Paper-Digital Maps

Final report
Brecht Van Laethem
3
rd
bachelor Computer Science
roll number 86599
brvlaeth¸vub.ac.be
TabIe of Contents
1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................3
2 DeIinitions and acronyms.......................................................................................................................4
3 Requirements..........................................................................................................................................5
3.1 User interIaces.................................................................................................................................5
3.1.1 Paper design.............................................................................................................................5
3.1.2 Desktop application.................................................................................................................6
3.1.3 Website design.........................................................................................................................8
3.2 Hardware interIaces.........................................................................................................................9
3.3 SoItware interIaces..........................................................................................................................9
3.4 Types oI users..................................................................................................................................9
3.5 SpeciIic Requirements...................................................................................................................10
3.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................10
3.5.2 Penlet.....................................................................................................................................10
3.5.3 Desktop..................................................................................................................................13
3.5.4 Extra.......................................................................................................................................15
4 Decomposition Paper-Digital Maps......................................................................................................16
4.1 Desktop Application......................................................................................................................16
4.1.1 Web Browser..........................................................................................................................16
4.1.2 XML parser............................................................................................................................16
4.1.3 Communication pc-pen..........................................................................................................16
4.2 Penlet.............................................................................................................................................17
4.2.1 Quadtree.................................................................................................................................17
4.2.2 Coordinate..............................................................................................................................17
4.2.3 XML Parser............................................................................................................................17
4.2.4 Demo.....................................................................................................................................18
4.2.5 UML......................................................................................................................................19
4.3 Website..........................................................................................................................................20
4.3.1 uploading...............................................................................................................................20
4.3.2 synchronising.........................................................................................................................20
5 Problems encountered & their solutions...............................................................................................21
5.1 How download map data...............................................................................................................21
5.2 How structure the geographical data.............................................................................................21
5.3 Which data-structure will be used Ior storing data on the pen......................................................21
5.4 How will we convert paper coordinates in geographical coordinates...........................................22
5.5 How distribute data between desktop and pen..............................................................................22
5.6 How merge Iiles with annotations.................................................................................................22
6 Future work...........................................................................................................................................23
7 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................23
Appendix: ReIerences..............................................................................................................................23
Appendix: Time sheet..............................................................................................................................24
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 2
1 Introduction
This document describes the project Paper-digital Maps. It describes the Iunctionalities and
implementation oI this project.
Scope
Digital pens exist already Ior many years. They capture and digitise handwritten inIormation. However,
the newest generation oI digital pens have a dedicated processing unit able to process input
inIormation. They also provide a comIortable programming environment so you can execute Java
applications (J2ME) on the digital pen instead oI on a computer. This means that a whole new range oI
paper-digital applications can be realised since the pen no longer needs to be permanently connected to
a desktop computer via a wireless or wired connection.
This project investigates the use oI paper-digital maps to encourage digital interactive maps (such as
Google Maps) to paper and access supplementary inIormation about the map using the digital pen. We
also investigated ways to make annotations and share them online.
The application can be used by a wide range oI people. It can be used to
! Request inIormation about streets, buildings, etc.
! Annotate new inIormation, create POI
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and share them
! Navigation Iunctionality so the pen can tell you the shortest route Irom point A to point B.
A digital pen is more battery Iriendly (no GPS required) and more natural as people are used to maps
Ior location Iinding. Furthermore, paper-digital maps are also very convenient because paper is
traditionally much larger then the average smartphone-screen. This means that you can zoom in more
or you can show a larger area.
There is a webshop where developers can sell their pen applications to digital pen users. ThereIore,
there is an opportunity Ior valorisation.
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2 Definitions and acronyms
[1] 12ME: Java 2 PlatIorm, Micro Edition. This is a Java platIorm designed Ior embedded devices.
The digital pen that we are going to use, can run J2ME applications.
[2] POI: Points OI Interest.
[3] SRS: SoItware Requirement SpeciIication. This document contains all the requirements that have
to be IulIilled Ior a project.
[4] XML: eXtensible Markup Language. This is an open standard Ior representing semi-structured
data.
[5] DOM: Document Object Model. This is an object-orientated approach oI reading structured
documents like XML.
[6] SAX: Simple API Ior XML. This is a unidirectional stream approach oI reading XML Iiles.
