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MARINE POLLUTION AND EFFECT ON MARINE ECOSYSTEM
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering
NIKHIL NAIR K.N. NAVANEETH TITTY DANY ABRAHAM
VIKASH KUMAR TONY JHONSON
(ROLL NO: B090919ME) (ROLL NO: B090588ME) (ROLL NO: B090073ME) (ROLL NO: B090937ME) (ROLL NO: B090150ME)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CALICUT NOVEMEBER 2011
This is to certify that the report entitled ―MARINE POLLUTION AND EFFECT ON MARINE ECOSYSTEM‖ is a bonafide record of the Environmental studies Project done by NIKHIL NAIR (Roll No: B090919ME), K.N. NAVANEETH (Roll No: B090588ME), TITTY DANY ABRAHAM (Roll No: BO90073ME, VIKASH KUMAR (Roll No: B090937ME), TONY JHONSON (Roll No: B090150ME) under my supervision, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering from National Institute of Technology Calicut, and this work has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of a degree.
Dr. R MANU
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Professor & Head
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Place: NIT Calicut Date: 3rd Nov 2011
The successful presentation of our discussion would not have been possible without the help from the following people. We extend our gratitude to all those people who have offered aid throughout the preparation period.
First of all we thank God Almighty for having given us the opportunity to undertake such an endeavor and complete it.
We thank our project guide Dr. R. Manu for his valuable guidance and belief in us. We thank Dr. V. Kripa, Principal Scientist and Head, Fishery Environment Management Department, CMFRI for giving us the necessary data and her valuable suggestions.
We also thank the local people who took active part in our questionnaire that we conducted and who helped us sight many points that we required in relation to our case study.
-Nikhil Nair K.N. Navaneeth Titty Dany Abraham Vikash Kumar Tony Johnson
There has been a manifold increase of dangerous trends in our marine ecosystem due to pollutant inputs and human interference. One of the vital steps required to counteract this dangerous situation is the collection of information on marine environmental damage created by various sources of pollution and human interference and its analysis to find an optimum solution. It helps us to formulate effective strategies to control the influx of pollutants as well as heal the ecosystem in future. Water quality is a vital aspect for the survival and well-being of the living resources, especially in the coastal and estuarine areas. Some of these areas are now under direct threat from the increasing load of various types of pollution.
The main objectives of the project undertaken are To gather information on the marine ecosystem of coastal Kerala, influence of increase in pollution on this ecosystem Methods of alleviating the stress created in this ecosystem due to human interference. Our activities will include data collection, its analysis and case studies
o We will focus our attention on endangered Olive Ridley turtles of Kannur.CASE STUDY Our case study is divided into two major parts: Study the amount of pollutants in the coastal waters of Kochi and its effect on marine species. Kochi. o Interpreting and analyzing the obtained data and draw conclusions. under it. o Collecting the relevant data from CMFRI (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute). o Role of government and local authorities for the conservation of turtles. it involves. we will study the impact of human interference on the marine life. o Observe the current situation of turtles and effort on their conservation. o Final conclusion regarding the visit. o Interact with the local people. . As a continuation.
3 Prevention methods 11 2.1 Introduction 1.3 Garbage 188.8.131.52.2.2 Toxic effects of some heavy metals 10 2.1 Heavy metal concentrations and Assimilative capacity of coastal waters of Cochin6 6 2.4 Oil spill 1.5 Radioactive waste 1.2.2.CONTENTS List of tables List of figures 1) Introduction 1.1 Discussion 9 2.4 Remedies 12 i .2.1.6 Deep sea mining iv iv 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 2) Case Study.2 Major types of marine pollution 1.1.2 Sewage and Eutrophication 1.1 Toxic materials 1.Marine pollution in coastal areas of Kochi 2.2.
3 Nesting 3.1 Discussion 20 2.8 What We Saw 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 ii .184.108.40.206 Effects of oil spill pollution 14 2.2.2 Oil spill in inshore waters of cochin 13 2.2 Effects of beach pollution 21 2.2.6 Conservation Status 3.2.1 Sources of oil spill pollution 14 2.3 Efforts to reduce debris 21 3) CASE STUDY (EFFECT OF HUMAN INTERVENTION ON AQUATIC SPECIES) 3.7 What Caught Our Attention 3.4 Threats 3.1 Olive Ridley Turtles 3.3.4 Remedies 15 2.3 Tarballs and waste materials on the beaches of Kerala 17 2.3.3 Prevention 15 2.2 Distribution 3.
11 Our Suggestions 31 32 37 4) FINAL CONCLUSION 5) REFERENCES 39 40 iii .3.9 Current Hatchery Status 3.10 Conclusion 3.
Calicut Tar Ball iv .i Figure showing the estuaries and inshore areas of Cochin where the levels of distribution of Cd. Cu and Zn 7 17 18 2.3.LIST OF TABLES 2.a Solid Waste Materials Occurrence Table 8 19 2.1. Pb.ii 2.b Weight of tar and details of wind observed from some beaches in Kerala during 2000-2001 20 LIST OF FIGURES 2.iii Beach Pollution in beypore.a Comparative amount of metal concentration in marine sediment and tissues of finfishes and shell fishes 7 2.3.1.b Assimilative factors of various contaminants for estuary and the inshore waters of Cochin 2.
INTRODUCTION Over two third of Earth's surface is covered by water. hindrance to marine activities. with almost 7 billion people on the planet. of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources. less than a third is taken up by land. hazards to human health. rivers. no one believed pollution would ever present a serious problem. but so their quality is reduced. and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human activities—not so they take up less room. river. A 1971 United Nations report defined Marine Pollution as: "The introduction by man. our oceans." Water pollution almost always means that some damage has been done to an ocean. directly or indirectly. is contaminated." 1 . from the tropics to the once-pristine polar regions. it has become apparent that there are limits. Pollution is one of the signs that humans have exceeded those limits. people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet‘s water resources. lake. or other water source. Every ocean and every continent. We know that pollution is a human problem because it is a relatively recent development in the planet's history. As Earth's population continues to grow. so the problem of pollution has spread with it. people lived more in harmony with their immediate environment. When Earth's population was much smaller. It was once popularly believed that the oceans were far too big to pollute. including fishing. In a sense. Before the 19th century Industrial Revolution. How serious is the problem? According to the environmental campaign organization WWF: "Pollution from toxic chemicals threatens life on this planet. Today. impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities. As industrialization has spread around the globe.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). (3) Toxics can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in an ecosystem. (2) Organism‘s become susceptible to diseases such as pneumonia and cancer. Mercury. either treated or untreated. Lead etc. iii) Sources(1) Factory waste (2) Agriculture (3) Air pollution (4) Household cleaning supplies iv) Effects(1) Destroy normal immune function. ii) Persistent Organic Pollutants. Polynuclear Aromatic. Hydrocarbons (PAHs) etc.Dioxin. increasing in concentration as they go up the food chain.Major types of marine pollution: a) Toxic Materials i) Heavy Metals and slowly degrading chemicalsCadmium. 2 . b) Sewage and Eutrophication i) Sources(1) Many cities around the world dump their sewage. into the ocean.
