1IMLLINL CI ÞS¥CnCLCG¥

Larly hlsLory
na 1330 8C Ŷ Lhe Lbers papyrus brlefly menLloned nllnlnal depresslonŦ
na 330 8C Ŷ ArlsLoLle wrlLes on Lhe psunhô ln ue AnlmaŦ
na 100 8C Ŷ Lhe uead Sea Snrolls noLed Lhe dlvlslon of human naLure lnLo Lwo LemperamenLsŦ
398 Ŷ Þsynhologlnal analysls of AugusLlneţ 8lshop of Plppoţ anLlnlpaLes lreud by dlsnovery of Lhe ƌsubŴnonsnlousƌŦż1Ž
na 830 Ŷ AlŴklndl (Alklndus) developed Lhe use of psynhoLherapy and musln Lherapy ln LreaLlng menLally lll
paLlenLsŦżnlLaLlon neededŽ
na 830 Ŷ All lbn Sahl 8abban alŴ1abarl developed Lhe ldea of uslng nllnlnal psynhlaLry Lo LreaL menLally lll paLlenLsŦż2Ž
na 900 Ŷ 1he nonnepLs of menLal healLh or ƍmenLal hygleneƍ were lnLroduned by Ahmed lbn Sahl alŴ8alkhlŦ Pe also
renognlzed LhaL lllnesses nan have boLh psynhologlnal and/or physlologlnal nausesŦż3Ž
na 900 Ŷ alŴ8azl (8hazes) renognlzed Lhe nonnepL of ƍpsynhoLherapyƍ and referred Lo lL as alŴ'lla[ alŴnafsŦż4Ž
1021 Ŷ lbn alŴPayLham (Alhazen) began Lo narry ouL experlmenLs ln areas relaLed Lo body and Lhe nafsŦ ln hls 8ook of
CpLlnsţ for exampleţ he examlned vlsual pernepLlon and whaL we now nall sensaLlonţ lnnludlng varlaLlons ln senslLlvlLyţ
sensaLlon of Lounhţ pernepLlonof nolorsţ pernepLlon of darknessţ Lhe psynhologlnal explanaLlon of Lhe moon llluslonţ
and blnonular vlslonŦż3Žż6Ž
1023 Ŷ ln 1he Canon of Medlnlneţ Avlnenna desnrlbed a number of nondlLlonsţ
lnnludlng hallunlnaLlonţ lnsomnlaţ manlaţ nlghLmareţmelannhollaţ demenLlaţ epllepsyţ paralyslsţ sLrokeţ verLlgo and Lre
morŦż7Ž
na 1030 Ŷ AlŴ8lrunl employed an experlmenLal meLhod ln examlnlng Lhe nonnepL of reanLlon LlmeŦż8Ž
na 1130 Ŷ lbn Zuhr (Avenzoar) gave Lhe flrsL annuraLe desnrlpLlons on nerLaln neurologlnal dlsorders sunh
as menlnglLlsţ lnLranranlalLhrombophleblLlsţ and medlasLlnal germ nell LumorsŦż9Ž
na 1130 Ŷ Averroes suggesLed Lhe exlsLenne of Þarklnsonƌs dlseaseŦż9Ž
naŦ 1200 Ŷ Malmonldes wroLe abouL neuropsynhlaLrln dlsorders and desnrlbed rables and belladonna lnLoxlnaLlonŦż9Ž
1390 Ŷ SnholasLln phllosopher 8udolph Conlenlus used Lhe Lerm psynhologyŦ 1hough ofLen regarded as Lhe ƍorlglnƍ of
Lhe Lermţ Lhere ls nonnluslve evldenne LhaL lL was used aL leasL slx denades earller by Marko MarullcŦ
1672 Ŷ ln 1homas Wllllsƌ anaLomlnal LreaLlse ƍue Anlma 8ruLorumƍţ psynhology was desnrlbed ln Lerms of braln
funnLlonŦ
nlneLeenLh nenLury
1840s
1840 Ŵ lrederlnk AugusLus 8aunh (1806Ŷ1841) publlshed Þsynhologyţ or a vlew of Lhe human soulţ lnnludlng
anLhropology
1844 Ŷ Søren klerkegaard publlshed 1he ConnepL of AnxleLyţ Lhe flrsL exposlLlon on anxleLyŦ
1849 Ŷ Søren klerkegaard publlshed 1he Slnkness unLo ueaLhŦ
1830s
1832 Permann LoLze publlshed Medlnal Þsynhology or Þhyslology of Lhe SoulŦ
1833 PerberL Spenner publlshed ƍÞrlnnlples of Þsynhologyƍ under one volumeŦ
1860s
1860 Ŷ CusLav 1heodor lenhner wroLe LlemenLs of Þsynhophyslnsţ esLabllshlng Lhe sub[enL of psynhophyslnsŦ
1861 Ŷ Þaul 8rona dlsnovered an area ln Lhe lefL nerebral hemlsphere LhaL ls lmporLanL for speenh produnLlon (now
known as 8ronaƌs area)ţ marklng Lhe sLarL of neuropsynhologyŦ
1870s
1870 Ŵ PerberL Spenner publlshed Lhe Lwo volume verslon of ƍÞrlnnlples of Þsynhologyƍ
1874 Ŷ Wllhelm WundL publlshed hls Crundzuge der physlologlsnhen Þsynhologle (Þrlnnlples of Þhyslologlnal
Þsynhology)ţ Lhe flrsL LexLbook of experlmenLal psynhologyŦ
naŦ 1873 Ŷ Wllllam !ames opened Lhe flrsL experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory ln Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ Lhough lL was
lnLended for nlassroom demonsLraLlon raLher Lhan orlglnal researnhŦ
1878 Ŷ CŦ SLanley Pall was awarded Lhe flrsL Þhu on a psynhologlnal Lopln from Parvard (ln phllosophy)Ŧ
1879 Ŷ Wllhelm WundL opened Lhe flrsL experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe unlverslLy of Lelpzlg ln CermanyŦ
1880s
1883 Ŷ CŦ SLanley Pall opened Lhe flrsL Amerlnan experlmenLal psynhology researnh laboraLory aL !ohns Popklns
unlverslLyŦ
1883 Ŷ Permann Lbblnghaus publlshed uber das CedanhLnlsţ a groundbreaklng work where Lbblnghaus desnrlbes
experlmenLs on hlmselfŦ
1886 Ŷ !ohn uewy publlshed Lhe flrsL LexLbook on psynhology LlLled ƍÞsynhologyƍ
1886 Ŵ vladlmlr 8ekhLerev esLabllshed Lhe flrsL laboraLory of experlmenLal psynhology ln 8ussla aL kazan unlverslLyŦ
1886 Ŷ Slgmund lreud opened prlvaLe pranLlne ln vlennaŦ
1887 Ŷ Ceorg Lllas Muller opened Lhe senond Cerman experlmenLal psynhology researnh laboraLory ln CöLLlngenŦ
1887 Ŷ Ceorge 1rumbull Ladd (?ale) publlshed LlemenLs of Þhyslologlnal Þsynhologyţ Lhe flrsL Amerlnan LexLbook Lo
lnnlude a subsLanLlal amounL of lnformaLlon on Lhe new experlmenLal form of Lhe dlsnlpllneŦ
1887 Ŷ !ames Mnkeen CaLLell founded an experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe unlverslLy of Þennsylvanlaţ only
Lhe 3rd ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes (lnnludlng Wllllam !amesƌ Parvard lab)Ŧ