[7] SDK: soItware development kit. An SDK is a set oI development tools that allows Ior the creation
oI applications Ior a certain hardware platIorm.
[8] ICR: Intelligent Character Recognition. SoItware to convert handwritten text to a digital text.
[9] WIMP: Window Icon Menu Pointing device. It denotes a style oI interaction using these elements.
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3 Requirements
The goal oI this project is to develop a system where users can create POI
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and request inIormation on
the pen. Moreover, it must be possible to select your map on the desktop application and send the
geographical data automatically to the pen. We also want that users can share their POI online.
The project consists oI three parts:
! a desktop-application
! an application that runs on the digital pen
! a website Ior collaborative sharing oI POI
The smartpen will be connected to a pc using USB.
3.1 User interfaces
In the next part, we will discuss the diIIerent user interIaces oI our project.
3.1.1 Paper design
To keep it as user Iriendly as possible and to make the map as large as possible, we tried to minimise
the number oI program speciIic buttons. The Iollowing buttons will be present on the paper:
! 'Add audio POI`-button so the user can add a POI
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using his voice.
! 'Add text POI`-button so the user can add a POI by writing down the inIormation.
! 'Backspace`-button so the user can delete a character when the ICR
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engine has incorrectly
identiIied a character.
All the buttons will have an appropriate icon and will be located in a toolbar. There will also be a
number oI standard buttons to adjust the volume oI the speaker in the pen.
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3.1.2 Desktop appIication
Our application has a standard WIMP
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interIace using MicrosoIt Visual Studio C#.
It will have the Iollowing Iunctionality:
! Download so you can download a map and send the data to your pen
! Synchronise so you can send your annotations Irom your pen to our website where you can
share your annotations. This is an important Iunctionality because it opens a whole new range
oI use cases where people make annotations local and automatically submit them to a server by
connecting their pen to a pc.
Download
When starting the application, you will see the window displayed below. The user can change the zoom
level and sweep to the map. II you Iound the map that you want, you just connect your pen to your pc
and press on the download button. The application will download the map, optimise it and send the
data to your pen. The data oI the map comes Irom OpenStreetMap.
Synchronise
When you connect your pen to the pc and start your application, you can synchronise the data on the
pen with the data on the server. You can enter your user name and press the synchronise button. The
application will send your data to the server where it will be merged with the existing POIs. By adding
your user name, the website can show who has added which POIs.
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Downloading
When you hit the download button, a new window will pop up. It will show the coordinates oI the map
and will indicates the progress oI downloading / optimising / sending data to pen. When an error
occurred, it will be shown as well.
Possible extensions that can be done include a progress bar and the showing oI adds while you are
waiting Ior the map to be downloaded.
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3.1.3 Website design
We have created a website where you can share your POIs online. To make it as user Iriendly as
possible, the POIs are automatically uploaded to the server and the POIs are merged with the POIs that
are already available on the website. This opens a whole new range oI target groups oI users. Road
workers can Ior instance indicate roadworks on a map and by connecting their pen to the pc, the online
map with all the roadworks is updated. Because oI this, people can check online where roadworks are
in their neighbourhood.
We employed existing technology oI the Brussense
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project to achieve this. The Brussense project
investigates collaborative sharing oI volume measurements. The collaborative aspect and display
inIormation on a map makes this the ideal application as a base Ior our application.
The user can see a dynamic map with a marker Ior each POI. When clicking on a marker, a pop-up
appears with inIormation about that POI.
Because the desktop application asks the user to enter his user name beIore sending the data to the
server, a whole new range oI extensions becomes possible. At the moment, we have one layer on our
map. We could extend it that you generate a separate layer Ior each user. Other extensions could be
searching oI POIs. You could create a search Iorm where you can search on username, location or
content.
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3.2 Hardware interfaces
The desktop-application is responsible Ior distributing inIormation between desktop and the pen. It is
implemented using the programming language C# and there are two reasons Ior this:
1) The manuIacturer oI the pen wrote the necessary communication libraries in C#.
2) The customer requires that the desktop application must be written in C#.
3.3 Software interfaces
Existing Infrastructure
We investigated multiple suppliers oI geographical data (Ior Iurther details: see Project Management
Plan). There was however only one supplier (Openstreetmap
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) that allows downloading the data so we
can use it oIIline. This is necessary because the pen has no connection with the internet.