After the bloom dies. can also add substantial amounts of sewage to the environment. die. ii) Effects(1) Eutrophication: Having waters rich in nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life. 3 . Without oxygen. other organisms. ii) Effects(1) Large pieces of garbage can ensnare marine animals. Eutrophication leads to oxygen depletion. infect people who eat fish and shellfish from the contaminated area. in turn. such as cruise ships. (2) Sewage increases nutrient levels in the ocean causing large algae blooms.(2) Large vessels. especially algae. microbes decompose the algae using up all the oxygen in the water. (3) Pathogens found in human waste enter the food web and may. c) Garbage i) Sources(1) Unregulated dumping of garbage from ships and coastal communities. such as fish. (2) 14 Billion pounds of garbage are dumped in the ocean each year. It‘s very hard to enforce bans on ocean dumping. killing them.
(4) Economically important species of shell fish and fin fish are easily killed by oil pollution. 267 marine species have been reported entangled in or having ingested marine debris. consequences can last decades. (2) Damages coastal ecosystems. d) Oil Spill i) Sources(1) Runoff (2) Routine Maintenance (3) Air Pollution (4) Natural Seeps (5) Big Spills (6) Offshore Drilling ii) Effects(1) Kills marine animals. 4 . which can also kill them. (3) Covers coast lines destroying flora and fauna. which devastates local economies dependent on fishing.(2) Many animals ingest the garbage.
400 . ii) Effects1) Removing parts of the sea floor disturbs the habitat of benthic.3. depending on the type of mining and location.e) Radioactive Waste i) Sources1) Nuclear power plant effluents. f) Deep Sea mining i) Sources1) Ocean mining sites are usually around large areas of polymetallic nodules or active and extinct hydrothermal vents at about 1. Aside from direct impact of mining the area. causing permanent disturbances.700 meters below the ocean‘s surface. possibly. spills and corrosion would alter the mining area‘s chemical makeup. which ocean currents carry to different parts of world. ii) Effects1) Long term exposure causes cancer and birth defects. leakage. 5 .
the heavy metal needs special mention as they are indicators of the impact of industrialization. Examples are mercury. phenols and radioactive waste. pesticides. Some of these areas are now under the direct threat from the increasing load of various pollutants. nuclear wastes and oil pollution. Heavy metals are metallic chemical elements that have a relatively high density and are toxic or poisonous at low concentrations. Such toxins can accumulate in the tissues of many species of aquatic life in a process called bioaccumulation. industrial effluents. They are also known to accumulate in benthic environments. Among them. fertilizer and pesticide run-off. especially in the coastal and estuarine areas.CASE STUDY (Marine pollution in coastal areas of Kochi) Heavy metal concentrations and assimilative capacity of coastal waters of Cochin Water and sediment quality is a vital aspect for the survival and well being of the living resources. lead. DDT. Pb. there are particular problems with other toxins that do not disintegrate rapidly in the marine environment. 6 . The seas around India have several hot spots with regard to thermal wastes. Several water bodies in the country are in mortal changes of pollution caused by excessive sewage. furans. nickel. The figure next shows the estuaries and inshore areas of Cochin where the levels of distribution of Cd. arsenic and cadmium. dioxins. Cu and Zn in sediment and the extent of bioaccumulation in some commonly available finfish and Shellfish species were studied. such as estuaries and bay mud: a geological record of human activities of the last century. Examples of persistent toxins are PCBs. Apart from plastics.
V. The Table 2.Distribution of metals in sediment and their accumulation by organisms were studied from the port area and the inshore areas of Cochin at monthly intervals from January 1990 to December 2000 on board R.1. Tissue samples of fishes such as Nemiptevus japonicus.Cadalmin.a below shows the comparative amount of metal concentration (µg/g dry wt) in marine sediment and tissues of finfishes and shell fishes- 7 . Otolithus ruber and the prawn Metapenaeus dobsoni were collected.
<1). caution (>1. 8 . fluorides. Cochin inshore areas along the south-west coast of the Arabian Sea receives water. insecticides. trace metals and radioactive nuclei.2) based on the level of assimilation.6 million litres per day. industrialization and related anthropogenic activities produce a large quantity of sewage and effluents laden with toxic contaminants that are discharged into the Cochin barmouth through the backwaters. The volume of industrial effluents from Eloor. Assimilative factor thus computed for each parameter was indexed at 0.b below shows assimilative factors of various contaminants for estuary and the inshore waters of Cochin- TSS-: total suspended solids The results presented assimilative factor for estuary (ratio between concentration of contaminants in estuary and their concentration in the backwaters) as well as the inshore waters (ratio between concentration of contaminants in the inshore waters (sea) and their concentration in the estuary. much of which is discharged directly into the Periyar River from where it is emptied into Cochin backwaters. The Table 2. Frequent instance of fish kill along this belt especially during the south-west monsoon is a common affair.5). suspended solids. free ammonia. As river water mixes with seawater at the estuary. The common contaminants of Cochin backwaters are acids. More than 240 industrial units operating in Edayar village of Eloor panchayath make this part of the river into a cesspool of chemical pollutants. discharged from the lower reaches of Periyar River. metals and other contaminants may be lost or transformed from soluble form to the sediments by flocculation or to the plankton and macrophytes by adsorption and bioaccumulation and finally get assimilated.Kalamasery belt is about 2.5) and critical (>1.1.5 .5 unit interval as safe (<0.5 . alkalis.Assimilative capacity is defined as the ability of an area to maintain a ―healthy‖ environment and to accommodate the contaminants it receives.1. sediment and silt from the extensive Vembanad Lake system at Ernakulam (Cochin barmouth) and at Munambam (Azheekode barmouth). normal (>0. dyes. The urbanization.
