1 (a) Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace.

(8) There are a number of ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace that should have been outlined in the answer to part (a) of the question. These include: •the use of skilled, trained and competent staff (including pre-employment screening issues); •motivation of the workforce; •task variety to prevent monotony •the provision of frequent breaks to avoid work overload; •addressing workplace environmental issues such as noise, light and heat; mechanisation and automation; •ensuring that controls on machinery are clearly marked; •implementation of a drug and alcohol policy; and •providing competent supervision of employees. Most candidates mentioned the need for •competency and training but few were able to provide the range of methods necessary to obtain all the marks available. A few candidates, possibly because they misread the question, produced answers based on the causes of human error rather than on ways of reducing its likelihood.

(b) Give FOUR reasons why the seriousness of a hazard may be underestimated by someone exposed to it. (4) There were some good answers to part (b), with many candidates gaining full marks by referring to reasons such as: •over-familiarity and complacency; •lack of instruction, information and training; •lack of experience, particularly where young persons are involved; •the fact that some hazards (e.g. airborne contaminants or radiation) may be invisible and / or intangible; sensory impairment; and • Involvement in routine, repetitive tasks that can lead to lack of attention.

(c) Outline ways in which managers can motivate employees to work safely. (8) In answering part (c), Examiners were looking for an outline of methods to encourage the motivation of employees to work safely. The overt recognition of good health and safety performance (e.g. by giving praise and/or offering financial incentives) is important in this respect. Conversely, disciplining employees who choose to ignore safe working procedures has its place but tends to be less effective. Other measures might include: •involving employees, for instance, in carrying out risk assessments and •drawing up safe systems of work; •improving the company's health and safety culture and •demonstrating a high level of management commitment; •ensuring a good working environment; and •providing training and ensuring good communication. Some candidates seemed to perceive little difference in the requirements of parts (a) and (c) and were content to repeat the answer that they had already given to the first part of the question. Part (c) was, in fact, intended to look in more depth at one aspect of the answer to part (a). 2 Outline the factors that may increase risks to pregnant employees in the workplace. (8)

hepatitis). although they undoubtedly had some knowledge of the subject. •an improvement in general cleanliness and •a reduction in the exposure of non-smoking staff to cigarette smoke. candidates were able to show that they could make a useful contribution. The arguments in favour of providing smoke-free environments have been well rehearsed and it was evident that the majority of candidates were familiar with these. (8) A number of candidates experienced problems with this question by appearing to mistake the words the reasons why' for `how' and proceeding to outline the various methods by which health and safety . Most of the remainder. lead and those that cause intracellular changes (mutagens) or affect the embryo (teratogens). most candidates were able to point to the health and safety benefits of restricting smoking at work as •a reduction in the risk of fire. yet again. Finally.g. leaflets and other forms of propaganda. •biological exposures (e. Examiners were disappointed to find that. •stress. again. some candidates did not pay sufficient attention to the action verb and. This might be achieved by the use of notice boards.A few candidates showed a wide knowledge of the issues involved and provided excellent answers to the question. (b) Outline the ways in which an organisation could implement an effective no-smoking policy. and issues associated with the use of personal protective equipment. outlined only one or two of the relevant factors. Other reasons include •the promotion of health generally and •the avoidance of conflict between smokers and non-smokers. •exposure to physical agents such as ionising radiation and extremes of temperature. however. •manual handling. (4) A For part (a). while there would also need to be •consultation with employees to encourage ownership. 4 Outline the reasons why an organisation should monitor and review its health and safety performance. The initial point to be made was that the policy •should be clear in its intent •communicated to all staff. which can have an irritant effect as well as causing possible long term health damage. •ergonomic issues relating to prolonged standing or the adoption of awkward body movements. could not be awarded all the marks available because they chose to provide no detail of the relevant factors. 3 (a) Explain the health and safety benefits of restricting smoking in the workplace. Nosmoking policies are also operated by many organisations and. the •provision of designated smoking areas and •the use of disciplinary procedures were correctly suggested as important to the successful implementation of the policy. (4) Part (b) required candidates to provide an outline of how a no-smoking policy might be implemented effectively. Factors that could have been outlined include: •exposure to chemicals such as pesticides. Many candidates recognised management's part in the process and suggested that •management should set an example and also •provide help to employees in the form of counselling.

•24-hours hospitalisation.g. They could additionally have referred to injuries that result in the injured person •being away from work. •amputation. Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (i) state the legal requirements for reporting a fatality resulting from an accident at work to an enforcing authority (5) Most candidates provided reasonable answers to part (i) of the question. to assess compliance with legal requirements. The need to read the question carefully and understand its purpose is advice that cannot be given too often. The question required a little thought but allowed candidates with a good understanding of health and safety management systems to shine. identifying the requirement to •notify the enforcing authority by the quickest practicable means and then •to report the death formally within ten days by an approved means (e. ii outline THREE further categories of work-related injury (other than fatal injuries) that are reportable. a number of candidates correctly identified `major injury' as a category but then went on to list types of injury within this category •fracture of bone. .g. and ignored other categories completely. etc. and •injuries to non-employees who are taken to hospital for treatment. for more than three consecutive days. •to compare actual performance with previously set targets. or incidents in general (by analysis of relevant incident data). or unable to do normal work. up to one year after the original accident. Among the reasons offered by better candidates were the following: •to identify substandard health and safety practices and conditions (perhaps by means of workplace inspections). Many failed to comment that •the responsible person under the Regulations has the duty to submit the report and fewer still knew that •delayed deaths. (3) For part (ii). 5 With reference to the Reporting of Injuries. •to be able to make decisions on appropriate remedial measures for any deficiencies identified. •to `benchmark' the organisation's performance against that of similar organisations or an industry norm.performance can be monitored and reviewed. •to identify trends in relation to different types of incident. Weaker answers to this question never really progressed from 'so that we can see how we are doing'. have to be reported whether or not they have been previously reported under another category. Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. whereas it was the reasons `why we should want to know how we are doing' that were being sought. An additional reason for monitoring and reviewing health and safety performance is quite simply because • there may be a legal requirement to do so under e. •to set priorities and establish realistic timescales. and • to be able to provide a Board of Directors or safety committee with relevant information. •to identify whether control measures are in use and to assess their effectiveness. on form F2508).

