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report on the content of their thoughts. Structuralism: an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements. Stream of consciousness: a phrase coined by William James to describe one’s continuous series of ever-changing thoughts. Functionalism: an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behavior. Gestalt theory: the whole of personal experience is much greater than simply the sum of its constituent elements. Psychoanalysis: method that involves trying to bring the contents of the patient’s unconscious into conscious awareness so that their conflicts could be dealt with. Behaviorism: a psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior. (Stimuli -> response) Two streams combined.. e.g., most human history debate raged as to where conscious resided... the heart? the mind? brain? spirit? Ancient Egypt: Edwin Smith papyrus - first known medical document shows basic understanding of some lateralization, speech centres, etc., but held that heart was the centre of consciousness Science has always been contextualized in a larger set of societal/historical/political/ideological economic processes. E.g. -theological/religious barriers impeded the progress of psychological sciences -direct study of human body was forbidden doctrines regarding exemptionalism (humans are above animals) Descartes: -an extremely intense, unbalanced, driven personality -proposed the first systematic account of the body as a machine; physiological processes described in terms of mechanic interactions, controlled by hydraulics and mechanics... thus, human and animal bodes were simply complicated
but it invariably return in a direct line to the spot where it stood. Either accepts that brain is the mind and we are soulless animals or we have to figure out how the non-physical mind could exist and interact with physical body. .. it returned.argued that geological formations appeared over time) -influenced by Thomas Malthus .g.essay on population .. can we do anything creative or we are stimulus-responding machines? How to study an immaterial mind? took a while before people realized it could be studied using scientific techniques Wilhelm Wundt -wondered whether two stimuli that struck senses at same time would be perceived at the same moment -noticed that the pendulum was on the way down when he heard the bell. a marine iguana: “i threw one several times as far as I could into a deep pool left by the retiring tide.struggle for survival on Beagle voyage collected thousands of species. whereas at sea it can fall a prey to sharks. why do animals do the thing they do? what was the function of their behaviors? **** e. or do we have free will. -revolutionary: immaterial mind and the body can influence each other -splitting of mind and body still plagues us to some degree.. -Is mind a complicated but deterministic machine.non-physical but able to interact with body.theory of evolution -built on previous ideas of evolution -Darwin’s ideas were influenced by the geological “catastrophism” (cataclysmic type of event formed all) and “uniformitarianism”(Lyell . -Much of the rest of the history of psychology can be described as a struggle to answer questions that emerge from dualism. Darwin -biggest influence . consistent with zeitgeist of the time.” perhaps this singular piece of apparent stupidity may be accounted by the circumstance. -therefore: mental processes can be studied scientifically. 1/10th of a second to reorient their attention.. that this reptile has no natural enemy on shore. As often as I threw it in.machines. Mind-Body Dualism -what sets humans apart is humans have MINDS .
“My first act of free will.studied medicine then went through a major emotional crisis RE: determinism vs. habit: we construct ourselves through our actions. -To be human he would assume that he has free will. the matrix in which The 20th century -psychology begins to fracture into many different paradigms and schools of thought. shall be to believe in free will” -To be a scientist he would approach the human as though it were deterministic. helping organisms adapt to their environment. free will..Functionalism: William James . so practice to improve.. that there was free will. most of our present is determined by our past choices. thoughts. Psychoanalysis: Freud: the unconscious. Social Psychology Kurt Lewin .. -His resolution was to decide. by an act of faith.field theory B = f(PE) . coupled with emerging Darwinian thought James’ pragmatism gave birth to the argues that psychology should be a practical science. choices. -this pragmatic perspective lead to the emphasis on psychological process as serving some sort of purpose. Only now we are beginning to transcend these schisms. Skinner mechanistic understanding of behaviour emphasized environmental stimuli (reward and punishment) controlling human behaviour Gestalt Psychology humans as active creators of their world focused on the insight that perception is constructed.. self-awareness and healing. defenses and dysfunctional interpretive filters. Behaviorism: Pavlov. we are still building on this foundation today functionalism consciousness as a mixture of deterministic processes and free will (we don’t know how free will is possible).
teacher expectations. situation? Can be shown that personality is key using one method.g. 1980s to Now new inter-disciplinary fields arise.g. Multiple tools for solving depression. nature? e. Behavior is Multiply determined . time. example: why can’t Jhonny read? Social: parenting.g..WW2 gains momentum how could this have happened? Humanistic Psychology: Fulfillment & Well-being emphasis on meaning.. crowded home & lack of resources (e.The brain. Modern: all types come together to better understand concepts. misbehaving. personality vs. e. peer influences. ability to scan the brain.. focusing on free will.. and situation using another. hearing impairment. Cognitive Psychology: Rise of the machine emphasis on humans as information processors wrestled with behaviorism for prominence. example: what is depression? What does this mean? Means that problems can be solved on multiple levels. individual and biological. e. personal growth influenced by existentialists anti-behaviorist.. central vs.. biology brining everything together. privacy). Individual: IQ.g. 3 levels of analysis: social. Psychology and physiology. peripheral processing? no such thing as reason or emotion (depending on how one interprets information). Biological: ADHD. Environmental: traffic noise. bullying. work ethic. Phenomena are being understood at multiple Levels of Analysis e. nature vs. lack of self-discipline. dyslexia. space..g. 1990s .