Cochin backwater is known to contain higher concentration of almost all trace metals during premonsoon and postmonsoon. High level of PO4 especially may be due to the inputs from the fertilizer factory near the Ambalamughal area which is subsequently utilized by the water hyacinth population. Although the levels of metals distributed in the sediment and fish tissue from Cochin were well below the permissible levels (Table 1) their effect on the ambient biota may be undesirable in the long run. to a great extent is influenced by freshwater inflow and terrestrial contamination and anthropogenic inputs. Cd and Pb recorded from sediment and the tissue samples of shellfishes and finfishes over a period from 1990 to 1998 revealed that these levels were well within the permissible limit (Table 1) recommended for sediment and fish and seafood products (WHO.0. which revealed that in the Cochin estuary TSS and Cadmium have reached critical levels while copper and lead have reached cautionable levels. 1995). The levels of Cu. It is felt that Pb levels are added from the inshore waters released possibly through anthropogenic activities such as mechanized fishing. 1987). An assimilative factor for a particular input within 0. However. The metal Pb is found unassimilated in the inshore waters as well as in the estuary. The earlier results available for Cochin and that of the current study are compared with the recommended permissible levels for sediment and fish samples (Table 1).DISCUSSION In general.Samples from estuarine as well as the sediment from the inshore areas contained higher levels of these metals than in the estuarine regions which might be due to flocculation and settlement of suspended metals to the bottom as accelerated by increasing salinity (Webster.5 indicates that inputs received either in the estuary from the upstream backwater areas or in the inshore areas from the estuary are completely assimilated and hence considered safe.. metals such as Zn and Cu originate from the backwaters and get assimilated in the inshore waters along the estuary. Similarly in the Cochin inshore waters cadmium and lead have attained level of caution. the tissue and sediment inshore areas of Cochin showed the order of metal levels as Zn> Cu> Pb> Cd . 9 . The trace metal distribution in the coastal environments. shipping and port activities.
with the developing fetus and infant being more sensitive than the adult. algal growth is affected. cancer. kidney damage. Lead adversely affects invertebrate reproduction. foetal deformity. invertebrates.5 and 10. reproductive problems. lead can cause reduced growth. altered enzyme levels. immune system suppression (antibody inhibition) neurological damage in humans. At elevated levels in plants. effects on the kidneys. mitosis. growth inhibition. cardiac enlargement. mortality. High levels of dose may result in toxic biochemical effects in humans which in turn cause problems in the synthesis of hemoglobin.Toxic Effects of Some Heavy Metals a) Cadmium High levels of cadmium can lead to depressed growth. respiratory disruption. with all three groups equally sensitive to chronic toxicity. cardiac disease. and water absorption. Copper is highly toxic 10 .0 ppb resulted in decreases in growth. and shortened life span of first level generation crustaceans (crabs etc). and acute or chronic damage to the nervous system. b) Lead The toxic effects of lead include anaemia. In humans cadmium concentrations above 200-400 ppm in kidney tissue can lead to renal damage. and paralysis. and abnormal muscular contractions. gastrointestinal tract. Various effects occur over a broad range of doses. photosynthesis. hypertension. Fish exposed to high levels of lead exhibit a wide-range of effects including muscular and neurological degeneration and destruction. joints and reproductive system. For marine organisms. kidney damage. and amphibians. ambient Cd levels between 0. c) Copper Copper is highly toxic in aquatic environments and has effects in fish. hypertension.
neurological. Furthermore. necrosis in kidneys and the brain. While mammals are not as sensitive to copper toxicity as aquatic organisms. hematological (blood problems). the emissions of heavy metals from waste incineration need addressing. causing adverse effects on growth.to amphibians (including mortality and sodium loss). d) Zinc In many types of aquatic plants and animals. loss of photosynthetic pigments. disruption of potassium regulation. liver and kidney problems. Elevated zinc can cause a wide range of problems in mammals including: cardiovascular. Zinc is toxic to plants at elevated levels. survival. gastrointestinal distress. immunological. and mortality. and reproduction. which include reductions in photosynthesis and growth. and reproduction can all be adversely affected by elevated zinc levels. developmental. or Use of cleaner/heavy metal-free alternative materials. Prevention Methods Combustion processes of fuel and waste. energy production as well as residential heating are the biggest sources for heavy metals and should be addressed thoroughly. lesions. and reproductive. with adverse effects in tadpoles and embryos. The reduction of these emissions may be obtained by Reduced consumption of contaminated fuel. and fetal mortality. low blood pressure. impurities in the materials used for combustion processes in industrial plants. 11 . survival. Single-cell and filamentous algae and cyanobacteria are particularly susceptible to the acute effects. pancreatic. toxicity in mammals includes a wide range of animals and effects such as liver cirrhosis. growth.
in instruments. MARPOL 73/78 (regulation on ship wastes). 1974. employ advanced or tertiary treatment. cadmium and lead e. The introduction of restrictions for products which may contain zinc. use septic systems. Properly treating wastewater assures that acceptable overall water quality is maintained. such as rivers or the ocean. which was later upgraded to secondary treatment. some of them are Marine Fishing Regulation Act. The solids have to be pumped out and hauled by tank truck to be disposed of separately. Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act. removing some or all of the contaminants. Various government regulations include laws which limit the amount of heavy metals in the oceans and seas. Following are few methods employed in waste water treatments1) Rural unsewered areas. Discharge may be to surface water. fish deaths. In these. Some areas. body wastes and industrial wastewater from manufacturing processes and commercial enterprises are dumped into rivers and backwaters which carry them to the oceans and estuaries causing contamination of ocean water resulting in the spread of disease. or are reused as fertilizer in closely regulated land-application programs. The restriction of cadmium content in fertilizer should be addressed at an appropriate level. settles out and stores solids. a large tank. Remedies Waste water from residential sources including sinks. Wastewater treatment is a process to improve and purify the water. batteries and others. They often go to municipal wastewater treatment plants. and destruction of other forms of aquatic life. electronic equipment. Common treatment schemes are presented in the following paragraphs. where needed. Liquid wastes are dispersed through perforated pipes into soil fields around the septic tank 2) Most urban areas with sewers first used a process called primary treatment. Waste water treatment Wastewater is treated to remove pollutants (contaminants). 12 .g. 1978. or to groundwater that lies beneath the land surface of the earth. toilets. known as the septic tank. for the most part. light sources. making it fit for reuse or discharge back to the environment. which are partially decomposed by naturally occurring anaerobic bacteria.
