1 Aim
The main aim of this project is to provide security to the vehicles. The system automatically locks the vehicle as soon as it receives a predefined message from the user.

1.2 Features
• • • • • • • • The controlling unit contains the microcontroller and the GSM modem interfaced to it. The controlling unit will be fixed to the vehicle. The microcontroller continuously checks whether it has received any message from the modem. The modem provides the communication interface. The GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network Whenever anyone tries to unlock or take away the vehicle, immediately a message will be sent to the user mobile. The user, after checking the message, can respond immediately to save his vehicle. The microcontroller retrieves this message from the modem by issuing certain AT and T commands to the modem. Thus, after receiving the message from the modem, the microcontroller automatically locks the vehicle. This will be done perfectly without the involvement of any human.

1.3 Applications
• • •
• •

using GPS tracking system we can detect the vehicle any where in the global automatic reduction of vehicle speed where an obstacle on the way to present loss in an accident diction of aichohol for a driver and limit the speed of the vechile not more than 40km/hr
The GSM Modem supports popular "AT" command set so that users can develop applications quickly Uses GSM technology for following applications:

1. Access control devices: Access control devices can communicate with servers and security staff through SMS messaging. Complete log of transaction is available at the head-office Server instantly without any wiring involved and device can instantly alert security personnel on their

mobile phone in case of any problem 2. Transaction terminals: EDC (Electronic Data Capturing) machines can use SMS messaging to confirm transactions from central servers. The main benefit is that central server can be anywhere in the world 3. Supply Chain Management: With a central server in your head office with GSM capability, you can receive instant transaction data from all your branch offices, warehouses and business associates with nil downtime and low cost. Limitations • • • • The control kit should be placed inside the vehicle far away from the temperature Care should be taken such that all components in the control kit must be in condition Must and should specify the predefined messages in the source program The gsm frequencys must be considered

literature survey THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS -Muhammad ali mazidi -janice gillispie mazidi THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER ARCHITECTURE,PROGRAMING AND APPLICATIONS -Kenneth j.Ayala -Ramesh s.gaonkar ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS INTRDUCTION TO GSM -D.V.Prasad -Lawrence Harte

1.4 Organization of the Thesis
In view of the proposed thesis work explanation of theoretical aspects and algorithms used in this work are presented as per the sequence described below. Chapter 1 describes a brief review of introduction of the project.

Chapter 2 discusses the theoretical chapters of project. Chapter 3 describes the hardware design considerations. Chapter 4 explains about software implementations. Chapter 5 describes about application implementation. Chapter 6 gives results and conclusions

Chapter 2 Theoretical chapter
Embedded Systems: An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job. Appliances such as the air-conditioner, VCD player, DVD player, printer, fax machine, mobile phone etc. are examples of embedded systems. Each of these appliances will have a processor and special hardware to meet the specific requirement of the application along with the embedded software that is executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement. The embedded software is also called “firm ware”. The desktop/laptop computer is a general purpose computer. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games, word processing, accounting, software development and so on. In contrast, the software in the embedded systems is always fixed listed below: · Embedded systems do a very specific task, they cannot be programmed to do different things. Embedded systems have very limited resources, particularly the memory. Generally, they do not have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM or the floppy disk. Embedded systems have to work against some deadlines. A specific job has to be completed within a specific time. In some embedded systems, called real-time systems, the deadlines are stringent. Missing a deadline may cause a catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. Embedded systems are constrained for power. As many embedded systems operate through a battery, the power consumption has to be very low. · Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental conditions such as very high temperatures and humidity.

Following are the advantages of Embedded Systems: 1. They are designed to do a specific task and have real time performance constraints which must be met. 2. They allow the system hardware to be simplified so costs are reduced. 3. They are usually in the form of small computerized parts in larger devices which serve a general purpose. 4. The program instructions for embedded systems run with limited computer hardware resources, little memory and small or even non-existent keyboard or screen. The Evolution of Mobile Telephone Systems Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. Today, it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. Currently there are more than 45 million cellular subscribers worldwide, and nearly 50 percent of those subscribers are located in the United States. The concept of cellular service is the use of low power transmitters where frequencies can be reused within a geographic area. The idea of cell based mobile radio service was formulated in the United States at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Cellular systems began in the United States with the release of the advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) system in 1983. The AMPS standard was adopted by Asia, Latin America and Oceanic countries, creating the largest potential market in the world for cellular. In the early 1980s, most mobile telephone systems were analog rather than digital, like today's newer systems. One challenge facing analog systems was the inability to handle the growing capacity needs in a cost efficient manner. As a result, digital technology was welcomed. The advantages of digital systems over analog systems include ease of signaling, lower levels of interference, integration of transmission and switching and increased ability to

carrying out the PCB layout of the schematic tested on breadboard. The Proload programmer has been used to write this compile code into the microcontroller. The table below shows the worldwide development of mobile telephone systems. In the present work. The firmware implementation is explained in the next chapter. finally preparing the board and testing the designed hardware. − Hardware implementation − Firmware implementation Hardware implementation deals in drawing the schematic on the plane paper according to the application. testing the schematic design over the breadboard using the various IC’s to find if the design meets the objective. the Keil µv3 software development tool to write and compile the source code. The firmware part deals in programming the microcontroller so that it can control the operation of the IC’s used in the capacity demands. which has been written in the C language. . The implementation of the project design can be divided in two parts. we have used the Orcad design software for PCB circuit design.

