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as preparing a site and planting some seeds. Planting outdoors needn't be as complicated as many make it. Far too much emphasis these days is placed on cloning, when growing from seed is infinitely more interesting. Direct seeding outdoors may not be for everyone, but it is certainly a simple and time honoured method of growing our favourite plant. Why direct seeding? In nature, female cannabis plants grow together with their male counterparts, becoming impregnated by the golden pollen come fall. As the calyx shrinks back and starts to rot away at the end of the season, the mature seed falls to the ground, where it remains until conditions are right for its germination. One of the main effects of cloning is that each plant is exactly the same as its sibling. While this may be an advantage indoors, it can work against you outdoors. A strain's gene pool provides the ability to adapt to different climates and conditions. For example, we might have a very wet autumn one year, causing a large outbreak of Botrytis (mold) in your bud. Out of one hundred plants grown from seed, twenty of them may be relatively free of mold, while the others are destroyed. These twenty plants have some inherited trait making them resistant to Botrytis, and this adaptability is what allows plants to reproduce and survive from year to year under varying conditions. Should you have chosen only two mothers and cloned from them, the odds are that you would have suffered a full crop loss. This genetic diversity is much more pronounced in true breeding lines rather than F1 hybrids, but luckily this works with us as many of the available outdoor seed strains are in fact true breeding. One reason to choose direct seeding over simply starting plants from seed under lights and then transplanting them outside is that a plant's roots adjust to the conditions it grows in. For example, the roots of plants grown in a hydroponics set-up will not perform well if suddenly placed in soil. Plants started inside are spoiled, they are given water whenever they want it, never being forced to do anything for themselves. Then they are thrown outside one day, and left at the mercy of Mother Nature. Plants seeded outside develop roots suited to their exact soil and moisture conditions, never producing more plant mass than the roots can support. In most areas, directly seeded cannabis need never be watered throughout the season, though irrigation will of course increase yield, especially during flowering. Direct seeding also eliminates the carrying of suspicious and cumbersome boxes of plants into hard to reach areas, a major hassle of guerrilla growing. Choosing a Location Once you have a general idea of where you want to grow, a good place to visit is your local university, library or map supplier. Here you can find detailed topographical maps of the area, as well as soil maps indicating whether it is suitable for growing (many soil maps will indicate whether an area is farmable). Look for areas with some access to water in case of drought.
River valleys are ideal locations as good soil usually accumulates there, and there is also easy access to water. If planting in valleys, make sure not to choose a location at the very bottom, as this is where frost will settle. Preparing the Site Ideally, the site should be prepared the previous summer or fall, giving organic fertilizers time to break down into useable nutrients and eliminating hectic spring preparations. This is especially important when direct seeding, as turning the soil right before planting dries out the top layer, losing precious moisture needed for germination. Stay clear of blood and bone meal, as they attract bears, raccoons and a host of other creatures to the site, where they will dig up plants and destroy seedlings while searching for the source of the smell. Other things to avoid are perlite, vermiculite and rockwool, as they stand out like a sore thumb in the off-season, attracting the attention of potential thieves of next year's crop. Dig holes or trenches two to three feet deep, and at least two feet wide. A good mix of several organic fertilizers is the best bet, as different ingredients release fertilizers at different rates. Worm castings and sheep manure are good sources for nitrogen, as well as having excellent waterholding capacities. However, be careful not to overdo it with manure, as a large amount of the nitrogen is in the ammonium form, which will cause stretched, disease-susceptible plants in too large a dose. Phosphorous is best supplied with rock phosphate or bat guano, or a mixture of both. Follow recommended label rates, and again, be careful not to overdo. Although phosphorous is necessary for proper growth of cannabis, too much emphasis is placed on it in marijuana cultivation. Excess amounts lead to long internodes and acidified soil. Potassium can be added with the addition of muriate of potash, kelp meal or wood ash. Care is needed here as overdoing an application can raise your soil EC too high, burning your plants, especially delicate seedlings. This applies to kelp meal in particular, as it also contains large amounts of sodium. A final addition beneficial to most soils is dolomite or horticultural lime, which keeps your ph in check as well as supplying calcium and magnesium. If in doubt of your soil ph, simply mix some soil with a similar amount of distilled water, let it sit for thirty minutes, and then check with a ph meter or test strip. Anything between 5.5 and 7 will work fine for our purposes. In a commercial garden it might make sense to send a soil sample to be tested, especially if using the same spot for several years. This can be done at any agricultural university or a variety of businesses advertised in gardening magazines. Simply tell them it is for your vegetable garden and ask for organic recommendations. Sowing your seed This technique is best used by those who have access to a large amount of seeds. If you only have a pack of ten seeds do not even bother. A minimum sowing should be about 40 to 50 seeds for a small crop, as many will not germinate and about half will be male. For best results, soak seeds the night before in a covered glass of water, and then plant outside, pointed end up, at a spacing of about one seed for every four inches of area. Seeds can be planted anywhere from 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches deep depending on soil type � too shallow a planting will cause poor germination due to lack of moisture. Soil temperature is the major determining factor in deciding when to sow � it is best to wait until it
has reached 10-12�C (50-54�F). A soil thermometer can be obtained from many garden supply stores for about thirty dollars, or just use your judgement. Generally you want to plant about two weeks before you would normally transplant clones or seedlings. Small seedlings are actually much more cold-hardy than their adult counterparts, Indicas more so than Sativas due to the cold springs where they originate. Fungicides should not be needed provided the soil is properly warmed. If damping off does become a problem, drench with chamomile tea or no-damp. Thinning It is usually necessary to thin crowded or weak plants about a month after planting, but be careful not to pull too many before males indicate. Once all males are removed you want to be left with only vigorous plants, spaced wide enough to reach their maximum potential, yet close enough to make efficient use of your area. Outdoor threats Animals - Deer, rabbits and mice are the main menaces to a cannabis crop. Fences work, but can draw unwelcome attention to your garden. Luckily, the best defense is invisible � simply add scent to your garden that animals relate to predators. Fox or coyote urine can be bought from hunting supply stores (usually fall only), spray it around your plants on a regular basis and mice and rabbits will quickly vacate the area. Small pieces of soap placed or hung around the perimeter works well for repelling deer. It is important to scent the area well before you plant and a good idea to change brands of soap every three weeks so animals do not become accustomed to the scent. Flower Police - Police helicopters in most areas go up towards the end of August and are usually winding down by the third week of September. For the most part they simply act as common thieves, grabbing and running. Arrests are rare, but they have been known to stake out large crops. Always completely check out the surrounding area before entering a garden. Other Thieves - Not much you can do about these low-lifes other than tell no one about the garden, camouflage it well and leave no trails. Choosing a Strain Two things make direct seeding much easier: producing your own seed and growing a pure breeding strain. Luckily these go hand in hand, and many of today's outdoor strains are true breeding (although this is rarely advertised by seed companies). True breeding strains such as Durban, Early Girl or Holland's Hope are an advantage as the plants will all sex out and mature at the same time, minimizing trips to the garden. Once you have found a strain you like, stick with it and keep records, this way you will know from one year to the next when it is time to pull males or harvest. Other issues to look at are mold susceptibility, maturity dates, where it was bred and personal preference. Generally Sativas or strains with Ruderalis in them are less susceptible to molds because of their airier bud structure, while dense Indica-type floral clusters take a long time to dry after a rain, giving mold spores plenty of time to germinate. Maturity dates will vary depending on your latitude, most strains sold for outdoors generally finish from about September 5 to October 15. Keep in mind that even if you can have plants out into mid-October, the light level diminishes quickly after the
Try to select at least a few male plants and pollinate limbs on as many females as is convenient. This works well for separating the seed as well as collecting a tasty sample of trichomes as reward for your hard work. For outdoor strains it is best to pollinate about three weeks before harvest. Once your males begin to show. it is time to take control of your own seed supply. Never underestimate the damage potential of a bag of pollen in an unseeded garden. Paper bags are good for collection of pollen. This allows colas some time to fill out before pollination as well as providing seeds with plenty of time to ripen properly. with the fate of Dutch seed companies up in the air. and heavy rains are much more likely. Providing they are vigorous and to your liking. transplant them to a location well away from any sinsemilla crops where they can be grown on until pollen release. simply choose your nicest male plant from one strain and cross it with a choice female of another. If making an F1 hybrid. Pollen may also be very carefully painted onto pistils with a small brush. If you grow in the same region year after year your strain will gradually become acclimatized to your particular climate.second or third week of September. Saving Your Seed Especially now. . this will keep the gene pool somewhat diverse. both of which will adversely affect yields. dry bud until very dry then rub between your palms over a stretched silk screen. Seed should be allowed to dry for at least a month then stored in a cool dry place with some dessicant until later use. these can then simply be tied tightly over female colas and left for three days to kill any unused pollen. When removing seed from ripened colas.
To this mix a specific dry fertilizer may be added. Even the good local products tend to skimp on some of their ingredients. It is up to the consumer to shop around in their area and get familiarized with the brands available in the local market. Superior soil It is possible to grow plants in specially prepared soil that will require no fertilizers in the water later on. granulated charcoal. photos by Barge (04 May. Quite the contrary. in my opinion. Green manure. well. fish. Most are not completely organic and may contain unwanted chemicals. About 10% of the finished product is made up of some kind of organic compost. bats. Actual organic earth allows buds to produce flavours. For soil used in the bud cycle it's the opposite . tastes and effects which cannot yet be reproduced in hydroponic systems. there are many on the market. . that do make clean products. Any rich green manure will do. the resulting success becomes evident. depending on if the soil will hold a plant in vegetative or flower cycle. It is a large consumer market to be explored. Then worm castings are mixed in to about 15% of the finished product. produce the highest quality. birds. The bulk of the mix � about 70% of the finished product � is made up of equal parts peat or sphagnum moss (I prefer coarse cut sphagnum moss) and perlite. The perfectly moistened mix will hold together as clumps when squeezed but will not release any more than a drop or two of water. happy buds. soil is not meant to be a sterile medium. There are some smaller companies up and down the West Coast. among other areas. For soil used in the vegetative stage I like to add more worm castings than bat/seabird guano. or bat/seabird guano or seaweed for that matter. My preference is for the most natural and organic substance available. or rich�composted plant matter. if the store clerk says anything to the affect of: "chemical or compost. When one gets to know one's local products well and gets the mix down just right. The two main additives I use are worm castings and a bat/seabird guano mix. Many fertilizers are made from industrial chemical sources and do not. it don't make no difference." then you are not in a reliable organic garden supply store. washed sand and volcanic ash.more bat/seabird guano than worm castings. practice makes perfect. 2001) The right soil and nutrients are key components to having phat. The following is a simple recipe for a soil mix that has proven successful for me in the past. These come from the more obvious natural sources such as worms. This is why I like to supplement any commercial soil I use.Root your toot by DJ Short. is another excellent source of food for plants. The final 5% is made up of a mixture of about equal parts trace mineral elements. plants and seaweed. As for where to find a reliable organic garden supply store. either green or brown. the best soils are very much alive and thriving. The mixture then needs to be moistened. There are a number of such commercial and specialty brands of potting soil on the market today. The more natural elements are by far preferred. As with many other aspects of life. The best indoor buds are soil grown. Organic manic As for nutrients and supplements. Unlike hydro systems.
Another method is to use the full amount of nutrient in a smaller amount of water to create a concentrate. The steeping takes anywhere from one day to several days. Beneficial nematodes are cultivated and sold live. N stands for Nitrogen. These numbers represent the ratio of nitrogen. and K levels. Nematodes and tea Teas made from bat/bird guano and/or worm castings and/or green manure are an excellent source of organic nutrient. Finding the "perfect amount" to add will take some practice. These microscopic. Another great additive for the organic garden are beneficial nematodes. P stands for Phosphorous and K stands for Potassium. Though "foliar feeding" does work. A B-vitamin hormone such as Super Thrive may be given up to the last week. Therefore. usually refrigerated. An additive I like to use with every fertilizing is a Bvitamin hormone supplement such as Super Thrive. . Prepare a container with enough water for a full watering. or some other porous medium. but sometimes green as with green manures). High nitrogen. I tend to avoid doing it due to the fact that the foliage is inevitably going to be smoked. It is important to use them immediately when they are ready. low phosphorous. The concentrate is then added to the full amount of water for watering. In contrast. and to not allow them to stand too long and stagnate. Nutrient knowledge The primary knowledge concerning fertilizer and nutrient (other than its source) are its N. These teas are simple to make and easy to use. I like to end all nitrogen to the plant at least five to six weeks prior to harvest. Most fertilizers have a number consisting of three numbers such as: 30-10-10. Foliar feeding during the vegetative stage on the larger shade leaves that will be discarded is a relatively safe practice. That is 30 parts N (nitrogen)-10 parts P (phosphorous)-10 parts K (potassium) is what is in a 30-10-10 fertilizer. not to use the foliar feeding method on any part of the plant that is destined to be consumed. living organisms are found at the more complete organic garden centers. it is important. The nutrient is allowed to sit and "steep" in the water releasing the nutrients' water soluble properties. high potassium fertilizers promote lush flower. and most are organic. They usually come in a sponge.Some people choose to feed their plants by spraying a nutrient solution onto the plant and having it absorbed through the foliage. This product helps the plant better metabolize its nutrient uptake. low nitrogen. add the bat/bird guano. when it is finally consumed. bud and fruit growth in the bud or flower cycle. The tea is applied the same way the water is during watering. It is only necessary to use a small portion each time as they will reproduce profusely if properly introduced into the soil. And I like to end all additives to the plant two to three weeks prior to harvest. There is no guarantee as to how much residue remains upon the foliage. P. The teas are considered fresh when made. phosphorous and potassium (in that order) in the product. The tea will color the water similar to the shade of the nutrient (usually brown. or what exactly that residue may be. or 5-37-15. especially during the flowering stage. low potassium fertilizers stimulate foliar and stem growth in the vegetative stage. But I highly recommend a pure water flush for at least the last two watering times. high phosphorous. This is the preferred method of adding organic nutrient during watering. worm castings and/or green manure to the water. They must be kept refrigerated until they are ready to be used. Next. These are the three main nutrients that plants need to thrive.
. rockwool. These are the basics when it comes to growing medium. when grown outdoors in the right environment the finished bud is usually superior to its identical twin grown indoors. However. Once in the soil. Most hydroponic systems provide nutrients via the water that is passed over the rocks several times daily. as well. but they are much less common. Also. The entrepreneurs in the hydroponic industry are striving for the most natural hydro system. The incessant regimen tends to produce more of a bland finished product. volcanic pumice.A small portion of the nematode colony is simply introduced into the water. wick and various other passive systems. the pots and medium that hold the roots of the plants. Most systems also utilize a timer to automate this process. spores. a pump (or pumps). while leaving the plant to thrive. Gravel. The plant does not have to put as much energy into its roots and therefore has more energy for foliar and bud growth. and bacteria.not too hot. This information was gained via experimentation on advice given to me in the past. however. That is. These systems consist of a reservoir. Hydroponic systems are famous for producing the largest amount of foliage and fruit. There are also ebb and flow. The same can be said about indoor versus outdoor growth. yet to sample a hydroponic grown product that surpassed a soil grown product in overall quality and flavor. the roots are regularly aerated and thus have excellent oxygen exposure. and soaked into the soil. not too cold) with or without the organic fertilizer. and are experimenting with many new nutrient products to achieve this end. the nematodes do their thing by multiplying and consuming the things detrimental to the plant. Hydro Power Hydroponic medium is any sterile medium that will hold some water. and some way for the water to flow. insect larvae. or be pumped. Ideally. I have. (tepid . mold. The water soluble nutrient is mixed with the water in the reservoir and delivered to the plants via the pump and tubing several times a day. but once every month or two is sufficient. perlite. PVC pipe. back into the reservoir. rock corn and sand are some examples of hydroponic mediums. tubing to carry the fluid to the plants. but allows water and air to pass through. nutrient and additives. such as fungus. beneficial nematodes may be added as often as desired. Now it is your turn.