Indicating possibilities that some oil 13 . The pollution occurs due to spills at oil ports and terminals. thus purifying it. Organic and inorganic sediments are settled out in a sedimentation tank. and chemical precipitation are used. (lat. In the last few decades. sludge provides bacteria to consume the "food" provided by the new wastewater in the aeration tank. 3) Industrial waste water treatment Heavy metals. or activated. In the early hours of 23rd April 1998 an oil slick was noticed in the inshore waters of Narakkal. carbon adsorption. Flow from the sewer goes into an aeration tank. offshore drilling and production. debacles of oil tankers. floating and suspended solids are settled and removed from sewage. 10° N & long. The oil deposited was seen like tar and was very fresh and Oily. It is then directed to the grit chamber where sand and small stones are removed. operational or even deliberate but it causes a lot of concern to fisheries.Primary treatment In primary treatment. a biological process. Floating large materials like rags and sticks is removed by passing the sewage through the screen/bar racks. Oil Spill in inshore waters of Cochin Oil spill in the sea may be accidental. 76° 15"E) north of Cochin port. with the development of industries and mechanization of fishing crafts the use of hydrocarbons and other petroleum products has increased considerably. evaporation /distillation. The oil sample resembled that of Gulf crude oil and was not seen in Fort Cochin area south of the fairway channel. Secondary treatment In secondary treatment. toxic chemicals and other pollutants can be removed from industrial wastewater to an increasing degree. the bacteria in sewage is used to further purify the sewage. and discharge of oil refinery effluents and from other land based wastes. where compressed air is mixed with sludge that is recycled from secondary clarifiers which follow the aeration tanks. Advanced treatments like micro filtration. The recycled. removes 85 percent or more of the organic matter in sewage compared with primary treatment. during transport. which removes about 50 percent. beach ecology and tourism. Secondary treatment. The final effluent is disinfected by chlorine in the form of sodium hypochlorite solution prior to discharge to receiving water.
The oil spill occurred in the Mangalavanam an international bird area (IBA) of Cochin. Although no mortality was reported. The long-term effects of oil spills are far more subtle and difficult to assess than the short-term effects. Oiled animals also intentionally swallow the toxic material as they preen their bodies. Oiling disrupts the arrangement of feathers and hair that retains this insulating layer. returning tankers fill sea water as ballast to be carried in the compartments previously occupied by oil. SOURCES OF OIL SPILL POLLUTION The major sources of oil spill pollution are the following: 1. The presence of persistent toxic chemicals on the beaches. 2. EFFECTS OF OIL SPILL POLLUTION The most obvious effects of oil spills on wildlife are the deaths that occur immediately after the spill.tanker while returning from the Cochin port might have emptied or cleaned the ballast. the oil slick might have caused extensive damage to the intertidal organisms. In arctic environments. which when discharged causes unacceptable oil spill pollution. due to coating of animal fur or feathers with oil and exposure to high concentrations of the toxic components of crude oil. the insulating property of their feathers or fur is lost. choked the mangrove plants Acanthus illicifocus growing on the mud plants resulting in the wilting and drying. Tanker accidents: Large tankers carrying oil over the sea increase the possibility of more oil spillage in the event of an accident. Oiled animals are exposed to acute doses of hydrocarbons absorbed through their skin. the resulting hypothermia contributes to the death of many animals. Ballast water: When unloaded. The walls of compartments are cleaned with dinging oil by powerful seawater jets hence ballast water inevitably acquires a considerable quantity of oil. When birds and mammals become coated with oil. or accidentally swallowed. Feathers and fur provide insulation by trapping a layer of air between the skin and the external environment. inhaled. in the 14 .
Strict safety standards must be followed and the ships which are not up to the standard shall not be allowed to sail. The volatile fraction evaporates quickly and makes impossible to ignite without doping special measures. and in the food web may result in a variety of impacts on wildlife. PREVENTION Oil industry should take greater precaution against spills and should have detailed emergency response plans for cleaning up spills that do occur. REMEDIES Oil tends to form insoluble layers with water as a result of its water repelling characteristics. Improvement in technology like improved tanker navigation equipment – especially with the introduction of global positioning systems can reduce the levels of oil spill incidents. When it forms emulsion with water as a result of turbulent mixing it becomes difficult to break. which can be easily separated from seawater by gravity and skimming. decreased resistance to disease. neurological damage. and birth defects in offspring. eventual development of cancerous tissue growth (particularly in fish). 15 . The problem of burning surface oil is very difficult due to less thickness of the layer and large surface area. Skimming: It can be performed by employing devices for collecting oil from a large area of water to make it a thicker layer in harbour sheltered places. International cooperation and stronger legislation can play an important factor in prevention of incidents related to oil spills. hence there are a number of methods which may apparently be used to deal with oil spills in seawater.water. including impaired reproduction. Some options used for marine protection from oil pollution include Setting fire to the oil spill: Frequently crude oil is set on fire in a wrecked ship when an accident occurs. anemia.
Absorbing: Floating oil can be separated due to absorbsion applying chemicals. The resulting lumps can be collected easily in the vicinity of a wrecked ship. NaSo4 0 to +8. Sinking: Mixing small fine granular solids of fairly high density (sand) culminates into slurry. This material acts as a sinking material when used in the powder form for removal of oil from seawater by absorbing oil and settling to the bottom. enables it to absorb the oil spill from sea water which gets collected on the surface. Some of the naturally available materials that follow above criteria are the plants Corchorus depressus (It is commonly available in Oman wherever compact sandy soil is present) and Arachis hypogaea. While the solid pulp that remains after edible oil of Arachis hypogaea is extracted from it as a high protein live stock feed. which gives the plant the ability to coagulate. However. the selection of materials should be based on the following factors Efficiency in removing oil Relatively cheap cost Environment friendly by-product. Powdered Corchorus depressus contains AlCl3 40-70 %. Gelling: Spraying gelling agents with a certain amount of mixing energy into the oil spill causes formation of gel or coagulation. Local availability Ability to regenerate and reuse. many of the methods described above have limited usage and at times prove to be expensive in view of regional conditions and other influencing parameters. sinking the oil spill to the bottom of the seabed. 16 . But in reality to achieve cost effectiveness in prevention of oil spill pollution. H3Bo3 and considerable amount of ethanol.
