretty much come up with what you want. make make up between 75% and 90% of the total hairs. Sativas and early window harvests tend to be more of a head high. Indoors. Some Sativas take up to thirteen weeks to mature indoors. There is the issue of chemistry because what we are really considering in terms of the "ripeness" relates directly to the chemical nature and state of the plant at harvest. head highs tend to be more up and body highs tend to be more down. then an early harvested Sativa might do best. the window of harvest is about two weeks long give or take a couple of days for various strains. A good head high can positively influence one's mental state much like a psychedelic. whereas Indicas and late window harvests tend to be more of a body high. whereas a good body high is more similar to a narcotic effect. As to outdoors I can only speak from experience at the 45th parallel and the bloom times there. Outdoors many will go well into November and even December. That is. By DJ Short. Harvest6. then a late harvest indicas would probably do . My favorite time to harvest a nice Blueberry Indica outdoors is in the second to third week of October. Head High or Body Stone? An important consideration has to do with one's preference for a "head" high or more of a "body" high. most indicas take about eight weeks to fully mature. For Sativa grown either indoors or outdoors. The window "opens" when the plant is first ripe. sometimes very late September. this is near or at the 45th parallel). The Window of Harvest This term indicates the period during which the plant is at its optimum state of ripeness. For most Indicas grown indoors. Suffice it to say that a good healthy mix of the two is a fine goal to achieve. There is the difference between early and late harvest to encourage head to body high respectively. if conditions are right (again. but not least. the window may be open much longer. Somewhere along the line the plant becomes over-ripe which signifies the "closing" of the window of harvest. All photos by Barge There are several important points to consider when choosing the optimum time to harvest your cannabis crop. if you prefer a very psychedelic head high. Last. make make up between 75% and 90% of the total hairs. If a very narcotic body high is desired. is the concept of "the window of harvest".jpg These buds are near peak maturity. The red hairs are plump and full. There are different factors to consider between indoor and outdoor plants. if going directly from an 18/6 hour vegetative light cycle to a 12/12 hour bud cycle. and running until the end of October. Generally. There is the difference between Sativas and Indicas in bloom duration and final effect. sometimes running into November during mild years or in a greenhouse.Harvest Your Herb Harvest3.
some Sativas have windows of peak harvest that actually open and close. That is. The lowest. Again. Magnify your Buds When we speak of various highs experienced by different products. Calyx swelling is a major indicator of peak maturity. often for under fifteen dollars. bracts.jpg Ready for harvest! . It is now that the development of a very discerning palate comes into play to determine the finest harvest time.patience is a virtue and often a discipline. By the end of the eighth week most of the calyxes will have swollen and a surge of trichome development has coated most of the buds. Occasionally. glandular stalked trichomes will begin to form along the surfaces of leaves. Remember . Usually a fibrous growth spurt is accompanied by a corresponding trichome increase. At the same time. More and more of these trichomes develop as the plant matures. except extended over a longer period of time. flowers. bracts and stems. At peak maturity about 90% of the calyxes will almost look seeded. The pistils of the young flowers are bright white and turn reddish brown with age. However. The denser the concentration. starting in or around the fourth week of the bud cycle. clear. leaves and stems. With the aid of the magnifier one can learn more about the detail of trichome development and ripeness. for a week or so the plant may exhibit signs of peak ripeness. along the surfaces of the bud flowers (calyxes). bulbous heads are what to shoot for. the tall ones with swollen. a week later the plant may have a growth spurt. The pistils and flowers develop from the bottom of the bud to the top. which lowers the trichome-to-fibre ratio and overall potency for a little while. they are so fat. illuminated magnifier. The older. the greater the potency. It is about this time that the calyxes begin to swell. more and more flowers (also called calyxes) develop into densely-packed floral clusters. These can be found at most local electronics stores. lower pistils are the first to turn reddish brown. The Cycle of Plant Maturity Starting in the third or fourth week of the flowering light cycle. The ripening signs for most Sativas are highly similar. Three quarters to 90% of the pistils will have turned reddish brown as well. The chemicals we enjoy are produced within the glandular stalked trichomes. youngest flowers on each bud. As far as trichomes are concerned. For that best-of-both worlds high. Changes in Chemistry Harvest1. we are noting variations in plant chemistry. time and experience are the key elements in this regard. experimentation with late harvested sativas and early-to-mid harvested indicas usually proves interesting. oldest calyxes swell first and the swelling works its way up to the highest. I highly recommend that the serious cannabis student acquire a 30X power. For a basic Indica this takes well into the seventh week of the flowering cycle.best. For most basic indicas this usually happens by the sixth week in the flowering cycle.
As the plant matures through its window of harvest its chemistry changes. Which particular combination of chemicals is the most desirable is purely a matter of taste and choice. given the proper curing process (see CC #10). Set and setting also play an important role in determining which type of product is best appreciated. especially if have grown or tried the strains Blueberry. Blue Velvet or Flo. Send inquiries to Question DJ c/o Cannabis Canada. finis . DJ Short is interested in hearing your experiences and questions. Primarily it is THC breaking down in CBNs and CBDs. developed over time and with experience. The main point is that these differences are chemical in nature and more research is needed to more fully understand this phenomenon. I look forward to providing what information I can. especially in regard to bouquet. the more desirable compounds begin breaking down into less desirable ones. As the window closes. whereas a narcotic late-window Indica may work better as an evening medicinal herb. Pleasant head highs are often desirable for social occasions. aroma and flavour. Another important point is that much can be done to further enhance the chemical process.