1887 Ŷ CŦ SLanley Pall founded Lhe Amerlnan !ournal of Þsynhology wlLh a $300 nonLrlbuLlon supplled by 8oberL
Þearsall SmlLh of LheAmerlnan SonleLy for Þsynhlnal 8esearnhŦ
1888 Ŷ Wllllam Lowe 8ryan founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 4Lh experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL lndlana unlverslLyŦ
1888 Ŷ !oseph !asLrow founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 3Lh experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe unlverslLy of
WlsnonslnŶMadlsonŦ
1888 Ŷ CŦ SLanley Pall leaves !ohns Popklns for Lhe presldenny of Lhe newlyŴfounded Clark unlverslLyŦ
1889 Ŷ !ames Mark 8aldwln publlshes Lhe flrsL volume of hls Pandbook of Þsynhology (ƍSense and lnLellenLƍ)Ŧ
1889 Ŷ Ldmund Sanfordţ a former sLudenL of CŦ SLanley Pallţ founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 6Lh experlmenLal psynhology
laboraLory aL Clark unlverslLyŦ
1889 Ŷ Wllllam noyes founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 7Lh experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe MnLean Asylum ln
Waverleyţ MassŦ
1889 Ŷ Parry klrke Wolfe founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 8Lh experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe unlverslLy of
nebraskaŦ
1890s
1890 Ŷ Wllllam !ames publlshed Þrlnnlples of ÞsynhologyŦ
1890 Ŷ !ames Payden 1ufLs founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 9Lh experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe unlverslLy of
MlnhlganŦ
1890 Ŷ CŦ 1Ŧ WŦ ÞaLrlnk founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 10Lh experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe unlverslLy of lowaŦ
1890 Ŷ !ames Mnkeen CaLLell lefL Þennsylvanla for Columbla unlverslLy where he founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 11Lh
experlmenLal psynhologyŦ
1890 Ŷ !ames Mark 8aldwln founded Lhe flrsL permanenL experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory ln Lhe 8rlLlsh Lmplre aL
Lhe unlverslLy of 1oronLoŦ
1891 Ŷ lrank Angell founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 12Lh experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe Cornell unlverslLyŦ
1891 Ŷ Mary WhlLon Calklns founded Lhe unlLed SLaLesƌ 13Lh experlmenLal psynhology laboraLoryţ Lhe flrsL by a
womanţ aL Wellesley CollegeŦ
1892 Ŷ CŦ SLanley Pall founded Lhe Amerlnan Þsynhologlnal AssonlaLlon (AÞA)Ŧ
1892 Ŷ Ldward 8radford 1lLnhener Lakes a professorshlp aL Cornell unlverslLyţ replanlng lrank Angell who has lefL
for SLanford unlverslLyŦ
1892 Ŷ Ldward Wheeler SnrlpLure founded Lhe experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL ?ale unlverslLyţ Lhe 19Lh ln
unlLed SLaLesŦ
1892Ŷ1893 Ŷ Charles AŦ SLrong opened Lhe experlmenLal psynhology laboraLory aL Lhe unlverslLy of Chlnagoţ Lhe 20Lh
ln Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ aL whlnh !ames 8owland Angell nondunLed Lhe flrsL experlmenLs of funnLlonallsm ln Lhe 1896Ŧ
1894 Ŷ !ames Mnkeen CaLLell and !ames Mark 8aldwln found Lhe Þsynhologlnal 8evlew Lo nompeLe
wlLh Pallƌs Amerlnan !ournal of Þsynhology
1896 Ŷ 1he flrsL psynhologlnal nllnln was opened aL Lhe unlverslLy of Þennsylvanla by LlghLner WlLmerŦ AlLhough ofLen
nelebraLed as marklng Lhe blrLh of nllnlnal psynhologyţ WlLmerƌs nllnln was fonused prlmarlly on edunaLlonal maLLersŦ
1896 Ŷ Ldward 8Ŧ 1lLnhenerţ sLudenL of Wllhelm WundL and orlglnaLor of Lhe Lerms ƍsLrunLurallsmƍ and
ƍfunnLlonallsmţƍ publlshed hls An CuLllne of ÞsynhologyŦ
1898 Ŷ Ldward 1horndlke desnrlbed Lhe Law of effenLŦ
1898 Ŷ 8orls Sldls publlshes 1he Þsynhology of SuggesLlonť A 8esearnh lnLo Lhe Subnonsnlous naLure of Man and
SonleLyŦ
1wenLleLh nenLury
1900s
1900 Ŷ Slgmund lreud publlshed ƌlnLerpreLaLlon of ureamsƌ marklng Lhe beglnnlng of ÞsynhoanalyLln 1houghLŦ
1903 Ŷ !ohn 8Ŧ WaLson graduaLed from Lhe unlverslLy of ChlnagoŦ Pls dlsserLaLlon on raL behavlor has been desnrlbed
as a ƍnlassln of developmenLal psynhoblologyƍ by hlsLorlan of psynhologyţ uonald uewsburyŦ
1904 Ŷ Charles Spearman publlshed Lhe arLlnle Ceneral lnLelllgenne ln Lhe Amerlnan !ournal of Þsynhologyţ
lnLrodunlng Lhe g fanLor Lheory of lnLelllgenneŦ
1903 Ŷ Alfred 8lneL and 1heodore Slmon nreaLed Lhe 8lneLŴSlmon snale Lo ldenLlfy sLudenLs needlng exLra helpţ
marklng Lhe sLarL for sLandardlzed psynhologlnal LesLlngŦ
1906 Ŷ 1he !ournal of Abnormal Þsynhology founded by MorLon Þrlnne for whlnh 8orls Sldls was an assonlaLe edlLor
and slgnlflnanL nonLrlbuLorŦ
1909 Ŷ Slgmund lreud lenLured aL Clark unlverslLyŦ
1910s
1910 Ŷ 8orls Sldls opens Lhe Sldls ÞsynhoLherapeuLln lnsLlLuLe (a prlvaLe hosplLal) aL Maplewood larms ln ÞorLsmouLhţ
nP for Lhe LreaLmenL of nervous paLlenLs uslng Lhe laLesL snlenLlfln meLhodsŦ
1911 Ŷ Alfred Adler lefL lreudƌs ÞsynhoanalyLln Croup Lo form hls own snhool of LhoughLţ annuslng lreud of
overemphaslzlng sexuallLy and baslng hls Lheory on hls own nhlldhoodŦ
1912 Ŷ Max WerLhelmer publlshed LxperlmenLal SLudles of Lhe ÞernepLlon of MovemenLţ nonsldered Lhe foundlng
