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Tarbela Dam (Urdu: ) is a dam on the Indus River in Pakistan.

n.It is located 50 kilometers North-West of Islamabad near the Haripur District. It is the largest earth filled dam in the world and it produces much of Pakistan's hydroelectricity. Tarbela Dam is part of the Indus Basin Project, which resulted from a water treaty signed in 1960 between India and Pakistan, guaranting Pakistan water supplies independent of upstream control by India. Construction began in 1968, and continued until completion in 1976. The dam has a volume of 138,600,000 cubic yards (106,000,000 m). With a reservoir capacity of 11,098,000 acre-feet (13.69 km), the dam is 469 feet (143 m) high and 8,997 feet (2,743 m) wide at its crest. It helps to maintain the flow of the Indus during seasonal fluctuations. A new, smaller hydro-electric power project has been developed downstream known as the Ghazi Barotha Hydel Power Project. Its is solely for generating electricity and has a water channel with the highest flow in the world. While the dam has fulfilled its purpose in storing water for agricultural use in Pakistan, there have been environmental consequences to the Indus river delta. Reduction of seasonal flooding and reduced water flows to the delta have decreased mangrove stands and the abundance of some fish species. Performance of HYDEL POWER STATIONS [01/07/2007 - 30/06/2008]

Tarbela Installed Capacity Effective Capacity (Max.) Effective Capacity (Min.) Energy Generationm Auxiliary Consumption Maximum Load Plant Factor Availability Factor Tarbela Dam

3478 3702

MW MW

1350 14959.18 69.79 3702 49.1 94.67

MW GWH GWH MW % %

Tarbela Dam is one of the worlds largest earth and rock filled Dam and greatest water resources development project which was

completed in 1976 as a component part of Indus Basin Project. The Dam is built on one of the Worlds largest rivers the Indus known as the Abbasin or the father of rivers. Emerging from the land of glaciers on the northern slopes of Kailash ranges, some 17,000 feet (5182 meters) above sea level, the river Indus has its source near the Lake Mansrowar in the Himalyan catchment area. It flows over 1800 miles (2900 k. metres) before it outfalls into the Arabian sea draining an area of about 372,000 square miles (964,261 sq.kms). The World Bank accepted Tarbela Dam Project as a part of the Settlement (Replacement) Plan under Indus water treaty in 1965. WAPDA was entrusted with its execution on behalf of the Government of Pakistan. HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY International who were the General Consultants of WAPDA, carried out the review studies of the Project. In February, 1960 Tippetts Abbett - McCarthy Stratton of USA commonly known as TAMS were appointed the Project Consultants, and were entrusted with the task of investigation, preparation of detailed designs, and contract documents for the project and also the supervision of construction work during its execution. The Project Main Features The Project consists of a 9,000 (2,743 meters) long, 465 feet (143 meters) high (above the river bed) earth and rock fill embankment across the entire width of the river with two spillways cutting through the left bank discharging into a side valley. Its main spillway has a discharge capacity of 650,000 cusecs (18,406 cumecs) and auxiliary spillway 850,000 cusecs (24,070 cusecs). Two auxiliary embankment dams close the gaps in the left bank valley. A group of 4 tunnels (each half a mile long), through the right abutment rock have been constructed for irrigation releases and power generation. During the construction operations, these tunnels were used initially for river diversion. Irrigation tunnel 5 situated on the left bank, for which NESPAK were the Project Consultants, was put into operation in April 1976. A power station on the right bank near the toe of the main dam houses fourteen(14), power units, 4 units, each with installed generating capacity of 175 MW are installed on tunnel 1, 6 units (NO.5 to 10), 175 MW each on tunnel NO.2 and 4 Units ( NO.11-14) of 432 MW each on Tunnel 3, thus making total generating capacity of Tarbela Power Station as 3478 MW. The reservoir is 50 miles (80.5 km) long 100 square, miles (260 square kilometers) in area and has a gross storage capacity of 11.6