The block diagram discusses about the required components of the design and working condition is explained using circuit diagram and system wiring diagram.The project design and principle are explained in this chapter using the block diagram and circuit diagram. It was popular in the 1980s and early 1990s. 8051 is an 8-bit processor. I/O ports and a timer embedded all on a single chip. Microcontroller is a programmable device. Features of AT89S52: . RAM and number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are critical. ROM. Data larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8-bit pieces to be processed by the CPU. but today it has largely been superseded by a vast range of enhanced devices with 8051-compatible processor cores that are manufactured by more than 20 independent manufacturers including Atmel. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM. Microcontrollers: Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely used in embedded systems products. single chip microcontroller (µC) which was developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time. Infineon Technologies and Maxim Integrated Products. The Intel 8051 is Harvard architecture. 8051 is available in different memory types such as UV-EPROM. Flash and NVRAM. A microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed amount of RAM.

5V Operating Range. 32 Programmable I/O Lines. Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz’s Three-level Program Memory Lock. Flexible ISP programming (byte and page mode). Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of Flash programmable memory. Dual data pointer. Description: The AT89s52 is a low-voltage. The on chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in system or by a conventional non volatile memory programmer. Interrupt recovery from power down mode.0V to 5. Fast programming time. Watchdog timer. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set. The . which provides a highly flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications. Power-off flag. Full Duplex UART Serial Channel.8K Bytes of Re-programmable Flash Memory. 4. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. Eight Interrupt Sources. In addition. the Atmel AT89s52 is a powerful microcomputer. RAM is 256 bytes. Three 16-bit Timer/Counters. 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM. the AT89s52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.

Port 0 . GND Pin 20 is the ground. The voltage source is +5V. timer/counters.Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. The power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. serial port and interrupt system to continue the functioning. Pin description Vcc Pin 40 provides supply voltage to the chip.

the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins. As an output port. P0 has internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. In this mode. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. as shown in the following table. As . Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. External pull-ups are required during program verification Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during Program verification.Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port.0 and P1. In addition.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX). Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. P1. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. respectively. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. As inputs.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.

Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. RST Reset input A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. The port also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.inputs. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. as shown in the following table. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI). Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. In this application. As inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can . Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.

With the bit set. In normal operation. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. however. Note. PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. that if lock bit 1 is programmed. that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data used to disable this feature. EA will be internally latched on reset. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. EA/VPP External Access Enable EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. If desired. the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. the pin is weakly pulled high. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. Otherwise. however. . ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. In the default state of bit DISRTO.

Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. They are identified as Timer 0. Timer 1 and Timer 2 and can be independently . of an inverting amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. respectively. 16-bit timers/ counters. XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output. To drive the device from an external clock source. since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal. UART The Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers implement three general purpose. but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven.

A basic operation consists of timer registers THx and TLx (x= 0. The external input is . i. The four operating modes are described below.e. the timer/counter counts negative transitions on an external pin. Timer registers can be accessed to obtain the current count or to enter preset values. When TLx overflows it increments THx. 1) connected in cascade to form a 16-bit timer. Setting the run control bit (TRx) in TCON register turns the timer on by allowing the selected input to increment TLx. M0) in TMOD. Setting the TRx does not clear the THx and TLx timer registers. There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the external input signal. the timer register counts the divided-down peripheral clock. In addition to the “timer” or “counter” selection. in standard mode or FOSC / 6 in X2 mode. Modes 0.configured to operate in a variety of modes as a timer or as an event counter. They can be read at any time but TRx bit must be cleared to preset their values. ‘auto-reload’ and ‘baud rate generator’. 1and 2 are the same for both timer/counters. but to ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes. For timer operation (C/Tx# = 0). For counter operation (C/Tx# = 1). otherwise the behavior of the timer/counter is unpredictable. the timer register counts the negative transitions on the Tx external input pin. it should be held for at least one full peripheral cycle. TRx bit must be cleared when changing the mode of operation. otherwise the behavior of the timer/counter is unpredictable. The various operating modes of each timer/counter are described in the following sections. When operating as a timer. Timer 2. by selecting the divided-down peripheral clock or external pin Tx as the source for the counted signal. the counter issues an interrupt request. when THx overflows it sets the timer overflow flag (TFx) in TCON register. The timer clock rate is FPER / 6. After a preset number of counts. the timer/counter runs for a programmed length of time and then issues an interrupt request. The C/T control bit (in TCON register) selects timer operation or counter operation. has three modes of operation: ‘capture’. Timer 0 and Timer 1 have four operating modes from which to select which are selected by bit-pairs (M1. The timer register is incremented once every peripheral cycle (6 peripheral clock periods). FOSC / 12 mode. When operating as a counter. Mode 3 is different.