arLlnle of CesLalL psynhology
1913 Ŷ Carl !ung deparLed from lreudlan vlews and developed hls own Lheorles nlLlng lreudƌs lnablllLy Lo
anknowledge rellglon andsplrlLuallLyŦ Pls new snhool of LhoughL bename known as AnalyLlnal ÞsynhologyŦ
1913 Ŷ !anob LŦ Moreno applled Croup ÞsynhoLherapy meLhods ln vlennaŦ Pls new meLhodsţ whlnh emphaslsed
sponLanelLy and lnLeranLlonţ laLer bename known as Þsynhodrama and SonlomeLryŦ
1913 Ŷ !ohn 8Ŧ WaLson publlshed Þsynhology as Lhe 8ehavlorlsL vlews lLţ someLlmes known as ƍ1he 8ehavlorlsL
ManlfesLoƍŦ
1914 Ŷ 8orls Sldls publlshes 1he loundaLlons of normal and Abnormal Þsynhology where he provldes Lhe snlenLlfln
foundaLlon for Lhe fleld of psynhologyţ and deLalls hls Lheory of Lhe momenLŴnonsnlousnessŦ
1920s
1920 Ŷ !ohn 8Ŧ WaLson and 8osalle 8ayner nondunLed Lhe LlLLle AlberL experlmenLţ uslng nlasslnal nondlLlonlng Lo
make a young boy afrald of whlLe raLsŦ
1921 Ŷ !anob LŦ Moreno nondunLed Lhe flrsL large snale publln Þsynhodrama sesslon aL Lhe komoedlenhausţ vlennaŦ Pe
moves Lo new ?ork ln 1923Ŧ
1922 Ŷ 8orls Sldls publlshes nervous lllsť 1helr Cause and a Cureţ a popularlzaLlon of hls work nonnernlng Lhe
subnonsnlous and Lhe LreaLmenL of psynhopaLhln dlseaseŦ
1927 Ŷ lvan Þavlov publlshes book on Classlnal CondlLlonlngŦ
1928 Ŷ !ean ÞlageLƌs book !udgemenL and 8easonlng ln Lhe Chlld ls publlshedŦ
1929 Ŷ urake 8ell publlshes 1he llfe and Llmes of 1lm 8lake before he ls shoLŦ
1930s
1934 Ŷ Lev vygoLskyƌs 1houghL and Language (aŦkŦaŦ 1hlnklng and Speenh) ls flrsL publlshed (ln 8usslan)
1933 Ŷ !ohn 8ldley SLroop developed a nolorŴword Lask Lo demonsLraLe Lhe lnLerferenne of aLLenLlonţ Lhe SLroop
effenLż10Ž
1938 Ŷ 8ŦlŦ Sklnner publlshed hls flrsL ma[or workţ 1he 8ehavlor of Crganlsmsť An LxperlmenLal Analyslsţ
lnLrodunlng behavlor analyslsŦ
1939 Ŷ Alan Podgkln and Andrew Puxley publlshed a nlassln reporL ln Lhe [ournal naLure of Lhe flrsL renordlng of
an anLlon poLenLlalŦ
1940s
1942 Ŷ Carl 8ogers publlshed ƌCounsellng and ÞsynhoLherapyƌ suggesLlng LhaL respenL and a nonŴ[udgmenLal approanh
Lo Lherapy ls Lhe foundaLlon for effenLlve LreaLmenL of menLal healLh lssuesŦ
1943 Ŷ Leo kanner publlshed AuLlsLln ulsLurbannes of AffenLlve ConLanLŦ 1he flrsL sysLemaLln desnrlpLlon of auLlsLln
nhlldrenŦ
1943 Ŷ Abraham Maslow desnrlbed hls hlerarnhy of needs ln Lhe paper A 1heory of Puman MoLlvaLlonţ publlshed
ln Þsynhologlnal 8evlew
1943 Ŷ 1he !ournal of Cllnlnal Þsynhology was foundedŦ
1949 Ŷ uonald Pebb publlshed 1he CrganlzaLlon of 8ehavlorť A neuropsynhologlnal 1heory ln whlnh he provlded a
deLalledţ LesLable Lheory of how Lhe braln nould supporL nognlLlve pronessesŦ
1949 Ŷ 8oulder Conferenne ouLllned snlenLlsLŴpranLlLloner model of nllnlnal psynhologyţ looklng aL
Lhe MŦuŦ versus ÞhŦuŦ used by medlnal provlders and researnhersţ respenLlvelyŦ
1949 Ŷ uavld Wenhsler presenLed Wenhsler lnLelllgenne Snale for Chlldren (WlSC)ţ Lhe flrsL edlLlon of Lhe WenhslerŴ
LesL for nhlldrenŦ
1930s
1930 Ŷ 8ollo May publlshed 1he Meanlng of AnxleLyŦ
1931 Ŷ Carl 8ogers publlshed hls ma[or workţ CllenLŴCenLered 1herapyŦ
1931 Ŷ Lee Cronbanh wroLe abouL hls measure of rellablllLyţ now known as Cronbanhƌs alphaŦ
1932 Ŷ 1he ulagnosLln and SLaLlsLlnal Manual of MenLal ulsorders (uSM) was publlshed by 1he Amerlnan ÞsynhlaLrln
AssonlaLlon marklng Lhe beglnnlng of modern menLal lllness nlasslflnaLlonŦ
1932 Ŷ Pans Lysennk sLarLed a debaLe on psynhoLherapy wlLh hls nrlLlnal revlewţż11Ž nlalmlng LhaL psynhoLherapy had
no donumenLed effenLţ and psynhoanalysls had negaLlve effenLsŦż12Ž
1933 Ŷ 8ŦlŦ Sklnner ouLllned behavloral Lherapyţ lendlng supporL for behavloral psynhology vla researnh ln Lhe
llLeraLureŦ
1933 Ŷ Code of LLhlns for ÞsynhologlsLs was developed by Lhe Amerlnan Þsynhologlnal AssonlaLlonŦ
1933 Ŷ Parry SLank Sulllvan publlshed 1he lnLerpersonal 1heory of ÞsynhlaLry whlnh holds LhaL an lndlvldualƌs
personallLy ls formed by relaLlonshlpsŦ
1934 Ŷ Abraham Maslow helped Lo found PumanlsLln psynhology and laLer developed hls famous Plerarnhy of needsŦ
1933 Ŷ Lee Cronbanh publlshed ConsLrunL valldlLy ln Þsynhologlnal 1esLsţ popularlzlng Lhe nonnepL of ConsLrunL
valldlLyŦ
1933 Ŷ ln Lhe Asnh nonformlLy experlmenLsţ Solomon Asnh demonsLraLed Lhe power of nonformlLy ln groupsŦ
1936 Ŷ Ceorge ArmlLage Mlller wroLe hls nlassln paper 1he Maglnal number Sevenţ ÞlusŴorŴMlnus 1woż13Žţ ln whlnh
he showed LhaL Lhere ls a llmlL on Lhe amounL of lnformaLlon LhaL nan be apprehended ln a brlef perlod of LlmeŦ
1936 Ŷ 8ollo May publlshed LxlsLenneţ promoLlng LxlsLenLlal psynhologyŦ
1936 Ŷ Leon lesLlnger proposed hls Lheory of CognlLlve dlssonanne
1938 Ŷ Parry Parlow publlshed 1he naLure of Love whlnh summarlzed sLudles on monkeys and re[enLed
behavloranalyLln and psynhoanalyLln Lheorles of aLLanhmenLŦ
1939 Ŷ noam Chomsky publlshed hls revlew of 8ŦlŦ Sklnnerƌs verbal 8ehavlorţ an evenL seen as by many as Lhe sLarL
of Lhe CognlLlve revoluLlonŦ