This will help to hasten the drying process. the smaller ones in particular. This requires regular checking to determine when to proceed. It is at this time that the buds can be more compacted together and the bag folded down tighter. .Proper curing can exponentially increase the quality and desirability of your harvest. ever-socarefully turning the buds. but the outer part of the buds should be starting to feel dry. an unwanted chemical. especially on the inside. should suffice. I like to use brown paper shopping bags due to their not being bleached. The bags should be gently shaken. This is also a skill that is developed more with time and experience. Once again. The time to the next step depends on how dry your hanging area is. above the level of the buds. though perhaps still slightly damp at the core. Don't pack the buds down and do not fold the bag too tight.jpg Brown Bagging It Once the buds are crisp on the outside but still moist on the inside it is time for the next step in the process: the paper bag. A few small folds at the top of the bag. It is then time to remove the buds from the branch and remove the rest of the leaf material as best as possible. The key word to remember is "slow". moonicon. you might want to consider cutting a few small holes in the bag. hang it upside down in a cool.gif baggedbu. might even be smokable at this point. and most importantly dark place. for ventilation. like a lunch bag. Some of the buds. protecting the buds. or if the buds are still feeling heavy with moisture. dry.gif hangingb. As the buds dry they will naturally compact into the selfpreserving state that we all know and love. so practice! bagicon. As with proper manicuring.jpg Dark & Dry After cutting the plant or branch. Re-hang the branches in the drying room and regularly check them until the smaller leaves and bud tips become dry and brittle to the touch. If you are in a more humid area. The buds should still be a little wet at this point. When the larger shade leaves become dry and brittle to the touch it is time to gently clip them off. Now you have a few choices as to what to do with your manicured buds. you may want to try placing them on a suspended screen for a little while. regular checking to decide when they are ready for the next stage is crucial. They should now be fully smokable. at least once a day. Leave the larger shade leaves on and they will gently droop and wrap around the plant. Simply fill a paper bag a few inches deep with the manicured buds. Light must be avoided from this point on. regular checking is key. If the buds are a tad wet or if humid conditions dominate. This is what is referred to as "manicuring".
Whenever mold is found it must be dealt with immediately. The moldy bud needs to be removed. Aside from watching and smelling for mold.jpg A final curing stage. The screen is the driest process that I know of. You will be able to detect the fragrance of the product becoming more and more desirable as time progresses. such as very arid deserts or tropical humid areas.jpg Ready to go! A bud is completely dry. finalbud. usually for a week to ten days. and ready for sale or consumption when the stem in the middle of the bud snaps when the bud is cracked with the fingers. After a week or so all I do is simply open the jar and check the buds on a daily basis. may take more or less time. The nearly ready buds are transferred from the bag to the jar. It is very important in the early jar-stage to check the buds at least once a day. depending on your climate. Extremes in climate. jaricon.The entire process. The longer you can stretch out this process. involves sealable jars. It is important to be as gentle as possible so as not to damage too many of the resin glands. should take anywhere from two to four weeks. He can be contacted care of Cannabis Canada. go back to the screen. and the rest of the product needs to be exposed to a drier environment for a while. preferred by most connoisseurs. hands-on checking. The snap is easy to detect with practice. There is no substitute for consistent. while also avoiding mold. Watch for Mold The main thing to watch (and smell) for throughout all of the curing process is mold. a dehumidifier in the drying room may be the answer. finis . especially in the cultivation of the Blueberry and Flo varieties. packed in very loosely. It is at this stage that the product can safely be sealed and stored for an indefinite period of time.gif The Final Stage jarbud. The simplest solution is to go back one step. the better. I like when it takes six to eight weeks from harvest to the finished product. then less often as time progresses. DJ Short welcomes questions and feedback. from harvest to these first smokable products. cured. always remember to keep the product in the dark. If problems with the mold occur prior to this. I like to dump them all out of the jar and gently fluff them up at least once a day at first. if the mold was detected in the jar stage simply put the rest of the product back to the bag stage for awhile (after removing the contaminated product from the batch). If the mold is detected in the bag stage. and the jar is sealed. For example.
For me. Each single thread averaged anywhere from five to ten inches long. one was taken in early-mid December from a greenhouse. Thick side-branching is another characteristic of this variety. For best breeding results you use true-breeding stabilized strains as your P1's. This plant grew fast. anywhere from a quarter inch to one inch apart.On the origins of Blueberry by DJ Short (01 Sept. and consisted of a row of evenly-spaced female flowers and their corresponding bract leaves. The high could last up to seven hours! The flavour. filling in any empty spaces with lush. long-lasting and exquisitely flavoured herb with little or no ceiling. green growth. or no more than one generation removed. The finished product from the Highland Thai was an all-around champion herb. Many of these spindles resemble threads protruding from a semi-formed bud. Most of the buds were very loose. and crossed with itself or another highly similar. aroma and . I have very high standards for my P1 generation. region-of-origin land-race variety. a cross called Purple Thai which was a first generation land-race Chocolate Thai crossed once with a first generation landrace Highland Oaxaca Gold. It was a powerful.) This bud structure is known as "spindly". It was a very slow finisher. with some sporting long. region-of-origin land-race variety. Though difficult to trim and cure. 12 to 16 weeks and beyond in the bud period for most. The plant only periodically produced any kind of "tight" bud structure. They were the Highland Thai (also called Juicy Fruit Thai. Different breeders have different standards as to what qualifies as a P1. 1999) A case study on how to go about breeding fine marijuana. slender shoots of widely-spaced single female flowers in a row (especially when grown hydroponically under halide lights. despite its hermaphroditism. a first-generation Thai seed grown in the Pacific Northwest). Flo and others. I used three P1 strains to breed Blueberry. I was never able to get a Juicy Fruit Highland Thai to "over mature". some even longer. while the bud structures matured a lighter shade of green. Thai Thai The entirety of the "thread" and bud structure was coated with sweet/fruity aromatic resin glands. Outdoors. the outcome was fully worth the effort. called the P1 generation. Juicy Fruit Juicy Fruit The Highland Thai was a joy to grow and behold. Choosing your parents The place for breeding to begin is with choosing the parent plants. The only difference was that the later harvest was a more stony. sometimes green/yellow. The overall plant color was dark. alternating bract and flower in single file. and an Afghani Indica which came to me one generation removed from Afghanistan via the California/Southern Oregon growing community. body high. I took one to almost twenty weeks into its flower cycle and she just kept pumping it out. It had the longest and skinniest leaves out of all the plants I have worked with. the P1 must be either a fully acclimated.
