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Equilibrium: Scalar: Vector: Force: Moment: Couple A state of no acceleration, in either translational or rotational senses. A quantity which has only magnitude. Examples include mass and area. A quantity which has both magnitude and direction, and satisfies the parallelogram rule of vector addition. Examples include displacement and force. The interaction between bodies which gives rise to an acceleration or to the deformation of the body. The product of the magnitude of a force and the perpendicular distance of its line of action from a particular point. (Also a vector.) It consists of two forces equal in magnitude but opposite in direction whose line of action are parallel but no collinear.

where everything in a body (or part of it) is in equilibrium. where all the deformations in the body are smooth. We are not interested in what happens to a body in the event of a catastrophic occurrence, such as an explosion, or two objects colliding. Constitutive laws where the forces exerted to a body are related to the way the body deforms. For example if we apply a force to a body, it will deform always by the same amount if the force is the same. Energy The work done in deforming the body is retained by that structure as internal strain energy which will be released when the applied force is removed. The classical example is the bow and arrow. You apply a force to the bow and deflect it by pulling on its string. But when you let go of the string the energy stored in the bow is enough to propel the arrow for hundreds of meters. The types of problems that we will be dealing with are all concerned with the bodies all being in static equilibrium. In the context of this course the state of Equilibrium is when a body, although acted upon by many forces or moments experiences no acceleration. Equilibrium Compatibility

For a 3-D body at rest the coordinate system used is the x-y-z Cartesian system, in which the definition of positive moments is given by the right hand rule that states that moments are positive is their sense is counterclockwise as shown in Fig. 1.1.

Fy y My Mz z Fz Mx x Fx

Fy

y Fx

Mz

M x = 0 M y = 0 M z = 0

Fx = 0 F y = 0 Fz = 0

(1.1)

(1.2)

The 2D x & y -axis system looks like Fig 1.2: For a two dimensional body in the xy-axis system, the 3D equilibrium Eqs. (1.1) and (1.2) simplify to: Fx = 0 (1.3) Fy = 0 M z = 0 NOTE : Not only a body/structure, but every part of a body/structure must be in equilibrium.

They are a complete diagram or simplified line sketch of the structure (or body), showing the position, direction and point of application of all externally applied forces (e.g. P) acting on the structure, including ground reaction forces (e.g. RDX, RDY and RBX) and/or moments. Figs. 1.3 and 1.4 depict the extraction process from an original structure to a FBD.

A B

17 5m m

RBX

RDX

Fig. 1.3 Original diagram of structure with applied loads

There are 6 commonly used types of supports which prevent a structure, or part of it, from accelerating when acted upon by external forces. In general, supports are there to keep a structure in equilibrium. These six types of the supports are given in Table 1.1:

32 5m m

30

Original structure Free Body Diagram Unknowns

Cable Support

A

Roller support

A

RAY

RAY

A

External Pin

RAX

A

RAY

RAX RAY

A

Pin Joint

RAX

A

RAY

RAX RAY

RAX MAZ

A

RAY

A

RA

Example 1.1: Solve for the ground reactions of the structure shown in Fig. 1.3. Step 1: Free Body Diagram From Table 1.1: B External pin, two unknown reactions RDX and RDY A Pin joint, there should be two unknown reactions: RBX and RBY. But there are only two pins connecting bar BC with others. That implies bar BC is a two-force member, i.e. it is acted upon by two equal but opposite forces directed along the bar axis. In this case, we hence have vertical component RBY = 0. The free body diagram is given as Fig 1.4. Step 2 Equilibrium Totally, there are three unknowns RDX, RDY and RBX. They can be solved based on the three equilibrium equations as (1.3). + Fx = 0 = RBX + RDX P sin = 0 (1)

+ F y = 0 = RDY P cos = 0

+

R DY = P cos RBX = 0

R DX = P sin

(2) (3)

M D = 0 = RBX DC = 0

Example 1.2: The beam of Figure 1.5 is subjected to a vertical force, a horizontal force and a heavy box of 30kN as shown in Fig. 1.5. Determine the reactions at the supports A and B. Step 1: Free Body Diagram From Table 1.1: A External pin, unknown reactions RAX and RAY B Roller support, unknown reaction: RBY

The held box can be approximately treated as a uniform distributed load (UDL) w on the beam, which will be further represented by a concentrated resultant force F at the centre of the box in the equilibrium as shown.

15kN

A C D

30kN

E B

45kN

4m

5m

3m

1.5m

F=w3=30kN (resultant force)

15kN w=10kN/m

D E B

RAX

45kN

RAY

4m 5m

1.5m 3m 1.5m

RBY

Step 2: Equilibrium + Fx = 0 = R AX + 45 = 0

+

+ F y = 0 = R AY 15 3 10 + R BY = 0

20kN

D

20kN

D

3m

A C B 45

A C B

RAX

30kN 3m 3m

RAY

RB

Step 1 FBD, The reaction force at roller support B should be perpendicular to the surface. Step 2 Equilibrium: + (1) Fx = 0 = R AX R B cos 45o = 0

+ Fy = 0 = R AY + RB sin 45o 20 = 0

+

(2)

R B = 10 / sin 45 o kN (3) R AX = R B cos 45 o = 10kN R AY = 10kN

M A = 0 = 20 3 + RB sin 45o 6 = 0

Substituting (3) into (1) gives Substituting (3) into (2) gives

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