They will each need five or more drainage holes to be added to their bottom.Sprouting and planting by DJ Short (24 Aug. 2000) How to turn your seeds into healthy young plants Sprouting the seeds My preferred method of seed sprouting is the wet paper towel method. These cups can be bought cheaply in bulk amounts at any discount or grocery store.the plants that develop from these stubborn sprouts are usually very desirable. I would also like to point out that though this phenomenon is rare. Take six sheets of white (nonprinted) paper towel and fold them to a roughly five by six inch square (about 24 layers thick). I like to bury them right up to the head of the plant so the head is right at the soil level. (On some occasions I've had seeds take up to two weeks to sprout. So keep a watchful eye open in a warmer situation. I like to wait for the root to grow an inch or two before transplanting the sprouts to soil (while keeping the paper towel pad continuously moist with water until this time). so be patient!) I have found the ideal temperature for sprouting most seeds to be around average room temperature (70-78�F or 21-25�C) . I like to use small. the sprout will grow root. One more bit of advice concerns certain seeds which do not want to release from their shell. It is important to gently water and feed the sprouts from this point on so as not to disturb the new roots too much. It takes a very gentle yet firm hand to remove the shell without damaging or killing the plant. I have found the common turkey-baster to be of great value for this purpose. Again. Shelled sprouts I've found that these rare anomalies need help in shedding their shell or sheath in order to survive. A great substitute for planting pots are the sixteen to twenty-four ounce disposable plastic drink cups. practice is the best guide for this skill. especially if breeding is intended with the sprouts. The seeds will sprout. fungus and bacteria levels. The method of planting into soil that I use is very basic and simple to understand. two to four inch pots. Under the shell is a thin sheath that may also need coaxing to get off. the seeds crack open along their seam and send out a white root. The shell seems to harden on the head of the sprout. When I do set the sprouts to soil. So it is worth the effort. Keep the pad wet and the seeds will usually sprout in one to ten days. Though higher temperatures may hasten the sprouting time. Stacking ten to twenty cups at a time will hasten this process. Soak this square pad in pure water and place the seeds in the center fold. However the seed shell does not come off of the sprout on its own. the heat will also increase mold. Roots and planting pots At first. with twelve layers both above and below. . this can easily be done with an electric drill and a quarter to a three-eights inch drill bit. and it transplants fine. eventually causing its death if not properly dealt with.
and transfer it to the moist. Water and soil Next. it is time to moisten it. Grow flats and turkey basters I'll put anywhere from one to two dozen cups or pots per standard grow flat (or tray). Carefully guide the root tip all the way down the hole. the root is running down the hole and the sprout head is above and as near to the soil level as possible. it's time to begin the planting process. pre-made hole in the soil. Take one sprout at a time from the paper towel. The turkey baster is also useful for sucking the excess water from the bottom of the grow flat. Despite the fact that the soil is saturated to its maximum capacity. into the middle of the soil. usually a high nitrogen variety for sprouts. Be certain that the root tip is pointing down and not curved up in what is called a J root. Once the sprout is situated in its hole. the soil may be gently packed around the sprout stem to hold it firmly in place. Next. New roots will sprout and grow from the soil-covered stem in a week or two. Hydro sprouting . In one to two weeks. It is also important not to leave any standing water in the grow flat. when a gentle touch is still beneficial. This tip helps deal with the problem of spindly plants by giving them more base support during their early development. The common turkey-baster is once again the best tool available to evenly soak all of the cups or pots. as deep as the sprout roots are long. the sprouts will need to be watered. handling it as gently as possible by the stem just below the sprout head. J root may be fatal to the sprout. Just prior to this saturation point. This step also promotes and stimulates adequate root growth. I like to use a standard chopstick to poke a hole. they will not need watering again until after the soil dries a little. Once the sprouts are adequately set in the moisture-saturated soil. This is to allow for more soil to be added later as the main stem grows. It is after this time that more soil may be added to help give the sprout more stability and root room.The cup or pot is filled with the soil mix. to help hasten its dry time. Into each hole more nutrient solution is added to fully soak the medium and prepare it for the sprout. Larger operations may require some kind of pump and tubing device to aid in the watering. and the soil is gently yet thoroughly tapped and shaken down to fill all vacant spaces equally. the healthy sprouts will stretch and grow up over the top of the cup or pot. The baster is handy for the first few waterings. Once the entire flat is ready. If the grow flat and all of the pots are relatively clean. The soil level should end up to be two-thirds to three quarter of the cup or pot capacity. Once the soil is sufficiently tapped down to at least two-thirds full. I'll fill the appropriate sized bucket or container with the water/nutrient mix. This again is gently and carefully done using the turkey baster (or whatever gentle watering device is available) as a watering tool. this first watering helps stabilize the root in the soil. then any excess solution may be re-used until all of the soil is at its fullest saturation point. using the chopstick if necessary. there should be an adequate space between the top of the soil and the top of the cup or pot. In other words.
The seeds will sprout and root automatically in this porous and nutrient-rich medium. Ideally. Tying the plants up to stakes will be the only way to deal with stretched or spindly growth in the hydroponic system. Hydro systems often need extra supports. I like to transplant when the root system is semi-dry. New roots will quickly and eagerly find their way into the fresh. The medium in the larger container should be saturated to its maximum density with nutrient-rich water. semi-moist medium. When the white root wad is becoming entwined. As with the original planting. such as stakes or poles to hold the top-heavy. the fresh transplant is completely watered to its saturation point. This is evident by checking one or two of the average plants roots. it is time to transplant. The semidry rootwad is placed firmly into the saturated fresh medium. weak stemmed plants up. Hydro transplanting is also quite simple. and the loose soil is gently packed into place throughout. and accompanying growth will develop in the plant. I like to gently shake the soil fully into place and level the soil top by hand. Happy growing! . and the rest of the space in the larger pot is filled with fresh. new medium. a day or two before a usual watering. Transplant time Transplanting becomes necessary when the roots outgrow the medium. growing among itself and beginning to turn brown. the fresh medium will cover the old soil level by a bit.Hydroponic sprouting is as simple as placing a seed in a rockwool cube or fiber pellet and keeping it moist. Special care needs to be taken when transplanting into larger containers to avoid as much trauma as possible. The pellet is placed in a larger rockwool cube or gravel medium and the roots grow quickly into the new material.
Ever notice how as the warmer summer months approach. So if you are letting your day temperatures drop below 24�C or your night drop below 22�C. This final temperature change is not always feasible and can be omitted. especially with "purple" varieties. After this 2-3 week window we need to drop the night temperature back down to 22�C. use exhaust fans. tight internodes tight internodes Temperature control The easiest and most under-used way to control internodal stretch is temperature control. and max/min type thermometers are ideal for tracking temperatures. which is ideal as this is when cannabis stretches the most. Lets look at putting this to play in your grow room. making it a very important time to control temperature. When the light cycle is brought to 12/12 we will raise the night temperature to the daytime level of 24-25�C. 2000) Fine-tuning temperature and water for maximum quantity and quality. and 22�C when the lights are off. An ideal temperature range is 24-25�C when the lights are on. the greater your internode length will be. It is during the first 2-3 weeks of the flower cycle that most strains begin to lengthen internodes. you may consider dropping temperature down to 17-19�C for the final week or two. The opposite also holds true. photos by Barge (25 Apr. Maximum temperatures should ideally never rise above 26�C. more efficient buds. Space heaters on timers work well for this. but a larger factor is the increased difference between day and night temperatures. provided it does not exceed optimal. There are several ways to reduce internodal length and thus grow denser. The temperature technique is most effective under a 12/12 light regime.Control your cannabis by DMT. . etc). as this is where the plant is happiest. long internodes long internodes As floral development begins we need to keep in mind that the total size of your buds is determined largely by average daily temperature. your plants begin to stretch? Part of this problem may lie in an overall hotter grow-room. Plant internodal length is directly related to the difference between day and night temperatures � the warmer your day cycle is as compared to your night cycle. which intensifies the colour of the floral clusters and makes for a showier bud. you are costing yourself in overall weight and harvest. the closer your day and night temperatures. so you must do everything you can to prevent your room getting too hot (run lights at night. air conditioners. as this is when the framework for future colas is built. the shorter your internodes will be. This drop in temperature triggers anthocyanin production. Why waste light and electricity growing stem? Stretched-out plants are the bane of indoor growers. Once your buds have reached optimal size and and you have begun the flushing period.
Raising the salt level in the medium closer to that which is in the roots limits the water availability just the same as if we had provided less water. All of these ingredients should be available at your local hydroponics store. leaf chlorosis (yellowing) leaf chlorosis (yellowing) Moisture and conductivity Whether you're growing hydro or in soil.095 grams. you will see the internode length stretch dramatically compared to the ones on a regular fertilizer regime. using osmotic pressure to move water into the plant. There is also the chlorosis if this is done for too long. especially under artificial lighting. so when the medium's level of salt rises above the roots'.2 gram. Some things you will notice while using this technique are a change in the leaf angle. but different strains have different preferences. the ability of a plant to uptake water and nutrients from the growth medium. Both of these factors are controlling the same thing. A plant's roots act much like a pump.02 grams. and in order to do this it requires water. as even a zero difference between night and day temperatures will lead to leaf chlorosis (yellowing) after 2-3 weeks.8. mono potassium phosphate 2.25 grams. micromix . upwards during warm days and downwards during warm nights. In order for this to work there must be a larger concentration of fertilizer salts in the plant's roots than in the soil or hydroponic solution. potassium sulphate 9. but be very careful when running settings like this. (EC measures the level of fertilizer salts in the water. Neither of these symptoms is nutrient related and will fix themselves when the temperature is changed back. This can work for you by keeping your internodes close together. I would not recommend going above 3 or 4 EC. most of which have potassium to nitrogen ratios of 4:1. During the vegetative stage we want our plants to form very tight internodes. it is usually called "six pack formula". examples of long internodes (closeup) examples of long internodes (closeup) Hydroponic tomato growers sometimes will grow their transplants at extremely high EC's (up to 6 EC!) in order to get really nice stocky production plants. This is experimental! Do not try on all of your plants at once until you are sure your strain can handle it. or against you by limiting bud growth. Slowly raise your EC during veg stage. Both the amount of water you give your plants and the EC at which you grow them control the uptake of water. By limiting the amount of water available to a plant you limit the expansion of cells. potassium nitrate 0. Be sure to bring your EC back down once you enter floral stage. the plant will wilt. (Try this formula if you're interested: calcium nitrate 7 grams.For extreme height control you may even use warmer night temperature than day. Try growing one of your plants using straight water for a week or so. Most marijuana strains are happiest when grown at an EC of between 1. By allowing the EC to drop below ideal during this stage we are wasting valuable space growing stem instead of bud. by the time .) A plant grows by first dividing cells then expanding them. the electrical conductivity (EC) and moisture of your medium are two key elements that should be manipulated to meet your needs.5 and 1. magnesium sulphate 5 grams. much higher than normal. as too much nitrate at this high an EC will easily damage a plant. Please note that when doing this they use special nutrient formulas designed for this purpose.
8. This in not the case. As a general rule. during the vegetative stage you should keep your plants a little on the drier side as this will restrict cell elongation. creating a shorter noded plant structure capable of creating a dense bud cluster in the floral stage. Many growers are under the mistaken impression that the EC and pH of their nutrient solution remains the same when applied to the soil. while in soil we may also use the moisture level of the medium to the same ends. take a sample from the center of the root zone at the side of the pot (don't worry the torn roots will be fine). Once the time is up take an EC reading and multiply this number by 2. as the sudden change in salt level will harm the roots. The pH should also be checked at this time.tufts of pistils are visible you want to be at your ideal EC of 1. When growing hydroponically. It is not feasible in soil to maintain an exact EC at all times. Control your cannabis! .5-1. causing the EC to double or more. (Unless of course you are using the high EC method described above. A frequent mistake marijuana growers make is over-emphasizing the need for a plant grown in soil to dry out completely between waterings. examples of tight internodes (closeup) examples of tight internodes (closeup) To test your soil. as will having too high an EC in the medium. what we need to try and avoid is EC's climbing much above what we want and plants going for long periods with very low EC's. As soon as early flowering begins you need to increase soil moisture to a nice evenly moist (not soaked) level to maximize bud expansion. Growing marijuana too dry during this stage will adversely affect your overall yield. In these times of government oppression we must make the most efficient use of available growing space in order to produce the copious amounts of cannabis necessary to overflow the boundaries placed upon us. Keep in mind that if the soil has an EC of 1.) Try not to change the EC too quickly as a sharp drop can cause root damage. This also goes during your final flushing period when you want to eliminate all fertilizer from the medium � lower the EC over a couple of days. in this case you must not let your soil get too dry because of the increased fertilizer level you will create.4 (this takes into account the dilution and the pore space factor) this will give you an accurate picture of the EC the roots are actually being exposed to.8 and then dries out completely the amount of salt remains the same. and you must test the soil in order to have a true picture. Cannabis does like dry feet but this simply means that the root zone must not be kept extremely wet at all times. Mix the soil with 2 equal parts distilled water and let sit for 20 minutes. the only way of manipulating water availability is with the EC.) Maintain this level of moisture into the first 14 to 20 days of 12/12 to minimize internode stretch.
eliminating the need for watering altogether. are capable of blocking the aerobic quality of the hydro medium and suffocating the plant via its roots. Better still is to take the necessary precautions to insure that they don't begin. but learning to zero in on the optimum times to feed and water is dependent on this simple fact. When the root medium is heavy with moisture. the amount of light. the size of the plants. Algae can clog hydroponic medium and its tubing. Regard the process as an ongoing education. and other factors such as humidity and air pressure. Heavy soil is generally more moss than perlite and holds water longer. especially organic varieties.Feed your head-stash by DJ Short (27 Oct. 2000) Food and water are two critical components to a successful garden. Active hydro systems merely need the nutrient solution passed over the medium three or four times a day. and it will go fine. but it does require a care and attention to learn the needs of your plants. the reservoirs usually need to be topped off regularly. fungus and bacteria. As with any other aspect of this industry. where equal parts of perlite and coarse cut sphagnum moss make up about 70% of the overall mix. it may be heavy or light. In both types of hydro systems. These problems must be addressed immediately upon finding them. The optimum mix Soil mediums. A lighter soil is generally more perlite or vermiculite. This mix seems to be the . how recently they were planted or transplanted. Passive hydro systems allow the roots of the plant to reach the reservoir. then you have the optimum mix. It doesn't involve mysticism by any means. it doesn't. Depending on the "mix" of your soil. heat and ventilation in the room. Different needs will present themselves in regard to feeding and watering times. One of the simplest ways to increase the quantity of your harvest while maintaining quality is knowing the right times to water and feed. This is to help eliminate the nemesis to all hydro systems: algae. The difficulty is the many variables related to the problem. it needs water. and the nutrient solution will need to be changed at least once every two to three weeks. is of utmost importance. depending on the amount and type of medium. Different brands have different ingredients (and even the same brand may have different ingredients at different times). hands-on contact with the plants. and therefore releases its moisture quicker. Algae. If you use the basic soil mix I recommend. Learning to condition the soil you are working with is the first step to success. This can be done by the disciplined hand. are the trickiest to learn to deal with. When the plant is dry and thirsty. This may seem obvious. along with other pests such as mold. but a timer and pump will eliminate the need. Hydro systems Hydroponic systems are usually automated and should have the simplest schedule to satisfy. and close attention to them.