aquaculture. domestic wastes. There was debris all over the beach with foul smell. recreation. The above picture is of beypore beach at Calicut. The picture on side shows why a proper system to manage the waste collection in Beypore beach is required. etc the beaches are getting polluted. transport. tourism. sewage water and sometimes industrial effluents. They have become dumping sites of plastics. 17 . garbage deliberately or accidentally discarded by ships at sea or from offshore oil platforms. items that are brought to the beach and left there by beachgoers. It is always occupied with people and what I observed there was the absence of a proper waste management system. It is a major beach of Calicut and is a major tourist spot of Kerala.TARBALLS AND WASTE MATERIALS ON THE BEACHES OF KERALA Due to increasing human activities alongside the beaches which includes fishing.
river mouths. monthly observations on the quantity of tar ball contamination and other solid waste material deposited on the beaches were made during October 2000 to September 2001. boat yards. mangrove beds. Being lighter than seawater. tourist resorts.Tar balls are residues of oil released to the marine environment. etc. bridges. ports. 18 . The occurrence of tar ball residues on beaches has been reported on an almost global scale. sandy beaches. To assess the sanitary status along the Kerala coast. The coastline of Kerala extending upto 690 km is intercepted by fishing harbours. they float on the surface until they reach and settle on beaches.
3.November. A.May. M-March. F-February.April. DDecember) 19 . O.August. S. Au. 11-July. N.a below shows the occurrence of solid waste materials collected monthly from some beaches in Kerala during 2000-2001.October. My.Table -2. In-June.September. (Letter in each column represent the months in which the waste materials were observed such as I-January.
Kaipamangalam and Thrikunnapuzha and Purakkad in the south were comparatively cleaner. these areas showed the presence of vegetable wastes such as Eichhornia. After evaporation. PUF and antibiotic suspensions discarded will have greater impacts on the beach ecology than other solid waste materials observed. soft drink sachets. Plastic bottles and pieces floating across the seas could be the transporters of the seeds of ecological chaos for wherever they end up.3 % of 20 .2. However. Nearly 750 -1000 tonnes of tar get deposited along the west coast of India every. major tar ball deposit along beaches north of Cochin in appreciable quantities (Table 4) was observed in April especially in Cherai. Table. emulsions of water in oil and oil in water may form and ultimately result in tar balls or lump. As per the 1979 estimates.3.During the year 2001. polyurethane foams (PUF). Kaipamangalam and Chavakkad beaches and it continued till May. The contaminants included pieces of thermocol. electric bulbs. The fate of oil spill depends on the climate of the location and the density of oil. indicating less anthropogenic activities. Salvinia and coconut husks brought by river run off. night soil and discarded drugs (date expired) indicating the degree of anthropogenic interferences in these beaches adjoining Cochin.b below shows the Weight of tar and details of wind observed from some beaches in Kerala during 2000-2001- DISCUSSION On studying the table-3 it showed that beaches at Puthuvyppu and Cherai stations north of Cochin as well as Andhakaranazhi south of Cochin are more contaminated than the other beaches studied (Table 3). The suburban locations situated north of Cochin such as Chavakkad. 357 million tonnes of oil from the Gulf countries (35.
Plastic bags become invisible to birds diving for food. and throat infections. Enforcing existing laws. Apart from this exposure. EFFORTS TO REDUCE DEBRIS Improving the general public's awareness. concern. Many marine animals get entangled in fishing lines used by recreational anglers. EFFECTS OF BEACH POLLUTION For humans. Setting up of recycling waste box at beaches. and attitude towards littering. This can choke them or poison them which can eventually lead to their death. Standards should be set for effluents.total transportation from Gulf) moved through the EEZ of India and intensities of oil slick were highest along the tanker rout in the Arabian Sea. contaminated beach water may lead to gastroenteritis as well as ear. The alarming magnitude of tar that gets deposited along the coasts of Kerala warrant immediate steps to check the oil spill and to conduct micro level investigations on the fate of tar being deposited every year. and skin disease. and even whales. to punish habitual litterers. Woven plastic onion sacks floating in the sea have entrapped endangered hawksbill sea turtles. Plastic is also mistaken for food and is eaten at sea by birds. Reducing the use of plastic and other materials for disposable packaging. Mass beach cleanup campaigns must be organised to encourage people to keep their beaches clean and secure. turtles. 21 . nose. especially at sea. swimming in the infected water causes allergies.
Hatchlings are dark gray with a pale yolk scar. the central longitudinal keel gives younger turtles a serrated profile. broad head that appears triangular in planar view. but appear all black when wet. as well as the trailing edge of the fore and hind flippers. which become smooth with age. Each side of the carapace has 12-14 marginal. The bridge and hingeless plastron of an adult varies from greenish white (younger) to a creamy yellow on older specimens. each having two anterior claws. most obvious on the upper part of the short snout. The carapace is flattened dorsally and highest anterior to the bridge. Olive ridleys are unique in that they can have a variable and asymmetrical lateral scute count ranging from five to nine plates on each side. two pairs of prefrontal. up to nine lateral scutes per side. Both hatchlings and juveniles have serrated posterior marginal. 22 . It has a medium–sized. Juveniles also have three dorsal keels. Carapace length ranges from 37-50mm. which remains until sexual maturity is reached. A thin white line borders the carapace. The heart-shaped carapace is characterized by four pairs of pore-bearing inframarginal scutes on the bridge. The upperparts are grayish green to olive in color. The head has concave sides. but sometimes appear reddish due to algae growing on the carapace.CASE STUDY (EFFECT OF HUMAN INTERVENTION ON AQUATIC SPECIES) SPECIES CHOSEN: OLIVE RIDLEY TURTLES The olive ridley is a small extant sea turtle. It has paddle-like forelimbs. with six to eight being most commonly observed. with an adult carapace length averaging 60 to 70 cm.