indica. and the advent of high powered halide and HPS lights. Though no less potent. the Purple Thai seemed easier to handle. which is where the finer qualities of the indica appear. and the finished buds were a medium and compact sativa type. early-maturing and body-powerful indica has dominated the scene since 1983 � a matter of disjointed economics. stinky. For whatever aesthetic reason. This was a first generation cross between the Highland Oaxaca Gold and the Chocolate Thai. . also without ceiling. It is this initial genetic diversity that leads to the most possibilities in succeeding lines. pungent herb that smelled like a skunk and produced a narcotic-knockout stone that was tremendously novel. dense buds that smell earthen to skunk. green. I believe that the Purple Thai was emotionally kinder or gentler than the Juicy Fruit. Such were the three main P1's I used for my breeding lines. At larger doses the Juicy Fruit could evoke quite a terror. at roughly three to four weeks into the cycle. The Afghani Indica plant is short with large. and the strains virtually disappeared from the commercial markets. Blueberry x Afghani Blueberry x Afghani The sinsemilla Afghani Indica first showed up on the market in 1979. I preferred the Purple Thai to the Juicy Fruit Highland Thai. The short. including when tripping. The Purple Thai was the other sativa in my repertoire. It has early to very early maturation. It did not exhibit any of the spindly bud syndrome of the Juicy Fruit Thai. I cannot overstress the importance of the two P1 parents being as genetically different as is possible. The Purple Thai was one of the first to show resin gland production in the early bud cycle. Afghani male Afghani male The f1 cross The f1 cross is the first cross between two distinctly different P1 parents. producing large. especially when combined with psychedelics. when compared to all the sativas that had come before. Afghani Afghani The entire plant of the Purple Thai was very dark-coloured and would express a deep royal purple colour at the slightest exposure to cold. This cross grew medium/tall and was very symmetric in structure. It also matured at 10 to 12 weeks indoor. This was right after sinsemilla herb hit the market with big appeal. The side branches were shorter and. dense buds of potent. stout and thick-stemmed. The "f" stands for filial (child). I believe more indicas should be made into hashish. all wreaked havoc on the breeding programs of most pot-entrepeneurs. its appeal is somewhat limited in my opinion. The triad of sinsemilla. and early to mid November outdoors. sticky. Few people maintained their sativa lines. with a strong smoke that is generally sedative or "down" in effect. They were huge. Though consistent in its growth and overall effect. The finished product was equally as fruity and strong as the Juicy Fruit.taste were a totally sweet tropical punch � tutti-fruity all the way. dense. if left alone (untopped) the main stalk (meristem) remained the dominant shoot. wide leaves.
short to tall. which I called simply "The Cross". Trial and error is the rule. tastes and highs. The f1's from this cross were more leafy and less desirable. There was a wide palate of colours. Blue Velvet and Flo seem more accessible via the Purple Thai route. On average. The f2 seeds collected were equally diverse. expressing a near total uniformity and great vigor. there is a higher probability of occurence of the specific traits which I'm seeking. then the f1 will be a true hybrid. Afghani Afghani The f2 cross The f2 is the second filial generation. ranging from large to small. A grand amount of time. while Blue Moonshine seems more accessible through the Juicy Fruit lineage. bract and calyx tips showed red. about 1 out of every 25 females. There will be a tremendous amount of variance in the f2 crosses of f1's obtained from a female pure sativa and a male pure indica. The plants of The Cross grew uniform. along with an extensive array of flavours. Oddly enough. wide to narrow leaves. indoors. There is a tremendous amount of work between the f2's and the f4's and f5's. especially among the Purple Thai cross. It is in the crosses beyond the initial f1 (especially the f1xf1=f2 cross) that specific traits are sought. Large. plump to slender. A single female is capable of producing thousands of seed. The maturation rates were uniform as well. round to oval. It has been my observation that in a successful cross. striped to solid. with a wide window of harvest being between weeks eight to eleven in the bud cycle. with almost every characteristic of the cannabis plant being expressed in some of the plants. while the (usually male) indica contributes the amount of aroma and flavour to the prodigy. long buds formed along the branches. The diversity was spectacular. So far this observation has proven fruitful. ellipsoid and mottled with dark stripes upon a grayish brown shell. The finished bud had a very strong "astringent" chemical/terpene aroma that bordered between pine. both in structure and aesthetics. dark to light. From sativa to indica. gin. Blue Moonshine Blue Moonshine So the Thai female is pollinated with the Afghani male and an abundance of seed is produced. early to late maturation. certain paths prove futile while others bear further examination.If the P1's are sufficiently diverse. simply a cross between any two of the f1 stock. small. the (usually female) sativa contributes the type of aroma and flavour. With my f2 crosses the outcome was extreme. purple and blue hues. Only a very few of The Cross expressed hermaphroditism. aromas. energy and money was spent from this point to isolate and stabilize the desired traits. They were also more hermaphroditic and subsequent breeding revealed them to be less desirable. Thus there were two possible routes to essentially the same finished product. wile the outer leaf. That is. almost yellow to the centres. This is the f1 generation. The seed is uniformly sized and shaped. and so they're easier to "find". The buds were lighter. The Blueberry (among others) was discovered and stabilized from an f1 cross between the P1 parents of a female Juicy Fruit Thai or a female Purple Thai and a male Afghani Indica. the opposite cross (female Afghani indica crossed with pollen from male Thai sativa) was not nearly as interesting. there are . licorice and paint. medium-tall "spear" structures of many competing sidebranches around one main (meristem) stalk. leaving plenty for experimentation.