it would be nearly impossible to judge exactly how much water these plants would consume in any given watering. a swimming pool liner or landscaping pond liner is laid over the area and over the edges of the wood frame. Next. Some may hold a dozen small plants while others may hold twenty or thirty large plants. Finally. Individual mini-trays may be used for each individual container. The trick is in realizing when the plant is going to wilt. or if the excess solution needs to be removed from the pool. This is done by physically lifting the plant container and judging its weight. The plant will suck its bucket of medium dry and then begin to wilt. Therefore. Only experience can reveal what exactly the weight of the dry pot is. I cannot . but because it serves the nutrient and solution to the outside-bottom of the medium container. but a minor wilt is by no means fatal to the plant. The nutrient solution is then dumped or pumped right into the tray. I've seen wilted plants revived within twenty minutes when relieved of their thirst. Not merely because the method was perfected in a white-trash trailer park. There are a number of trays. such as a solid grow tray or a kiddie pool. there is one more important tip to best maintain the proper watering schedule for your plants. watering many plants at once. Please note that although this method allows the greatest ease of watering a large number of plants. and watering it the day prior. We want to avoid wilting as much as possible. Dry weight Vegetating plants in small containers (two to four inch pots. First. available on the market these days. It takes the plants anywhere from an hour to a few hours to soak up all of the moisture that they need. a basic wood frame is constructed to the exact size of the desired pool on top of the Styrofoam. Bottom feeding After getting the soil mix down and learning the right watering time by the dryness. wilting can also contribute to stunting. from large to small and of varying styles and sturdiness. I call this tip the bottom feeder method. Less is more The main focus of feeding should be the concentration and mix of fertilizers in the solution. Plant containers may be placed directly in the pool and watered all at once. An entire grow room may be water-proofed as well. after being fitted to the space. However. or weight. lay out a layer of 2-inch thick Styrofoam insulation panels larger than the intended pool. or 16 to 24 ounce cups) may need watering as often as daily. This method requires that the buckets be placed within the confines of a watertight container. check the weight of its bucket to see what too far is.perfect blend for a regulated watering schedule. Plants in larger containers (2 gallon and up) may go anywhere from three to six days between watering. of the medium container. If a plant does happen to wilt due to drying out. The solution is then sucked up by the roots through the holes in the bottom of the buckets. the garden needs to be checked a few hours after watering to see if the plants need more. others may be fine for a couple of days. but this causes much more tedium during watering.
stunting growth. or they may harden and solidify. Plants grown using this method produce some of the most outstanding flavors and desirable palate and head. This is especially true if one is mixing different nitrogen fertilizers. and the old growth should last as long as possible. Most indoor plants do not remain in the same container for any longer than two months. it may be necessary to dilute the concentration with pure water. All in all. with unnatural looking colors from bright yellow to dusty brown.emphasize enough that "less is more" when it comes to fertilizing plants. the last few weeks of pure water flushes). then even a smaller ratio of each is needed. When the fertilizer concentration is low enough. however. The leaves should stretch up and out to receive the light. Both may be added to soil to enhance its nutrient level. at worst. while pure worm castings are like a very rich manure. healthy glow. Nitrogen is the most commonly abused fertilizer additive. I like to use half of what the directions call for. For one or two waterings flush the plants with water only. Underfertilized plants will merely be slow or. an overfertilized plant will look unhealthy and deeply in need. So once the right soil mix is obtained then water alone will suffice. New growth should be obvious daily. It is generally recommended to use less fertilizer than the instructions call for. Too much fertilizer. The plants should look like they are thriving if they are properly fed. Most fertilizer companies print their maximum allowed amounts for mixing. The stems may stretch and turn dark. or water with a B-vitamin supplement to help the plant best metabolize the nutrients available to it. If too little fertilizer is used the only problem will be a slightly smaller yield. then only a quarter the recommended amount of each is needed to make the final concentration truly half strength. Fossilized bat and bird guano come in a powder form. and see if the situation improves. is liable to ruin the entire crop. The leaves may become curled. then fertilizer may be added during each watering (except. Their color should be bright and consistent with a shiny. If two or more nitrogen fertilizers are used during the same feeding. There are organic soil additives on the market that eliminate the need for any extra fertilizer additives in the water. That is. if two nitrogen fertilizers are mixed together during one feeding. . If signs of overfertilization appear. small. but this same logic should be applied to phosphorous and potassium concentrations as well. Many of these fertilizer additives are made up of harsh petrochemicals. but overfertilized plants may look burned or splotchy. The best organic substances I've found are bat and seabird guano and pure worm castings. of course.
this isn't really why you should be using the re-green method. Less photo-receptive strains become "stuck" in their bud or flower cycle. By desirability I am referring to the overall quality of the finished product � how good does it taste? Look? Smell? Feel? How good is the finished product? Once a plant has declared its overall finished product desirability. One of the main tricks to the re-green method is to begin the process as early as possible. intact branch and leaf nodes. even when constantly under light. Although useful for guerrilla outdoor gardening when you want the plants to mature early. So the re-green method is capable of helping to determine which of your potential breeding and cloning stock will be the most productive. if not impossible. It is the more photo-receptive strains that we want to focus on when attempting the re-green method. then it will more than likely clone well and grow more vigorously than one that does not. The re-green technique is most useful in determining which of your desirable plants are the most photoreceptive. This is very important information for anyone seriously interested in breeding plants. the wise pharmer will clone all potentially desirable plants while they are in the veggie stage. most Indica varieties will almost fully express their desirability by the sixth week in the flowering cycle indoors (11 to 13 hours of light per 24 hours). Although sometimes this doesn't happen or the clone attempt may fail. it is removed from the bud room and harvested down to above the lower.Re-green your garden by DJ Short (25 Apr. simply leave the lowest healthy looking set of buds and harvest all above that point. Once the plant has "proven itself worthy" of re-greening. meaning that they will respond more readily to changes in light-cycle timing. the plant is harvested. it is time to begin the process. The catch here is that it will take a certain amount of time in order to determine the desirability of a given plant. However. 2000) Rejuvinating plants will bring back your best buds. Some strains are more photo-receptive than others. to re-green. while extremely non-photoreceptive plants will flower regardless of light cycle. This technique is called the "re-green" method. That is. Sometimes all that is left at the bottom of the plant are buds. but the lower branches and nodes are left for the new growth to (hopefully) rejuvenate from. An important process to be learned by the serious pot horticulturist is the revitalization of a budded and mature plant back to its vegetative state. (Note that this early-harvested bud can . If a plant is more photo-receptive and easily re-vegetates. Doing the re-green The only preparation for the re-green process is to be sure to leave a few of the lower branch and leaf nodes of the plant intact during harvesting. This is fine. Generally speaking. However. Photo-receptivity refers to the way in which a plant is destined to respond to a light schedule. many Sativas may take up to nine or more weeks in the flowering cycle indoors to fully express their individual desirability. The usual reason to re-green is to continue the existence of a highly desirable plant. these non-photo-receptive varieties are difficult.
I have seen some plants declare rejuvenation within a couple of days. This stage consists of nurturing the fresh growth and eventually pruning away the old growth. As space demands increase. During the successful re-green process this factor reverses itself. But if the plant's container is large enough and the plant does not appear to be suffering from. In time the new shoots will grow to dominate the remaining plant. the plant is not considered rejuvenated until at least five leaflets per leaf are apparent. As in the veggie cycle. then transplanting to a larger pot may be in order. The more leaflets-per-leaf that can be coaxed from the plant before cloning. If the plant was in a smaller container (two gallon or less) and is showing signs of root bind. If the candidate plant is going to rejuvenate. worthy of connoisseur appreciation!) The remaining stump with a few nodes attached will need to be moved to a separate space. the less desirable and slower re-greener plants will need to be thinned out accordingly. per leaf decrease in number. or near. the better. the new growth will sprout from within one of the leftover nodes. low potassium and phosphorous fertilizer is required to inspire fresh growth. from one to three to five and so on. nine. or "fingers". Some Sativa may have leaves with as many as 13 or more leaflets-per-leaf. whereas most Indica will never have more than five or seven. another criteria that helps to fully determine a given plant's photoreceptivity � its ability to fully return to a vegetive stage. a high nitrogen. More fingers Generally speaking. The remaining nodes. Sativa plants are capable of producing more leaflets-per-leaf than Indica. Experienced pharmers know that as a plant matures through its flowering cycle the number of leaflets. the re-green shoots will probably be ready for . There is however. consisting of fluorescent lights set for a vegetative cycle (18 or more hours of light per 24 hours). In my opinion. it is time for the next stage in the process. the next consideration involves increasing the plant's nitrogen uptake.provide an excellent and somewhat rare finished product that usually exhibits a more "head" or "psychedelic" experience. buds and/or branches need to be as close to the fluorescent bulb as possible without touching the bulb. All attention is focused on the fresh growth making certain that this growth has the best access to the light. A healthy vegetive plant may have seven. A "surgeon's hand" with a pair of precision scissors is most definitely an advantage at this stage. branches or buds. the faster and more completely a plant expresses this process. and the leaflet-per-leaf ratio increases as the new leaf sets present themselves. (As a general rule of thumb. the old and matured bud and leaf material are cleared and trimmed from around it. leaves. while others may take a month or more to show new growth. Usually the dictates of space will determine how long one will want to attempt the process for each individual plant. Once the highly desirable candidate plant has declared its re-green ability by sending out fresh green growth. Others will never rejuvenate at all. As the new shoots develop. root bind. stretching beyond the bud or leaf node that contains it. then the same container may work fine. By the time the plant is back to showing at least five leaflets-per-leaf. The regreener plant is kept on a high nitrogen fertilizer all the way through this process. Extra care needs to be practiced as these new shoots may be very delicate and fragile. Either way. eleven or more leaflets-per-leaf.) As the plant matures through the flowering cycle. the more photoreceptive it is. the number of leaflets-per-leaf decreases from nine to seven to five to three and finally to one leaflet per leaf on the fully mature plant.
cloning. may be maintained to act as a clone producer. The "mother" plant. or any of its rooted clones. At this point it is important that the shoot or shoots be developed enough to both produce a successful clone. Generally speaking. the plants will yield their superior productivity. As long as the proper conditions for the plants' health are maintained. any standard or desired cloning procedure will work. patience is indeed a virtue. Once a shoot is satisfactory for cutting. or may be returned to the bud room to flower again. for that matter. . Cloning the shoots Once the rejuvenated plant has produced adequate shoots that have successfully returned to a vegetive state. and leave enough rejuvenated material on the regreened "mother" to continue growth (and keep the mother alive). most highly photoreceptive plants make excellent clone-producing mothers. To satisfy both of these ends it is always best to wait until the re-green shoots are large and healthy enough. As with so many other aspects of this hobby. due to their productive ability. it is time to consider cloning of the shoots.
while common house fans move the air up. the roots should be kept at as constant a temperature below 21�C and above 10�C (70-50�F) as possible. And only above the root level. are the tips here � add more to the soil if need be. 1998) Proper ventilation and air circulation are essential to growing healthy. or if the humidity gets too high. . Roots and Aeration The main area of concern involving temperature are the roots of the plants. Also. Both come in a seeming endless variety of shapes and sizes. The perfect temperature would be somewhere between 24-29�C (75-85�F). there is no real substitute for a thermometer and humidity gauge. Peaks of 38�C (100�F) are allowable for most strains. This practice becomes especially necessary when working with lights over 400 watts. store the reservoir outside of or below the grow room. photos by Jorge Cervantes (01 Jul. Generally speaking. air circulation and temperature control. Squirrel Cage and House Fans There are many different types of fans and air movers available on the market. one can figure out the right solution. in very small spaces. Thermometers are cheap and accurate enough for our purposes. Proper research and smart shopping will net the best purchases. The two most common types of fan are the squirrel-cage and what I call the "common house fan" (box or oscillating fans). If necessary. The fact that warm air rises and cool air sinks works to our advantage in this case. Using the "hot air rises. cool air drops" rule. squirrel-cage fans move air either in and/or out of the room. In hydroponic systems make sure that the nutrient water temp is below 21�C (70�F). Proper aeration of organic based soils is crucial in high temp/humidity areas. Most fans can be purchased at the average home improvement store. and so they're usually large enough to help shade and cool their root areas. There are also neat little "muffin" fans that can be used for many things such as light-hood venting and passive ventilation systems. A soil thermometer may be a wise investment. some rooms build up sufficient heat to require a separate circulating fan. the plants end up under the larger lights by the flowering cycle. or fans. I usually employ several thermometers in different areas in and around the grow room. The Perfect Temperature Though sense of feel is adequate to gauge the "perfect climate" for a given plant. Careful planning will help avoid costly mistakes. focussed specifically on the root systems. Perlite and vermiculite. happy plants. Somewhere between 32-35�C (90-95�F) is the absolute highest room temperature your plants would care to tolerate. Ideally. but not for any longer than a half hour or so. any time the temperature exceeds 32�C (90�F). An important aspect to consider when growing plants indoors is proper ventilation. down and around the room.Let them breathe! by DJ Short. Still.
This would give further aid in the specific control of air volume and ventilation. and turn them off if the temperature dropped below 21�C (70�F). There are wall-mounted styles available as well.A passive ventilation system is one that moves air either in out of room (not both). A well-stocked. Bigger fans usually will work more efficiently. Box fans are self explanatory. to help circulate the cooler air up and around the plants. depending on the innovation and imagination of the user. pointing at any angle up. high-tech grow shop will have several types of thermostats available in a variety of systems. as with the common household thermostat. They can be used in a variety of ways. dry air outside of the grow room. A thermostat. Home improvement centres carry a large array of various types and styles of airmoving fans. blowing out. up high. That is. or 640 cubic feet of air.4 minutes to fully circulate the air in that room. some relatively inexpensive. . This method is what is used to stimulate the passive intake of cool air with vent holes cut in the floor or lower walls to access the cooler areas outside of the room. The room is not sealed and so air exchange is allowed free movement from inside and outside the room. Generally speaking. Squirrel Cages The squirrel-cage fan is the most popular fan for moving large volumes of air into or out of a room or rooms. Automation The ideal ventilation system utilizes automation in the form of thermostats and regulators. It is a simple step further in this type of system to add an oscillating fan or two on the floor. A common placement for this fan is inside of the room. Measuring Air Movement Squrrel cage fans are rated by their volume of air movement in cubic feet per minute or CFM. The gentle back and forth sway of the fan is very beneficial for the developing plants. could be installed in the power line of the larger fans to adjust the fan speed. This will help move the hot air out. or a "volume control". and turn off at another. This is the simplest of vent systems and works quite well. it would take an optimally running 100 CFM fan 6. A room that is eight by ten feet and eight feet tall holds 8 X 10 X 8. would cause the fans to turn on at a certain temp. Choosing the correct squirrel-cage fan is part of the trick to success. Oscillating fans are perhaps the most efficient devices for circulating air in a room. The most common being the box and the oscillating. most fans move a little less than their rated CFM due to intake resistance or a dirty fan cage. These fans tend to keep anaerobic molds down by constantly freshening any potentially stagnant air. Therefore. Box and Oscillating Common summer house fans also come in a wide array of types and sizes. Potentiometers. A fan with a rating of 100 CFM is able to move 100 cubic feet of air per minute. Experimentation will yield the most efficient uses for these devices. a sensor would turn on the fans on at around 30�C (86�F). Other hardware such as dryer-vent tubing or muffin fans may be used to best access the cool.
A warning needs to be expressed concerning the cheaper, discount-store, oscillating fans (or any cheap fan for that matter) that have a tendency to burn out after a period of time. Some of these products are potentially dangerous if left plugged in and turned on after they burn out. Therefore, it is a wise idea to check one's fans (and all electric devices and equipment for that matter) on a regular basis as often as possible. Noise Concerns Another fan consideration is noise. Some fans, especially the squirrel cage, may be a bit too noisy for a given situation. There are higher quality fans available that do run more quietly � expect to pay more, of course. It also helps to mount the fan directly to a main stud or support, by at least two of its support holes, and preferably more. Rubber dampers and gaskets can be easily made and used on the support holes or around the overall mounting surface. Keep the fan's bearings sufficiently lubricated as well. High Humidity Humidity is another factor that influences the overall quality and quantity of a crop. Generally speaking, high humidity (over 80 or 90%) is bad. It inhibits plant transpiration and ultimately stunts growth. Mold and fungus love high humidity as well. Note that warmer air holds more moisture than cooler air. There are a few simple practices to help reduce humidity. First and foremost, keep the room as dry as possible. When watering, use just as much as the plants need. Pump, siphon or mop up any remaining water and remove it from the room. Keeping the room clean also helps. Moisture likes to hide and store itself in material such as dead leaves, spilled dirt or any garbage. Therefore, keeping the room clean and free of debris will help keep moisture and organisms such as mold, fungus and bacteria down. Temperature and moisture levels directly affect the plant's ability to metabolize nutrients and supplements such as fertilizer and carbon dioxide. If these practices fail to lower humidity enough, the only solution may be a de-humidifier. However, de-humidifiers are expensive, consume a large amount of electricity and produce heat. These factors will need to be considered in choosing whether or not to employ one. Ventilation and Circulation are Essential Proper ventilation and air circulation are essential to maintaining a healthy indoor grow environment. The basic rule of thumb is to move the warm, moist air out and to move the cool, dry air in and around the plants and their roots. Many various types of fans and devices are available to achieve this goal. Careful planning, basic research and smart shopping will acquire all that one needs to keep it cool and dry, and experimentation will fine tune the system to provide the most perfect indoor environment possible.