e. In 1987. FOSC / 24 in standard mode or FOSC / 12 in X2 History In 1982. the maximum count rate is FPER / 12. When the sample is high in one cycle and low in the next one. . digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. GSM digitizes and compresses data. It supports voice calls and data transfer speeds of up to 9. then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data. a memorandum of understanding was signed by 13 countries to develop a common cellular telephone system across Europe. each in its own time slot. the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) created the Group Special Mobile (GSM) to develop a standard for a mobile telephone system that could be used across Europe. i. GSM. Finally the system created by SINTEF lead by Torleiv Maseng was selected.800 MHz frequency band.sampled every peripheral cycle. GSM uses a variation of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephone technologies (TDMA. the counter is incremented. Since it takes 2 cycles (12 peripheral clock periods) to recognize a negative transition. GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephone system that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world.6 kbit/s. and CDMA). GSM Technology: Definition of GSM: GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is an open. It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1. together with the transmission of SMS (Short Message Service).

As of the end of 1997. GSM service was available in more than 100 countries and has become the de facto standard in Europe and Asia. This 'extended GSM'. Most 2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270. . adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. Most 3G GSM networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band. over a million subscribers were using GSM phone networks being operated by 70 carriers across 48 countries. There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems. GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink). GSM Frequencies GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G). By the end of 1993. GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and phase I of the GSM specifications were published in 1990. The first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland with joint technical infrastructure maintenance from Ericsson. uses 880–915 MHz (uplink) and 925–960 MHz (downlink). E-GSM. providing 124 RF channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. and the frame duration is 4. In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range.833 Kbit/s. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot.615 ms. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used.In 1989.

Allows simultaneous transfer of voice and high-speed digital data. Canada and many South American countries. Allows simultaneous transfer of voice and digital data. Terrestrial GSM networks now cover more than 80% of the world’s population. Mobile Telephony Standards Standard Generation GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS 1G The first generation of mobile telephony (written 1G) operated using analogue communications and portable devices that were relatively large. GSM’s international roaming capability allows users to access the same services when travelling abroad as at home. This gives consumers seamless and same number connectivity in more than 218 countries.2-345. was the first cellular network standard.4-171. It used primarily the following standards: • AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System).6 kbps 9.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. The 850MHz band is also used for GSM and 3G in Australia. which appeared in 1976 in the United States.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.5G 2. It was used primarily in the 2G 2.144-2 Mbps kbps .75G 3G Frequency band Allows transfer of voice or lowvolume digital data.6 kbps 21. Allows transfer of voice or moderate-volume digital data. GSM satellite roaming has also extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not available. GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1.2 kbps 43. By having harmonized spectrum across most of the globe.6 kbps 48 kbps 171 kbps 384 0. Throughput 9.

• ETACS (Extended Total Access Communication System) is an improved version of the TACS standard developed in the United Kingdom that uses a larger number of communication channels. This standard uses the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands in Europe. TDMA technology is primarily used on the American continent. this system was largely used in England and then in Asia (Hong-Kong and Japan). . In the United States. in New Zealand and in the Asia-Pacific region. however. This first-generation analogue network had weak security mechanisms which allowed hacking of telephones lines. The first-generation cellular networks were made obsolete by the appearance of an entirely digital second generation. Russia and Asia. • • CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) uses a spread spectrum technique that allows a radio signal to be broadcast over a large frequency range. Second Generation of Mobile Networks (2G) The second generation of mobile networks marked a break with the first generation of cellular telephones by switching from analogue to digital. The main 2G mobile telephony standards are: • GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is the most commonly used standard in Europe at the end of the 20th century and supported in the United States. the frequency band used is the 1900 MHz band.Americas. Using the 900 MHz frequency band. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) uses a technique of time division of communication channels to increase the volume of data transmitted simultaneously. Portable telephones that are able to operate in Europe and the United States are therefore called tri-band. • TACS (Total Access Communication System) is the European version of the AMPS model.