The slightest shock may shatter crucial. where and how that is done remains a trade secret for now. If the sample passed "the test" then the plant was kept for further consideration. delicate cell structures within the seed. Double wrap the seed in paper. The fridge is extremely useful in extending the longevity of seed and pollen. in as low a humidity as possible (preferably 0%). to keep waste to a minimum. f4 and f5. storing seed in airtight. It is also useful to cut pollen with flour to stretch the amount. The harvested plants. especially concerning P1 and f1 crosses. Have phun! Select the best. Then there's the wait for the cured sample. Mendel's theories add copius complexity to the equation. In the fridge. The pollen pile is sifted to rid the unwanted plant material from the pure powder. It was however. Afghani clones Afghani clones Your friend the freezer A benevolent tool in our trade is the refrigerator and freezer. The most desirable samples were used for further breeding to f3. a fun and worthwhile occupation to sample all the research material. But beyond the f2 and f3 cross. Another trade secret is the art of selecting the best males for breeding. in one-time-use packets. Blueberry x NL#5 Blueberry x NL#5 I like to do one backcross somewhere between the f3 and f5 generation. Coupled with the difficult clandestine aspects of the trade through the 80's and 90's. These topics and others will be covered in future articles. Then place the wrap into a plastic freezer bag. it was a difficult task to accomplish. It was hard work and dedication to record the findings and attempt to create useful categories and find patterns and traits to specific characteristics. but when it comes to herb I much prefer Luther Burbank's philosophy: "Select the best and reject all others!" This simple phrase is worth much consideration. I like to do small amounts. Exactly when. reject all others Mendelian procedures are fine for sweet peas.about nine errors to each success. little manilla envelopes work great. Mendel's work is useful. Many sacrifices were endured by my family and friends. It must be frozen immediately after fresh collection from the plant. A pollen-to-flour ratio of 1:10 or even . brown glass jars with a little rice or other non-toxic desiccant seems to work best. were placed under a vegetative light cycle to stimulate new growth for cloning. Now the seed is ready for the deep-freeze. Hard frozen objects are very fragile. then place the freezer bag into a plastic tub or tupperware container. cut above the lowest few nodes. The trick to successful freezing is to freeze deep (-10 to -40�F/-20 to -35�C) and then keep the seed undisturbed. I have had pollen last for years in a deep freeze. I like to shake the productive male flowers over a flat and clean piece of glass.
Blue Velvet Blue Velvet The sweet sativa room I recommend the creation of a special "sativa room" for indoor breeding of such strains. and variations in soil composition and depth. The cut pollen may then be separated into small. the sativa-friendly room can be used to acclimate an indoor sativa variety. Light cycle is one of the key considerations for those wishing to breed truly fine quality cannabis indoors under lights. stationary plants. stored in a flap of paper and frozen the same way as the seed. A true equatorial sativa will require closer to a 13/11 vegetative and a long (four to six month) 11/13 flower cycle.1:100 works best. Some of these conditions include: a different light cycle than the standard 18/6 vegetative 12/12 bud cycles. The goal is to replicate the equatorial conditions of the world�s various "sweet spots". may positively influence the outcome of the finished product. Equatorial strains also experience a higher arch of sunlight than those grown beyond 38� north or south � with a sunrise almost due east and sunset nearly due west. Therefore the sativa room will edintense overhead lighting with a straight track mover. which expands the possibilities of your breeding operation. a higher angle of light (using a straight track shuttle instead of a circular one). The 18/6 veggie and 12/12 bud cycles are perhaps the main influence towards the indica dominant strains and generic blandness of the indoor commercial product. The frozen pollen must be applied to the live female flower immediately after thawing to increase viability. Be prepared for much fine tuning. If successful. . perhaps a four-to-eight inch layer of soil over clay or concrete (with some form of drain system) would encourage lateral root growth. Different variations may be tried. humidity control set on low for the highland and high for the lowland. one-time-use amounts. This room needs to consider and satisfy the unique needs of the sativa variety. As jungle (lowland) herb requires only a thin layer of nutrient soil. Keeping the plant in a stationary position. such as 15/9 veggie and 10/14 flowering cycle. especially through the bud cycle. and a more lowland sativa-friendly environment.
If you look closely underneath the leaf you will see the little white eggs clinging to the underside and most likely the little white or reddish brown spidermites walking around or sucking the sweet juice of your plant. and start again with a renewed interest in prevention. Just don't let them in. and your pets. Wipe off any signs of webs immediately and repeatedly. The vegetation that surrounds our dwellings supports an everpresent threat of invasion. is that every garden on the West Coast is under siege. Vapour barriers and finely screened vents for intake and exhaust fans are essential to avoid sucking in bugs from the outside. as well as the commercially available alternatives. especially if the place gets dry.MITES BITE By Breeder Steve of the Spice of Life Seed Company Spider mites bite! You must get rid of them. If you have mites you will know it by the very small white dots on top of your leaves. They breed quickly and can develop resistance to certain sprays. predator mites will eat the evil spidermites and their eggs. Their persistence is incredible. Predator Mites Once you've got mites bad the best solution is to tear down. so the plants were bone dry and covered with tents. Almost every grower has heard of and used many home remedies. as a friend recently pointed out. or at least try to keep their numbers down. clean up. well ventilated rooms. They may even wipe the mites out entirely and then starve to death themselves. Mite growth slows dramatically at lower temperatures. Ventilation Ventilation fans are essential for healthy plant growth as well as discouraging the mites. Remember that if you have houseplants they may be supporting a population of mites as well. A garden started in a frozen climate is safe provided that the mites don't tag along in a bag of compost. Prevention The key to a mite-free garden is prevention. Formally known as Phytoseilus Persimillis. The best growrooms are cool. reducing the quantity and quality of your harvest. A terrible sight indeed. A hot growroom with poor ventilation is a breeding ground for mites. as pests may enter the grow space on you. they are nearly impossible to get out. However. The gardener also claimed to be too tired after work to carry water into his attic regularly. Having clean clothes and shoes is important. your friends. Bring only clean tools and sterilized growing medium into your growroom. Note that the predators may not be as effective if the mite population is too high . if they persist and you shudder at the prospect of starting all over again then you should introduce predator mites. I once saw an attic garden that was full of plants but had no ventilation. They are like little mosquitoes that suck the lifeblood from your plants. given the proper cool temperatures. The problem. Once mites get into your garden. At higher temperatures they become very active and mobile. Webs & Eggs Spidermites spin webs which facilitate movement among the plant's branches and neighbouring plant's branches for the shortlegged demons.