1939 Ŵ Ceorge Mandler and Wllllam kessen publlsh 1he Language of Þsynhology
1939 Ŷ Lawrenne kohlberg wroLe hls donLoral dlsserLaLlonţ ouLllnlng hls sLages of moral developmenLŦ
1960s
1960 Ŷ !ohn LŦ luller and WŦ 8oberL 1hompson publlshed Lhe fleldŴdeflnlng LexL 8ehavlor CeneLlnsŦż14Ž
1961 Ŷ ln Lhe 8obo doll experlmenLţ AlberL 8andura sLudled behavloral paLLerns of aggresslonŦ
1962 Ŷ Ceorge ArmlLage Mlller released Lhe nlassln book Þsynhologyţ Lhe Snlenne of MenLal Llfe slgnallng a re[enLlon of
Lhe ldea LhaL psynhology should sLudy [usL behavlorŦ
1962 Ŷ Sllvan 1omklns publlshed Lhe flrsL volume of Lwo of AffenL lmagery Consnlousnessţ were he presenLed
hls AffenL Lheoryż13Ž
1962 Ŷ Amerlnan psynhologlsL AlberL Lllls released hls nlassln book ƍ8eason and LmoLlon ln ÞsynhoLherapyƍ desnrlblng
Lhe LheoreLlnal foundaLlons of hls LherapeuLln sysLem 8aLlonal 1herapyţ now known as 8aLlonal LmoLlve 8ehavlor
1herapy
1962 Ŷ Wllfred 8lon presenLed hls Lheory of Lhlnklngż16Ž
1963 Ŷ SLanley Mllgram desnrlbed hls sLudy of obedlenne Lo auLhorlLyţ now known as Lhe Mllgram experlmenLŦ
1963 Ŷ Alexander Lurla publlshed 1he Worklng 8ralnŦ A deLalled desnrlpLlon of Lhe braln wlLh greaL lmporLanne for Lhe
hablllLaLlon of damage Lo Lhe bralnŦ
1964 Ŵ !ean MŦ Mandler and Ceorge Mandler Þubllsh 1hlnklngť lrom AssonlaLlon Lo CesLalL
1963 Ŷ Anna lreud publlshed normallLy and paLhology ln nhlldhoodť AssessmenLs of developmenLţ and presenLed Lhe
nonnepL ofdevelopmenLal llnesŦ
1963 Ŷ uonald WlnnlnoLL publlshed 1he MaLuraLlonal Þroness and Lhe lanlllLaLlng LnvlronmenLŦ A maln LexL ln nllnlnal
psynhodynamln developmenLal psynhologyŦ
1967 Ŷ Aaron 8enk publlshed a psynhologlnal model of depresslon suggesLlng LhaL LhoughLs play a slgnlflnanL role ln
Lhe developmenL and malnLenanne of depresslonŦ
1968 Ŷ uSMŴll was publlshed by Lhe Amerlnan ÞsynhlaLrln AssonlaLlonŦ
1968 Ŷ llrsL uonLor of Þsynhology (ÞsyŦ uŦ) professlonal degree program ln Cllnlnal Þsynhology was esLabllshed ln Lhe
ueparLmenL of Þsynhology aL Lhe unlverslLy of llllnols aL urbanaŴChampalgnŦ
1969 Ŷ Callfornla Snhool of Þrofesslonal Þsynhology was esLabllshed as Lhe flrsL freesLandlng snhool of professlonal
psynhologyŦ
1969 Ŷ 1he !ournal of 1ranspersonal Þsynhology was lnlLlaLed by Abraham Maslowţ SLanlslav Crof and AnLhony SuLlnh
1969 Ŷ !ohn 8owlby publlshed hls ALLanhmenL Lheory ln Lhe nlassln book ALLanhmenL and Lossţ volume 1Ŧ
1969 Ŷ Parry Parlow publlshed hls experlmenL on affenLlon developmenL ln rhesus monkeysŦ
1969 Ŷ !oseph Wolpe publlshed 1he ÞranLlne of 8ehavlor 1herapyŦ
1970s
1971 Ŷ 1he SLanford prlson experlmenLţ nondunLed by Þhlllp Zlmbardo and oLhers aL SLanford unlverslLyţ sLudled Lhe
human response Lo napLlvlLyŦ 1he experlmenL qulnkly goL ouL of hand and was ended earlyŦ
1971 Ŷ MarLln Shublk demonsLraLed Lhe uollar aunLlon experlmenLţ lllusLraLlng lrraLlonal nholnesŦ
1971 Ŷ Cƌkeefe and uosLrovsky dlsnover ƍplane nellsƍ ln Lhe hlpponampus
1972 Ŷ 1he uunedln MulLldlsnlpllnary PealLh and uevelopmenL SLudy sLarLedţ a longlLudlnal sLudy wlLh 96Ʒ reLenLlon
raLe as of 2006Ŧ 1hls ls unprenedenLed for a longlLudlnal sLudyţ wlLh many oLhers worldwlde experlennlng 20Ŷ40Ʒ
dropŴouL raLesŦ
1973 Ŷ vall Conferenne of CraduaLe LdunaLors ln Þsynhology endorsed Lhe snholarŴpranLlLloner Lralnlng modelŦ
1974 Ŷ 8oberL Plnde publlshed 8lologlnal 8ases of Puman Sonlal 8ehavlorŦ Maln LexL ln eLologlnal orlenLed
developmenLal psynhologyŦ
1974 Ŷ Arnold Sameroff publlshed 8eprodunLlve 8lsk and Lhe ConLlnuum of CareLaklng CausallLyţ and lnLroduned Lhe
LransanLlonal modelţ an lnfluenLlal model ln modern developmenLal psynhologyŦ
1974 Ŷ Alan 8addeley and Craham PlLnh proposed Lhelr model of worklng memoryŦ lL ls ofLen referred Lo
as 8addeleyƌs model of worklng memoryŦ
1973 Ŵ Ceorge Mandler Þubllshed Mlnd and LmoLlon
1976 Ŷ !ullan !aynes publlshes 1he Crlgln of Consnlousness ln Lhe 8reakdown of Lhe 8lnameral Mlndţ an exploraLlon of
Lhe dual hemlsphere naLure of Lhe human braln and Lhe orlglns of rellglon and snlenneŦ
1977 Ŷ Alexander 1homas publlshed 1emperamenL and uevelopmenLţ a longlLudlnal sLudy on Lhe lmporLanne
of LemperamenL for Lhe developmenL of personallLy and behavloral problemsŦ An lmporLanL sLudy for modern
researnh on LemperamenLŦ
1977 Ŷ AlberL 8andura publlshed hls book Sonlal learnlng Lheoryţ and expanded on Lhe work of !ullan 8oLLer who
moved away from Lheorles based on behavlorlsm and psynhoanalyslsŦ
1977 Ŷ AlberL 8andura publlshed hls arLlnle on Lhe nonnepL of selfŴefflnanyţ ƍa unlfylng Lheory of behavloral
nhangeƍŦż17Ž
1977 Ŷ 8oberL Þlomln and nolleagues proposed Lhree ma[or ways ln whlnh genes and envlronmenLs anL LogeLher Lo
shape human behavlorŦ 1hey nolned Lhe Lerms passlveŴţ anLlveŴţ and evonaLlve geneŴenvlronmenL norrelaLlonŦż18Ž
1978 Ŷ Mary AlnsworLh publlshed her book ÞaLLerns of ALLanhmenL abouL her work on ALLanhmenL Lheory and
Lhe SLrange SlLuaLlonexperlmenLŦ