Open standard
OpenStreetMap makes the geographical data available through an XML
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Iile. XML is an open and
widespread standard, which implies that we can easily switch to another supplier oI geographical data
iI they also use XML.
Employed libraries
We need to be able to parse XML Iiles. We use an external library Ior helping us doing this. Because
the pen runs J2ME
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, we need to look at parsers that can run in this language. Moreover, because oI the
limited resources on the pen, the parser has to be as eIIicient as possible. This will be Iurther discussed
in chapter 4.
Our desktop application must also be able to show a map so the user can zoom in/out and drag across
the map. We will use an external library to help us achieve this. Our choice Ielt on Mapstraction
|C|
. This
is an open source library written in JavaScript. It gives the programmer a common interIace Ior various
JavaScript APIs oI map providers.
3.4 Types of users
This product does not require special skills to use. We target a large audience with this project. The
only knowledge that we assume, is that they have a basic knowledge about computers (such as starting
an application, etc.).
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3.5 Specific Requirements
We will give an overview oI the requirements like mentioned in the SoItware Requirement
SpeciIication and indicate iI it is met or not. II we have met the requirement, we will give a brieI
explanation how we achieved this. II we have not met the requirement, we will give an explanation
why we were not able to achieve it.
3.5.1 GeneraI
Documentation
ID: 1
Description: all the code has to be documented well so other people can extend this project in the
Iuture.
Priority: essential
Status: Fully met.
3.5.2 PenIet
Recognize buttons
ID: 3
Description: the penlet application must recognize when the pen hits one oI the buttons on the paper
and call the appropriate Iunction.
Priority: essential
Status: Fully met. We achieved this by writing a dispatching Iunction that will call the right Iunction,
based on the location oI the pen.
Convert a paper coordinate to a geographical coordinate
ID: 4
Description: The penlet application must be able to convert a paper coordinate to a geographical
coordinate when he has the Iollowing data to his disposal:
! the paper coordinate oI the upper leIt corner oI the map
! the paper coordinate oI the lower right corner oI the map
! the geographical coordinate oI the upper leIt corner oI the map
! the geographical coordinate oI the lower right corner oI the map
Priority: essential
Status: Fully met. We have chosen Ior a linear conversion because with typical usage, you will use
maps with a high zoom level.
Read geographical information from a file
ID: 5
Description: the penlet application must be able to read an XML Iile containing geographical
inIormation when the Iile is on the pen.
Priority: essential
Status: Fully met. We achieved this by using an external XML parser.
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Access geographical information stored on the pen
ID: 6
Description: the penlet application must contain abstractions so you can easily access stored
geographical inIormation, independent oI the data-structures used.
Priority: essential
Status: Fully met. Because oI the embedded nature oI the pen, we have chosen to use a quad tree to
make search requests as Iast as possible. This is done with the help oI an external library.
Add POI using text input (with ICR
¡5]
)
ID: 7
Description: The user can create a POI
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using text input.
Use case
Description:
1) When the user tabs with his pen on the Add-POI-text-button, a message appears on the
display oI the pen to ask the user to tab on a location.
2) II he tabs on a location, a message appears on the display oI the pen to ask him to write
down the inIormation he wants to attach to this location.
3) The user writes down the inIormation he wants. The handwriting is instantly converted to
digital letters and appear on the screen oI the pen. He can, iI necessary, correct the pen by
tapping on the backspace button.
4) The procedure is ended by tapping a second time on the Add-POI-text-button. The pen will
store the inIormation and there appears a conIirmation message on the screen oI the pen.
Priority: desirable
Status: Fully met. We used the built in library oI the pen Ior the ICR. A new POI will be added in the
quad tree and we will update the XML Iile which contains all the POI.
Add POI containing voice recording
ID: 8
Description: The user can create a POI containing audio.
Use case
Description:
1) When the user tabs with his pen on the Add-POI-audio-button, a message appears on the
display oI the pen to ask the user to tab on a location.
2) II he tabs on a location, a message appears on the display to notice the user that the pen has
started recording.
3) The user says all the inIormation he wants to save on the pen.
4) The procedure is ended by tapping a second time on the Add-POI-audio-button. The pen will
store the audio inIormation and there appears a conIirmation message on the screen oI the pen.