3G The IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2000) specifications from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) defined the characteristics of 3G (third generation of mobile telephony). for Short Message Service) or multimedia messages (MMS. The GSM standard allows a maximum data rate of 9. 144 Kbps with total coverage for mobile use 3. As this technology does not fit within the "3G" category.5G The EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) standard. but it has been limited in order to comply with the IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications-2000) specifications from the ITU (International Telecommunications Union).75G. 2. 2 Mbps with reduced coverage area for stationary use. 4. thereby allowing the access to multimedia uses such as video transmission. it is often referred to as 2. The most important of these characteristics are: 1. for Multimedia Message Service). billed as 2. In reality. World compatibility. Compatibility of 3rd generation mobile services with second generation networks. One of these is the GPRS (General Packet Radio System) service which allows theoretical data rates on the order of 114 Kbit/s but with throughput closer to 40 Kbit/s in practice. Extensions have been made to the GSM standard to improve throughput. the EDGE standard allows maximum theoretical data rates of 473 Kbit/s.With the 2G networks. video-conferencing or high-speed internet access. 3G . quadruples the throughput improvements of GPRS with its theoretical data rate of 384 Kbps. 3G offers data rates of more than 144 Kbit/s. it is possible to transmit voice and low volume digital data.6 kbps. High transmission data rate. for example text messages (SMS. 384 Kbps with medium coverage for pedestrian use. 6. thereby allowing the access for multimedia applications. 5.

6 kbps which allows transmission of voice and low-volume digital data like text messages (SMS. The main 3G standard used in Europe is called UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) and uses WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) encoding. UMTS technology uses 5 MHz bands for transferring voice and data. for Short Message Service) or multimedia messages (MMS.networks use different frequency bands than the previous networks: 1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz. for Multimedia Message Service). unlike the first generation of portable telephones. which is able to reach data rates on the order of 8 to 10 Mbps. When it was first standardized in 1982. In Europe. The GSM standard allows a maximum throughput of 9. the most commonly used mobile telephony standard in Europe. HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) is a third generation mobile telephony protocol. it became an international standard called "Global System for Mobile communications" in 1991. HSDPA technology uses the 5 GHz frequency band and uses WCDMA encoding. with data rates that can range from 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps. the frequency band used is the 1900 MHz band. however.5G"). It is called as Second Generation (2G) standard because communications occur in an entirely digital mode. portable telephones that are able to operate in both Europe and the United States are called tri-band while those that operate only in Europe are called bi-band. the GSM standard uses the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands. GSM Standards: . For this reason. Introduction to the GSM Standard The GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) network is at the start of the 21st century. In the United States. (considered as "3. it was called as Group Special Mobile and later.

Each user takes turn in a round robin fashion for transmitting and receiving over the channel. TDMA allows the users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. But the two competing technologies differ in the way user sharing the common resource. which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. Unlike TDMA. CDMA uses a spread spectrum technology that is it spreads the information contained in a particular signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal.GSM uses narrowband TDMA. TDMA in brief: In late1980’s. in CDMA several users can transmit over the channel at the same time. where a call jumps from one channel to another channel in a short interval. The most complex implementation using TDMA principle is of GSM’s (Global System for Mobile communication). FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access). Here. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). All three principles allow multiple users to share the same physical channel. To reduce the effect of co-channel interference. fading and multipath. and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). . as a search to convert the existing analog network to digital as a means to improve capacity. Time Division Multiplex Access is a type of multiplexing where two or more channels of information are transmitted over the same link by allocating a different time interval for the transmission of each channel. There are three basic principles in multiple access. users can only transmit in their respective time slot. the cellular telecommunications industry association chose TDMA over FDMA. the GSM technology can use frequency hoping.

e. It has an ability to carry 64 kbps to 120 Mbps of data rates. The switch then uses this information for making better choices for handoff at appropriate times. The TDMA handset constantly monitors the signals coming from other sites and reports it to the switch without caller’s awareness. i. voice band data and SMS as well as bandwidth intensive application such as multimedia and video conferencing. Handoff occurs when a call is switched from one cell site to another while travelling. Since the cell size grows smaller. since it transmits only portion of the time during conversations. 2. space and maintenance. TDMA handset performs hard handoff. It can easily adapt to transmission of data as well as voice communication. This allows the operator to do services like fax. It provides users with an extended battery life. it proves to save base station equipment.TDMA systems still rely on switch to determine when to perform a handoff. 3.. it breaks the connection and then provides a new connection with the new site. 4. 1. Since TDMA technology separates users according to time. Advantages of TDMA: There are lots of advantages of TDMA in cellular technologies. whenever the user moves from one site to another. it ensures that there will be no interference from simultaneous transmissions. .

in highly populated urban areas. while huge cells of up to 30 kilometers provide coverage in rural areas. a time limit can be used on the system. Cellular networks are based on the use of a central transmitter-receiver in each cell. To avoid interference. So. the user will not receive a dial tone. there are cells with a radius of a few hundred meters. The second problem in TDMA is that it is subjected to multipath distortion. if all the time slots in the cell in which the user is currently in are already occupied. if all the time slots in this cell are full the user might be disconnected. When moving from one cell site to other. To overcome this distortion. In a cellular network. circular zones that overlap to cover a geographical area. written BTS). Likewise. the signal is ignored. Once the time limit is expired. called a "base station" (or Base Transceiver Station. The smaller the radius of a cell. each cell is surrounded by 6 neighbouring cells (thus a cell is generally drawn as a hexagon). Disadvantages of TDMA: One major disadvantage using TDMA technology is that the users has a predefined time slot. The concept of cellular network Mobile telephone networks are based on the concept of cells. the higher is the available bandwidth. adjacent cells cannot use the same .TDMA is the most cost effective technology to convert an analog system to digital.

