Six Sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1986 Six Sigma seeks to improve the

quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.[3] It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Black Belts", "Green Belts", etc.) who are experts in these methods.[3] Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets (cost reduction and/or profit increase).[3]

. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield, or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. A six sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects (3.4 defects per million).
[4]

In Six Sigma, a defect is defined as any process output that does not meet customer specifications, or that could lead to creaing an output that does not meet customer specifications

Before, everybody thought that quality would cost extra money. In fact, it was reducing costs, as costs for repair or control sank.[6] Then, Bill Smith first formulated the particulars of the methodology at Motorola in 1986.[1] Six Sigma was heavily inspired by six preceding decades of quality improvement methodologies such as quality control, TQM, and Zero Defects,[7][8] based on the work of pioneers such as Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, Taguchi and others.

Like its predecessors, Six Sigma doctrine asserts that:

Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e., reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success. Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled. Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management.

Features that set Six Sigma apart from previous quality improvement initiatives include:

DMAIC is pronounced as "duh-may-ick". rather than assumptions and guesswork The term "Six Sigma" comes from a field of statistics known as process capability studies. It serves as a foundation for innovation throughout the organization. with its focus on variation and design. etc. A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable financial returns from any Six Sigma project. some practitioners have combined Six Sigma ideas with lean manufacturing to yield a methodology named Lean Six Sigma.[9][10] Six Sigma's implicit goal is to improve all processes to that level of quality or better.[3]   A special infrastructure of "Champions. are viewed as complementary disciplines in Lean Six Sigma.4defects per million opportunities (DPMO).  DMAIC is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process.[3] A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data. Lean manufacturing – addressing process flow and waste issues – and Six Sigma. Processes that operate with "six sigma quality" over the short term are assumed to produce long-term defect levels below 3. to lead and implement the Six Sigma approach. Methods Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming's Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle. . from manufacturing and software development to sales and service delivery functions. These methodologies." "Green Belts".[3] An increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support. it referred to the ability of manufacturing processes to produce a very high proportion of output within specification. bear the acronyms DMAIC and DMADV." "Master Black Belts. Originally. aimed at promoting "business and operational excellenceThis is used in companies such as IBM to focus transformation efforts not just on efficiency but also on growth. Six Sigma is a registered service mark and trademark of Motorola Inc In recent years. composed of five phases each." "Black Belts.

poka yoke or mistake proofing. optimize the design. Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using techniques such as design of experiments. specifically. [edit]DMADV or DFSS The DMADV project methodology. and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. and continuously monitor the process. and risks. Verify the design. visual workplaces. Analyze to develop and design alternatives. They are responsible for setting up a vision for Six Sigma implementation. production process capability. DMADV is pronounced as "duh-mad- DMAIC The DMAIC project methodology has five phases:    Define the problem. future state process. Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality). and the project goals. production boards . set up pilot runs. also known as DFSS ("Design For Six Sigma") features five phases:    Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy. Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation. Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships.  Executive Leadership includes the CEO and other members of top management. the voice of the customer. Design details.  Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. and standard work to create a new. and plan for design verification. DMADV is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs. product capabilities. Implement control systems such as statistical process control. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability. This phase may require simulations. Determine what the relationships are.    Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementation. They also empower the . create a high-level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design. Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data. implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s).

Some organizations use additional belt colours. they spend their time on ensuring consistent application of Six Sigma across various functions and departments.other role holders with the freedom and resources to explore new ideas for breakthrough improvements.    Green Belts are the employees who take up Six Sigma implementation along with their other job responsibilities. such as early Six Sigma pioneers General Electric and Motorola developed certification programs as part of their Six Sigma implementation. Many organizations also offer certification programs to their employees. whereas Champions and Master Black Belts focus on identifying projects/functions for Six Sigma. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. for employees that have basic training in Six Sigma tools. operating under the guidance of Black Belts. Apart from statistical tasks.  Champions take responsibility for Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated manner. They assist champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts. . Certification Although no official accrediting agency exists in the United States. Corporations. They devote 100% of their time to Six Sigma. They primarily focus on Six Sigma project execution. such as Yellow Belts. act as in-house coaches on Six Sigma. Black Belts operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects. Master Black Belts. identified by champions. The Executive Leadership draws them from upper management. Champions also act as mentors to Black Belts. Six Sigma certification for both Green and Black Belts is offered by several independent providers.

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