Exception:
- Time-out aIter tapping on a location.
There is a time limit oI 30 seconds. II the user hasn't stop the recording, the recording will be
automatically stopped. The recorded audio Iile will be saved and the procedure will be ended.
Priority: desirable.
Status: Fully met. It uses the same principle Ior adding a POI as with a text POI. We have used code
provided by the manuIacturer Ior handling audio.
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Retrieve information about POI
ID: 9
Description: The user can retrieve inIormation about a POI.
Use case
Description:
II he tabs on a location (while he is not adding a POI), the penlet will look up the
corresponding POI. II it is text, it will be showed on the display oI the pen. II it is an audio Iile,
it will be played using the speakers oI the pen.
Exception:
- Location is not a POI
II there is no POI near this location, a message on the display will inIorm the user oI this Iact.
Priority: desirable
Status: Fully met. To keep the application as responsive as possible, we used a quad tree. This allows us
to do quick search requests.
The Iollowing two requirements have not been met. This is mainly because there was not enough time
leIt.
Add an algorithm for finding the nearest street to a certain geographical coordinate
ID: 10
Priority: optional
Add navigation functionality to penlet
ID: 11
Priority: optional
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3.5.3 Desktop
Automatic downloading of map data by entering coordinates
ID: 12
Description: The user has to enter the coordinates oI the map he wants to download.
Priority: desirable
Status: Not met. However, there was no need to because we met the next requirement (ID 13).
Automatic downloading of map data by scrolling through the map
ID: 13
Description: The user can scroll through a map and zoom in/out Ior downloading a map.
Use case
Description:
1) The program will show a map to the user. He has the possibility to center the map around the
coordinate he wants. Then, he can scroll through the map and change the zoom level. This can
be done using Mapstraction
|F|
.
2) The soItware downloads the map image and map data Irom the website oI Openstreetmap.
While downloading, a message appears to inIorm the user that the program is downloading the
data.
3) When the download is Iinished, a message appears to inIorm the user about this.
Priority: optional
Status: Fully met. This is achieve by using the external library Mapstraction to make it easier to display
a map and to Iind out the corresponding coordinates.
Export POI from desktop to penlet
ID: 14
Description: Allow the user to export his personal POI to the penlet.
Use case
Description:
1) The user clicks on the export-POI-button and a pop up window appears where the user can
select his Iile with POI.
2) The program checks iI it is a valid XML Iile with POI and sends it to the penlet.
3) A message appear to inIorm the user that the Iile is successIully transmitted to the pen.
Exception:
- The pen has not been plugged in into the computer
When the soItware can not access the pen, it will show an error message to inIorm the user oI
it.
- File selected by the user is not a valid XML Iile
When the Iile selected by the user is not a valid XML Iile, the user will get an error message
and the user will be asked to select a new Iile.
- Problem during transmission
When there is a problem during the transmission oI the POI Irom the pc to the penlet, the
program will show a message to the user to inIorm him about it.
Priority: optional
Status: Partially met. The application will automatically send the data it download to your pen but you
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 13
can not select manually a Iile. This is mainly because oI the limited time.
Import POI from penlet to desktop
ID: 15
Description: Allow the user to import his personal POI Irom the penlet to the pc.
Use case
Description:
1) The user clicks on the import-POI-button.
2) The program checks iI there is a POI Iile on the pen and iI so, it will download it to the
desktop.
3) A message appear to inIorm the user that the Iile is successIully transmitted to the pc.
Priority: optional
Status: Fully met. When you start the desktop application and press the synchronise button, your data
will be send Irom the pen to your pc.
Edit list of POI
ID: 16
Description: give the user the possibility Ior editing his personal list oI points oI interest on his desktop.
Priority: optional
Status: Not met. This is mainly because oI a lack oI time.
Automatic optimise the downloaded XML file
ID: 17
Description: The desktop-application will edit the XML Iile by deleting all unnecessary inIormation,
such as timestamp and user. This will reduce the size oI the Iile and make it Iaster to parse. Because oI
the limited computing power on the pen, optimising the XML Iile can improve the user-experience
because the user has to wait less long until the Iile is processed.
Priority: optional
Status: Fully met. We achieved this by using the build in XML parser oI C#.