Communications occur through a radio link (air interface) between a mobile station and a base station. the base station controllers are themselves physically connected to the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC).frequency. All the base stations of a cellular network are connected to a base station controller (BSC) which is responsible for managing distribution of the resources. In practice. Each SIM card also has a unique (and secret) identification number called IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity). Finally. A mobile station is made up of a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card allowing the user to be uniquely identified and a mobile terminal. The system consisting of the base station controller and its connected base stations is called the Base Station Subsystem (BSS). two cells using the same frequency range must be separated by a distance of two to three times the diameter of the cell. which is responsible for managing user identities. which connects them to the public telephone network and the Internet. the user terminal is called a mobile station. managed by the telephone network operator. The SIM card therefore allows each user to be identified independently of the terminal used during communication with a base station. The MSC belongs to a Network Station Subsystem (NSS). their location and establishment of communications with other subscribers. The terminals (devices) are identified by a unique 15-digit identification number called IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity). This code can be protected using a 4-digit key called a PIN code. The MSC is generally connected to databases that provide additional functions: . Architecture of the GSM Network In a GSM network.

Finally. 2. Introduction to Modem: Modem stands for modulator-demodulator.. whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. The data is maintained as long as the user is in the zone and is deleted when the user leaves or after a long period of inactivity (terminal off). 4. The Equipment Identify Register (EIR) is a database listing the mobile terminals. The VLR retrieves the data of a new user from the HLR of the user's subscriber zone. administrative information etc. 5.1. The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database containing information (geographic position. A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone or cable lines. The cellular network formed in this way is designed to support mobility via management of handovers (movements from one cell to another). The Visitor Location Register (VLR) is a database containing information of users other than the local subscribers. . movement from one operator network to another. GSM networks support the concept of roaming i.) of the subscribers registered in the area of the switch (MSC).e. The Authentication Centre (AUC) is responsible for verifying user identities. 3. Computer information is stored digitally. A modem converts between these two forms.

34 are official standards. These are sometimes called onboard or internal modems. Modems that support a voice/data switch have a built-in loudspeaker and microphone for voice communication.  Voice/data: Many modems support a switch to change between voice and data modes. there is one standard interface for connecting external modems to computers called RS-232. Most modems have built-in support for the more common protocols at slow data transmission speeds at least. modems are measured in terms of baud rates. the following characteristics distinguish one modem from another:  Bps: How fast the modem can transmit and receive data. In voice mode. the protocols are less standardized. which almost all personal computers have. At higher speeds. It should be noted that the data cannot be received at a faster rate than it is being sent. However.Fortunately.  Auto-answer: An auto-answer modem enables the computer to receive calls in the absence of the operator. a number of different protocols for formatting data to be transmitted over telephone lines exist. While the modem interfaces are standardized. In data mode. which enables them to send data at faster rates. the modem acts like a regular telephone. although they can achieve even higher data transfer rates by compressing the data. Apart from the transmission protocols that they support. while others have been developed by private companies. like CCITT V. Consequently. At high transmission speeds. modems are measured in terms of bits per second (bps). Obviously. . Some. the faster the transmission rate. most modems can communicate with each other. the modem at the receiving end must be able to decompress the data using the same compression technique. The fastest modems run at 57. any external modem can be attached to any computer that has an RS-232 port. There are also modems that come as an expansion board that can be inserted into a vacant expansion slot. the modem acts like a regular modem. The slowest rate is 300 baud (about 25 cps). however.  Data compression: Some modems perform data compression. At slow rates. the faster the data can be sent and received.600 bps.

A GSM modem can be an external device or a PC Card / PCMCIA Card. a GSM modem requires a SIM card from a wireless carrier in order to operate. Like a GSM mobile phone. A GSM modem in the form of a PC Card / PCMCIA Card is designed for use with a laptop computer. . Typically. which mean that they can send and receive faxes. Flash memory: Some modems come with flash memory rather than conventional ROM which means that the communications protocols can be easily updated if necessary. It should be inserted into one of the PC Card / PCMCIA Card slots of a laptop computer. GSM Modem: A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network.  Fax capability: Most modern modems are fax modems. an external GSM modem is connected to a computer through a serial cable or a USB cable. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio waves.