1978 Ŷ uavld Þremank publlshed Lhe book uoes Lhe Chlmpanzee Pave a 1heory of Mlnd?ţ on hls researnh on menLal
ablllLles ln monkeys and lnLroduned Lhe Lerm 1heory of MlndŦ
1978 Ŷ CognlLlve neurosnlenne renelved lLs name by Mlnhael Cazzanlga and Ceorge ArmlLage MlllerŦ CognlLlve
neurosnlenne has been desnrlbed as Lhe efforL Lo undersLand how Lhe braln represenLs menLal evenLsŦ
1978 Ŷ !ohn Cƌkeefe and Lynn nadel publlsh ƍ1he hlpponampus as a nognlLlve mapƍ
1978 Ŷ LŦCŦ Wllson publlshes ƍCn Puman naLureƍţ arguably Lhe flrsL landmark LexL Lo deal wlLh whaL would
benome LvoluLlonary Þsynhology
1979 Ŷ urle 8ronfenbrenner publlshed 1he Lnology of Puman uevelopmenLţ a semlnal LexL ln developmenLal and
enologlnal psynhologyŦ
1980s
1980 Ŷ uSMŴlll publlshed by Lhe Amerlnan ÞsynhlaLrln AssonlaLlonŦ
1980 Ŵ Ceorge Mandler publlshed ƍ8enognlzlngťƍ Ŵ Lhe dual proness basls of renognlLlon
1982 Ŷ Carol Cllllgan publlshed ln a ulfferenL volneţ on femlnlsL psynhology
1983 Ŷ Poward Cardner publlshed lrames of Mlndţ lnLrodunlng hls Lheory of mulLlple lnLelllgennes
1984 Ŷ !erome kagan publlshed 1he naLure of Lhe Chlldţ a blologlnal and sonlally orlenLed desnrlpLlon of Lhe role of
LemperamenL ln human developmenLŦ
1984 Ŷ ÞeLer Savllle publlshed Lhe CÞC ÞenLagon quesLlonnalreţ a psynhologlnal personallLy lnvenLory measurlng
Lhe llve lanLor Model
1983 Ŷ uanlel SLern publlshed 1he lnLerpersonal World of Lhe lnfanLţ proposlng an exLenslve menLal llfe ln early
lnfanny
1983 Ŷ 8oberL SLernberg proposed hls Lrlarnhln Lheory of lnLelllgenne
1983 Ŷ 8euben 8aron and uavld AŦ kenny publlshed Lhe arLlnle 1he ModeraLorŴMedlaLor varlable ulsLlnnLlon ln Sonlal
Þsynhologlnal 8esearnhť ConnepLualţ SLraLeglnţ and SLaLlsLlnal ConslderaLlons ln Lhe !ournal of ÞersonallLy and Sonlal
Þsynhology proposlng a dlsLlnnLlon of moderaLlng ln medlaLlng varlables ln psynhologlnal researnhŦ
1983 Ŷ Slmon 8aronŴCohen publlshed uoes Lhe auLlsLln nhlld have a ƌLheory of mlndƌ? wlLh uLa lrlLh and Alan LeslleŦ
1hey proposed LhaL nhlldren wlLh auLlsm show sonlal and nommunlnaLlon dlfflnulLles as a resulL of a delay ln Lhe
developmenL of a 1heory of mlndŦ
1983 Ŷ CosLa Ǝ Mn8ae publlshed Lhe nLC ÞlŴ8 flveŴfanLor personallLy lnvenLoryţ a psynhologlnal personallLy lnvenLoryŤ
a 240ŴquesLlon measure of Lhe llve lanLor Modelż19Ž
1986 Ŷ AlberL 8andura publlshed Sonlal foundaLlons of LhoughL and anLlonť A sonlal nognlLlve LheoryŦż20Ž
1987 Ŷ Lrlk Lrlkson publlshed 1he Llfe Cynle CompleLedţ expandlng on hls sLage Lheory of psynhosonlal developmenLŦ
1988 Ŷ Mlnhael MŦ Merzenlnh and nolleagues showed LhaL sensory and moLor maps ln Lhe norLex nan be modlfled
wlLh experlenneţ a proness nalled neural plasLlnlLyż21Ž
1990s
1991 Ŷ SLeven Þlnker proposed hls Lheory on how nhlldren anqulre language ln Snlenneţż22Ž laLer popularlzed ln Lhe
book 1he Language lnsLlnnLŦ
1992 Ŷ !aak Þanksepp nolned Lhe Lerm AffenLlve neurosnlenneţ Lhe name of Lhe fleld LhaL sLudles neural menhanlsms
of emoLlonţż23Ž and laLer presenLed Lhe book AffenLlve neurosnlenne Ŷ 1he foundaLlons of human and anlmal
emoLlonsż24Ž
1992 Ŷ Sandra Snarr publlshed uevelopmenLal 1heorles of Lhe 1990s proposlng LhaL genes nonLrol experlennesţ and
LhaL genes searnh and nreaLes envlronmenLsŦ
1992 Ŷ !oseph Leuoux summarlzed and publlshed hls researnh on braln menhanlsms of emoLlon and emoLlonal
learnlngŦż23Ž
1992 Ŷ Amerlnan Þsynhologlnal AssonlaLlon selenLed behavloral geneLlns as one of Lwo Lhemes LhaL besL represenLed
Lhe pasLţ presenLţ and fuLure of psynhologyŦż26Ž
1994 Ŷ uSMŴlv publlshed by Lhe Amerlnan ÞsynhlaLrln AssonlaLlonŦ
1994 Ŷ AnLonlo uamaslo proposed hls somaLln markers hypoLhesls by whlnh emoLlonal pronesses nan gulde (or blas)
behavlorţ parLlnularly denlslonŴmaklngŦ
1994 Ŷ LsLher 1helen and Llnda 8Ŧ SmlLh publlshed A uynamln SysLems Approanh Lo Lhe uevelopmenL of CognlLlon
and AnLlonŦ A maln LexL on Lhe use of developmenLal models based on dynamln sysLemsż27Ž
1993 Ŷ Slmon 8aronŴCohen nolned Lhe Lerm mlndŴbllndness Lo reflenL Lhe lnablllLy of nhlldren wlLh auLlsm Lo properly
represenL Lhe menLal sLaLes of oLhersż28Ž
1996 Ŷ Clanomo 8lzzolaLLl and nolleagues dlsnovered so nalled mlrror neuronsż29Ž
1wenLyŴflrsL nenLury
2000s
2000 Ŷ Alan 8addeley updaLed hls model of worklng memory from 1974ţ ofLen referred Lo as 8addeleyƌs model of
worklng memoryţ and lnnluded Lhe eplsodln buffer as a Lhlrd slave sysLem alongslde Lhe phonologlnal loop and Lhe
vlsuoŴspaLlal skeLnhpadż30Ž
2002 Ŷ Avshalom Caspl and nolleagues presenLed a sLudy LhaL was Lhe flrsL Lo provlde epldemlologlnal evldenne LhaL a
spenlfln genoLypemoderaLes nhlldrenƌs senslLlvlLy Lo envlronmenLal lnsulLsŦż31Žż32Ž
2002 Ŷ SLeven Þlnker publlshed 1he 8lank SlaLe Ŵ 1he modern denlal of human naLureţ argulng agalnsL Labula rasa
models of Lhe sonlal snlennesż33Žż34Ž
2007 Ŵ Ceorge Mandler publlshed A hlsLory of modern experlmenLal psynhologyż33Ž
2010 ŴurafL of uSMŴv by Lhe Amerlnan ÞsynhlaLrln AssonlaLlon open for nommenL and nrlLlqueŦ