Automatic generate PDF file with map, buttons and dot-pattern on
ID: 18
Description: Our desktop application will automatically generate a PDF
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Iile with the map, buttons
and dot-pattern on iI he has the Iollowing things at his disposal:
! image oI map in eps and jpeg/png Iormat
! aId
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Iile with all the buttons on
! the name oI the application
Priority: desirable
Status: Not met. This is mainly because oI there was no documentation available on how you could do
this.
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3.5.4 Extra
In consultation with my advisors, we decided that we should expand the project and try to add a
website Ior collaborative sharing. This result in the Iollowing new requirements:
Send data from desktop to server
ID: 19
Description: our desktop application must be able to send an XML to the server.
Priority: optional
Status: Fully met. This is achieved with a build in library oI C#. On the server side is a PHP Iile to
handle the upload and move it into the right directory.
See POI of other people
ID: 20
Description: the user must be able to visit a website where he can see his POI and POI oI other people
on a dynamic map.
Use case:
1) You go with your browser to our website
2) You see a dynamic map with a marker Ior each POI
3) When you hit a marker, a pop-up appears with more inIormation about that speciIic POI.
Priority: optional
Status: Fully met. We achieved this by using the source code oI the Brussense project and adapt it to
our needs.
Synchronise your POI with POI of other people
ID: xx
Description: the user must be able to synchronise his POI with POI oI other people.
Use case:
1) People upload data to server
2) Server compares your annotations with the annotations oI others and merges the Iiles.
3) You receive a merged Iile.
Priority: optional
Status: Partially met. Our merge algorithm can only detect new nodes and can not detect nodes that are
changed. This is caused by a lack oI time. The code Ior merging on the server is written in PHP.
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 15
4 Decomposition Paper-DigitaI Maps
We will split our system into multiple design entities.
Each design entity will contain the Iollowing inIormation:
! Purpose: a brieI description oI the purpose oI this entity.
! Functionality: an enumeration oI the present Iunctionalities oI this entity.
4.1 Desktop Application
4.1.1 Web Browser
Purpose: our application must show an interactive map where the user can navigate (sweep, zoom).
Because the data is available online, we must use a web browser and integrate it in our application.
Functionalities:
When the user starts the application, he will see a web browser which shows a dynamic map. This
allows the user to move the map and change the zoom level. II the user wants to jump to another
location, he can Iill in the new coordinate in the appropriate Iields. Once he is pleased with his map, he
can press the download button.
4.1.2 XML parser
Purpose: When the web browser downloads the geographical data, we receive the data in an XML
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Iile. We decided to keep the Iile Iormat and don't convert it. XML is an commonly used Iile Iormat Ior
data exchange which increases the changes Ior interoperability with other digital pens. This entity will
parse the Iile and create a new document that only contains the necessary inIormation. This will make
the later parsing oI the data on the pen easier and Iaster.
Functionality:
It must open an XML Iile, parse it and copy only the necessary inIormation into a new XML document.
We will use the built-in library oI C# Ior the XML parsing.
4.1.3 Communication pc-pen
Purpose: Send XML Iiles with geographical data to the pen and vice versa.
Functionality: it must be able to send a string ¹ Iilename to the pen and receive a Iilename ¹ string.
This is being realised using the OSC data protocol.
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4.2 Penlet
4.2.1 Quadtree
There are multiple ways to store spatial inIormation. We have chosen Ior a quadtree implementation
because oI several reasons:
! It is a commonly used data structure which implies that there is a lot oI inIormation about it
available.
! A quadtree is very suitable Ior two-dimensional inIormation.
! There are several implementation available which is convenient because the main goal oI this
project is not implementing a new or very complex data structure Ior storing two-dimensional
data.
4.2.2 Coordinate
This entity represents a coordinate. Our application uses two types oI coordinates (latitude/longitude
and x/y) and the coordinate entity allows us to quickly switch between those two types. The two most
common ways to do this conversion are with a linear conversion or using spherical geometry. We have
chosen to use a linear conversion Irom x/y tot longitude/latitude. The main reason Ior choosing Ior a
linear conversion is because the possible diIIerence in result between the two methods will be
negligible small. The coordinates and distances on paper are expressed in au
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.