Never use systemic pesticides. I've heard very good reports about it. also known as diotomecious earth. Spray Solutions Any one of a number of spray solutions may be used to knock down their population to a level where the predators will be able to take over. In the stores look for Insecolo. it's a white dust that attracts the bugs. they eat it and then get sliced inside and out. and in fact it's best to avoid all chemical solutions. marigolds. It sounds nasty but it is merely fine sand with very sharp edges. but follow the instructions with any pesticide! I say again.when they are introduced. The dust is harmless to plants and animals (ourselves included) but very destructive to small crawling insects such as mites. People should not be messing around with Malathion or Diazinon. I strongly recommend that you spray nothing on your buds except the mildest home remedies such as a small amount of Listerine and Sunlight dishsoap dissolved in water and sprayed or scrubbed onto the plants. the mites will die a hideous death. commercial or home made. but wait a few days after spraying before introducing the predators or the residual miticide will also harm them. The active ingredient is from a natural source and not harmful to humans. it is called SM90. avoid! A new organic spray that is very effective is made from orange oils. and you will rejoice one battle won. Put two-sided tape on the walls. Insecticidal Soaps and Sprays Eternal vigilance is the cost of freedom from spidermites. as well as on stalks. even Pokon. Wilson's insecticidal soap does a pretty good job at cleaning them up. however I'm not convinced of its effectiveness. Pentac or Kelthane are sprays that may be used while the plants are in vegetative cycle. mined from fossilized material. especially with some elbow grease and a J cloth. I've tried garlic. while the dusty . It is fairly safe in composition and has the advantage of being in a nifty new aerosol can that can be sprayed upside down. branches and pots. Although this is only a band aid solution it can't hurt. Companion planting is an interesting idea. do not spray buds! Silicon Dioxide A great natural way to kill the little devils is with Silicone Dioxide. and use it myself. ceiling and floor. Its razorlike edges slice the carapace or shell of the mites' bodies and then they dehydrate. The mites killed the marigolds in no time. If in doubt. A new spray is being touted as killing spidermites but not the predator mites. very convenient for spraying the bottoms of leaves. filtered and than sprayed is the favourite miticide of one crazy Dutchman I know. ground pumice. and dusty millers. which usually only provides a short term remedy. A few cigarette butts soaked in a litre of water. This is a dangerous and harmful product. find out. as going the extra mile during the construction of the grow room can save a marathon cleanup later. Traps & Companions Traps are another possibility. Sprinkle this on the leaves and the soil. Very frightening indeed is the "ultimate mite killer" Avid. The real key is prevention. something that they get stuck in. Pokon is the most popular commercially available mite spray on the market today.
so make sure it (and you) have a healthy and balanced diet. Too much or too little of any one of these will cause difficulties. and thank your lucky stars. If you have mites try not to spread them. as do heavy gusts of wind. wind. so put oscillating fans all over the place. To grow successfully these elements must be balanced. You must remember the four basic elements. is less likely to have problems. One grower I know of uses a compressed air blower once a week to blow any mites off of his plants. while outdoors the elements and naturally occurring predators make them less of a threat. For best results the plants should dance inside just as much as they would dance outside. If you don't have mites. but neither thrived as well as the mites. take precautions to keep it that way. Frequent spraying of water on plants impedes the mites' progress. . and water. fire.millers lived as did the garlic. A healthy plant. like a healthy person. Of what is up to you. Plenty of wind is essential in the grow room. growing inside is the art and science of creating nature. Outdoors Indoors Spider mites are a plague on indoor gardens. earth. Remember.
creating an underground shed to house a small generator that provided me with ample electricity for my growing compound�s communications and lighting (as described and pictured in CC #60). . As I recounted. and as cool as possible as heat destroys the THC.How To Harvest Outdoors by Joe Walsh (19 Sept. 2006) Growing in the bush requires a lot of planning. the more damage you do. cut off the top half of it and hang the two parts of the plant separately. If the plant is big. It required money but by that stage I had it. I made my first drying shed with a timber frame and covered the walls and roof in heavy-duty black builders plastic. Sound travels in the forest. the plants will break either straight away or not at all. I had to shovel big holes and it was backbreaking work. that lack of planning was disastrous. but being underground muffled the sound of the generator. and during the day the sides could be lifted to let the cool breeze reach the plants. the more the plant is disturbed during harvest. Harvesting should be straightforward. In the event of heavy rain the plants were protected. It�s the only way to have a generator operate outdoors�it�s got to be quiet and stealth. I excavated the earth. yet I have seen so many people do it the wrong way. By cutting off the main stems and laying the entire plants on top of each other. and here's how to harvest properly When you are growing guerilla jungle style you must be set up to process everything in the forest. You will find the larger branches provide adequate strength to support the weight of the plant. Ideally. As the drying process almost instantly reduces weight. When you have a drying shed on-site. The very best way is to cut the plants as low to the ground as possible. making life harder later on. Remember. only taking out finished product or dried bud ready for manicuring. every time you touch your plants. With this method. As one plant can have up to ten larger-sized branches on it. Many people cut the branches off individually but all that does is increase the amount of work you have to do later. you reduce the disruption of the resin heads. I could get 50 pounds (22 kg) of dry weight in 14 days. the pot should be left in total darkness for the whole time of curing. I had to be careful not to pull the plants down too soon�act too early and mold can still break out in your buds. you take the heaps of harvested pot inside the shed and hang the plants up by strings or rope. The following season I developed a method that for my purposes was perfect. drying them as it went. you are losing and damaging the most valuable part: the trichomes! What I didn�t do the first season was build myself a drying shed.