MAF (17.109 million cu. Meters) with a live storage capacity of 9.7 MAF (14,307 million cu. Meters). The total catchment area above Tarbela is spread over 65,000 sq. miles (168,000 sq. kilometers) which largely brings in snowmelt supplied in addition to some monsoon rains. Two main upstream tributaries join the Indus river, Shyok river at an elevation of 8,000 ft. (2438 meters) above seal level near skardu and Siran river just north of Tarbela. Main Dam The principal element of the project is an embankment 9,000 feet (2743 meters) long with a maximum height of 465 feet (143 meters). The total volume of earth and rock used for the project is approximately 200 million cubic yards (152.8 million cu. Meters) which makes it the largest man made structure in the world , except for the Great Chinese Wall which consumed somewhat more material. The main embankment is a carefully designed, zoned structure composed of impervious core, bounded on both sides by gradually increasing sized material including coarser sands gravels cobbles and finally large sized riprap on the outer slopes. An impervious blanket, 42 feet (12.8 meters) thick at the dam and tailing to 5 feet (1.52 meters) at the upstream end, covers 5,700 feet (1737 meters) of the alluvial foundation on the upstream side. These deposits in the valley are upto 700 feet (213 meters) deep and in places consist of open work gravels. The dam crosses this essentially alluvial valley and connects the last points to high ground before the mountains give way to the plains. A 24 feet (7.32 meters) thick filter drain mattress under the embankment together with nearly vertical chimney drain provides the necessary facility to collect the seepage. Auxiliary Dams The auxiliary dams resembling the main embankment dam in design close the gaps in the left periphery of reservoir. The smaller of the two auxiliary dams, however, has a vertical core extending down to the underlying rock, and the larger auxiliary dam has a short upstream blanket terminating in a cut off to rock.

Spillways On the left bank , two spillways

discharges into a side channel. The total spillway capacity is 1,500,000 cusecs (42,476 cumecs) which constitutes the peak outflow resulting from routing the probable maximum flood. The service spillway having 44 percent of the total capacity is sufficient to pass all but very rare floods. Its maximum discharge capacity is 650,000 cusecs (18, 406 cumecs). The auxiliary spillway is similar in design to the service spillway. It has nine radial gates with crest elevation of 1492 feet (455 meters) and flip bucket at elevation 1220 feet (372 meters) A longitudinal drainage gallery along with a network of drainage pipes under the channel and the head works has been provided to release pore water pressure in both the spillway foundations. Reservoir The 50-miles (81 kilometers) long reservoir created by the Project has a gross storage capacity of 11.6 million acre feet (MAF) (17,109 m.cu. meters) at the maximum lake elevation of 1550 feet (472 meters) a residual capacity of 1.9 MAF (2,802 m cu. Meters) at the assumed level of maximum drawdown elevation 1300 feet (396 meters) and a net usable capacity of 9.7 MAF (14,307 m cu. Meters). The Tarbelareservoir stores water during the summer months of June, July and August when water either causes disaster by flooding in the surrounding areas or goes waste into the sea. It is to be noted that more dams can be constructed on Indus since its annual flow is substantially more than is being stored at present. Kalabagh Dam on River Indus is in its advanced stages of design, while investigations are underway for the upstream Basha Dam. Tunnels The four, each of half mile long, tunnels through the right (rock) abutment initially served for the diversion of water during the final phases of construction of the Project. Now they are being used for Power generation (tunnels 1, 2, 3 and eventually 4). The discharge capacity of each irrigation tunnel at higher reservoir elevations is approximately 90,000 cusecs (2,549 cumecs). The discharge pass through energy dissipator structures and the water returns to the river. A fifth tunnel on the left bank designed to augment irrigation releases upto 80,000 cusecs (2,265 cumecs) at high reservoir level, has also been added

to the project. Power Station According to the original plan, four (4) power units of 175 MW generating capacity each were to be installed on each of the tunnels 1, 2 and 3 located on the right bank with the ultimate installed capacity of 21,00 MW. Of these, four (4) units on tunnel 1 were commissioned in the year 1977. Due to increasing prices of the fossil fuel, the Govt of Pakistan has been laying greater emphasis on generation of cheap Hydel power. In pursuance of this policy, WAPDA carried out studies to tap the maximum power potential of Tarbela. As a result, it has been found possible to install six (6) units, instead of four (4) only on tunnel NO.2. Units 5 to 8 on tunnel NO.2 were commissioned in 1982, and units 9 and 10 in 1985. Based on studies, four power units of 432 MW capacity each were installed on tunnel NO.3. Thus the total ultimate power potential of the project enhanced from 2100 MW as originally planned to 3478 MW. Project Implementation On May 14, 1968, the Worlds largest single contract for the construction of civil works of the Tarbela Dam Project was signed at a price of RS.2,965,493,217 ($ 623 Million) between the Water and Power Development Authority and the Tarbela Dam Joint Venture which comprised a group of three Italian and three French heavy construction contractors. Later five German and two Swiss contractors also joined the group making up a consortium of thirteen European firms led by Italian firm namely Impregilo. The construction of Tarbela Dam was carried out in three stages to meet the diversion requirements of the river. In stage-I, the river Indus was allowed to flow in its natural channel while work was continued on right bank where a 1500 feet (457 meters) long and 694 feet (212 meters) wide diversion channel was excavated and a 105 feet (32 meters) high buttress dam was constructed with its top elevation at 1, 187 feet (362 meters) The diversion channel was capable of discharging 750,000 cusecs (21,238 cumecs). Construction under stage-I lasted 2 years. In stage-II, the main embankment dam and the upstream blanket were constructed across the main valley of the river Indus while water remained diverted through the diversion channel. By the end of stage-II, tunnels, had been built for diversion purposes. The stage-II construction took 3 years to complete. Under stage-III, the work was carried out on the closure of diversion channel and