using an example. Some candidates neglected to illustrate their explanation with an example and missed the opportunity to gain an extra mark.6 Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first-aid provision in a workplace. generally. There was also a tendency of many candidates to refer to relevant issues pertaining to one type of law before moving on to the other type. •the proximity to emergency medical services. •the special needs of travelling. Some candidates spent too much time concentrating in depth on one or two factors only and as such gained few marks. They should be aware that in answering a question of this type. in particular. with many candidates apparently not realising that the concepts are entirely different. the size of the organisation. 7 Outline FOUR key differences between civil law and criminal law. and •the ability to provide continued cover over different shifts and for sickness. •the parties generally involved (two individuals rather than the state and an individual) and •the different court structures involved. remote or lone workers. (8) Most candidates were able to answer this question well by providing a broad range of factors. A few candidates suggested differences in the sources of law. Good answers referred to •the number of trained first-aid personnel and first aid facilities in relation to. with criminal law generally written down in statutes or statutory instruments and with civil liabilities largely defined in common law by judicial precedent. well answered with most candidates giving an explanation based on the probability / likelihood of an occurrence and the severity of its consequences. •the types of hazard and level of risk present. 8 (a) Explain. leave and other absence. •the burden of proof required (a balance of probabilities as opposed to beyond all reasonable doubt). There was much confusion generally shown in answers and. (2) Part (a) was. (b) Outline the key stages of a general risk assessment. producing lists when the question clearly required an outline. thereby leaving it to Examiners to work out for themselves what the differences were. Again. reference is needed to a range of factors to obtain all the marks available. (6) . Even worse. the meaning of the term ‘risk’. there were numerous examples of candidates referring to a characteristic of one type without indicating the corresponding issue relating to the other . between branches of law (civil and criminal) and sources of law (statute and common). •the distribution and composition of the workforce. (8) Candidates were expected to outline the essential differences between the two main branches of law– •civil and •criminal They could have referred to the different objectives of the two systems •one to provide a remedy and the other to punish. for example. many candidates displayed a lack of good examination technique.and therefore not showing a difference at all.

Finally •the findings of the assessment need to be recorded and •a timescale set for their review and. essential equipment. Act 1974 and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999.Producing an outline of the key stages of a general risk assessment for part (b) should not have presented too much difficulty to candidates and this proved to be the case. (6) Part (b) was generally answered well by most candidates. require employers to address the important issue of training. •health and safety responsibilities •lines of communication. materials and the environment to produce an acceptable level of safety. •accident and first-aid arrangements. The initial stage in any assessment is •to define the task and •identify both the hazards associated with the task and •the classes of persons at risk of harm. revision. in particular. (2) For part (a). •to assess the effectiveness of existing precautions and •to decide whether additional measures are required to eliminate or control the risks. equipment. Most candidates were able to outline the main topics as •the organisation's health and safety policy. 9 Outline the main health and safety issues to be included in an induction training programme for new employees. The next stage would be to •evaluate the risks arising from the hazards. 10 (a) Explain the meaning of the term `safe system of work'. personal protective equipment and training. (b) Outline SIX sources of information that may need to be consulted when developing a safe system of work. if necessary. Those who did well concentrated on the matters to be included in an induction training programme as was required and did not fall into the trap of discussing wider training issues. The Health and Safety at Work etc. •welfare provision. who outlined sources such as: •legislation. controls. . This involves a step-by-step procedure taking into account hazards. More able candidates referred to •health surveillance and •consultation procedures. •emergency procedures. (8) This question was designed to examine the issues involved in the training of new staff. a reasonable explanation of the term is •the integration of people. •hazards specific to the workplace and •the need to comply with health and safety requirements.

g. •accident / enforcement history. •the level of training and qualifications of staff (including those with health and safety responsibilities).•approved codes of practice and official guidance. •manufacturers' information. such as •in-house standards. Better candidates looked at a range of information sources from within an organisation. (8) The last question on the paper was generally well answered with many candidates able to list a good range of factors that included. and •direct contact with enforcement agencies and professional bodies. and •accident and health surveillance data 11 List the factors that could be considered when assessing the health and safety competence of a contractor. As well as such •external sources. •membership of accreditation or certification bodies. method statements) for the work to be carried out . •the content and quality of the contractor's health and safety policy and risk assessments. European. •equipment maintenance and statutory examination records. amongst many others: •the contractor's previous experience with the type of work. and •the detailed proposals (e. •British. international and industry standards. •the reputation of the contractor amongst previous or current clients. •the results of risk assessment and •job safety analysis.

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