DJ Short is the breeder of the famed Flo and Blueberry strains. He welcomes feedback and questions, especially relating to the cultivation of those varieties. He can be contacted through Cannabis Culture.
CO2 for you by DJ Short (27 Dec, 2000) Carbon Dioxide is an excellent way to increase your bud bounty. Carbon dioxide (CO2) generators are perhaps the single most powerful increasers of plant production. During the daylight hours plants breathe in and use CO2 much the same way we animals metabolize oxygen. By adding CO2 to the air of the grow room we are capable of greatly stimulating plant growth and vigor. Overexposure to CO2 by humans is very capable of proving fatal. Therefore, also remember that monitoring of the air with a CO2 or gas detection device is mandatory when using a commercial CO2 distribution system. There are two main types of commercial CO2 delivery systems, bottled and propane generators. Bottled CO2 The bottled CO2 system delivers pure CO2 via a tank that is rented or bought and refilled when empty at any bottled gas distributor or grow shop. The purchases of a regulator and tubing, along with a specialized timer, are necessary to complete the system. The timer opens the regulator to dispense the gas that is delivered to the room among the plants via the tubing (or whatever duct system is chosen for its delivery). The timer usually is on for brief periods of a few seconds per minute, hence the need for the specialized timer. The bottled systems are relatively efficient and once set up, easy to use. When used in conjunction with some kind of CO2 metering device, to monitor the amount of CO2 in the air, the system is relatively safe. The main drawback is having to deal with filling the heavy, bulky tank when needed. The initial expense is a bit of a sticker shock as well. Propane generator Propane generators of CO2 have been gaining popularity since their introduction to the industry some time ago. Bottled propane is connected to a device that burns the gas, slowly and evenly, to produce CO2. The device is usually a box that will hang in the room and is connected to the propane bottle via the appropriate tubing and coupling. It is possible to time and regulate most propane generators to efficiently produce CO2 gas when needed. These devices are usually much simpler and less expensive than the bottled CO2 systems. Propane is also easily available in most places. There are, however, a few dangers to the propane generator that need to be addressed. First of all, the device utilizes a small flame for CO2 production. Special care needs to be taken whenever dealing with fire, and necessary precautions including location of the device need to be made prior to operation. second, this flame will produce some heat and humidity. The humidity is in the form of water vapor, the other by-product of the process. Proper venting and air circulation will help minimize these factors. As with the bottled system, monitoring the amount of CO2 in the air will be necessary to regulate the proper and safe amount of the gas delivered to the room. Air circulation
the shaking of the contents will produce a gaseous eruption through the hole in the lid. There are a number of books and manuals on the market today that deal with the specifics and �how to�s� of carbon dioxide production for commercial (and home) use. I have found this system to be more than adequate and perfectly safe for smaller grow spaces (twenty square feet or less). In a day or two the yeast will begin to grow and CO2 gas will be a by-product in the jug. when properly functioning. there is a simple CO2 system that is easy to make and use. To this add about a half gallon of water. Put about five or six cups of sugar in a clean one-gallon plastic jug. Small and simple For those of you running smaller systems such as cupboard. etc. sugar and yeast mixed together in a jug. On its own. I like to use one-gallon plastic jugs due to their size and availability. Also. that is. So be wary of these facts and circulate the air well. blowing into the room. the more times the jug is shaken. Remember. bottle or jar. yellow flame = CO or carbon monoxide. CO2 production for larger scale operations requires a certain amount of knowledge unobtainable by any other means than an education. This way the gas passes by the leaves of the plants on its way down. then a simple duct system of dryer vent tubing running from the bottom of the appliance (remember. A muffin fan placed on the room end of the tube. deadly poisonous! It is merely a question of how to get the CO2 gas from the appliance to the grow room. the more surges of CO2 that will erupt into the room. via some form of tube or duct or by hanging the propane generator up high. All such appliances produce CO2. So a home brew kit or home wine making system could also be used to add CO2 gas to the grow room air. shake the jug to thoroughly mix the contents. as well. A simple rule of thumb is: blue flame = CO2 or what we want. the device will slowly produce CO2 as long as there is enough sugar in the mix and the yeast stays active. Poke a small hole in the lid and replace it on top of the jug. Therefore. If the appliance (furnace. �growstores� selling the devices offer plenty of advice and/or literature pertaining to the specifics of their products. The daily shaking stimulates the mix to produce a surge of CO2 gas. would efficiently move the gas. or as often as possible. This system uses water. Once a day. stove. especially those with a pilot light. Oscillating fans placed on the floor with their fan pointing up (or any upward movement of air from the floor) is also recommended to best circulate the CO2 among the leaves of the plants. allowing them to absorb as much as possible. hot water heater. CO2 is heavier than air) to the grow room will suffice. Mix until the sugar is dissolved and add a little bit of active yeast. Finally. Generally speaking it is best to introduce the gas up higher in the room. The roots of the plants DO NOT like CO2. a word needs to be said about the delivery system and air circulation in the room. The mix will need to be changed or refreshed every two to three weeks. any form of brewing (beer production) or fermenting (wine making) produces CO2. too much CO2 around the roots may actually suffocate the plants. I highly recommend that one research thoroughly before one purchases and uses a system.Because CO2 is a gas that is heavier than air. In fact. closet or �box� systems. Recycled CO2 A source of recycled CO2 may be found in any natural gas or propane appliance.) is anywhere near the grow room. It is also very inexpensive to configure and maintain. Therefore. Once the yeast begins to grow. .
Remember to be very careful not to overdo the CO2 and let the gas fill your house. If this happens then it could suffocate you in your sleep! But properly used. . CO2 can be a safe and easy way to increase the yield of your garden.
especially when the grower wants only one crop and the absolutely highest yield. This means that only pure water. the fact is also that many people simply cannot tell the difference between hydro and organic products. The key word to this understanding is "organic. This will only slightly decrease production. or quantity. However. the more one decreases this ratio and. I cannot emphasize enough the fact that it takes the purest of environments to grow the purest of herbs. I think that my breeding successes are primarily due to a very discerning palate and sense of smell. are an excellent place to start. I have had the fortunate opportunity to not merely sample many of the great cannabis strains. with no additives or nutrients.Grow organic by DJ Short (29 Dec. originality and quality. Blue Velvet and Flo. It has been my experience that the more one increases the fibre production and overall size of a given plant. Sadly. delicious pot on the planet. this ratio must be maintained. Bio vs Hydro The purpose of this article is to help guide you in understanding the basic needs of these and other fragrant varieties. such as Blueberry. and the greater potency of the product. The last time I used any seed stock outside of my own was in 1982. There are those in the hydroponic industry who will argue that certain hydroponic methods are nearly organic and very productive. A higher ratio of resin to fibre generally indicates the superior quality and chemical composition of the resin." or what the Europeans like to call "bio" methods of production. there are situations where a hydroponic system may be superior to an organic one. A strong and pleasing odor is the dominant feature expressed in the True Fragrant varieties. while greatly increasing the quality of the finished product. whereas my focus is on quality. which have all come to me from various sources and locations throughout the years. use organic nutrients and flush your buds. and how to best maintain their uniqueness. (as opposed to chemical and most hydroponic methods). there is no real substitute for the complex relationship of plants and organic soil. decreases potency. Granted. But you must remember that subtle and subjective characteristics such as "fragrance" and "bouquet" are dependent upon their environment as much as their genetics. or they simply don't care. If you want to grow some of the finest herb on the planet. . I speak from experience. I have had an excellent and productive relationship with the herb since my early teens in the very early 1970's. I don't disagree. compared to the overall fibre production of the plant. in order to maintain potency while increasing production. as I am the goddess-father of these fine products. The quality of the hydroponic product may be increased greatly by employing the simple "two week flush" method prior to harvest. the main focus of the hydroponic industry is that of production. then the True Fragrant varieties of cannabis. 1999) If you want the most fragrant. therefore. Simply put. Potency ratios I have found that generally the potency of a given variety of cannabis has to do with the ratio of glandular secreted resins. be given to the plant for two weeks prior to harvest. Therefore. but to have saved and grown their seeds.
grown near the 45th parallel in the Pacific Northwest. the product of the smaller plants still tended to be more desirable than the larger ones in the outdoor environment. and use sparingly. Another factor to consider is what to use as vitalizers and fertilizers. the islands of Hawaii. The bulk of commercial fertilizers and vitalizers (along with most commercial pesticides. to name but a few. Thailand." Indoor organics Indoor environments are extremely limited in comparison to the great outdoors. mold. Flush your buds! The most important. varied strains. algae and bacteria are just a few of the organisms that can attack a crop and seriously weaken production. Worms. Yet here are a variety of adequate organic pesticides and fungicides on the market today. and the Hindu Kush. herbicides and fungicides) are synthesized from petrochemical by-products and are not truly natural products. Someday." Certain examples would be: The Northern Californian-Southern Oregon coastal regions. I can honestly say from experience that all of the "True Fragrant" varieties are major producers when grown in their particular "sweet spot." Blueberry and Flo have both reached 500 grams per plant. and a bit more difficult to solve the problem in a clean and organic way. Nepal. aspect to consider involves the last two to three weeks of the bud cycle � the last two to three weeks of the plant's life prior to harvest. Selective inbreeding hardens the desirable characteristics and gives us specific. balanced by many various circumstances. seaweed. . The outdoors is a complete and complex system. try to find the least toxic one available for the purpose. Yet although properly providing and maintaining an organic environment indoors is truly a challenge to face. It is often too easy to treat these maladies with simple applications of toxic chemicals. There are now many specific products suited for the indoor organic gardener. fungus. Consult your local or favorite organic garden centre for more detail.This quality/quantity ratio is much less of a concern to the grower who is producing in the great outdoors. parts of Afghanistan. Never apply anything toxic to your plants once they're in the budding cycle. multi-harvested between October 1 and November 7. highland and valley Colombia. other than pure water. There are also living organisms such as specific predator insects and nematodes. when we are allowed to properly produce herb in the great outdoors. These "fine herbs" come from very specific geographic locations which I refer to as "sweet spots. If you feel you must use a commercial chemical product. it is not impossible. we will once again see and experience some of the truly finest examples the planet has to offer. It is during this time that absolutely NO additives. It is in these "sweet spots" that the most favorable and specifically desirable characteristics are acclimated phenotypical. Guerrero. I am very curious to see and experience exactly what our years and multi-generations of indoor breeding are going to produce when returned to these great outdoor "sweet spots. green manures and most of their by-products are examples of substances that are naturally produced that provide plenty of good. fish. clean nutrients to the plant. It is sometimes difficult enough to help provide and maintain the proper balances organically in an outdoor garden. These plants lost little of their overall appeal despite the increase in production. bat and bird guano. and perhaps the most simple. This is especially important if you have been using chemical fertilizers. soil-born. and water-born pests. Airborne. Oaxaca and Chiapas regions of Mexico. be given to the plant. the highland Michoacan. However.
Thus. Pot which has been organically grown and properly flushed is more flavourful and fragrant. "useable" part of the plant is produced. This is to purge unwanted impurities from the plant. it is very important to give the plant as much pure water as possible during this crucial period. is hard to keep lit and burns your throat.This is the time when the bulk of the final. As you may well already know. . sometimes the joint will even sizzle and pop as unmetabolized fertilizer salts combust. leaves grey ash. is easier on the throat and is much more pleasurable to smoke. there are over four hundred separate chemicals associated with cannabis and her effects. Pot that has been fertilized right up to harvest is harsh to smoke. Simply remember to give the plants only water for the last two to three weeks in order to rinse and flush them clean. It is during the final bud-building stage that most of these chemicals are produced. I like to remember it as the "rinse" and "flush" cycle. burns easily. Un-flushed pot leaves black ash.
making both feeding and curing more time-efficient and accurate. nutrients and water are sprayed onto the roots in an atomized or mist form by a high-pressure pump. 1998) Aeroponics creates dense. and the humming birds were the size of Robins. Photo Jorge Cervantes Commercial Aeroflo operation. and hydroponics will deliver around 80% oxygen. by means of aeroponics and cooled lights. Make sure your floor is protected. compact and abundant buds that will amaze you Commercial Aeroflo operation. The layout is important. Aeroponics also allows nutrients to reach the roots directly. is quick to respond to whatever nutrients you introduce into the system. One which. buckets. Photo Jorge Cervantes I first heard of aeroponics through a friend. The oranges were the size of grapefruits. by nature. I have measured aeroponic plant growth against soil. environment and electrical are all the same as a regular grow op. My aeroponic system reminds me of my visit to floating coral islands in the Bahamas. The aeroponic . who told me of military experiments in growing enormous tomato plants indoors. I thought "how unnatural. while a soilless mix will deliver up to 50%. where the coral provided a natural aeroponics system. with no medium in-between to hamper nutrient uptake or foster the growth of bacterial organisms. Aeroponic can get big buds out of small plants. When I learned that the roots just hang in the air and are misted by atomized water and nutrient particles. you literally receive 99% possible oxygen to the roots. The 4 Elements of Aeroponic Gardening AIR In an aeroponic system. You can grow aeroponically in tubes. and everything grew to an enormous size." Then I saw a system set up: it was so clean and efficient! I saw that this was a very effective nutrient and oxygen delivery system. or with a bit of effort you can compose your own. A dense soil may only deliver 30% oxygen to the roots. The most effective root medium is the one which delivers the most oxygen to the roots. this brings less police heat and so less stress for you. like a waterfall. or anything that is sealed and opaque. Other than some basic plumbing supplies. One of the advantages with this system is that there is little to dispose of later. photos by Barge (01 Sept. soilless mix and hydroponic drip. the lights.There are kits and contraptions you can buy. Be prepared for some watery catastrophes and have a wet and dry shop vacuum on hand.Aeroponic Supersonic by Ashera Jones. With aeroponics the sky is the limit. and low cost but reliable sump pump (otherwise known as a jet pump). But is aeroponics really unnatural? Perhaps not. Aeroponic can get big buds out of small plants. The presence of more oxygen also discourages bacterial and fungal growth. This creates quickly-moving water which is capable of delivering more oxygen because it is well agitated.
and give all the potential budding sites fair exposure. Healthy roots make happy plants and rapid growth. In the earth category. cool water temperature. while discouraging phototropism. However. are necessary. juicy buds.system doubles the growth rate of plants as compared to a soil system. which are easily obtained in liquid solutions. which vary in size. without burning. Personally. so a good balance is necessary. I use a few strategically placed four-hundred watt lights. The placement of plants in what is known as a "stadium" ensures that I get the lights right in there. I have found that the plants tend to uptake less nutrients when they are changing from vegetative to flowering. plants in an aeroponic system fuel their growth with natural elements from the earth. and is about one-third faster than a hydroponic system. Light brings photosynthesis and also Ultra Violet "C" rays which discourage some types of bacteria. keeping them stable and standing. which although limited in an aeroponic system. which means that you will generally need to add a PH down. It is essential to have a "parts-per-million pen" so that you can monitor the amount of food your babies are eating and prevent burning of the roots by a solution that is too acidic and full of mineral salts. I use rockwool cubes and baskets. There are natural alternatives for the open minded that I will talk about later. The usual basket size used in hydroponic systems is 3. with the plants in a stepped. EARTH Just like all plants. and they require a little bit of support. almost hardwoodstalked plants. FIRE The element of fire in aeroponic gardening includes light and heat. we also have the growth mediums. Healthy roots make happy plants and rapid growth. Nutrient uptake varies depending on the growth stage of your plants. The ambient room temperature is no more than 80�F but preferably closer to 70�F (20�C). These store-bought nutrients are limited in content. and I will suggest other substances you can add to enhance the nutrient quality your plants are getting from aeroponic feeding. The layout of your room will determine light availability and the ideal situation is to have all plants receiving as much light as possible. and an acid ph of 5. My experience is that it has been easy to grow fat.8. A cool room temperature usually means a nice. the search for light. because all the baskets and wool are doing is supporting the plants. the type of nutrient that they require changes. This will also encourage the dense bushy-type plant that you want to grow. The aeroponic garden prefers a lower nutrient solution of between 700-900 parts per million. WATER . But excess heat can bring fungus and bacteria. but you can use 2 inch baskets for mature plants in an aeroponic system. which is also important.5 to 5. bushy. and at the same time. I personally use the 3 inch size because I like to grow 3 foot bushes that become weighted with fat.5 inches. stadium structure around the lights.