construction of the dam in that portion while the river was made to flow through diversion tunnels. The remaining portion of upstream blanket and the main dam at higher levels was also completed as a part of stage-III works. Salient features/Principal data of main components of Tarbela Dam and Power House Tarbela Dam Type Earth & Rock fill Max. Height (above river bed) 465 ft. Crest elevation 1565 ft. SPD Length of Crest (Main 9000 ft. dam) Auxiliary Dam Length at Crest EI. 1565 ft (477 M) Maximum Height Volume including Blanket (13,752,000 cu meters)

(147.82 meters) (477 meters) (2743 meters) NO.1 2,340 feet (713 M) 345 feet (105 M) 18,000,000 cu.yds

Auxiliary Dam No.2 Length at Crest EI, 1565 ft (477 M) 960 feet (293 M) Maximum Height 220 feet (67 M) Volume 2,000,000 cu. Yds (1,528,000 cu.meters) Tunnels at Number Length Diameter (u/s gate shafts) Diameter (u/s of gate shafts) Tunnel Length Diameter at Bank 4 2400 feet each (732 M) 45 feet (13.72 M) 36 feet (10.97 M) Left 2760 feet (13.26 M) Bank M) Right

(841

Reservoir Length Max. depth Area Max. conservation Min Operation level Design Gross Storage Existing Gross storage Design live storage Existing live storage At 1365 ft SPD Surface Area Spillways Service Spillways Capacity No. of Gates Size of Gate Auxiliary Spillways Capacity No. of Gates Size of Gates 850,000 cusecs (24,070 cumecs) 9 (Nine) 50 ft. wide & 61 (15.24x18.60 meters) ft. high 60 miles 450 ft. 60000 acres 1550 ft. SPDA 1300 ft SPD 11.3 MAF 9.00 MAF 9.68 MAF 7.3 MAF 100 sq miles (97 km) (137 m) (100 square miles) (472.45 meters) (396.25 meters)

(259 sq km)

650,000 cusecs (18,405 cumecs) 7 (Seven) 50 ft. Wide & 61 (15.24x18.60 meters) ft. high

Power House UNITS Turbine (FrancisVertical) Output (BHP) Rated Head (Ft. of Water) Make Generators (Umbrella Type) 205.882 184.210 184.210 15% 15% 15% Output (MVA) overload overload overload Output (P.F) 175 175 175 Output (K.V) 0.85 0.95 0.95 Rated Speed 13.8 13.8 13.8 136.400 136.400 136.400 Output (MVA) Make Hitachi Japan C.G.E. Canada C.G.E. Canada 184.210 15% overload 175 0.95 13.8 136.400 Hitachi Japan 1~4 5~6 7~8 9~10 11~14

239000 378 Hitachi Japan

239000 378 D.E.W. Canada

239000 378 D.E.W. Canada

239000 378 D.B.S. Canada

596000 385 D.B.S. Escher Wyss Canada

480 432 0.90 18.0 90.9 SiemensABB Germany

Transformers (Single Phase) Capability 79 71 71 71 160 (MVA/Phase) Voltage Ratio 13.2/220 13.2/500 13.2/500 13.2/500 25.0/500 (KV) ASEA JeumontJeumont- Ansaldo Canada Hitach Make Schneider Schneider Componenti Hitachi Japan France France Italy Japan Project Benefits In addition to fulfilling primary purpose of the Dam i.e. supplying water for Irrigation, Tarbela Power Station has generated 341.139 Billion KWh of cheap hydel energy since commissioning. A record annual generation of 16.463 Billion KWh was recorded during 1998~99. Annual generation during 2007~08 was 14.959 Billion KWh while the Station shared peak load of 3702 MW during the year which was 23.057% of total WAPDA System Peak. WB agrees on Tarbela Dam fix Source: SAMAA Islamabad : Pakistan | 2 months ago