The Iollowing data will be static:
! paper-coordinates oI the leIt upper corner oI the map
! height and width oI the map
The Iollowing data are provided by the map and will be stored in variables:
! Maximum/minimum latitude oI the map
! Maximum/minimum longitude oI the map
4.2.3 XML Parser
As argued in the technical document, there are currently two existing technologies to parse an XML
Iile: via the Document Object Model (DOM)
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or via Simple API Ior XML (SAX)
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. The latter
considerably beneIits the limited memory constraints oI the livescribe pen. As a result, we have chosen
to use a SAX-parser.
This will be achieved by using an external library (in our case kXML).
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4.2.4 Demo
This the main class oI our application on the pen. It is implemented as a state machine. The next state
diagram gives an overview oI the diIIerent states:
Storyline
When you start your pen application, you are in the start state. When you hit the map, it will look Ior a
the nearest POI in a certain range. II he can't Iind a POI, you will see the message 'No POI Iound¨.
When he does Iind a POI, he will show the value on the screen or play the corresponding audio Iile.
II you tap on the add-audio-POI button, you are in the audio POI state. The pen will ask you to tap on a
location on the map. When you do, he will start recording. II you are done talking, you press again on
the add-audio-POI button to end the procedure. Your POI will be saved.
II you tap on the add-text-POI button, you are in the text POI state. The pen will ask you to tap on a
location on the map. When you do, the ICR is activated and you can start writing. When the ICR
recognise a character, it will display the character on the screen. II the ICR engine was wrong, you can
delete the character by pushing on the backspace button. AIterwards, you press the add-text-POI button
to end the procedure and store the POI.
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4.2.5 UML
This is a UML diagram oI the application that runs on the pen. It contains all the important Iunctions
necessary Ior understanding the application.
Penlet is the class provided by the manuIacturer. Every application must inheritance this class.
Demo is our main class. It is implemented as a state machine. Every time you hit the paper somewhere,
the Iunction singleTap will be called. The actions oI this procedure will be based on the location where
you tap and the current state oI the class.
All the POI are stored in a quadtree Ior eIIiciency reasons. We store nodes in the quadtree. Each node
represents one POI.
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4.3 Website
This is an extension oI the project. It wasn't part oI the original requirements but we made good
progress during the year so we had some time leIt. We created a collaborative platIorm where users can
collaborate on making annotated maps.
It can be used in the world oI construction (gas pipelines, roadworks, ...) to have access to all the
necessary inIormation in a user Iriendly way. Since paper maps currently oIIer a much clearer view oI
distances, it is also very interesting to provide digital inIormation.
When you press the synchronise button in the desktop application, it will send your annotations to the
server. There, your annotations will be merged with the existing annotations and the merged Iile is send
back. AIterwards, you can see your annotations on a map online.
Both Iiles below are written in PHP.
4.3.1 upIoading
The Iile will check iI it received a Iile. II so, it will move the Iile to the right directory.
4.3.2 synchronising
This Iile is responsible Ior merging the already existing Iile and the new uploaded Iile. We achieve this
with 2 Ior loops. New POI are always added to the back oI the Iile. You loop over your 2 Iiles as long
as the coordinates are the same. II the coordinates are diIIerent, you add the remaining POI to the other
Iile. AIterwards, mutatis mutandis Ior the other way.
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5 ProbIems encountered & their soIutions
5.1 How download map data
Problem: Our pen does not have a wireless connection at his disposal. ThereIore, we must be able to
download geographical inIormation.
Solution: We Iirst looked at Google Maps because it is very well known. The Terms oI Service Ior
Google Maps explicit says that it is not allowed to download maps Irom Google Maps. ThereIore, the
API Ior Google Maps also doesn't support downloading maps. Google does this because they have an
agreement with Tele-Atlas Ior providing data oI the maps and Tele-Atlas doesn't want that others can
Ireely download their work.
There is an alternative in the Iorm oI OpenStreetMap. This is a website that is comparable to Google
Maps but all the data are added by the users. The data is Ireely available under a Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 license. OpenStreetMap delivers the option to export data as an XML Iile.
The map is represented as a graph. Nodes have an id-number and a geographical coordinate. A street is
a collection oI nodes and between nodes is a straight line. This means that you will have a node in a
street at a crossing or at a corner. There is an extra tag to indicate which type oI road it is. Areas (such
as a park) are also deIined as a collection oI nodes.