H2O2 replicates nature's own antibacterial mechanism and prevents water from growing putrefactive bacteria which can cause the dreaded bacterial wilt. a bunch of high-pressure spray heads and some hose. which is appropriate for atomized nutrients. Humanmade peroxide comes in a variety of percentages. In the aeroponic system. All that your plants receive comes to them through water. This will give the peroxide time to kill off bacteria with its extra oxygen molecules and become stabilized before you add the dissolved mineral salts (stock fertilizer). Be sure not to get any in your eyes. The burning and whitening sensation felt when it touches the skin . Do not bother using the pressure-tank system that can be purchased in conjunction with your pump. I suggest you keep it cool and clean. The plants thrived while gnats and other organisms did not. Let water sit a day before adding it to the nutrient tank. Stadium set up with central array of sodium and metal halide bulbs. root rot and unknown other problems. H2O2 will also forcibly cause the out-gassing of chlorine and fluoride from municipal water. To get your water to the roots. to make sure it is free from unfriendly organisms. Farmers in the US use peroxide for everything from disinfection of the dairy barn and hog pens to increasing crop yields by 20 to 30%. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) or "Oxygen Water" Hydrogen peroxide created by humans is inferior to that created by nature. It is also commonly added to the drinking water of animals to reduce the need for antibiotics. Hydrogen peroxide will most definitely reduce any possibility of bacterial and fungal contamination. You would usually add peroxide to your system and let that run through for 1/2 hour before adding nutrients. root rot and countless other diseases. Stadium set up with central array of sodium and metal halide bulbs. and put in one teaspoon hydrogen peroxide per gallon of water. as is generally done to the 3% variety that you can buy in a pharmacy. 35% hydrogen peroxide can and should be used in hydroponic drip and soil systems at the rate of one teaspoon per gallon. People will try to sell you very expensive pumps. as this will ensure that there have been no "stabilizers" added.The element of water in aeroponics is the great transport system. This will prevent your pump from burning out and your system from flooding. but you need spend no more than $200 to buy yourself a pump that puts out 60psi. and then rest for 4 or so minutes. you will need a pump. You will need an hour timer that will allow your pump to spray for 30 seconds to 2 minutes. but it costs less. I have used 35% hydrogen peroxide diluted to a 1% solution on a plant in soil that had an infestation of fungus gnats. and you want to get the 35% variety. This kind of pump is available in the local plumbing department of a Home De-pot or similar hardware store near you. Without water there is no air. Your pump is meant to run intermittently. H2O2 is powerful and experiments can be dangerous to your whole crop. But beware.
Beautiful aeroponic bud. No indoor gardening can be completely organic. I would rather use plant sources of nutrients to help the persons who ingest my buds avoid contracting Mad Plant Disease! Beautiful aeroponic bud. If there are parasitic invaders then you will know because there will be a profuse bubbling and frothing. then put them into water. The same can be done with "meals" like soybean meal and others. Liquid organic multivitamins for plants are useful and I would suggest using them in combination and in low concentrations. Aeroponically. I do not like to use blood and bone meals because I am not sure of the source. and with aeroponics you can expect near immediate results. then boil them. Be careful to avoid creating a giant toxic soup by adding nutrients all at once. add 35 parts water to 1 part 35% hydrogen peroxide. as you will want to dilute it to about 0. How many people are using animal-based fertilizers whose origin they know nothing about? There is less restriction on the source of these "bone and blood meals" than there is in the pet food or agricultural industry. You will be amazed how readily your plants will gobble up the food you give them.25% for longer use. You can provide your plants with their requirements as organically as possible by making your own nutrient teas with plants that you know "fix" certain types of minerals into themselves.can be irritating but is not damaging. meaning that the indestructible "prion" particles responsible for "transmissible spongiform encephalophathy" (mad cow disease) are likely also present in bone and blood-meal plant fertilizers. and can find their way into plants fertilized with these products. Little clones in aeroponic tube system. You can kill bacteria that might be living in your nutrient tank by wiping out the empty container with a 3% peroxide solution. First dry the plants you want. Bad Results . You should dilute 1 part peroxide to 11 parts distilled water to create a 3% solution for less worrisome handling.25% solution add 140 parts of water to 1 part 35% peroxide. Add one and then wait before you add the other. Wear latex. put them through a fine particle filter. You can safely create a 1% peroxide solution to feed your plants for a few cycles. Little clones in aeroponic tube system. you're best to introduce partial organics which provide micronutrients not available in standard inorganic. Let them sit for a few days. good or bad. hydroponic mixes. which is the hydrogen peroxide oxidizing putrefactive organisms that are not oxygen compatible. ORGANIC AEROPONIC Organic aeroponic is at least partially possible with little or no hassle. and then introduce them to your aeroponic garden. test the PH and parts per million so you know what percentages to add. Applying H2O2 to Your system.. but fill less than a quarter of your nutrient tank with this solution. let them cool. To make a 1% solution. To achieve an 0. mineral-salt based. or add 3 parts water to one part 1% peroxide.
Long. as it creates a wonderful selection of living interacted nutrients that are amazing and affordable. green or herbal tea. I let them run through for half a day. which is problematic because "Kali weed" likes low ph in the aeroponic environment. The gods. Unplug a light or two and give you plants a chance to recover. Another way to raise ph is by adding a small quantity of baking soda. you may have a problem unrelated to feeding. What are in those ph up and ph down bottles anyways? Who cares! Nature's best solution is simple. the ones you buy at the store. or you may have added too much nutrient solution. Another plump aeroponic bud. depending on how much I have added. when I am low on nutrients and water. lush healthy roots. So using hydrogen peroxide will bring your ph up. Hydrogen peroxide kills unwanted freeloaders. and maybe a little less lighting. Another plump aeroponic bud. Kombucha also has beneficial health effects for the human organism. the food and water get eaten. With a 900 parts per million nutrient solution you will still need to add some ph down.If you have bad results after feeding. which will be trying to heal from chemical insult. I let those run through for a day. so try to avoid disasters.5 and 5. It is important to note that oxygen creates a high ph or neutral environment. Basically. Then I add my stock nutrients. Long. Ph Balance Aeroponically grown plants prefer a rather acidic solution of between 5. Shock can precipitate root rot and you must remember that plants have an immune system and do respond to stress. I run my organic fertilizers through the system first. providing the plant with easy to assimilate nutrients. as their energy will then be concentrated down in the roots. I drain the system and put my hydrogen peroxide solution in and let it run for 1/2 hour. then I add my organics again. Everything should be visibly back to normal within a day. you have probably developed root rot. and then add the altered medium to your solution. and then it is time to clear the system and add the hydrogen peroxide again. Having an acidic.8ph. By adding Kombucha. To avoid such a problem. you grow a particular bacterium in a medium of black. If you see no positive results after a day. lush healthy roots. If the leaves start yellowing. and I mean small! . a living nutrient. Kombucha is an oxygen producing bacteria that is compatible with both the human and vegetative world because it metabolizes nutrients in the tea itself. cheap and has inherently less packaging. remove all nutrients and run a low peroxide solution through your system. A higher concentration of mineral salts generally makes the water more acidic and brings ph down and parts per million up. Lowering the ph can be done with apple cider vinegar but I like to use Kombucha fungus. you can lower ph while still providing oxygen and bringing micronutrients to your plants that they would not regularly get. Too much nutrients and only the gods can save you. sometimes 3 or more hours. The problem with introducing organics into an aeroponic system is that there is always some other organism that wants to cash in on the good life. low-ph environment will reduce funguses like root rot. Then about a day later.
inexpensive pump in the corner. your plants will release their mineral salts at a much faster rate. square men think this is disgusting. also work.. This is a personal choice. They prefer using bone and blood meal which they know nothing about. DISEASES COMMON TO AEROPONIC SYSTEMS There are lots of other problems gardeners face. little. I can say that there is a part of me in every plant I have ever grown. Blue Cohosh is a herb which contains plant estrogens. Such backwards attitudes aside. Menstrual blood. Fungus Gnats Curing your aeroponic garden of diseases is very easy. which is no good for them. however. as just running the same water through won't work! Because mineral salts concentrate in the plants at a high ph. Ultimately. A small. . you will want to leech the unused mineral salts out of your plants. is thus the ideal thing to add to your water during leeching. Leeching is easily done with aeroponics by changing the water daily for three to seven days. including diatomaceous earth.. but these ones are particular to aeroponics. Note that you do have to change the water every day. usually young. It is annoying that some. menstrual blood is not plant based and is arguably a secondary source to phyto-estrogen. The standard powders. clean source of micronutrients. so keep your eyes peeled for the evil. hopping flies and dust them with death at the first sign.. or you can even grow your Kombucha on it. Fungus gnats cannot get very far and are generally not a problem. These pills are synthetic and cause a lot of trouble for women and generally I have a certain disdain for them. They can only go a few inches into the rockwool before they meet the nutrient solution. Phyto Estrogens Some people use birth control pills to raise the estrogen level in their plants. other than that it came from a dead animal who had a miserable life and ate less organically than most of the women you know. It can easily be introduced in the form of tea. is a good source of estrogen and is as organic as the donor.. Get real. but it is not mine. Try Aeroponics and have a "mist"-ifying experience! SATIVA DIVA --A small. and I also use this in my flowering formulas. if you run a low ph through while leeching. Kombucha with its low ph. inexpensive pump in the corner. It facilitates the release of mineral salts. Decreasing other fertilizer levels before introducing blood will reduce the possibility of the blood feeding unwanted organisms in your system.Clearing Your Plants Before harvest. while also providing the plants with a continued.
The larvae will also be filtered out by the fine particle spray filter before long. with a clear viscous goo oozing out of the plant's pores. pray and change everything.. delivering lots of light. They are inexpensive and may give you a better chance at recreating what nature delivers. Root Rot Root rot is particularly dangerous in aeroponic systems. which accompanies the brown discolouration.can be used to feed 8 tubes with 20 plants each! Bacterial Wilt This is a weird one. There is always a margin of time before your plants will die. . Water-cooled lights have a tendency to cut out a lot of UV. I would definitely run a 1/2% solution of peroxide and no nutrients through for one day to help the plants and kill any gnat larvae that may have made it into the medium. and a portion of the stem directly below the yellowing will be entirely lifeless. depending on your response. Check your roots regularly. Hopefully wilt never happens to you. Yet such lights negate the healing effects of both light heat and UV rays. There are products which can be introduced through either the leaves or roots. increasing both growth and resin production while countering the effects of photo and geotropism (the effects which lead to increased internodal spaces). These cooled lights can be placed really close to plants.. a black spot and/or a powdery mildew.If you notice that you have more than five in your room. and even in gardening books it is rarely mentioned. add a UV light or two. If it does. Once you have it. It might also come as a simple yellowing of the leaves and kill your babies in a short period of time. These are readily available at well-equipped grow stores. which can be increased depending on your knowledge. and air which is too cool. Ultra-Violet light is a natural part of the spectrum and kills bacteria. Another sure sign is black spots on the roots. yet if environmental conditions are right it can affect your plants. A sure sign is a browning of the roots. Wilt is not common. One way to avoid root rot is to inoculate your plants' medium with a predator fungus. . That sounds radical but so is the problem. both of which are effective. may lead to bacterial wilt.can be used to feed 8 tubes with 20 plants each! . Bacterial wilt causes yellowing of leaves and flowers. not to be confused with the staining caused by certain nutrient solutions.. brown and mushy. It is a fungus that shows up as rust.. Not enough UV.
Large shade leaves form and act as sugar factories for the plant. called "nodes. A thorough understanding of this simple fact is crucial to more fully understanding the nature of cannabis. in order to properly mature. and a specific set of circumstances. such as late summer and fall.Timing is Everything by DJ Short (19 Jun. The plant needs to use as much food from the available light as it can. plants have two worlds in which they exist: night and day. It is during this vegetative stage that the plants send out much new growth. like a weed. When I first started growing pot in the early 1970's. or bud. acts as building blocks to the overall structure of the plant. fresh clones and young plants live in what we refer to as the vegetative stage. if outdoors. either outdoors or under some form of artificial light. The nitrogen. Once Mel and Ed set us straight. and just consumed whatever presented itself. the relationship between light timing and flowering was virtually unknown by the apprentice grower. The floral clusters sprout from the areas where the leaves attach to the stems.a harsh and unpleasant tasting substance that produced little high and plenty of headache. The rest of us often learned the hard way what bunkweed was . This period has a long daytime and a short nighttime. coupled with the extra light. and the demand for phosphorous and potassium increases to fuel the process. while it can." The buds . would be coming at a lower angle as the season progressed. Vegetative stage Sprouts. many of us simply grew big plants. Bud cycle shift At some point in the young plant's development it becomes time to begin the shift to what is called the flowering. Day is when it is light and night is when it is dark. The young plants will grow with vigor. our product's quality began to increase. the concept of 'bud cycle' was not apparent until Ed Rosenthal and Mel Frank published their first works in 1976. Cannabis needs to properly mature in order to be of value. Prior to this. It is during this period that the plants declare their sex and produce large floral clusters that become the buds. The large shade leaves begin to die and fall off as the plant shifts its energy from producing leaves and stem to producing floral clusters. Food from light and nitrogen decreases. As a general rule of thumb. Those lucky enough to be able to grow outdoors and all the way into October were blessed with some pleasant surprises. Even though High Times began publication in 1974. like summer. in the indoor garden the average light cycle for the vegetative stage is 18 hours on and 6 hours off. under almost any conditions � but it takes a special environment. cycle. This is why high nitrogen fertilizers are so beneficial during this period. The key element is the timing of the light cycle. Young cannabis will flourish practically anywhere. 2000) Getting your plants to produce fine buds is a simple as night and day. Like humans. turning sunlight into fiber for new growth. During the early flower stage the plant will go through what appears to be a growth spurt as the stems stretch to catch the light that. This stage has a shorter daytime and an increased nighttime.
the moon and streetlights glowing through the low clouds over an urban area don't seem to hinder the outdoor plant all that much. Doing so may interrupt the long. it . For whatever reason. And although outdoor equatorial crops take such a long time to mature. 11 hours of day and 13 hours of night. I don't understand why it is that outdoor plants are not as sensitive to these nighttime interruptions. the change in light cycle timing is gradual and slow. Indica became the herb of choice early on in the industry due to its fast maturation and large production abilities under the HID lights. six inch tall veggie plant (a plant in the vegetative stage) placed immediately into the bud cycle. The transition between the plants' stages is therefore more drawn out and gradual. Under these indoor conditions the plant is forced to make the shift quickly. even for a short period of time. It is advisable to allow your eyes to adjust to the darkness before declaring the room adequately sealed. Outdoors.fill in the nodes and progress out. slow process of change that the plant had been working on up to that point. or photoreactive rate. a little bit more every day. The plant may react by having to restart the process and seriously delay the scheduled maturation time. Indoors. Perhaps it has to do with the unmatchable light intensity of the Sun. A well formed. indoor plants tend to be ultra-sensitive to nighttime interruptions of light. in the southern hemisphere). Around the equator there is a much smaller difference between seasonal day lengths. and this timing cycle is more akin to locations north of the 30th latitude (or south. The vegetative stage may be 13 hours of day and 11 hours of night. Oddly enough. And. plants do most of their fiber production at night. which is why the average length of the indoor flowering cycle is eight to nine weeks. Nights of total darkness An important thing to remember about the indoor bud cycle is that the dark period must be absolute and uninterrupted. Sativa variations Another aspect to consider is that Indica and Sativa varieties differ in their photo period expression. whereas the flowering cycle may be the opposite. Once the bud cycle has begun it is important to never interrupt the dark period with any light. There are pure Sativa strains that require three to four months to mature in the flowering cycle indoors. either during the day or with any lights outside the room on. food and root space. the change in light cycle is usually instant: one day is 18 hours long and the next (and all those to follow) is 12 hours long. Indoors. to check for light leaks. is capable of producing an ounce or two of finished product in two short months. Sativa originates from equatorial regions. The typical 18/6 and 12/12 light cycles are primarily beneficial to Indica varieties. So remember to make it dark and keep it dark. which may help to explain why such small vegetative plants are capable of producing so much bud in such a relatively short period of time. it is strictly the female plants that develop into our high quality and most desired sensimilla. thus aiding production. between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south. given adequate light. The room must be thoroughly sealed to be completely dark when the lights are off. Indica is a variety from the 30th parallel and above. the typical light cycle used in the bud stage is 12 hours on and 12 hours off. Stars. The only way to test this is to sit in the room in the dark. This forced flowering has its advantages as the plants are made to finish up quickly. as we all know.