I used to be very partial to making extracted THC oil using solvents. I ran standard 6-inch diameter clothingdryer ducting from the generator shed into the drying shed. I have seen this at work on-site in the Canadian outback.000 pounds of it�with the 20-gallon Bubblebag� ice-cold extraction system. within the bush for the second season even though it . What I would do with my next crop is process the shake�as I had had over 2. inline fans. fast. Pot damaged by mold is redeemed in some small way when put in the ice-cold extraction bags. I learned from my first season growing in the bush that there are huge losses involved in poor planning. and supplies are always scarce. With this set-up. and to change oil every 12 hours�I could dry 50 pounds in three days. because mold is rendered harmless and is separated from the trichomes through this method. The de-humidifiers would remove moisture from the shed and then the cool air was sucked back into the generator shed. safe and clean as to be unbeatable. With the generator going 24 hours a day� only stopping the machine to clear vapor locks from the fuel lines. and although the plant material was fresh (it�s better to be dry for the Bubblebags�). but the ice cold water extraction method is so convenient. it is still a very efficient and very flexible method for fresh-cut trim. which started at around 3. I found that leaving them in the bags for a few weeks tended to make the quality a little better. and then wrapped them in industrial cling wrap. to repeat the process. and successful. The generator had electric lines going to a heap of power outlets that connected industrial fans. They could be stored like this for weeks or months. single-handedly drying the entire crop (about 300 pounds dry. I was able to stay anonymous.I had also brought in a large generator to make the drying shed more efficient. hot dry air would be sucked into the drying shed. with another length of ducting carrying the cool moist air from the drying shed back to the generator so it could pump a constant stream of warm dry air to the harvested plants. When it was time to carry out the finished product. I put the buds into chaff bags. de-humidifiers and three fluorescent lights controlled by a switch. and the product is very quickly turned over as the demand for bubble-hash is great. circulated by the big industrial fans. tied the tops.000 pounds of wet bud) without any help at all.
Learn from my experiences and next season you can do as I did. scaling harvesting requirements to your ability. and curing your cannabis to a perfect smoke. .often rained heavily in the final weeks.
Goodster was getting the very last drop of the honey oil from the Pringles can�which they unwisely used to contain the butane and plant matter� when it jarred on a metal table and created a spark. much inadequate and misguided information has circulated. and recreational use of cannabis was unusual outside of jazz clubs and working-class black and Hispanic neighborhoods. and what to do right When making cannabis oil or extractions. Never assume! Up In Smoke Cafe proprietor Chris �Goodster� Goodwin is a honey oil head. used for medicinal extracts from 1913 to 1938. that attended university chemistry classes during the day and �studied� cannabis at night. the duo decided to make honey oil. heat. Early oilmaking technology like the ISO2 extractor were massproduced. are easily confused about explosive chemicals. �It would have been fine if the bottom of the Pringles can wasn�t metal . there have been hundreds of weed-oil explosions throughout North America over the last 30 years. The LaGuardia Mayor�s Committee provided cannabis extracts to New York City prisons in the 1930�s and 40�s. Fans still blew behind him as he checked out the end product. When making extractions. by 1977. he lit a joint� and BOOM! The spark ignited fumes in the air and nearly blew him apart. was printing almost a million copies. He had been standing in the fan�s air path and assumed he was safe. Every cannabis chemist we spoke to has an explosion story. Stepping slightly back from the table. The invention of the Internet accelerated the exchange of oil-making ideas. and/or occasionally leave the Volcano vaporizer on until the balloon is about to burst. The process had been completed. For example. Cannabis extracts revived in the 1970�s facilitated by High Times Magazine. Eli Lily supplied the Office of Strategic Services (now the Central Intelligence Agency) with �potent marijuana oil created as a truth drug for interrogation purposes�. I found it impossible to locate a cannabis alchemist who isn�t sporting burn scars or fondly recalling the time so-and-so went up in flames. �red oil concentrates were used along with marijuana� to get the prisoners to talk about crimes or provide information they had not yet confessed. Michigan with plants known as Cannabis Americana. but since the heyday of THC extraction in the 1970�s. an old friend of mine was making oil outside with butane. 2006) A few examples of what can go wrong. The extraction-makers we profile in this article are all smart stoners. There are many ways to mess up! The original reefer revolutionaries of cannabis extraction were scientists. and a hazardous environment requires attentiveness. but the gear hadn�t been put away. After smoking a doobie with his friend one night and eating Pringles potato chips in the parents� basement. Brian. Consequently. partial neighborhood blocks going up in flames. and Chris Goodwin all faced serious cannabis catastrophe. and sold extensively. have difficulty following directions. If you�re slightly careless with measurements. such as those employed by Eli Lily and Parke-Davis Company up to 1938. Eli Lily and Parke-Davis jointly ran a farming co-operative in Rochester. (LaGuardia report) Medicinal cannabis extracts disappeared from store shelves in 1937. resulting in completely blown-up houses. severe physical burns. and even death� which are all tragedies used as arguments by prohibitionists against marijuana use in general. yet Puff Mama. you MUST approach with caution. the objective is to get really high�safely. DO NOT MAKE MARIJUANA EXTRACTS! Controlling solvents. which.How To Make Weed Oil Without Blowing Yourself Up by Matt Mernagh (19 Sept. You must be ultra-careful when making oil with solvents. advertised in High Times. life-threatening injuries.