10 Views: 24 Staff Report ISLAMABAD: The World Bank has ensured funds for the expansion of the Tarbela Dam, which it considered feasible and appropriate for the country. The dam is located about 50 km northwest of Islamabad and was completed in 1974 to store water from the Indus River for irrigation and flood control and to generate hydro-electric power. WAPDA will receive 980MW more electricity with the expansion of the dam. The WB officials were told by Pakistan that one billion dollars would be needed for the changes which would take three years. The WB announced $40 million for the work earlier on. Tarbela Dam is one of the worlds largest earth and rock filled dams and was completed in 1976 as a component part of the Indus Basin Project. The World Bank accepted the Tarbela Dam Project as a part of the Settlement (Replacement) Plan under the Indus water treaty in 1965. WAPDA was entrusted with its execution on behalf of the Government of Pakistan. HARZA ENGINEERING COMPANY International who were the general consultants for WAPDA, carried out the review studies of the project. In February, 1960 Tippetts, Abbett, McCarthy & Stratton of US commonly known as TAMS were appointed project consultants, and were entrusted with the task of investigation, preparation of detailed designs, and contract documents for the project and also the supervision of construction work during its execution. 'WAR WITH INDIA OVER WATER' Meanwhile, Federal Minister for Environment Hameedullah Jan Afridi warned Saturday that it was possible for Pakistan to go to war with India over water in the future. At a seminar in Lahore, Afridi said that the country was facing a loss of Rs 100 billion annually due to impure drinking water. And three trillion rupees were needed annually to make the environment clean. He alleged that one dictator had entered into damaging agreements with India, which had endangered all of Pakistans water reservoirs. If these problems are not resolved, the two countries could fight over them. SAMAA CAPTION: A general view of a newly inaugurated 450-megawatt hydropower project located at Baglihar Dam on the Chenab river which flows from Indian Kashmir into Pakistan, is seen at Chanderkote, about 145 km (90 miles) north of Jammu October 10, 2008. Tarbela Dam

Consequent to the Indus Basin Water Treaty, concluded between India and Pakistan, two major water reservoirs were planned to be constructed in Pakistan to store water mainly for irrigation (to make up for the shortfall of water due to water sharing formula agreed vide the treaty); one of

these was o be built on River Jhelm at Mangla and the other on River Indus near the small town of Tarbela. Construction for the dam began in 1968, and continued until completion in 1976. The dam has a volume of 138,600,000 cubic yards (106,000,000 m). With a reservoir capacity of 11,098,000 acre-feet (13.69 km), the dam is 469 feet (143 m) high and 8,997 feet (2,743 m) wide at its crest and stands 147 meters above the Indus riverbed.. It helps to maintain the flow of the Indus during seasonal fluctuations. The dam cost in 1976 was Rs.18.5 billion. Its reservoir is 97 km long with a depth of 137 meters while total area of the lake is 260 square kilometers. From the initial storage capacity of 11.62 MAF in 1974, it has now reduced to 5.51 MAF in 2005 (i.e. 47% of initial capacity) due to silting.

Tarbela is considered as the largest earth-filled dam on one of the world's most important rivers the Indus. The dam was completed in 1976 at a cost of Rs.18.5 billion. It is the biggest hydel power station in Pakistan having a capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity. It provides nearly 30 percent of all the irrigation water available in dry season, 2100 MW of hydropower was to be initially generated as a by-product. By the year 1992, the generating capacity was raised to 3428 MW, with the 3rd extension comprising four more units of 432 MW capacity each. Read More ...

Discharge of water from the Tarbela power generation tunnels As with the construction of large dams, while the problem of storing water has been achieved for agricultural use in Pakistan, there have been environmental consequences to the Indus river delta. Reduction of seasonal flooding and reduced water flows to the delta have decreased mangrove stands and the abundance of some fish species. The dam has been plagued with problems ever since 1974 when the reservoir impoundment began. Two of the four tunnels being used to control the rate of filling were damaged and forced to close. Within a week, one of the two remaining active tunnels also collapsed, bringing down nearly half a million cubic metres of concrete and rock. The reservoir had to be emptied immediately to avoid a disaster. Engineers then discovered around 70 "sinkholes" in the reservoir bed, which they tried covering between 1975 and 1978 by dumping thousands of tonnes of earth by the barge load. One sinkhole that appeared in 1984 was still there in 1991 and could affect the permeability of the dam. Downstream of the dam, a huge 50 metre-deep, 300 metre-wide plunge pool formed in 1976 when the main spillway began operating. During the following years floods, the rocks at the base of the spillway eroded, threatening the safety of the huge concrete spillway. The auxiliary spillway had similar problems and the contractors had to undertake a three-year "rock stabilisation programme". The rescue works on the Tarbela dam boosted the cost from an estimated $800 million in 1968 to $1.5 billion by 1986. Only continual monitoring, remedial work and maintenance have stopped the dam from releasing a tidal wave into the densely populated Peshawar Valley below. By 1999 the Tarbela reservoir had succumbed to 32% of silting. The sedimentation still continues, gradually reducing the life of the dam - thus the need to build more dams for storage of water and meet the increasing demands of electricity

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