In the meantime. the global environment will surely reveal interesting and desirable variations. . further experimentation and research using different indoor light timing cycles would be very worthwhile. via careful selective breeding. More interesting will be what the wonderful and great outdoors will produce in all of her various environments.is often possible in the right areas to produce two to four crops per year. thanks to the tropical environments. Once implemented. It will be interesting to see what specialized grow rooms. developed to provide a wider range of photo periods. would produce. Light fortified greenhouses are capable of producing high quality herb just about anywhere on the planet.
Some Sativas take up to thirteen weeks to mature indoors. the window may be open much longer.Harvest Your Herb Harvest3. That is. if you prefer a very psychedelic head high. The red hairs are plump and full. but not least. For Sativa grown either indoors or outdoors. make make up between 75% and 90% of the total hairs. Somewhere along the line the plant becomes over-ripe which signifies the "closing" of the window of harvest. the window of harvest is about two weeks long give or take a couple of days for various strains. The red hairs are plump and full. Sativas and early window harvests tend to be more of a head high. whereas Indicas and late window harvests tend to be more of a body high. All photos by Barge There are several important points to consider when choosing the optimum time to harvest your cannabis crop. and running until the end of October. If a very narcotic body high is desired. There is the issue of chemistry because what we are really considering in terms of the "ripeness" relates directly to the chemical nature and state of the plant at harvest. then an early harvested Sativa might do best. My favorite time to harvest a nice Blueberry Indica outdoors is in the second to third week of October. Generally. most indicas take about eight weeks to fully mature.jpg These buds are near peak maturity. sometimes running into November during mild years or in a greenhouse. For most Indicas grown indoors. if going directly from an 18/6 hour vegetative light cycle to a 12/12 hour bud cycle. head highs tend to be more up and body highs tend to be more down.jpg These buds are near peak maturity. There are different factors to consider between indoor and outdoor plants. make make up between 75% and 90% of the total hairs. At the 45th parallel I've found most Indicas to be at peak harvest starting at the beginning of October. The window "opens" when the plant is first ripe. Indoors. then a late harvest indicas would probably do . Suffice it to say that a good healthy mix of the two is a fine goal to achieve. this is near or at the 45th parallel). As to outdoors I can only speak from experience at the 45th parallel and the bloom times there. Head High or Body Stone? An important consideration has to do with one's preference for a "head" high or more of a "body" high. Harvest6. A good head high can positively influence one's mental state much like a psychedelic. Outdoors many will go well into November and even December. There is the difference between early and late harvest to encourage head to body high respectively. is the concept of "the window of harvest". By DJ Short. sometimes very late September. if conditions are right (again. The Window of Harvest This term indicates the period during which the plant is at its optimum state of ripeness. There is the difference between Sativas and Indicas in bloom duration and final effect. Last. whereas a good body high is more similar to a narcotic effect. Given this rule of thumb you can pretty much come up with what you want. where I will begin.
For that best-of-both worlds high. By the end of the eighth week most of the calyxes will have swollen and a surge of trichome development has coated most of the buds. As far as trichomes are concerned. I highly recommend that the serious cannabis student acquire a 30X power. Three quarters to 90% of the pistils will have turned reddish brown as well. flowers. oldest calyxes swell first and the swelling works its way up to the highest. The denser the concentration. clear. That is. The lowest. It is now that the development of a very discerning palate comes into play to determine the finest harvest time. More and more of these trichomes develop as the plant matures. Usually a fibrous growth spurt is accompanied by a corresponding trichome increase.best. a week later the plant may have a growth spurt. The ripening signs for most Sativas are highly similar. The pistils and flowers develop from the bottom of the bud to the top. bracts and stems. With the aid of the magnifier one can learn more about the detail of trichome development and ripeness. It is about this time that the calyxes begin to swell. The chemicals we enjoy are produced within the glandular stalked trichomes. the greater the potency. Calyx swelling is a major indicator of peak maturity. leaves and stems. we are noting variations in plant chemistry. except extended over a longer period of time. These can be found at most local electronics stores. experimentation with late harvested sativas and early-to-mid harvested indicas usually proves interesting.patience is a virtue and often a discipline. some Sativas have windows of peak harvest that actually open and close. However. starting in or around the fourth week of the bud cycle. youngest flowers on each bud. they are so fat. along the surfaces of the bud flowers (calyxes). Again. For most basic indicas this usually happens by the sixth week in the flowering cycle. At the same time. The pistils of the young flowers are bright white and turn reddish brown with age.jpg Ready for harvest! . often for under fifteen dollars. The older. Magnify your Buds When we speak of various highs experienced by different products. which lowers the trichome-to-fibre ratio and overall potency for a little while. time and experience are the key elements in this regard. Remember . for a week or so the plant may exhibit signs of peak ripeness. Occasionally. more and more flowers (also called calyxes) develop into densely-packed floral clusters. lower pistils are the first to turn reddish brown. bulbous heads are what to shoot for. For a basic Indica this takes well into the seventh week of the flowering cycle. bracts. At peak maturity about 90% of the calyxes will almost look seeded. Changes in Chemistry Harvest1. illuminated magnifier. the tall ones with swollen. The Cycle of Plant Maturity Starting in the third or fourth week of the flowering light cycle. glandular stalked trichomes will begin to form along the surfaces of leaves.
Pleasant head highs are often desirable for social occasions. given the proper curing process (see CC #10). The main point is that these differences are chemical in nature and more research is needed to more fully understand this phenomenon. Send inquiries to Question DJ c/o Cannabis Canada. DJ Short is interested in hearing your experiences and questions. aroma and flavour. especially in regard to bouquet. whereas a narcotic late-window Indica may work better as an evening medicinal herb. Blue Velvet or Flo. finis . Set and setting also play an important role in determining which type of product is best appreciated.As the plant matures through its window of harvest its chemistry changes. As the window closes. Another important point is that much can be done to further enhance the chemical process. especially if have grown or tried the strains Blueberry. Primarily it is THC breaking down in CBNs and CBDs. Which particular combination of chemicals is the most desirable is purely a matter of taste and choice. the more desirable compounds begin breaking down into less desirable ones. I look forward to providing what information I can. developed over time and with experience.
This will help to hasten the drying process.jpg Dark & Dry After cutting the plant or branch. As with proper manicuring. . Leave the larger shade leaves on and they will gently droop and wrap around the plant. They should now be fully smokable. might even be smokable at this point. The buds should still be a little wet at this point. Light must be avoided from this point on. Don't pack the buds down and do not fold the bag too tight. protecting the buds. the smaller ones in particular. hang it upside down in a cool. should suffice. Once again. though perhaps still slightly damp at the core. like a lunch bag. or if the buds are still feeling heavy with moisture. an unwanted chemical. so practice! bagicon.Proper curing can exponentially increase the quality and desirability of your harvest. moonicon. you may want to try placing them on a suspended screen for a little while.jpg Brown Bagging It Once the buds are crisp on the outside but still moist on the inside it is time for the next step in the process: the paper bag. I like to use brown paper shopping bags due to their not being bleached.gif baggedbu. This is also a skill that is developed more with time and experience. dry. above the level of the buds. The key word to remember is "slow". The time to the next step depends on how dry your hanging area is. If you are in a more humid area. A few small folds at the top of the bag. If the buds are a tad wet or if humid conditions dominate. ever-socarefully turning the buds. regular checking is key. Re-hang the branches in the drying room and regularly check them until the smaller leaves and bud tips become dry and brittle to the touch. As the buds dry they will naturally compact into the selfpreserving state that we all know and love. When the larger shade leaves become dry and brittle to the touch it is time to gently clip them off.gif hangingb. Now you have a few choices as to what to do with your manicured buds. you might want to consider cutting a few small holes in the bag. The bags should be gently shaken. This is what is referred to as "manicuring". This requires regular checking to determine when to proceed. Simply fill a paper bag a few inches deep with the manicured buds. Some of the buds. It is then time to remove the buds from the branch and remove the rest of the leaf material as best as possible. especially on the inside. for ventilation. regular checking to decide when they are ready for the next stage is crucial. It is at this time that the buds can be more compacted together and the bag folded down tighter. at least once a day. but the outer part of the buds should be starting to feel dry. and most importantly dark place.
always remember to keep the product in the dark. usually for a week to ten days. I like when it takes six to eight weeks from harvest to the finished product.The entire process. especially in the cultivation of the Blueberry and Flo varieties. I like to dump them all out of the jar and gently fluff them up at least once a day at first.gif The Final Stage jarbud.jpg Ready to go! A bud is completely dry. You will be able to detect the fragrance of the product becoming more and more desirable as time progresses. hands-on checking. cured. depending on your climate. Aside from watching and smelling for mold. may take more or less time. It is important to be as gentle as possible so as not to damage too many of the resin glands. The screen is the driest process that I know of. finalbud. If problems with the mold occur prior to this. For example.jpg A final curing stage. The snap is easy to detect with practice. Extremes in climate. from harvest to these first smokable products. There is no substitute for consistent. It is at this stage that the product can safely be sealed and stored for an indefinite period of time. If the mold is detected in the bag stage. and the jar is sealed. The simplest solution is to go back one step. if the mold was detected in the jar stage simply put the rest of the product back to the bag stage for awhile (after removing the contaminated product from the batch). such as very arid deserts or tropical humid areas. the better. The nearly ready buds are transferred from the bag to the jar. Whenever mold is found it must be dealt with immediately. He can be contacted care of Cannabis Canada. and the rest of the product needs to be exposed to a drier environment for a while. The longer you can stretch out this process. while also avoiding mold. Watch for Mold The main thing to watch (and smell) for throughout all of the curing process is mold. The moldy bud needs to be removed. and ready for sale or consumption when the stem in the middle of the bud snaps when the bud is cracked with the fingers. jaricon. It is very important in the early jar-stage to check the buds at least once a day. After a week or so all I do is simply open the jar and check the buds on a daily basis. finis . then less often as time progresses. preferred by most connoisseurs. involves sealable jars. DJ Short welcomes questions and feedback. packed in very loosely. go back to the screen. a dehumidifier in the drying room may be the answer. should take anywhere from two to four weeks.
slender shoots of widely-spaced single female flowers in a row (especially when grown hydroponically under halide lights. Thick side-branching is another characteristic of this variety. alternating bract and flower in single file.) This bud structure is known as "spindly". For me. It was a powerful. I was never able to get a Juicy Fruit Highland Thai to "over mature". while the bud structures matured a lighter shade of green. For best breeding results you use true-breeding stabilized strains as your P1's. one was taken in early-mid December from a greenhouse. and crossed with itself or another highly similar. a cross called Purple Thai which was a first generation land-race Chocolate Thai crossed once with a first generation landrace Highland Oaxaca Gold. Most of the buds were very loose. I took one to almost twenty weeks into its flower cycle and she just kept pumping it out. The overall plant color was dark. Outdoors. They were the Highland Thai (also called Juicy Fruit Thai. anywhere from a quarter inch to one inch apart. filling in any empty spaces with lush. despite its hermaphroditism. Different breeders have different standards as to what qualifies as a P1. with some sporting long. the outcome was fully worth the effort. I used three P1 strains to breed Blueberry. Many of these spindles resemble threads protruding from a semi-formed bud. It was a very slow finisher. Juicy Fruit Juicy Fruit The Highland Thai was a joy to grow and behold. region-of-origin land-race variety. Thai Thai The entirety of the "thread" and bud structure was coated with sweet/fruity aromatic resin glands. a first-generation Thai seed grown in the Pacific Northwest). sometimes green/yellow. region-of-origin land-race variety. 12 to 16 weeks and beyond in the bud period for most. and consisted of a row of evenly-spaced female flowers and their corresponding bract leaves. the P1 must be either a fully acclimated. Though difficult to trim and cure. The plant only periodically produced any kind of "tight" bud structure. body high. Flo and others. The only difference was that the later harvest was a more stony. The high could last up to seven hours! The flavour. Choosing your parents The place for breeding to begin is with choosing the parent plants. It had the longest and skinniest leaves out of all the plants I have worked with. The finished product from the Highland Thai was an all-around champion herb. I have very high standards for my P1 generation. and an Afghani Indica which came to me one generation removed from Afghanistan via the California/Southern Oregon growing community. This plant grew fast. aroma and .On the origins of Blueberry by DJ Short (01 Sept. 1999) A case study on how to go about breeding fine marijuana. Each single thread averaged anywhere from five to ten inches long. or no more than one generation removed. green growth. long-lasting and exquisitely flavoured herb with little or no ceiling. called the P1 generation. some even longer.
It has early to very early maturation. The triad of sinsemilla. especially when combined with psychedelics. producing large. The "f" stands for filial (child). if left alone (untopped) the main stalk (meristem) remained the dominant shoot. stinky. This was a first generation cross between the Highland Oaxaca Gold and the Chocolate Thai. sticky. early-maturing and body-powerful indica has dominated the scene since 1983 � a matter of disjointed economics. pungent herb that smelled like a skunk and produced a narcotic-knockout stone that was tremendously novel. dense buds that smell earthen to skunk. also without ceiling. At larger doses the Juicy Fruit could evoke quite a terror. The finished product was equally as fruity and strong as the Juicy Fruit. green. The Afghani Indica plant is short with large. at roughly three to four weeks into the cycle. and the finished buds were a medium and compact sativa type. Though consistent in its growth and overall effect. indica. dense buds of potent. wide leaves. all wreaked havoc on the breeding programs of most pot-entrepeneurs. For whatever aesthetic reason. Such were the three main P1's I used for my breeding lines. Though no less potent.taste were a totally sweet tropical punch � tutti-fruity all the way. It also matured at 10 to 12 weeks indoor. It is this initial genetic diversity that leads to the most possibilities in succeeding lines. The Purple Thai was one of the first to show resin gland production in the early bud cycle. the Purple Thai seemed easier to handle. I believe that the Purple Thai was emotionally kinder or gentler than the Juicy Fruit. Afghani male Afghani male The f1 cross The f1 cross is the first cross between two distinctly different P1 parents. The short. with a strong smoke that is generally sedative or "down" in effect. and the strains virtually disappeared from the commercial markets. The Purple Thai was the other sativa in my repertoire. and the advent of high powered halide and HPS lights. which is where the finer qualities of the indica appear. It did not exhibit any of the spindly bud syndrome of the Juicy Fruit Thai. including when tripping. . its appeal is somewhat limited in my opinion. Blueberry x Afghani Blueberry x Afghani The sinsemilla Afghani Indica first showed up on the market in 1979. Few people maintained their sativa lines. They were huge. when compared to all the sativas that had come before. I cannot overstress the importance of the two P1 parents being as genetically different as is possible. I preferred the Purple Thai to the Juicy Fruit Highland Thai. I believe more indicas should be made into hashish. stout and thick-stemmed. The side branches were shorter and. dense. This cross grew medium/tall and was very symmetric in structure. This was right after sinsemilla herb hit the market with big appeal. and early to mid November outdoors. Afghani Afghani The entire plant of the Purple Thai was very dark-coloured and would express a deep royal purple colour at the slightest exposure to cold.