but in scattered locations.000 turtles nested along the coast of Orissa in one week. More recently. but they are believed to use the coastal waters of over 80 countries. it has been observed off the western coast of Africa and the coasts of northern Brazil. Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. they occur at Nancite and Ostional beaches. However.DISTRIBUTION The olive ridley turtle has a cirumtropical distribution living in tropical and warm waters of the Pacific and India Oceans from India. In the India Ocean. They are also rare in the western and central Pacific with known arribadas occurring only within the tropical eastern Pacific. Migratory movements have been studied less intensely in olive ridleys than other species of marine turtles. and Venezuela. Chacocente 23 . (1982) had estimated the population of Pacific Mexico to be at least 10 million prior to the era of mass exploitation. in Central America and Mexico. the majority of olive ridleys nest in two or three large aggregations near Gahirmatha in the Orissa. Arabia. Japan. Historically. and Abreu-Gabrois and Plotkin (2008) estimated that number to have been further reduced to 852 550. over 600. more than 1 million olive ridleys were commercially harvested off the coasts of Mexico in 1968 alone.e. Spotilia (2004) estimated that the global population of annual nesting females has been reduced to approximately 2 million. Australia. Additionally. In Costa Rica. and Micronesia south to southern Africa. termed arribada. Nesting occurs elsewhere along the Coromandel Coast and Sri Lanka. According to Carr (1972). Suriname. this species has been widely regarded as the most abundant sea turtle in the world. NESTING Olive ridley turtles are best known for their behaviour of synchronized nesting in mass numbers. There are two active arribadas in Nicaragua. French Guiana. Guyana. In the Atlantic Ocean. and along the Pacific coast to at least Oregon. olive ridleys are considered a rarity in most areas of the Indian Ocean. The olive ridley sea turtle nests at several sites in the western Indian Ocean. It is also found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from the Galapagos Islands and Chile north to the Gulf of California. Clifton et al. In 1991. The single most important breeding area for olive ridleys in the Indian Ocean along the Bay of Bengal is Orissa. and New Zealand. This indicated a dramatic decrease of 28-32% in the global population within only one generation (i. 20 years). there have been records of the olive ridley in the Caribbean Sea as far north as Puerto Rico.
000 nesting females). feral dogs and pigs. coyotes. long line. In addition. gill nets. Although olive ridleys are famed for their arribadas. climate change. Adults have relatively few known predators. natural disasters. THREATS Known predators of olive ridley nests include raccoons. and crocodiles. sharks. Kannur. slaughtering nesting females on the beach. there were several arribadas in Mexico. Kerala. and pot fishing. have significantly impacted olive ridley populations. The overall contribution and importance of these nesting beaches to the population may be underestimated by the scientific community. This is the place we chose for our case study. During 19932003. In the water. Hatchlings which use light cues to orient themselves to the sea are now misled into moving towards land.g. crabs. Coastal development. more than 100000 olive ridley turtles were reported dead in Orissa. entanglement and ingestion of marine debris is listed as a major threat for this species. Females are often plagued by mosquitoes during nesting. and die from dehydration. 24 . have also been cited as potential threats to nesting grounds. and a small nesting ground in Pacific Panama. Humans are still listed as the leading threat to these turtles. ghost nests. many of the nesting grounds can only support relatively small to moderate-sized aggregations (e. Historically. Additionally. and other sources of beach erosion. coastal development also threatens newly hatched turtles through the effects of light pollution. The Olive Ridley turtles nest in very few places in the western coast of India. Trawling. frigate birds. 1. and the sunbeam snake. opossums. The only arribada worthy of conservation is in Muzhappilangad. coyotes. hatchling predators most likely include oceanic fishes. Other major threats include mortality associated with boat collisions and incidental takes in fisheries. Hatchlings are preyed upon as they travel across the beach to the water by vultures. caimans. yet only one remains at Playa Escobilla in Oaxaca. Iguanas. exhaustion or are killed on roads. and direct harvesting adults at sea for commercial sale of both the meat and hides. responsible for unsustainable egg collection. as well as other species of marine turtles. and snakes. raccoons. India from fishery-related practices.and La Flor. other than sharks and killer whales responsible for occasional attacks. coatimundi. ghost crabs.
However. the majority was attributed to co-specifics unintentionally destroying existing nests. The Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and the Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles (IAC) have also provided olive ridleys with protection. which focused primarily on public outreach and education. and is listed in Appendix I of CITES. the greatest single cause of olive ridley egg loss results from 'arribadas'. Lastly. this debate eventually led to legalizing egg collection. enforcing the use of Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) in the shrimp trawling industry has also proved effective in some areas. Many believe that the massive reproductive output of these nesting events is critical to maintaining populations. Arribada management has also played a critical role in conserving olive ridleys. But this is exactly what is being destroyed by the over-ambitious humans. By this introduction it must be evident that the case of the Olive Ridley is indeed worth consideration. in Playa Nancite. yet enforcing these sanctions on a global scale has been unsuccessful for the most part. These listings were largely responsible for halting the large scale commercial exploitation and trade of olive ridley skins. Although some of this loss had resulted from predation and high tides. For example. Costa Rica. and led to increased conservation and management for this marine turtle. in which the density of nesting females is so high that previously laid nests are inadvertently dug up and destroyed by other nesting females. The olive ridley turtle is still abundant enough to be revived. only 0. The extent that arribadas contribute to the population status of olive ridleys has created debate among scientists. CONSERVATION STATUS The olive ridley is classified as Vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). In some cases nests become cross-contaminated by bacteria or pathogens of rotting nests. The only thing that needs to be done is ensuring proper availability of nesting grounds. 25 . while others maintain that traditional arribada beaches fall far short of their reproductive potential and are most likely not sustaining population levels. Conservation successes for the olive ridley have relied on well-coordinated national programs in combination with local communities and non-government organizations.5 million eggs produced in a single arribadas event successfully hatched. In some localities. National listings for this species range from Endangered to Threatened.2% of the 11.
80 sea turtle eggs were collected and kept in the hatchery on December 15.T. special officer of the academy. The hatchery was set up in November under a joint initiative of the Muzhappilangad grama panchayat and the Adventure Academy to protect the eggs laid on the beach. It took 55 days for them to see the light of day. The initiative was inspired by turtle egg protection measures by volunteers in Kozhikode and Kasaragod districts. and our first initiative has turned out to be a success. "It is for the first time in Kannur that sea turtle eggs have been collected for hatching. KANNUR: It was a rare experience for them.WHAT CAUGHT OUR ATTENTION Turtle hatchlings emerge from hatchery THE HINDU: Monday. for the first time. Sebastian. As many as 150 eggs collected in the second batch have been kept in another hatchery. 26 . 2007 Staff Reporter SETTING THEM FREE: A foreign tourist among those watching Olive Ridley sea turtle hatchlings emerging from a temporary hatchery at Muzhappilangad in Kannur. Feb 12.'' said A. he said. The people had been waiting since. People living along the Muzhappilangad beach were elated when 60 Olive Ridley turtle hatchlings emerged from a hatchery in the area.