the following operations can be performed: • • • • • Reading. International Mobile Subscriber Identity) State of the SIM card Service code (operator) Authentication key PIN (Personal Identification Code) PUK (Personal Unlock Code) Computers use AT commands to control modems. These extended AT commands are defined in the GSM standards. Reading. Sending SMS messages. Both GSM modems and dial-up modems support a common set of standard AT commands. Chapter 3 Hardware design considerations 3. Monitoring the signal strength. finally preparing the board and testing the designed hardware. writing and searching phone book entries.1 Introduction Hardware design deals in drawing the schematic on the plane paper according to the application. With the extended AT commands. Monitoring the charging status and charge level of the battery.A SIM card contains the following information: • • • • • • • Subscriber telephone number (MSISDN) International subscriber number (IMSI. GSM modems support an extended set of AT commands. The block diagram discusses about the required components . In addition to the standard AT commands. writing and deleting SMS messages. The project design and principle are explained in this chapter using the block diagram and circuit diagram. carrying out the PCB layout of the schematic tested on breadboard. testing the schematic design over the breadboard using the various IC’s to find if the design meets the objective.

2 components used Fig: Block diagram for the project design The components used are 1.3 power supply The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. max 232 3. sensors 4. 230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a . power supply 2. crystal circuit 5. gsm modem 9..e. input i. ignition switch 10. 3. buzzer 8. micro controller 3. The a. lcd display 7.of the design and working condition is explained using circuit diagram and system wiring diagram. reset circuit 6.c.

230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level. This is done by a transformer. Filter: . 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Transformer: Usually. Thus the a.c voltage.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d. In this project.C.c input available at the mains supply i. Now.c voltage.rectifier. the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a. a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level.c components present even after rectification. Thus.. this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.e. Rectifier: The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A. a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. into pulsating D. So in order to get a pure d.

MAX232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage. D. voltage received at this point changes. Voltage regulator: As the name itself implies. the baud rate and voltage levels of Microcontroller and PC should be the same. . In this project. The voltage levels of microcontroller are logic1 and logic 0 i. This IC provides best noise rejection and very reliable against discharges and short circuits. In order to obtain these voltage levels. However. 12 represent the required output voltage levels.e. power supply of 5V and 12V are required. RS232 voltage levels are considered and they are: logic 1 is taken as -3V to -25V and logic 0 as +3V to +25V. logic 1 is +5V and logic 0 is 0V. So. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. Thus this IC converts RS232 voltage levels to microcontroller voltage levels and vice versa. in order to equal these voltage levels. But for PC. it regulates the input applied to it. 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used. MAX232 IC is used. 3. To ensure data transfer between PC and microcontroller. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05.C.4 Max 232 Max232 IC is a specialized circuit which makes standard voltages as required by RS232 standards. if either of the two is varied. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.Capacitive filter is used in this project..

voltage converters such as MAX232 are used to convert the TTL logic levels to the RS232 voltage levels and vice versa 3. a photo diode or a photo transistor can be used. Heart beat is sensed by using a high intensity type LED and LDR. The finger is placed between the LED and LDR. an interfacing standard called RS232 is used. The LED used in this arrangement is a high intensity LED. Since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family.RS232 CABLE: To allow compatibility among data communication equipment. The very small changes in reflectivity or in transmittance caused by the varying blood content of human tissue are almost invisible. 3.5. As sensor. The Heartbeat sensor used is basically a LED and LDR arrangement. its input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible.1 LED and LDR arrangement The Heartbeat sensor used in this project is basically a LED and LDR arrangement.5 Sensors The sensors used in this project are Heartbeat and Temperature sensor. to connect any RS232 to a microcontroller system. The skin may be illuminated with visible (red) using transmitted or reflected light for detection. Various noise sources may produce disturbance signals with amplitudes equal or even higher than the amplitude of . For this reason.

As it draws only 60 μA from its supply. The LM35’s low output impedance. it has very low self-heating. With only slight changes in the preamplifier circuit the same hardware and software could be used with other illumination and detection concepts. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±1⁄4°C at room temperature and ±3⁄4°C over a full −55 to +150°C temperature range.5°C accuracy guaranteed (at +25°C) . less than 0. . and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy.0 mV/°C scale factor 0. 3.2 Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensor LM35 converts temperature value into electrical signals. It can be used with single power supplies. LM35 series sensors are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius temperature. or with plus and minus supplies. The setup described here uses a red LED for transmitted light illumination and a LDR as detector.the pulse signal.5. Features    Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade) Linear + 10.1°C in still air. Valid pulse measurement therefore requires extensive preprocessing of the raw signal. linear output. The LM35 requires no external calibration since it is internally calibrated.