Afghani Afghani The f2 cross The f2 is the second filial generation. aromas. ellipsoid and mottled with dark stripes upon a grayish brown shell. certain paths prove futile while others bear further examination. striped to solid. From sativa to indica. licorice and paint. There was a wide palate of colours. about 1 out of every 25 females. expressing a near total uniformity and great vigor. The f2 seeds collected were equally diverse. short to tall. there are . Large. The diversity was spectacular. and so they're easier to "find". indoors. then the f1 will be a true hybrid. while Blue Moonshine seems more accessible through the Juicy Fruit lineage. round to oval. There is a tremendous amount of work between the f2's and the f4's and f5's. long buds formed along the branches. The maturation rates were uniform as well. the opposite cross (female Afghani indica crossed with pollen from male Thai sativa) was not nearly as interesting. A grand amount of time.If the P1's are sufficiently diverse. energy and money was spent from this point to isolate and stabilize the desired traits. both in structure and aesthetics. The f1's from this cross were more leafy and less desirable. early to late maturation. which I called simply "The Cross". dark to light. Only a very few of The Cross expressed hermaphroditism. the (usually female) sativa contributes the type of aroma and flavour. With my f2 crosses the outcome was extreme. wile the outer leaf. especially among the Purple Thai cross. gin. There will be a tremendous amount of variance in the f2 crosses of f1's obtained from a female pure sativa and a male pure indica. The plants of The Cross grew uniform. with a wide window of harvest being between weeks eight to eleven in the bud cycle. ranging from large to small. simply a cross between any two of the f1 stock. It is in the crosses beyond the initial f1 (especially the f1xf1=f2 cross) that specific traits are sought. Blue Velvet and Flo seem more accessible via the Purple Thai route. along with an extensive array of flavours. Thus there were two possible routes to essentially the same finished product. Oddly enough. tastes and highs. The finished bud had a very strong "astringent" chemical/terpene aroma that bordered between pine. wide to narrow leaves. It has been my observation that in a successful cross. So far this observation has proven fruitful. almost yellow to the centres. A single female is capable of producing thousands of seed. leaving plenty for experimentation. medium-tall "spear" structures of many competing sidebranches around one main (meristem) stalk. while the (usually male) indica contributes the amount of aroma and flavour to the prodigy. Blue Moonshine Blue Moonshine So the Thai female is pollinated with the Afghani male and an abundance of seed is produced. with almost every characteristic of the cannabis plant being expressed in some of the plants. That is. They were also more hermaphroditic and subsequent breeding revealed them to be less desirable. Trial and error is the rule. purple and blue hues. there is a higher probability of occurence of the specific traits which I'm seeking. small. plump to slender. The Blueberry (among others) was discovered and stabilized from an f1 cross between the P1 parents of a female Juicy Fruit Thai or a female Purple Thai and a male Afghani Indica. The buds were lighter. bract and calyx tips showed red. This is the f1 generation. The seed is uniformly sized and shaped. On average.
Hard frozen objects are very fragile. Now the seed is ready for the deep-freeze. It was however. Blueberry x NL#5 Blueberry x NL#5 I like to do one backcross somewhere between the f3 and f5 generation. f4 and f5. then place the freezer bag into a plastic tub or tupperware container.about nine errors to each success. little manilla envelopes work great. but when it comes to herb I much prefer Luther Burbank's philosophy: "Select the best and reject all others!" This simple phrase is worth much consideration. delicate cell structures within the seed. A pollen-to-flour ratio of 1:10 or even . The harvested plants. These topics and others will be covered in future articles. brown glass jars with a little rice or other non-toxic desiccant seems to work best. a fun and worthwhile occupation to sample all the research material. reject all others Mendelian procedures are fine for sweet peas. were placed under a vegetative light cycle to stimulate new growth for cloning. Coupled with the difficult clandestine aspects of the trade through the 80's and 90's. It is also useful to cut pollen with flour to stretch the amount. it was a difficult task to accomplish. If the sample passed "the test" then the plant was kept for further consideration. where and how that is done remains a trade secret for now. The fridge is extremely useful in extending the longevity of seed and pollen. I have had pollen last for years in a deep freeze. The trick to successful freezing is to freeze deep (-10 to -40�F/-20 to -35�C) and then keep the seed undisturbed. especially concerning P1 and f1 crosses. Double wrap the seed in paper. The pollen pile is sifted to rid the unwanted plant material from the pure powder. in as low a humidity as possible (preferably 0%). The most desirable samples were used for further breeding to f3. I like to do small amounts. cut above the lowest few nodes. Exactly when. But beyond the f2 and f3 cross. in one-time-use packets. The slightest shock may shatter crucial. to keep waste to a minimum. Then place the wrap into a plastic freezer bag. Mendel's work is useful. Have phun! Select the best. Afghani clones Afghani clones Your friend the freezer A benevolent tool in our trade is the refrigerator and freezer. It was hard work and dedication to record the findings and attempt to create useful categories and find patterns and traits to specific characteristics. storing seed in airtight. I like to shake the productive male flowers over a flat and clean piece of glass. Many sacrifices were endured by my family and friends. It must be frozen immediately after fresh collection from the plant. Then there's the wait for the cured sample. In the fridge. Mendel's theories add copius complexity to the equation. Another trade secret is the art of selecting the best males for breeding.
If successful. the sativa-friendly room can be used to acclimate an indoor sativa variety. As jungle (lowland) herb requires only a thin layer of nutrient soil. . and a more lowland sativa-friendly environment.1:100 works best. perhaps a four-to-eight inch layer of soil over clay or concrete (with some form of drain system) would encourage lateral root growth. Equatorial strains also experience a higher arch of sunlight than those grown beyond 38� north or south � with a sunrise almost due east and sunset nearly due west. may positively influence the outcome of the finished product. Different variations may be tried. The frozen pollen must be applied to the live female flower immediately after thawing to increase viability. stationary plants. The cut pollen may then be separated into small. Be prepared for much fine tuning. Keeping the plant in a stationary position. Therefore the sativa room will edintense overhead lighting with a straight track mover. a higher angle of light (using a straight track shuttle instead of a circular one). The goal is to replicate the equatorial conditions of the world�s various "sweet spots". This room needs to consider and satisfy the unique needs of the sativa variety. and variations in soil composition and depth. Light cycle is one of the key considerations for those wishing to breed truly fine quality cannabis indoors under lights. The 18/6 veggie and 12/12 bud cycles are perhaps the main influence towards the indica dominant strains and generic blandness of the indoor commercial product. stored in a flap of paper and frozen the same way as the seed. A true equatorial sativa will require closer to a 13/11 vegetative and a long (four to six month) 11/13 flower cycle. especially through the bud cycle. such as 15/9 veggie and 10/14 flowering cycle. which expands the possibilities of your breeding operation. Some of these conditions include: a different light cycle than the standard 18/6 vegetative 12/12 bud cycles. one-time-use amounts. Blue Velvet Blue Velvet The sweet sativa room I recommend the creation of a special "sativa room" for indoor breeding of such strains. humidity control set on low for the highland and high for the lowland.
Remember that if you have houseplants they may be supporting a population of mites as well. they are nearly impossible to get out. A garden started in a frozen climate is safe provided that the mites don't tag along in a bag of compost. as well as the commercially available alternatives. The problem. At higher temperatures they become very active and mobile. clean up. Mite growth slows dramatically at lower temperatures. Note that the predators may not be as effective if the mite population is too high . Wipe off any signs of webs immediately and repeatedly. I once saw an attic garden that was full of plants but had no ventilation. If you have mites you will know it by the very small white dots on top of your leaves. The vegetation that surrounds our dwellings supports an everpresent threat of invasion. Ventilation Ventilation fans are essential for healthy plant growth as well as discouraging the mites. especially if the place gets dry. Bring only clean tools and sterilized growing medium into your growroom. They are like little mosquitoes that suck the lifeblood from your plants. If you look closely underneath the leaf you will see the little white eggs clinging to the underside and most likely the little white or reddish brown spidermites walking around or sucking the sweet juice of your plant. Once mites get into your garden. or at least try to keep their numbers down. well ventilated rooms. as pests may enter the grow space on you.MITES BITE By Breeder Steve of the Spice of Life Seed Company Spider mites bite! You must get rid of them. reducing the quantity and quality of your harvest. Almost every grower has heard of and used many home remedies. Webs & Eggs Spidermites spin webs which facilitate movement among the plant's branches and neighbouring plant's branches for the shortlegged demons. They breed quickly and can develop resistance to certain sprays. predator mites will eat the evil spidermites and their eggs. Formally known as Phytoseilus Persimillis. The gardener also claimed to be too tired after work to carry water into his attic regularly. your friends. Having clean clothes and shoes is important. The best growrooms are cool. A terrible sight indeed. as a friend recently pointed out. is that every garden on the West Coast is under siege. so the plants were bone dry and covered with tents. A hot growroom with poor ventilation is a breeding ground for mites. They may even wipe the mites out entirely and then starve to death themselves. if they persist and you shudder at the prospect of starting all over again then you should introduce predator mites. Their persistence is incredible. and your pets. and start again with a renewed interest in prevention. Prevention The key to a mite-free garden is prevention. Just don't let them in. Predator Mites Once you've got mites bad the best solution is to tear down. However. Vapour barriers and finely screened vents for intake and exhaust fans are essential to avoid sucking in bugs from the outside. given the proper cool temperatures.
also known as diotomecious earth. It sounds nasty but it is merely fine sand with very sharp edges. and you will rejoice one battle won. while the dusty . Pentac or Kelthane are sprays that may be used while the plants are in vegetative cycle. I've tried garlic. but wait a few days after spraying before introducing the predators or the residual miticide will also harm them. something that they get stuck in. however I'm not convinced of its effectiveness. they eat it and then get sliced inside and out. mined from fossilized material. I've heard very good reports about it. Although this is only a band aid solution it can't hurt. which usually only provides a short term remedy. branches and pots. Companion planting is an interesting idea. even Pokon. it's a white dust that attracts the bugs. ground pumice. especially with some elbow grease and a J cloth. and dusty millers. I strongly recommend that you spray nothing on your buds except the mildest home remedies such as a small amount of Listerine and Sunlight dishsoap dissolved in water and sprayed or scrubbed onto the plants. In the stores look for Insecolo. People should not be messing around with Malathion or Diazinon. filtered and than sprayed is the favourite miticide of one crazy Dutchman I know. Put two-sided tape on the walls. the mites will die a hideous death. commercial or home made. and in fact it's best to avoid all chemical solutions. Wilson's insecticidal soap does a pretty good job at cleaning them up. very convenient for spraying the bottoms of leaves. as well as on stalks. as going the extra mile during the construction of the grow room can save a marathon cleanup later. ceiling and floor.when they are introduced. A few cigarette butts soaked in a litre of water. Very frightening indeed is the "ultimate mite killer" Avid. A new spray is being touted as killing spidermites but not the predator mites. Pokon is the most popular commercially available mite spray on the market today. marigolds. Never use systemic pesticides. Insecticidal Soaps and Sprays Eternal vigilance is the cost of freedom from spidermites. This is a dangerous and harmful product. The active ingredient is from a natural source and not harmful to humans. avoid! A new organic spray that is very effective is made from orange oils. The mites killed the marigolds in no time. Sprinkle this on the leaves and the soil. The dust is harmless to plants and animals (ourselves included) but very destructive to small crawling insects such as mites. Its razorlike edges slice the carapace or shell of the mites' bodies and then they dehydrate. Spray Solutions Any one of a number of spray solutions may be used to knock down their population to a level where the predators will be able to take over. The real key is prevention. and use it myself. If in doubt. It is fairly safe in composition and has the advantage of being in a nifty new aerosol can that can be sprayed upside down. Traps & Companions Traps are another possibility. but follow the instructions with any pesticide! I say again. find out. do not spray buds! Silicon Dioxide A great natural way to kill the little devils is with Silicone Dioxide. it is called SM90.
Plenty of wind is essential in the grow room. and thank your lucky stars. earth.millers lived as did the garlic. If you have mites try not to spread them. You must remember the four basic elements. . If you don't have mites. One grower I know of uses a compressed air blower once a week to blow any mites off of his plants. fire. Frequent spraying of water on plants impedes the mites' progress. but neither thrived as well as the mites. while outdoors the elements and naturally occurring predators make them less of a threat. so make sure it (and you) have a healthy and balanced diet. is less likely to have problems. growing inside is the art and science of creating nature. like a healthy person. Of what is up to you. and water. Too much or too little of any one of these will cause difficulties. Outdoors Indoors Spider mites are a plague on indoor gardens. For best results the plants should dance inside just as much as they would dance outside. To grow successfully these elements must be balanced. take precautions to keep it that way. A healthy plant. wind. as do heavy gusts of wind. so put oscillating fans all over the place. Remember.
and during the day the sides could be lifted to let the cool breeze reach the plants. the plants will break either straight away or not at all. creating an underground shed to house a small generator that provided me with ample electricity for my growing compound�s communications and lighting (as described and pictured in CC #60). As the drying process almost instantly reduces weight. Sound travels in the forest. Many people cut the branches off individually but all that does is increase the amount of work you have to do later. drying them as it went. I had to be careful not to pull the plants down too soon�act too early and mold can still break out in your buds. and here's how to harvest properly When you are growing guerilla jungle style you must be set up to process everything in the forest. When you have a drying shed on-site. The following season I developed a method that for my purposes was perfect. Ideally. that lack of planning was disastrous. but being underground muffled the sound of the generator. As one plant can have up to ten larger-sized branches on it.How To Harvest Outdoors by Joe Walsh (19 Sept. every time you touch your plants. only taking out finished product or dried bud ready for manicuring. It�s the only way to have a generator operate outdoors�it�s got to be quiet and stealth. With this method. making life harder later on. You will find the larger branches provide adequate strength to support the weight of the plant. I made my first drying shed with a timber frame and covered the walls and roof in heavy-duty black builders plastic. I could get 50 pounds (22 kg) of dry weight in 14 days. 2006) Growing in the bush requires a lot of planning. and as cool as possible as heat destroys the THC. you are losing and damaging the most valuable part: the trichomes! What I didn�t do the first season was build myself a drying shed. . In the event of heavy rain the plants were protected. I had to shovel big holes and it was backbreaking work. As I recounted. you take the heaps of harvested pot inside the shed and hang the plants up by strings or rope. Harvesting should be straightforward. the more the plant is disturbed during harvest. If the plant is big. the pot should be left in total darkness for the whole time of curing. By cutting off the main stems and laying the entire plants on top of each other. the more damage you do. Remember. It required money but by that stage I had it. cut off the top half of it and hang the two parts of the plant separately. you reduce the disruption of the resin heads. yet I have seen so many people do it the wrong way. I excavated the earth. The very best way is to cut the plants as low to the ground as possible.