We were hoping to meet Mr. So we decided to undertake the region as a case study and visit it in September 2011. was formed under the initiative of the academy and the panchayat to collect the eggs. A few tourists from Sweden and France were among the 300-odd people who turned out to the drive-in beach. also September-December was the primary nesting period here. Prabhakaran was present. We were hoping that as the collector and other authorities were taking part in this initiative. District Collector Ishita Roy was among those who reached the beach to see the hatchlings emerging from the eggs. 27 . the leader of this initiative and gather vital information from him. Sebastian. a major tourist destination in the region. named Theera Sena. Panchayat president V. An incentive of Rs. A. T.A volunteer force of local people. it would have stood the test of time and succeeded. 250 was given to each collector. What we expected to see was a thriving hatchery with full time staff and participation of the locals. Kannur. WHAT WE SAW The Picture above shows two of our team members Titty Dany Abraham (left) and Nikhil Nair (right) at the proposed hatchery site in Muzhappilangad. to see the event. It was the first such initiative in Kerala and it occurred at the only place it was possible. Such a project usually takes 4-5 years to achieve its full capacity.
But as we had gone that far we decided to enquire at the adventure academy building the whereabouts of the hatchery. the then director of this Adventure Academy. She told us that the entire idea of the hatchery was formulated by Mr. From our interactions with the locals we were able 28 . Sebastian. We thought that indeed we were at the wrong place. She had been posted for just one year there and she told us that after the initial hype the entire programme had died down. The in charge of the adventure academy office was Ms. The only year when there was an active hatchery and live turtles were released into the ocean was 2007.When we reached the place we saw an adventure academy building under renovation and we saw a tourism facility centre also under construction. T. A. Haritha. There was no hatchery or other such building to be seen. We were also hoping that someone there would be in charge of the operation and he/she would act as our guide.
This is kaitha. This plant can hold the soil together while keeping it dry and soft enough to dig and lay eggs. dry ground to lay eggs. It was gathering attention as a tourist destination during the time. the plant that made this region a hotspot for turtle nesting. The hatchery was situated on Muzhappilangad beach.to understand that they used turtle eggs as food before Mr. Kannur. it was the only batch that could achieve the feat. The eggs cannot tolerate contact with the salt water. the only drive-in beach in all of Kerala. But instead of including the hatchery as an ecotourism development operation. The first batch of turtle hatchlings to the sea after a successful stint at the breeding centre. The turtles need firm. But sadly. 29 . At the time. As he had tie ups with the district collector and local bodies he was able to utilize allotted funds and construct a hatchery and other prerequisites for breeding centre. the authorities who planned this development sought to destroy it. This was the reason for turtles coming to nest at this place. With the locals‘ help he was able to form a task force or ‗theerasena‘ to collect the eggs and take them to the hatchery. The year 2007-08 was a golden year for the hatchery. a wide enough region close to the beach was densely vegetated by this plant. The Kerala Government was planning major tourism development at the place. Sebastian educated them about the need to conserve this species.
T. With no chance of shade. Sebastian knew that this would destroy any hope of survival for this hatchery. We saw efforts that were underway to extricate trapped vehicles from the sand several times. He is now with an environmental protection endeavor by an NGO in New Delhi The lack of logic in the Government construction is evident from the following photograph. The Government says the construction was to aid in tourism but as you can clearly see the entire drive-in beach is destroyed. Dead fish and other aquatic species are common occurrence now. said some of the local people we interviewed. He lodged official protests and was subsequently removed from his post. Mr. The steps that you see are constructed of cement blocks. A. 30 . Not even a safari vehicle can drive in now.The government planned to construct a platform and walkway along the 5 km stretch of beach and they wanted to construct it right over the patch where this plant grew. and no place even to sit. The construction has caused a lot of dust and other chemicals to be dumped into the sea. At night it is the haven of certain antisocial elements that has deemed it a suitable area for their night-time drinking and mongering. no tourists come here during the day.
31 . the rusted lock on the front door is seen on top...CURRENT SITUATION OF THE HATCHERY They say pictures speak a lot more than words so we have decided to add some more pictures here with captions so that you may understand what they are. The abandoned hatchery..
which is another breeding ground for the same species of turtle. The olive ridley sea turtle nests at several sites in the western Indian Ocean. In 1993. The single most important breeding area for olive ridleys in the Indian Ocean along the Bay of Bengal is Orissa. we would like to draw your attention to a similar initiative in Orissa. 32 . This is symbolic of the extent to which Government encourages an indigenous effort to protect our biodiversity. Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. CONCLUSION We visited Kannur in hopes of getting to know an ecosystem that was revitalized by human intervention but we were witnesses to an ecosystem that was reeling under the ravages of human activities. biologists from the Orissa Forest Department and the Wildlife Institute of India learned that large scale nesting of olive ridley turtles was taking place near the mouth of the Rushikulya River.The abandoned POLICE AID POST at the site. As a conclusion.
This area is the location of one of the largest mass nesting (Arribada) sites of olive ridley sea turtles in India. Villagers learn how to become members of the Sea Turtle Protection Committee in this Interpretation Centre. The villagers have known about the Arribada of olive ridley turtles since time immemorial. 33 . Local fishers use various fishing methods including gill and drift nets. There are several fishing villages near this important nesting site. This nesting beach in Rushikulya is one of the most important breeding areas for the Olive Ridley sea turtle in the Indian Ocean.
the Wildlife Institute of India initiated a research program on olive ridley turtles along Rushikulya rookery. Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys Oliveacea) 34 . The Community Reserve at Rushikulya project is designed to mobilize the local community and streamline their conservation efforts by: Surveying current levels of understanding. Evaluating the possibilities of Rushikulya as a Community Reserve. most fishing communities along the coast do not consume turtle eggs or meat.Hindu mythology worships sea turtles as an incarnation of their gods. In 1995. Examining the prospect of community based eco-tourism at Rushikulya. These groups need training in order to continue a long-term conservation program. Community groups also provide protection to olive ridleys during the nesting. and hatching seasons. Educating villagers in coastal regions adjacent to Rushikulya rookery. Creating a local network. Olive ridley sea turtles nest at this beach without any apparent threats from these local communities. youths from the local communities help tag turtles and collect data. providing training workshops for community organizations for sea turtle protection and conservation. Thus. and educating local villagers about sea turtle conservation issues. As part of this program.