it creates fumes that can ignite an explosion with even the smallest spark or flame. like moonshining. should be done far away from other people so if something goes wrong you�re the only one to suffer the consequences. but it went WHOOSH again!� Luckily. All cannabis cooking. As it runs through the . After 30 to 60 minutes all the resin was transferred to the remaining alcohol in the basin. �The base sparked on the table and the thing just went WHOOOSH. It is HIGHLY recommended that you always make oil OUTSIDE! When alcohol or gas is heated. and then the alcohol evaporated into the air or was heated gently until only the THC oil remained. Slowly pour isopropyl alcohol up to a level slightly above the top of the trimmings. When you�re planning to make weed oil with isopropyl alcohol (99. without setting oneself on fire. and very carefully pour the butane down the tube. Had Goodster gone to science class a few more times he might have learned better safety precautions and obtained the necessary glassware required to contain the volatile oilmaking mix of plant matter and butane! If you�re serious about making honey oil. they managed to put out the fire. Fumes can also cut off the flow of oxygen to the brain. which then dropped into the alcohol. �Naturally. Then place it on your heat source. Eliminating solvents just perfectly. The ISO2 was a fairly safe extracting device with a light bulb under the base connected to a dimmer switch. Use a lava lamp stand. The runnier or greener the oil is.� Goodster says. is a critical part of the process. The vapors came out of a twelveinch tower of carbon. inert and odorless. and packing tape�not duct tape. a coffee machine base. Allow for a complete evaporation of solvents before harvesting your oil from the container. obtain three glass beakers or bowls. and attach a non-metal screen to the bottom with packing tape. so in the ISO2 the vapor �melted� the resin. this is VERY important!).7%).too. When alcohol is heated it turns into a vapor and rises. Pour the liquid into a new container and back into another. stirring as the alcohol slowly evaporates. you use the same sort of process. Position the tube in or above a large glass container. Suspended above the alcohol was a halforb mesh strainer filled with marijuana. which can result in the chemist pass-ing out onto their lab equipment� so make sure you wear a gas mask. similar to a lava lamp. the poorer the quality. Pour the liquid through the screen into a second piece of glassware. and gently shake the container to coat the marijuana with alcohol. Set up somewhere with ample ventilation and more than one exit. because THC resin is heavier than alcohol or butane gas (which is also used to make oil�we�ll go over that soon) it will sink to the bottom of the new glass container. Many cannabis cookers work with two fans behind them to keep fumes going downwind. or something else that creates heat with NO open flame (this is VERY important). Fill a tube or hose-like container with trim or bud. Alcohol (99. until the color of the liquid begins to change to amber. To make oil with butane. the resins take on a dark brown color characteristic of hash oil. invest money into ordering proper lab equipment online or from a science retailer. In your chosen well-ventilated spot.7% isopropyl) was placed in the basin of the metal container and heated by the bulb underneath. You will need a SAFE heat source to make oil. fill one piece of glassware with plant matter and secure the mesh screen over the top with packing tape. some mesh screen that is NOT made of metal (once again. which are widely available these days. As this happens.� the sound Goodster uses to describe the flaming experience of honey oil going off in his face. How to Make Oil The cannabis chemist is seeking to obtain the purest THC content for their oil while also providing a sweet taste to their product. I dropped the can. even outdoors.
Her new store Clandestiny is a hemp-friendly location with plenty of treats. Since then she�s opened Clandestiny and offers baked goods for sale (see her ad at the beginning of the magazine). Puff also turned her tragedy into a marijuana opportunity by hosting an extravagant fundraising effort to pay her kitchen replacement and legal bills. Cookie at �Clandestiny�. Toronto Police. While making oil. Upon his release. He also has a respectable ten years� experience in the oil business. Canada. her kitchen was ruined and she was charged for �possession�. Ontario hospital where he spent weeks in intensive care. but his hands became a fireball that quickly covered his entire body. Cookie. With cannabis use and tender loving care. Take the bowl and repour it through the tube into another container. when she came home from a pleasant meal she found her home on fire. chemicals and/or debris. one year later Brian is healthy and looks scar-free. and stainless steel pots and pans. the flammable substance he was evaporating suddenly went one degree too hot� and BOOM! The oil burst into flames and he threw the pot from the stove. he turned his personal tragedy into opportunity by becoming a super-chef supplier of baked goods: Mr. 768 Queen Street East in Toronto. After his recovery. then the Toronto Police showed up and cleaned out the contents of her fridges. fans. His burns and injuries were so life threatening he was flown 150 miles to a Hamilton. She has a pro kitchen with two stoves. wondering. She realized that when she ran out the door to see her mom.trimmings. his hands were a �peelingbandaged. but unfortunately that ended one fateful day in 2005. spider mites. She knew it was safe to turn the stove heat down to LOW and leave for a bit. Puff Mama decided to go out and have sushi with her mom while a batch of cannabutter slowly simmered in a pot on the stove. Ontario. two fridges. and repeat the process until the residue begins to take on a deep amber color.horror-moviemess� and he is permanently physically scarred by his fiery experience. You can experience delicious treats from Mr. which can be used in any food preparation (and this. and what remains will be sweet honey oil! Mr. resin glands are dissolved along the way and carried out with the butane. Then follow the same heating and evaporation process as isopropyl. an air conditioner. Puff Mama reminds everyone to make sure you watch the heat! CannaButter Ingredients: � 1 lb unsalted butter � dried cannabis (see * below) � 4 . But being a weed wizard indeed. She�s also a pot professional with a disastrous cannabiscooking story of her own to tell. she accidentally turned the stove on HIGH! The Toronto Fire Department had arrived to put out the fire. Of course. Here Puff Mama shares her recipe for cannabutter. ala Emeril or The Iron Chef.5 L water . which he did often. �how does she get pot into muffins and chocolate? � Because of a simple mistake. Cookie�s Misfortune Brian is a great chef who knows how to cook up a storm. Puff Mama�s �Burning Down The House� CannaButter Puff Mama is another talented cannabis chef. Unfortunately. It should be ground up to crumbs. but not dust. is how pot gets in chocolate!) All cannabis used for cooking should be fully dried and free of mold.