08°C in still air Nonlinearity only ±1⁄4°C typical Low impedance output. 0.        Rated for full −55° to +150°C range Suitable for remote applications Low cost due to wafer-level trimming Operates from 4 to 30 volts Less than 60 μA current drain Low self-heating. In this we directly connect the output of the sensor to the base of the transistor as of LM35 for every 1˚C rise of temperature the output will increase for 10mV. Hence the transistor gets on and the output is sensed by the microcontroller. Now if the temperature reaches 70˚C the output voltage will be 0. The arrangement of this sensor in our board is as shown in the figure below. 0. .7V which is enough for the transistor junction to be biased.1 W for 1 mA load The characteristic of this LM35 sensor is: For each degree of centigrade temperature it outputs 10milli volts.

the following sequence is recommended: . In the present work. which has been written in the C language. Chapter 4 Software implementation Introduction The firmware part deals in programming the microcontroller so that it can control the operation of the IC’s used in the implementation. The Proload programmer has been used to write this compile code into the microcontroller Algorithm Serial Programming Algorithm To program and verify the AT89S52 in the serial programming mode.Operation: The number of SMS messages that can be processed by a GSM modem per minute is very low i.. about 6 to 10 SMS messages per minute.e. we have used the Orcad design software for PCB circuit design. the Keil µv3 software development tool to write and compile the source code.

4. The write cycle is self timed and typically takes less than 1 ms at 5V. unsigned char a.h" #include"eeprom.h> sbit MOTOR sbit buz sbit sw = = = P2^4.control=0. 3. Power-up sequence: Apply power between VCC and GND pins.c2[]="ate0".b1. . P2^7.1 C file #include<reg51.7 needs to be less than the CPU clock at XTAL1 divided by 16.h" #include<string.6.c1[]="at".status=0. The frequency of the shift clock supplied at pin SCK/P1. unsigned char numcnt. If a crystal is not connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2.ccount. void main() { code unsigned char msg1[]="WELCOME". At the end of a programming session.h" #include"UART. Enable serial programming by sending the Programming Enable serial instruction to pin MOSI/P1. Set RST pin to "H". unsigned char mobilenum[]. 2. 5.jjj.b.h> #include"lcddisplay. lcdcmd(0x85). lcd_init(). RST can be set low to commence normal device operation source code 4.count. unsigned char GSMdata[43].1. bit l1=0. apply a 3 MHz to 33 MHz clock to XTAL1 pin and wait for at least 10 milliseconds. UART_init().3.l2=0. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction which returns the content at the selected address at serial output MISO/P1. buz=0. sw=1. MOTOR=0. P2^5.i. The Code array is programmed one byte at a time by supplying the address and data together with the appropriate Write instruction.5.

msgdisplay(msg1). send_to_modem(c1). delay(100).mobilenum[i]). send_to_modem(mobilenum). msgdisplay("VEHICLE"). // TO CHECKING GSM MODEM. enter(). st: lcdcmd(0x01). RI=0. if(a==0xff) for(i=0. msgdisplay("GSM modem"). . ch_send_to_modem('"'). delay(300). msgdisplay("searching for"). while(RI==1) { RI=0. ch_send_to_modem('"').. // not. lcdcmd(0x01). } lcdcmd(0x01). enter(). send_to_modem("at+cmgf=1").. lcdcmd(0x01). delay(100). send_to_modem(c2).i<10. msgdisplay("SECURITY SYSTEM"). lcdcmd(0xc0). delay(200). enter().i++) { write_eeprom(i. } if(control) { send_to_modem("at+cmgs="). while(RI==0). lcdcmd(0xC0). //to avoid echo signals. msgdisplay("SYSTEM CONNECTED"). delay(500). a=read_eeprom(0). msgdisplay(mobilenum).

send_to_modem("vehicle on"). while(RI==0). msgdisplay("vehicle on"). b=SBUF. RI=0. b=SBUF. if(b=='C') { while(RI==0). lcdcmd(0x01). } if(RI==1) { RI=0. msgdisplay("vehicle stopped"). while(RI==0). send_to_modem("vehicle stopped } if(l2) { lcdcmd(0x01). if(l1) { lcdcmd(0x01). if(b=='M') { while(RI==0). . b=SBUF. RI=0. RI=0. } if(b=='T') { ").enter(). while(sw==0). b=SBUF. RI=0. while(RI==0). msgdisplay("vehicle on"). MOTOR=1. b=SBUF. } while(1) { if((sw==0)&&(status==0)) { buz=0. } control=l1=l2=0. goto st. b=SBUF. RI=0.

numcnt++.') { if(numcnt<15) { if(numcnt>4) mobilenum[numcnt-5]=b. enter(). delay(100). send_to_modem("at+cmgd="). a=0. enter(). while(count!=3) { while(RI==0). msgdisplay(gpsdata). b=SBUF. msgdisplay("message reading"). jjj=0. if(b==10) count+=1. send_to_modem("at+cmgr="). numcnt=0. if(b=='I') lcdcmd(0x01). ch_send_to_modem(b). msgdisplay("NEW message "). count=0.} { while(RI==0). . a=1. } else a=0. ccount=0. b=SBUF. if(b=='. RI=0. ccount+=1. } mobilenum[10]='\0'. b1=b. lcdcmd(0xc0). delay(500). ch_send_to_modem(b1). } if(count==2) GSMdata[jjj++]=SBUF. lcdcmd(0x01). RI=0. lcdcmd(0x01).