 f¾          nf .

   ¾½f½¾  €¯ °° n°nf ½ ¾¾°  nf .

 ¾  ¾° ½¾ny° °¯f  nf .

   f  fn¾°   ¾°€¯f°°f ° ¯½ f¯ °¾   9¾n–nff°f¾¾€–¾°  ¾½€½½ f°n½f ¾    ¾n €  ¾ n°¾n¾   nf  ° %° ¾%  ½  ¾ €½¾n f½f° ¯¾n f½° f°–¯ °f ½f °¾ nf°°  nf  °ff f°f @f f  ½   f€¾°–n°nf½¾nf f¯ °f½f °¾   nf @ n°n ½¾€¯ °f f ¯ °f– °   ° n  ¯  °ff f  f¾  n–° f° ¾¾ ¾nf°f  ½¾n–nff° $½¾–nfnf¾ ¾   nf f f%f ¾% n–°  n°n ½€ ½¾n f½ f°  €  f¾f #f©f °f€¾     °f ff¯%f °% –f°nf ½ ¯ °¾°f f¾ f   f°  °f€¾ °¾ € ½n¾ € f¯½   f¯° ¾f½ n ½°f° f °nf¾ °¾f° °n °–ff°¾°¾ °¾  ¾ °¾f°€n ½ n ½°€n¾ ½ n ½°€ f° ¾¾  ½¾n–nf ½f°f°€ ¯°¾°  f°  °nf¾°     °@ .

f.fo   °@¯f¾J¾ f°f¯nf f¾   °¯f ¯ ½¾n–f¾ ¾n ° ¯¾€ f° €°n°         -°  °n ° ¾    ¾   n–¾¾fn% %½ ¾ 9¾n– f € ¯f°¾ °n °– f°½–  º °  –ff ½ ¾ @ .f°°€. n° n °°f ¾n f°¯ €n° °¾  °n °–fn°f° °¾¯°f ¯f°f °–¯f ¯ f°nf  ¯ °f  ½ ½¾ ½ff¾¾ ¾  –f°  ¯   nf  ° ¯½ f° ½ ¯ °f¯  ° f¯°°– n°n ½€ fn°¯   nf  °% °f%–f  €¾fnnf  ¾n½°¾°n f°° –nf ¾ ¾¾n f¾¯ °°–¾ °fnf°f¯ ½ ¾ f° ¯ f¾°f– ¯n ¯¾   nf   ¾¾–– ¾   ¾ °n €9f°¾° ¾ ¾ f¾   nf  .f¯° ¾ f ° ½¾nfn ¾ ¾f°  ¾n f  ¾f°  f °°f°nf°    nf¾n½¾½  ½n °¾¾   ¯½¾n– @–€ ° –f f¾  –° €   ¯   ¾n°n¾   °n ff¾¾ f f¾¾ nf ¾ f  .