and successful. I ran standard 6-inch diameter clothingdryer ducting from the generator shed into the drying shed. hot dry air would be sucked into the drying shed. With this set-up. but the ice cold water extraction method is so convenient. I have seen this at work on-site in the Canadian outback. I was able to stay anonymous. I found that leaving them in the bags for a few weeks tended to make the quality a little better. to repeat the process. and although the plant material was fresh (it�s better to be dry for the Bubblebags�). single-handedly drying the entire crop (about 300 pounds dry. When it was time to carry out the finished product.000 pounds of it�with the 20-gallon Bubblebag� ice-cold extraction system. fast. They could be stored like this for weeks or months. I learned from my first season growing in the bush that there are huge losses involved in poor planning. and then wrapped them in industrial cling wrap. I used to be very partial to making extracted THC oil using solvents.I had also brought in a large generator to make the drying shed more efficient. The generator had electric lines going to a heap of power outlets that connected industrial fans. I put the buds into chaff bags. Pot damaged by mold is redeemed in some small way when put in the ice-cold extraction bags.000 pounds of wet bud) without any help at all. and supplies are always scarce. within the bush for the second season even though it . circulated by the big industrial fans. de-humidifiers and three fluorescent lights controlled by a switch. safe and clean as to be unbeatable. inline fans. with another length of ducting carrying the cool moist air from the drying shed back to the generator so it could pump a constant stream of warm dry air to the harvested plants. tied the tops. which started at around 3. The de-humidifiers would remove moisture from the shed and then the cool air was sucked back into the generator shed. What I would do with my next crop is process the shake�as I had had over 2. With the generator going 24 hours a day� only stopping the machine to clear vapor locks from the fuel lines. and to change oil every 12 hours�I could dry 50 pounds in three days. because mold is rendered harmless and is separated from the trichomes through this method. and the product is very quickly turned over as the demand for bubble-hash is great. it is still a very efficient and very flexible method for fresh-cut trim.
and curing your cannabis to a perfect smoke.often rained heavily in the final weeks. scaling harvesting requirements to your ability. Learn from my experiences and next season you can do as I did. .
and recreational use of cannabis was unusual outside of jazz clubs and working-class black and Hispanic neighborhoods. and sold extensively. If you�re slightly careless with measurements. and a hazardous environment requires attentiveness. an old friend of mine was making oil outside with butane. Brian. heat. but the gear hadn�t been put away. partial neighborhood blocks going up in flames. DO NOT MAKE MARIJUANA EXTRACTS! Controlling solvents. and what to do right When making cannabis oil or extractions. Consequently. The process had been completed. much inadequate and misguided information has circulated. Early oilmaking technology like the ISO2 extractor were massproduced. life-threatening injuries. that attended university chemistry classes during the day and �studied� cannabis at night. Stepping slightly back from the table. used for medicinal extracts from 1913 to 1938. yet Puff Mama. he lit a joint� and BOOM! The spark ignited fumes in the air and nearly blew him apart. the objective is to get really high�safely. I found it impossible to locate a cannabis alchemist who isn�t sporting burn scars or fondly recalling the time so-and-so went up in flames. Michigan with plants known as Cannabis Americana. such as those employed by Eli Lily and Parke-Davis Company up to 1938. Every cannabis chemist we spoke to has an explosion story. Eli Lily and Parke-Davis jointly ran a farming co-operative in Rochester. Cannabis extracts revived in the 1970�s facilitated by High Times Magazine. by 1977. which. the duo decided to make honey oil. you MUST approach with caution. Goodster was getting the very last drop of the honey oil from the Pringles can�which they unwisely used to contain the butane and plant matter� when it jarred on a metal table and created a spark. there have been hundreds of weed-oil explosions throughout North America over the last 30 years. and/or occasionally leave the Volcano vaporizer on until the balloon is about to burst.How To Make Weed Oil Without Blowing Yourself Up by Matt Mernagh (19 Sept. and even death� which are all tragedies used as arguments by prohibitionists against marijuana use in general. You must be ultra-careful when making oil with solvents. Eli Lily supplied the Office of Strategic Services (now the Central Intelligence Agency) with �potent marijuana oil created as a truth drug for interrogation purposes�. advertised in High Times. Fans still blew behind him as he checked out the end product. When making extractions. and Chris Goodwin all faced serious cannabis catastrophe. resulting in completely blown-up houses. 2006) A few examples of what can go wrong. The extraction-makers we profile in this article are all smart stoners. �red oil concentrates were used along with marijuana� to get the prisoners to talk about crimes or provide information they had not yet confessed. severe physical burns. After smoking a doobie with his friend one night and eating Pringles potato chips in the parents� basement. was printing almost a million copies. The LaGuardia Mayor�s Committee provided cannabis extracts to New York City prisons in the 1930�s and 40�s. There are many ways to mess up! The original reefer revolutionaries of cannabis extraction were scientists. are easily confused about explosive chemicals. have difficulty following directions. (LaGuardia report) Medicinal cannabis extracts disappeared from store shelves in 1937. but since the heyday of THC extraction in the 1970�s. The invention of the Internet accelerated the exchange of oil-making ideas. �It would have been fine if the bottom of the Pringles can wasn�t metal . For example. Never assume! Up In Smoke Cafe proprietor Chris �Goodster� Goodwin is a honey oil head. He had been standing in the fan�s air path and assumed he was safe.
fill one piece of glassware with plant matter and secure the mesh screen over the top with packing tape. As this happens. they managed to put out the fire. After 30 to 60 minutes all the resin was transferred to the remaining alcohol in the basin. and then the alcohol evaporated into the air or was heated gently until only the THC oil remained. Position the tube in or above a large glass container. All cannabis cooking. it creates fumes that can ignite an explosion with even the smallest spark or flame. even outdoors. When you�re planning to make weed oil with isopropyl alcohol (99.too. Pour the liquid through the screen into a second piece of glassware. which can result in the chemist pass-ing out onto their lab equipment� so make sure you wear a gas mask. Fumes can also cut off the flow of oxygen to the brain. you use the same sort of process. the resins take on a dark brown color characteristic of hash oil. and gently shake the container to coat the marijuana with alcohol. so in the ISO2 the vapor �melted� the resin. How to Make Oil The cannabis chemist is seeking to obtain the purest THC content for their oil while also providing a sweet taste to their product. It is HIGHLY recommended that you always make oil OUTSIDE! When alcohol or gas is heated. Suspended above the alcohol was a halforb mesh strainer filled with marijuana. some mesh screen that is NOT made of metal (once again. Many cannabis cookers work with two fans behind them to keep fumes going downwind. As it runs through the . Allow for a complete evaporation of solvents before harvesting your oil from the container. stirring as the alcohol slowly evaporates. obtain three glass beakers or bowls. The ISO2 was a fairly safe extracting device with a light bulb under the base connected to a dimmer switch. which then dropped into the alcohol. without setting oneself on fire. inert and odorless.7% isopropyl) was placed in the basin of the metal container and heated by the bulb underneath. and attach a non-metal screen to the bottom with packing tape. Set up somewhere with ample ventilation and more than one exit. Had Goodster gone to science class a few more times he might have learned better safety precautions and obtained the necessary glassware required to contain the volatile oilmaking mix of plant matter and butane! If you�re serious about making honey oil. this is VERY important!). but it went WHOOSH again!� Luckily. Slowly pour isopropyl alcohol up to a level slightly above the top of the trimmings. �Naturally. similar to a lava lamp. or something else that creates heat with NO open flame (this is VERY important). You will need a SAFE heat source to make oil. Eliminating solvents just perfectly. Fill a tube or hose-like container with trim or bud. a coffee machine base. Use a lava lamp stand.� the sound Goodster uses to describe the flaming experience of honey oil going off in his face.� Goodster says.7%). and very carefully pour the butane down the tube. The runnier or greener the oil is. until the color of the liquid begins to change to amber. Then place it on your heat source. because THC resin is heavier than alcohol or butane gas (which is also used to make oil�we�ll go over that soon) it will sink to the bottom of the new glass container. When alcohol is heated it turns into a vapor and rises. like moonshining. �The base sparked on the table and the thing just went WHOOOSH. should be done far away from other people so if something goes wrong you�re the only one to suffer the consequences. To make oil with butane. which are widely available these days. the poorer the quality. I dropped the can. is a critical part of the process. and packing tape�not duct tape. invest money into ordering proper lab equipment online or from a science retailer. Alcohol (99. Pour the liquid into a new container and back into another. In your chosen well-ventilated spot. The vapors came out of a twelveinch tower of carbon.
her kitchen was ruined and she was charged for �possession�. With cannabis use and tender loving care. and what remains will be sweet honey oil! Mr. which he did often. Upon his release.horror-moviemess� and he is permanently physically scarred by his fiery experience. and repeat the process until the residue begins to take on a deep amber color. While making oil. then the Toronto Police showed up and cleaned out the contents of her fridges. she accidentally turned the stove on HIGH! The Toronto Fire Department had arrived to put out the fire. fans. It should be ground up to crumbs. Then follow the same heating and evaporation process as isopropyl. She knew it was safe to turn the stove heat down to LOW and leave for a bit. spider mites. ala Emeril or The Iron Chef. the flammable substance he was evaporating suddenly went one degree too hot� and BOOM! The oil burst into flames and he threw the pot from the stove. She realized that when she ran out the door to see her mom. Canada. which can be used in any food preparation (and this. he turned his personal tragedy into opportunity by becoming a super-chef supplier of baked goods: Mr. but not dust. 768 Queen Street East in Toronto. Here Puff Mama shares her recipe for cannabutter. and stainless steel pots and pans. one year later Brian is healthy and looks scar-free. She has a pro kitchen with two stoves. His burns and injuries were so life threatening he was flown 150 miles to a Hamilton. Ontario hospital where he spent weeks in intensive care.trimmings. Puff Mama�s �Burning Down The House� CannaButter Puff Mama is another talented cannabis chef. �how does she get pot into muffins and chocolate? � Because of a simple mistake. She�s also a pot professional with a disastrous cannabiscooking story of her own to tell. his hands were a �peelingbandaged. Puff Mama decided to go out and have sushi with her mom while a batch of cannabutter slowly simmered in a pot on the stove. but unfortunately that ended one fateful day in 2005. Of course. He also has a respectable ten years� experience in the oil business. But being a weed wizard indeed. an air conditioner. You can experience delicious treats from Mr. Toronto Police.5 L water . two fridges. Unfortunately. Puff also turned her tragedy into a marijuana opportunity by hosting an extravagant fundraising effort to pay her kitchen replacement and legal bills. when she came home from a pleasant meal she found her home on fire. but his hands became a fireball that quickly covered his entire body. Since then she�s opened Clandestiny and offers baked goods for sale (see her ad at the beginning of the magazine). Cookie�s Misfortune Brian is a great chef who knows how to cook up a storm. After his recovery. Ontario. chemicals and/or debris. Puff Mama reminds everyone to make sure you watch the heat! CannaButter Ingredients: � 1 lb unsalted butter � dried cannabis (see * below) � 4 . Cookie at �Clandestiny�. is how pot gets in chocolate!) All cannabis used for cooking should be fully dried and free of mold. Take the bowl and repour it through the tube into another container. Her new store Clandestiny is a hemp-friendly location with plenty of treats. resin glands are dissolved along the way and carried out with the butane. Cookie. wondering.
Using the spoon. and water in a large stockpot. Use the potato masher against the colander to squeeze out the precious juices. leaves Mild potency use: 225 grams Strong potency use: 450 g Mostly leaves. as butter will go bad. 3) When you are ready to strain. 4) Wrap the mixture tight and squeeze every last drop of juice out. rye. The butter and water will separate. Stir every 1/2 hour. The butter will want to cling between the leaves. cannabis. brandy. you get a . Irish cream�whatever you like. freeze it. trim from buds Mild: 28 g Strong: 56 g Regular cannabis buds Mild: 14 g Strong: 28 g Powerful cannabis or hash Mild: 7 g Strong: 14 g Directions: 1) Place butter. 5) Throw out the contents of the cheesecloth. then refrigerate the liquid in the pot. 2) Simmer for 6 .8 hours. Don�t let the sides fall in. put the pot on a large element on the lowest setting possible. vodka. and a steak will go nicely with cannabis brandy sauce! Mixing store-bought alcohol with bud is rather easy. slowly pour the brew into the cheesecloth. Rum.� 1 large stockpot � a 2nd pot or large bowl � a colander (spaghetti strainer) that will fit in the 2nd pot or bowl � a large piece of cheesecloth � a big spoon and potato masher * If you have: Stems. put the colander over the second pot or bowl. You can dump the water and store the butter in the fridge. some stems Mild: 120 g Strong: 250 g Leaves. If you don�t plan to use it within a week. Canna-Rum or Cooking Brandy A mint julip packs a bit more punch if you replace the mint with bud. it�ll safely dissolve THC from cannabis over several days. and all the THC is in the butter. seeds. whisky. Line it with a large piece of cheesecloth. and if you leave it for up to three months. Tequila is an excellent alcohol for absorbing THC.
at affordable prices too. The G -13 Church of the Universe produces the finest religious tinctures while fighting The Man. the tinctures can also be mixed into summer drinks. (Though the cannabis community showed some astonishment regarding the uniformity of Sativex�. Sativex and Cannabis Sprays The Canadian medical marijuana movement has many clubs producing their own medical sprays. ala Romans versus Catholics. and to experience the entire spiritual aspects of the cannabis plant. the historical information available suggests that cannabis spray uniformity has been around since the turn of the century. The bud creates a more lucid state. Unfortunately. just drop the buds right down the neck of the bottle. bust down and stabilize the molecular structure. Purchase all the ingredients for your desired drink and obtain about 1/4 to a half ounce of primo bud. ganja generic knocks-offs from Compassion Clubs taste. If you put shit in. is the only corporation in the world permitted to legally grow voluminous amounts of cannabis. and mist better. To make canna-liquor. Though patients have the option of getting a Sativex� prescription. �Just yesterday. Reverend Peter of the G-13 Church of the Universe says. trying to avoid disturbing the resin glands. Several Compassion Clubs began canna-spray research using Jamaican 150-proof rum to dissolve the plant trimmings.� The local liquor outlet sells 95.) The unfair advantage goes to G. which is what the five per cent of people who use the tinctures are looking for. and sell it.W. California. we had a lovely summer drink using the tincture with lemons. Trim to fit if need be! Shake�do not stir�the bottle every day once the bud is inside. �What you want is an euphoric state. as those who down a whole tincture are known to trance out into a lucid commune-with. and that�s why we don�t use leaf. Most compassion clubs now use medical or food-grade alcohol to make their tinctures and mists. medicate. this will transfer the THC into the alcohol.W. G-13 prefers food-grade alcohol to break down their product versus 150-proof rum.� Clearly not intended for newbies. they allow several days of extraction and/or cooking. well-cured smaller buds into a bottle of booze. Reverend Peter says the Church is really .proof food-grade alcohol to the Church for their tinctures. the makers of Sativex� prescription cannabis spray. that alcohol was neither a suitable medicinal binding agent nor strong enough for med pot patients. And they�re not doing so for medical reasons: this tincture is for Spiritual Exploration. G. or those just seeking a good night�s sleep! However. If possible. and other med-pot jurisdictions are doing so without permits. And it�s no secret we�re following Ed Rosenthal�s recipes. you get shit out. The longer the cannabis is in the liquor. Oregon. but one spray can costs $125 in Canada (the only market where it is prescribed legally). British Columbia. �You can use them anyway you like. the more it will break down and release its many valuable cannabinoids. This reefer religion stronghold�s tinctures are so powerful that only a few members opt to use them. Sativex� is the only pharmaceutical spray on the market using whole cannabis resin extract.God state. you need to get about ten to fifteen very dry. Pharmaceuticals. With government licenses.very powerful and smooth drink. but we use only the finest of bud.� he explains of the sacrificial substance. Pharmaceuticals because they produce Sativex� in legal environs while compassionate chemists in Ontario. people could be perfecting cannabis sprays for the benefit of the ill. The Sacrificial Tinctures of G-13 Located in the hippie enclave of Toronto�s Beaches neighborhood.
bhangs� and some people even put it in their coffee. Just dump some oil in. then we can use it for making chocolates.getting famous for its extra-virgin olive oil. �Just always use great bud.� . There�s no secret here. �We cook it for five days.� he concludes. it�s really very good.