Rum. and all the THC is in the butter.8 hours. put the colander over the second pot or bowl. Using the spoon. The butter and water will separate. put the pot on a large element on the lowest setting possible. The butter will want to cling between the leaves. Don�t let the sides fall in. slowly pour the brew into the cheesecloth. rye. 4) Wrap the mixture tight and squeeze every last drop of juice out. If you don�t plan to use it within a week. leaves Mild potency use: 225 grams Strong potency use: 450 g Mostly leaves. and a steak will go nicely with cannabis brandy sauce! Mixing store-bought alcohol with bud is rather easy. brandy. trim from buds Mild: 28 g Strong: 56 g Regular cannabis buds Mild: 14 g Strong: 28 g Powerful cannabis or hash Mild: 7 g Strong: 14 g Directions: 1) Place butter. Line it with a large piece of cheesecloth. 3) When you are ready to strain. it�ll safely dissolve THC from cannabis over several days. Canna-Rum or Cooking Brandy A mint julip packs a bit more punch if you replace the mint with bud. Use the potato masher against the colander to squeeze out the precious juices. whisky. Stir every 1/2 hour.� 1 large stockpot � a 2nd pot or large bowl � a colander (spaghetti strainer) that will fit in the 2nd pot or bowl � a large piece of cheesecloth � a big spoon and potato masher * If you have: Stems. then refrigerate the liquid in the pot. Tequila is an excellent alcohol for absorbing THC. You can dump the water and store the butter in the fridge. some stems Mild: 120 g Strong: 250 g Leaves. cannabis. vodka. and if you leave it for up to three months. as butter will go bad. and water in a large stockpot. 2) Simmer for 6 . 5) Throw out the contents of the cheesecloth. Irish cream�whatever you like. freeze it. you get a . seeds.
Several Compassion Clubs began canna-spray research using Jamaican 150-proof rum to dissolve the plant trimmings. (Though the cannabis community showed some astonishment regarding the uniformity of Sativex�. and that�s why we don�t use leaf. If you put shit in. ala Romans versus Catholics. Pharmaceuticals because they produce Sativex� in legal environs while compassionate chemists in Ontario. that alcohol was neither a suitable medicinal binding agent nor strong enough for med pot patients. �You can use them anyway you like. or those just seeking a good night�s sleep! However. California. Sativex and Cannabis Sprays The Canadian medical marijuana movement has many clubs producing their own medical sprays. just drop the buds right down the neck of the bottle. �What you want is an euphoric state. is the only corporation in the world permitted to legally grow voluminous amounts of cannabis. the historical information available suggests that cannabis spray uniformity has been around since the turn of the century. G. Unfortunately. This reefer religion stronghold�s tinctures are so powerful that only a few members opt to use them. and other med-pot jurisdictions are doing so without permits. With government licenses. Pharmaceuticals. Most compassion clubs now use medical or food-grade alcohol to make their tinctures and mists. we had a lovely summer drink using the tincture with lemons. ganja generic knocks-offs from Compassion Clubs taste. people could be perfecting cannabis sprays for the benefit of the ill. �Just yesterday.� Clearly not intended for newbies. you need to get about ten to fifteen very dry. The bud creates a more lucid state.W. they allow several days of extraction and/or cooking. the makers of Sativex� prescription cannabis spray. And they�re not doing so for medical reasons: this tincture is for Spiritual Exploration. Though patients have the option of getting a Sativex� prescription. The Sacrificial Tinctures of G-13 Located in the hippie enclave of Toronto�s Beaches neighborhood. Purchase all the ingredients for your desired drink and obtain about 1/4 to a half ounce of primo bud. and mist better. well-cured smaller buds into a bottle of booze. and to experience the entire spiritual aspects of the cannabis plant.proof food-grade alcohol to the Church for their tinctures. The G -13 Church of the Universe produces the finest religious tinctures while fighting The Man. this will transfer the THC into the alcohol.� he explains of the sacrificial substance. Reverend Peter says the Church is really . Oregon. Sativex� is the only pharmaceutical spray on the market using whole cannabis resin extract. British Columbia. bust down and stabilize the molecular structure. which is what the five per cent of people who use the tinctures are looking for.) The unfair advantage goes to G. the more it will break down and release its many valuable cannabinoids. Reverend Peter of the G-13 Church of the Universe says. G-13 prefers food-grade alcohol to break down their product versus 150-proof rum. medicate.very powerful and smooth drink. the tinctures can also be mixed into summer drinks. as those who down a whole tincture are known to trance out into a lucid commune-with. you get shit out.W.God state.� The local liquor outlet sells 95. If possible. The longer the cannabis is in the liquor. trying to avoid disturbing the resin glands. and sell it. To make canna-liquor. Trim to fit if need be! Shake�do not stir�the bottle every day once the bud is inside. but we use only the finest of bud. at affordable prices too. And it�s no secret we�re following Ed Rosenthal�s recipes. but one spray can costs $125 in Canada (the only market where it is prescribed legally).
�Just always use great bud. it�s really very good.� . then we can use it for making chocolates.� he concludes. bhangs� and some people even put it in their coffee. �We cook it for five days. There�s no secret here. Just dump some oil in.getting famous for its extra-virgin olive oil.
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