5.2 How structure the geographical data
Problem: Which Iile Iormat will we use Ior the exchange oI inIormation?
Solution: OpenStreetMap provides us data in XML Iormat. Because XML is widely used standard Ior
the exchange oI inIormation, we decided to stick with it.
5.3 Which data-structure will be used for storing data on the pen
Problem: the pen has very limited resources, memory and processor wise. The soItware on the pen
must be able to quickly look up POI on the pen to keep the program responsive.
Solution: There are diIIerent possible solutions like a Ior-loop, etc. We decided to go Ior quad tree. This
is a commonly used data-structure Ior retrieving geographical inIormation. Because the pen receives
his data in the XML Iormat, we need an XML parser Ior parsing the Iile so we can Iill our quad tree.
We use external libraries, both Ior the XML parser as Ior the quad tree.
We have chosen Ior the quadtree implementation oI Openmap
|E|
. This is an open-source library written
in Java which is used worldwide by many government departments and major companies.
Because our pen uses J2ME instead oI J2SE, we needed to make some adjustments to the code.
Adjustments:
! J2ME does not support the cloning oI a vector. You need to copy the elements one by one to the
new vector.
! J2ME does not support the power oI numbers. You need to replace the power by a
multiplication.
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 21
5.4 How will we convert paper coordinates in geographical coordinates
Problem: when you tap with your pen on a paper, you receive the x & y coordinates oI the paper and
not the geographical coordinates oI the location on the map. We have the geographical coordinates oI
the corners oI the map at our disposal, just as the corresponding paper coordinates.
Solution: there are two solutions to tackle this problem: we can do a linear mapping or calculate the
coordinate using spherical trigonometry. We have chosen to use a linear conversion Irom x/y tot
longitude/latitude. The main reason Ior doing this is because the possible diIIerence in result will be
negligible small.
5.5 How distribute data between desktop and pen
Problem: the SDK
|7|
doesn't support sending data Irom the desktop to the pen and sending data Irom the
pen to the desktop is only limited supported.
Solution: aIter a long search, we Iound out that the penlet has a Iunction that takes a string as an
argument and returns a string as a result and that you can call this Iunction Irom your desktop
application. By misusing this Iunction, we can transport strings between the pen and the desktop. We
use the OSC data protocol Ior transporting text Iiles.
5.6 How merge files with annotations
Problem: when you upload your Iile with annotations, the server must merge your annotations with the
already existing annotations on the server.
Solution: we solved this with 2 Ior loops. New POI are always added to the back oI the Iile. You loop
over your 2 Iiles as long as the coordinates are the same. II the coordinates are diIIerent, you add the
remaining POI to the other Iile. AIterwards, mutatis mutandis Ior the other way.
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 22
6 Future work
Possible extensions are:
! Investigate paper-enhanced mobile crowdsourcing / participatory sensing. This is the subject oI
a thesis proposal so other people will build Iurther on my work.
! Extend prototype with route planning
My advisors will write a paper about this subject (the work I did ¹ possible extensions).
7 ConcIusion
Now, at the end oI this project, we can conclude that the digital pen we used is Ieasible Ior making a
paper map interactive. This opens new doors Ior Iurther investigating like mentioned in the previous
chapter. As a result, my advisors wrote a thesis proposal that builds on the work I have done.