°n ½€°   €¾ ½¾°°f°    º °  –ff ½ ¾ @ n° ¾¾D° f  .

  ¾  ¯f°° ½ ¾ . ½ °  ¾ n°  ¯f° ½ ¯ °f½¾n– ¾ fnf f°¶°– °    – @¯ f %f %½ ¾  ¯ °¾€9¾–nf9¾n–  €¾¯ nf°   °n f¾ ¾f°ff¯°€°€¯f°° °  ½ ¯ °f€¯€  ¾n½°   f¯ ¾. nf9¾n–9¾–€     ½ °n ½ ¾  9°n½ ¾€9¾n– ° ° ¯    ¾  ¾f@   n°   ¯ °¾€9¾n½¾n¾  ¾f ¾°– ¾ © n€½¾n½¾n¾   9f nf ¾n  f°f f°  €n  f ¯¾½  f¾¯½f°€¾½ n½ n°%° °°f¾ nf ¾f f% ¯f°– ¾f€° ½¾n–       ¾    ½ °n ½ ¾  ¯  ¾°€ 9°n½ ¾€9¾n–   J ¯J° ½ ¾ ¾° –  ½¾–¾n °9¾n– %9°n½ ¾€9¾–nf 9¾n–%  €¾  € ½ ¯ °f½¾n–  nf  Jf¯f¯ ¾½ °  €¾ ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f f° D° f ¾ –f¾ ° ° €nf¾¾¯ ¯°¾f°f f°–°f ¾ fn    f° ff¾ff  €¾9°f½¾n–nf½n€¯ff %°½¾½%   J ¯J° ½ °  €¾ ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff D° ¾€ ½–° ¯f°                 f° f½ °  €¾¯ nf° ½ ¯ °f½¾n– ¾ fnf ff°¾½°¾ D° ¾    ¯f°° °–f¾½ ¾   f¾ kn°¾ f–°  f°–   °–f¾ ¾n ¾ ½ ¯ °¾°¯¾ €   ° ½ ¾  €¾  °½¾n–  9¾n–   If ¯    ¾f ¾  €¾f f€ ½ ¯ °f½¾n–°¾¾ffff°D° ¾   –¯°   ½ ° ½f ½fnn °I °°f    –f¾.n °.

f €° f° ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff D° ¾€9 °°¾f°f °   ° D° f ¾%°n °–Jf¯f¯ ¾ ff f %    f° f€°  ¯ nf°°f€9¾n–fn° °¾½½    9 f¾f¯€ ¯ nf°n €9¾nnf ¾ fn   Jf¯  f°€°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff° f°fD° ¾   ¾ ½f¾€°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff D° ¾€ J¾n°¾° .f ¾°    f° f f ¾°¾½°¾€ ½ ¾ °n€ °  €° .

f f °½ ¾ ¾ €¾¯ €¾f° €9¾n–%  °¾ f° °  n %  .fD° ¾   f¯ ¾.

   ¾   ¯° f°€ f€¯ ¾ °€ f° f €°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n– f ff.

f¾¾   f J€ €°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff D° ¾€ - f¾f                   Jf¯f¯ ¾½ ¾ 9°n½ ¾€9¾n–   f¯ ¾f °@€¾€°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff D° ¾€ .n–f°    @ J 9fn€°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff D° ¾€f   f¯ ¾.n f°¾¯° Jf   .fD° ¾   Jf¯- ¾€°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff .n °.

f  €9 °°¾f°f€.

¯ fD° ¾   €°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–   f¯ ¾.f f °€°  €¾½ ¯f° ° ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f f°  ¾¯½ f  D° ¾€@°   f°°– €°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff .

° D° ¾   .fJ°.

f°¾€°  D° f ¾  ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f f  €¾ f ¯f° fJ  ¾ .

 –    f° f€°  ¯ nf°9¾n–nf¾¾nf°%9%    f  f € @n ° f ¾f½€ ¾¾¾½f.

° D° ¾  ½fn°–f°°– f¾ € €f°€ D° ¾    f J  n½ €°   ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f fff D° ¾  ° D° f ¾    .

f ¾ °–½ °   ½ ¯ °f½¾n–f ff D° ¾€.

nf–   ° D° f ¾ fnf¯ ¾f° °– n° n  €¾ ½ ¯ °¾€€°n°f¾¯°    f¯ ¾.n °.

f°f°  n   @ ° n ° ¾   –¯°   ½ ¾  ° ½ f°€ f¯¾ ¯f°–  –°°°–€9¾nf°fn@–  .f f° f¯ ¾.f f °€°  9¾n–nf  n¯½   f ¾¯ nf°°f€9¾n–  @ €¾½¾n–nfn°nf¾½ ° f D° ¾€9 °°¾f°f –° J¯  –€ ° n  f f¾¯f°–  €n°nf½¾n– J¯  ¾n°nf¾€n¾ ½¯f° nf°f¯f ¾    f  @n °  ¾ °€J ¯J° f° –°f€  ¯¾ ¾nf¾¯ f°  €°n°f¾¯ ½ ¾ ¾°° €9¾n–    f @°   ¾n  f€ €€ n    ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾@ 9¾n–€–– ¾°  ¾ fn°  n°¾n¾-f €.

     ¾  ° Jf¾°–f f €¯ D° ¾€.

nf– ¾ ¾¾ f°°f ff¾ ° ¾n  f¾f nf¾¾n€  ½¯ °f½¾n –  ¾f°€½¾n– °f  ¾    .

°9°n €n ¾ ¾f¾f°f¾¾nf   f° ¾–°€nf°n°    –¯°    n f.f ¾½ f¯f°½ ¾  fn  ° f° – °n ° ¯ nf°°f€9¾n–  ° n°– –€fn €° – °n   €  ° f° @   ¯°n f   °  ¯°¾nf  °€¾ °¾° °– f ½  ¯f°– ¾f€¾f° f  ½¾n–nf ¾°–   @ °f€ °¯f9¾n–€°  .

f½  f¯¾°9¾¯  -€  f¯ °€° ¾½f °¾¾°– f ¾¾n °€n¯  ¾   €    €  ¾9¾nf°fn½€¯¾°¾n€– fnn¾°–  €   ¯½f¾°–¾ ff°  f¾°–¾ °¾°n    .fD° ¾         ¾   ¾ ¾½ °¾  ¾9¾n f½ n°¾ %f½f ¾½f%f. ¯ ° n°¾   €° °– fn € ¾f½¾n–  .fJ  ¯ ½ ¾ ½ ¯ °f  ¾€ 9 n ½°€.