3. status=1. control=1. void UART_init(void) { TMOD=0x20."123")) { MOTOR=1. l2=1. SCON=0x50. void enter (void). } } } 4. delay(500). if(!strcmp(gpsdata. TH1=0xFD."STOP")) { MOTOR=0. status=0. TR1=1. l1=1. void send_to_modem (unsigned char s[]).msgdisplay(mobilenum). control=1. buz=1. } if(!strcmp(gpsdata.2 UART #include<reg51. void ch_send_to_modem (unsigned char single_char). } } goto st.h> void UART_init(void). buz=0. .

SCON=0x50. TI=0. while(TI==0). while(TI==0). delay(100).} void send_to_modem (unsigned char s[]) { unsigned char r. TH1=0xFd. } void ch_send_to_modem (unsigned char single_char) { TMOD=0x20.s[r]!='\0'. } void enter (void) { SBUF=13. } // enter(). delay(10). while(TI==0). SBUF=10. for(r=0. SBUF=single_char. // Enter ASC values are 13 and 10. TI=0. SBUF=s[r]. TI=0. // After sending commands to GSM modem you must be send Enter's ASC values. TI=0. TR1=1.r++) // to send the command to GSM modem to avoid echo signal { // the command is "ate0". } . while(TI==0).

Proload are the two software tools used to program microcontroller.1 Hardware implementation 5.Chapter 5 Application Implementation 5. Keil Compiler: .2 software implementation Software Tools Required Keil µv3. The working of each software tool is explained below in detail.

that hex code has to be dumped into the microcontroller and this is done by the Proload. This microcontroller has a program in . Proload is a programmer which itself contains a microcontroller in it other than the one which is to be programmed. Proload: Proload is software which accepts only hex files. the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be dumped into the microcontroller for further processing. Keil compiler also supports C language code. After compilation.Keil compiler is software used where the machine language code is written and compiled. Once the machine code is converted into hex code.

this power supply is given from the power supply circuit designed written in such a way that it accepts the hex file from the Keil compiler and dumps this hex file into the microcontroller which is to be programmed. Features • • • • • • • • • Supports major Atmel 89 series devices Auto Identify connected hardware and devices Error checking and verification in-built Lock of programs in chip supported to prevent program copying 20 and 40 pin ZIF socket on-board Auto Erase before writing and Auto Verify after writing Informative status bar and access to latest programmed file Simple and Easy to use Works on 57600 speed Chapter 6 Results and Discussions 5. It should be noted that this programmer kit contains a power supply section in the board itself but in order to switch on that power supply. As the Proload programmer kit requires power supply to be operated. a source is required.1 Results . Thus this is accomplished from the power supply board with an output of 12volts.

Working procedure: GSM based vehicle security system is an Embedded system that provides security to the vehicles using GSM technology.1. 5. check it for proper connections before switching on the power supply. The total circuit is completely verified functionally and is following the application software. The communication is properly done without any interference between different modules in the design. alert the buzzer and also send the predefined message to the user mobile through GSM modem is the main job carried out by the microcontroller.2 Conclusion The implementation of GSM based Vehicle Security system is done successfully. Circuit is implemented in Orcad and implemented on the microcontroller board. Proload to dump the source code into the microcontroller. Continuously reading the output values from the sensors. The mechanism is controlled by the microcontroller. Orcad Lite for the schematic diagram have been used to develop the software code before realizing the hardware. It can be concluded that the design implemented in the present work provide portability. After assembling the circuit on the PCB. Software tools like Keil Uvision Simulator. . Design is done to meet all the specifications and requirements.Assemble the circuit on the PCB as shown in Fig 5. check the values. flexibility and the data transmission is also done with low power consumption. if they are triggered. The performance has been verified both in software simulator and hardware design.

com .atmel.V. The motor of the vehicle is operated when the controller receives the message from the user mobile BIBLIOGRAPHY THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS -Muhammad ali mazidi -janice gillispie mazidi THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER ARCHITECTURE. the microcontroller detects this and sends the predefined message to the user mobile.gaonkar ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS INTRDUCTION TO GSM -D. the user can know that someone is trying to take away the vehicle and can immediately send the predefined message to stop the vehicle to the controlling http://www. the user can have the complete control of the vehicle in his hand. After the user gets the message to his mobile.Prasad -Lawrence Harte http://www.PROGRAMING AND APPLICATIONS -Kenneth j. he has to press the ignition switch.The working of the project is as below: Whenever the user wants to start his vehicle.national. If anyone other than the user or the driver presses the switch.microsoftsearch.Ayala -Ramesh s. When this switch is pressed. http://www. the user can now send the predefined message in the form of a password to start or stop the vehicle. the user receives the message from the controlling unit and thus.

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