Appendix: References
[A] Brussense: http://www.brussense.be/
[B] Openstreetmap: http://www.openstreetmap.org/
[C] Mapstraction: http://www.mapstraction.com/
[D] Heap size oI the pen: http://www.livescribe.com/Iorums/showthread.php?t÷6756
[E] OpenMap: http://www.openmap.org/
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 23
Appendix: Time sheet
Raw data
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 24
date hours subject
10/09/10 1 investigate google maps APÌ
10/10/10 2 investigate alternative to google maps
10/12/10 3 investigate different download options openstreetmap
10/16/10 4 install windows 7 (software doesn't work on ubuntu) + install develop tools
10/17/10 3 read getting started document for developing software on pen
10/19/10 1 Brainstrom about different ways to represent a map internally
10/21/10 2 Write prestudy
10/23/10 3 Search good software for creating Gantt + Pert charts
10/24/10 2 Write prestudy
10/26/10 1 Write prestudy + send it to client
10/27/10 0.5 Meeting with client for discussing first draft version of prestudy
10/30/10 1.5 Ìnvestigate ÌCR on the pen
10/31/10 2.5 Ìnvestigate combining multiple maps with 1 application
11/02/10 1.5 Update prestudy + send new version of prestudy to client
11/05/10 2 sample application for mapping paper->geographical coordinates (part 1)
11/06/10 0.5 update gantt-chart prestudy
11/06/10 2 Create presentation of prestudy
11/07/10 1 presentation of prestudy
11/13/10 3 Update presentation + create movie for presentation
11/15/10 2 sample application for mapping paper->geographical coordinates (part 2)
11/16/10 4 SCRUM meeting
11/18/10 6.5 Ìnvestigate + build simple application with the iTextSharp library
11/21/10 2.5 Ìnvestigate auto-create AFD
11/24/10 3 Ìnvestigate auto-generate PS from AFD
11/28/10 2 Write SRS part 1
11/29/10 1 fix bug simulator doesn't appear in eclipse
11/29/10 1.5 parse XML on pen part 1
11/30/10 3.5 parse XML on pen part 2
12/01/10 1 Write SRS part 2
12/02/10 2 Write SRS part 3
12/05/10 4.5 Debug read from file on penlet
12/05/10 0.5 Write SRS part 4
12/07/10 2 meeting with client + debug read file from penlet
12/09/10 1 Write SRS part 4
12/12/10 2 Write SRS part 5
12/13/10 3 Parse XML (POÌ) in J2ME
12/15/10 0.5 meeting with client
12/16/10 2.5 Parse XML (POÌ) in C#
12/16/10 1.5 Ìnvestigate displaying webpage in C# application
12/18/10 5 Build sample desktopapplication for showing dynamic map
12/22/10 4 Debug read from file on penlet
01/05/11 1.5 Ìnvestigate conversion afd->pdf
01/08/11 3 Write SRS part 6
02/07/11 2 porten quadtree library to J2ME
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 25
02/08/11 1 Combining existing code
02/09/11 2 Combining existing code
02/15/11 2 Create movies + write down current status
02/19/11 3 Write technical document part 1
02/22/11 5 Write technical document part 2
02/23/11 0.5 meeting with client
02/26/11 2.5 stresstesting pen
02/27/11 3.5 Write technical document part 3
03/02/11 0.5 meeting with client
03/11/11 1 Create progress presentation
03/13/11 4 add "add PǪ to demo-code part 1
03/16/11 0.5 Dry-run presentation
03/19/11 2 update presentation
03/21/11 1.5 try to fix bug in printing map
03/22/11 4 SCRUM meeting
03/29/11 1.5 try solution provided by manufacturer to send data from desktop to pen
03/29/11 0.5 investigate update UML on pen
04/01/11 0.5 meeting with assistent
04/11/11 3 Create + implement own protocol for communication between pen en desktop
04/11/11 2 Ìmplement basis for comparing+synchronisation of 2 XML files on the desktop
04/12/11 2 Ìmplement basis for recording audio on the pen
04/15/11 2.5 Finish add audio POÌ (code + layout)
04/22/11 1.5 Code add POÌ to file part 1
04/23/11 6 Try to fix eclipse plugins of manufacturer after they crashed
04/27/11 1.5 Try to fix eclipse plugins of manufacturer with assistent
04/29/11 3 Try to fix eclipse plugins of manufacturer after they crashed
04/29/11 1.5 Reinstall windows 7
05/02/11 1.5 Find out printsettings (page was printed at wrong location and wouldn't scale)
05/11/11 3.5 upload file from C# application to php file
05/13/11 5 merge files in php
05/15/11 2 study example source code Brussense web application
05/17/11 3 Show POÌ on map
05/18/11 2 Write code document part 1
05/22/11 2 Write code document part 2
05/23/11 3.5 Write code document part 3
05/25/11 2 Write end document part 1
05/26/11 5.5 Write end document part 2
05/27/11 2 Write end document part 3
05/29/11 3 Make adjustments to end document after meeting with client
05/30/11 3.5 Make final adjustments to end document
Total = 195.5
Chart
Brecht Van Laethem End Report 26
68.5
127
Documents
Programming

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