The torn and tattered parcel arrived at the Honolulu office.Funds for this project will help provide training manuals for sea turtle monitoring. Declaration of a Protected Area automatically strips the rights of local people on this traditional sea turtle nesting site. In addition to a detailed quarterly report. The Indian Wild Life Protection Act (1972). Orissa Beach 35 . Recently. has a provision of declaring certain wildlife areas as Community Reserve (CR). census techniques. Community Reserve or Protected Area? The government of Orissa is planning to declare Rushikulya rookery a Protected Area. India. The Rushikulya rookery of Orissa coast offers an ideal site for such a Community Reserve. Basudev Tripathy the leader of the Rushikulya Project in Orissa. Amendment 2002. Moneys will help support educational programs utilizing slides and films about sea turtles and sea turtle conservation issues in villages and schools. Tripathy shared with them the wide variety of training materials that he has incorporated into a vibrant community project. the World Turtle Trust received a quarterly report from Mr. Mr. and hatchery management. The Community Reserve program will also help train local guides for the ecotourism trade. The proposed program will adequately document these efforts and a case will be put up before the State and Union Government to declare Rushikulya rookery as a Community Reserve.
Tripathy’s goal for this program is to promote the long term survival of the sea turtle population while simultaneously. purchased educational movies. Mr. and their opinions on how best to protect sea turtles. Tripathy trained local community leaders to assist his efforts. protecting the welfare and needs of the nearby rural communities that depend on the coastal resources. These campaigns extend to the tourists who visit the Rushikulya rookery during the nesting season. procured posters. Fisher folk. After setting up a base camp in Purunabandha. 36 . Tripathy and his local helpers conducted a survey through the use of questionnaires printed in the regional language of Telugu. Tripathy printed educational pamphlets. His efforts also provided a wide range of educational initiatives for the local populace in five coastal villages. and developed slide shows. coastal dwellers and secondary school students all had an opportunity to speak about their knowledge of sea turtles. Mr. Using extremely modest funds. Mr. He called upon a local bank and an environmental education agency to contribute study materials. They reported their observations of nesting behavior. posters and pamphlets for an extensive sea turtle awareness campaign. Together they conducted interviews with at least 50 individuals in each of five villages. changes in population trends. and a white-washed building that serves as the on-site interpretive training facility. fishers with their boats and nets.The package also contained photographs of olive ridley Arribada.
workshops. should be undertaken as part of this project. seminars etc.Rushikulya Sea Turtle Protection Committee provides educational exhibitions for villagers. Goals for the next quarter include building workshops. The plant kaitha should be allowed to grow in these areas so that the natural habitat of the turtles is strengthened. 3) The rural community should be made aware of the need for turtle conservation. 1) The villagers should be organized into task forces on shift basis to do the work of collecting eggs. Educational initiatives. publicity campaigns for Community Reserve. The remaining areas of the beach that remains unmolested by construction should be deemed as a community reserve and protected with the help of the local community. 37 . OUR SUGGESTIONS We believe that the hatchery can still be reclaimed if it is undertaken as an initiative of the government. exhibitions. The villagers should understand that harvesting eggs in a controlled manner will be profitable to them. training of local villagers to help manage eco-tourists on the beach and in the sea. 2) The hatchery should be renovated with more modern facilities and protected from tampering by kids etc. Full time staff should be there during the nesting season and part time staff in the other seasons. This comparison shows us exactly how it should have been done at Muzhappilangad beach.
But the horrors it can unleash on a thriving ecosystem is equally potent. 38 . If these steps are instituted without fail. this fragile ecosystem can be reclaimed. The turtle conservation project should be upgraded to a community reserve. Without doubt. the new generation. It is us. who are to decide how our skills should be put to use – to destroy or to rejuvenate.4) Community based eco tourism should be instituted in Muzhappilangad. it will be a golden feather in the cap of Indian biodiversity conservationists. Human intervention can produce an amazing transformation in a depleted ecosystem.
The conclusions that we offered after each of our case studies clearly indicate this. the turtle conservation project featured in our second case study and many others like that will get a timely boost and they will go all the way in achieving their objectives. The greatest problem that is faced by environmentalists today is the lack of cooperation from government. most of the damage done to our environment is reversible. Jai Hind.. The world is edging towards a great catastrophe if its proceeding down the path it has currently chosen. Let us become the heroes of the future. They arise to challenge fate and lead their brethren to their objective. While yesteryear heroes were born to battle it out in some of the great wars that we know about. In Kochi. the rate of pollution hasn‘t risen that much.. Our country is also leaning towards such a policy. If the government takes an initiative.. But as of now.FINAL CONCLUSION All the Environmental Studies undertaken as part of this project points to just one thing. whether it be conserving the biodiversity or reversion of pollution. the heroes of the future are those who take initiative in conserving what is left of our environment. World history has always been dictated by heroes. It is impossible for individuals or small enterprises to undertake such large processes. provided prompt and diligent actions are undertaken. All the actions that should be taken are at pretty large scale. 39 .. The pollution caused as of now can be reverted to a state in which we won‘t recognize that such actions were needed to bring it about.
‖ J.org http://en. mar. Palaniswamy. biol. Ass. P. K. 2004.htm (As on 19-05-2005) http://marinebio. D.” Marine Fisheries Information Service. K. Ass. Pillai.epa. K. Kozhikode. A.Rajagopalan. Said Koya. 2005. Kaladharan.P. ―Trends in heavy metal concentrations in sediment.gov/R5Super/ecology/html/toxprofiles. CMFRI. Valsala. 47 (1): 1 . India. 58(2) : 75-83. 46 (1): 93 – 97.1999. 2011.” J.REFERENCES- P. Nandakumar and K. mar. http://www. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. K. Calicut Research Centre of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. “Oil sick in the inshore waters to the north of Cochin Port Channel.K.. Khambadakar and K. ―Occurrence of tarball and waste materials on the beaches along Kerala coast in India.S. biol.K.org/wiki/Olive_ridley_sea_turtle (As on 29-10-2011) 40 . A. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Kaladharan. P. Prema.Kaladharan. India. K.Valsala. Cochin.asp (As on 24-08-2011) http://world-turtle-trust. P. D. southwest coast of India.” Indian J. Cochin. Leela Bhai and N.7. K. Nanadakumar.org/oceans/conservation/moyle/ch11. finfishes and shellfishes in inshore waters of Cochin.wikipedia.Valsala. K. R. Kaladharan. Krishnakumar. P. V.Leelabhai and M. Fish.S. D. ―Assimilative capacity of Cochin inshore waters with reference to contaminants received from the backwaters and the upstream areas. Prema. L. Prema . Technical and Extension Series.
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