f°– ½f €¯  f° ¾f°   ½ ¾°  ¾n°–  ¾°f  fn° –  –°f° ¾½f ¾° ¾n€– nf¯ °°f¾°fnf9¾n–   fn  . °n° n  €¾f– ¾nf ½ n9¾n f¯f¾ ¾¾°f ¯  °f¾ I °°f   ¯ ¾- °    ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾- ¾¾ @ . °f½½ ½9¾n f½¯  ¾°I °°f ¾° ¯  ¾ n ¯½f¾¾  ¾½°f° f° ° fn° f  nf¯ °°f¾9¾n f¯ff° n¯    ° Jf¾°½ ¾ 9¾n–f¾  f¾I ¾ ¾¯ ¯ ¾°°f¾ @  f¾ .f°€ ¾    ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾@ ° f°¾€-¯ff°  °¯f9¾n–   ½ ¾ ¾n °€n €° f°€ €  €½¾n– f°  f¾¾ € ¯¯ ° n°¾n¾° ¾¾        ¾  ° Jf¾°f° ¾f f° n° n     ½ ¯ ° ¾°–nf¾¾nfn° °°– ¯f f°– f€f € f¾   fn  .

f¾ f° f.

 f½½ff°€¾n°n °°–  ¾ n°¾n¾f°   f¯ °€½¾n½fn ¾ f¾   f°9f½ ¾ ¾ °.

f¾¾nf.

° °°–    f°9f–  ¾  – ¯ °f°  f¾°°–° .

 ¾½ ¾   f  ½ ¾ ¾@ € f° ¯ ¾€@¯ f  €  ¾¾      I–¾ ¾@–f° f°–f– %f  f @°°–f° ½ n%¾€¾½ ¾ %°¾¾f°%  °  ½  ½ fn  f¾ ¯°¾f  ° €  °n €f °°  ½ €€ n   .

  ¾    °° ½ ¾ ¾€¾¯f© @  f€–f°¾¯¾ °½ ¯ °f°f¾¾  ° n°– ff°f¾¾   f° –°f° °   ½ ¾ fnf¾¾n ½° ©°f-f € €¾ n °–€ f°fn°½ °f         ¾  .

f– ¾½ ¾  .

°¾ °–f° 9¾n f½ ¾–– ¾°–f ¾½ nf° f°° © –¯ °ff½½fn  f½¾ €° f°€ €€ n  f¯ °€¯ °f f¾¾ ¾    f°° ½ ¾ ¾n¾ f°n ¾€€€ n .

f¾ ¾n ¾ fn€° ¾° ½f½ @ €¯f°.f° ½ ¾  °9¾n–nf    @ °f€.°fn @ €¾¾¾ ¯fn ¾n½°€f¾n n  °    ff¯.

°nf9¾n–f¾€°   °f  ½ ¾ @ –f°f°€ f - ½¾n–nf@ °n ½ f f  ¾f   €  f°n ¾½½n–° ½n ¾¾ ¾     .

°€  °n ° ¾n °¾ ½fn° ¯ €n°nf½¾n– °–f  .   ¾¾9  ¾  ¯ nf½ ¾f°  ¾ fn ¾  ¾½ n    f J n¾ ½ ¾ ° J n¾ ° – °n nf €.

  °%J.

f½ ¾ @ .%  €¾ °€ J n¾   ¾€n  °               . f°°–€°    .

f– ¾½ ¾ ¾¯f© .

 ° .

°  @ f½    .

° fn f ¾¯ f¾ € f  °°°f¾.

f°f€. °f¾ ¾%.%f¾½ ¾  @ ¯ nf°9¾nfn ¾¾nf°¯f°–  –°°°–€¯ °¯ °f° ¾¾nf¾¾€nf°   f°¾¾ °n¾f f f °½¾n f½¾nnf    nf¯°–f½¾n f½f  ° n¯ °  €€ n f° ½¾nf°f¾¾f ° –f  €€ n¾      °° °  ff f½  ° °–¾½½€ ff½¾n–f ¾ fn°   f   .° fn ¾f½f   @ f–°¾nf° f¾nf.

 €n¾€9¾n–¾¾f¾  ½   ¯ nf°9¾n–nf¾¾nf°   ffnf°½ ¾ @ ° ½ ¾°f@ €9¾nfn ¾ff°°  f ¾ ½ ¾°f¾€¯   f°¾½¾    ff¯.f¾ ½ €° ¯f°¾n½¾n–f° f   ½ ¾€f¯¾ fn€- ¾    .

° fn½ ¾ .

°¾nIf °9¾n–nf@ ¾¾ ½½f°– n°n ½€.

°¾n f    ° ¾nn°€¯ ½ ¯ °¾ ¯°¾n ¯°¾f  ½ €n°€¯°–½¾    – ¯f– .°¾@  °n  ¾ f  ¾f¯° f¯°€°€¯f°fnf° f½½  ° °f  €½  €¯  .f–nf-¯   ° 9¾  .  ¾nf¾¾n½f½ @ .

f½ ¾ ¾ °n ½¯°–¾ °f½¾n–    ° ¾°– ½½¾ ¾ €.      ¾  .

–°  ¾¾°f°n   ff½ ¾ @ -f € n¾¯¯f ¾  ¾°¯° ¾f°  © n  ff°fnf° ½¾nf°fn  ¾€ffn¯ °   -f¯.

¯¾½ ¾ ¾  €  °°  ¾I  f f f°  °¾ °f¾ ¯f°f¾ ¾f € .

f°  f° Jf¯ ¾¾ °½ ¾@ f°–f– €9¾n–  f °n  – ¾ nf ¾¾ f° °°–¾¾f– ¾€¯f  ½¯ °        °  f° J  @¯½¾°½ ¾  €  €°°–  f ° n¾    °     ½ ¯ °   f° f¾   ff½f °¾€f–– ¾¾°    – ¯f– .–°  °    – . °f€ ¾–°f°–f © n°€   ff½¾n–¾ ¾ ©¾ f   f°@¯°¾½ ¾  €¾¯ €€€€ n¯f– .   f¾  nf¾¾n 9¾n–  n °n €.

f¾½ ¾   ¯ nf°9¾nfn¾¾nf°   ¾n€9¾n–%9¾  %½€ ¾¾°f – ½–f¯°.–f¯ ½ ¯ °    f° f½ ¾ @ J°– f°  f  ¾n½°€  f°– f¯½f°n €  f f°€ f¯f–   f°    f°.f°  9 ¾@°°– ¯¾¾nf° ¾f  °°f  ½ ¾ -¯ff° ½f–°n  ¾¾ ¾¾¯ °¾€  ½¯ ° f° ½ ¾ °   n°n ½€  ½¯ °f° ¾   °f J°°n½ ¾ @ .°¾n¾° ¾¾    ½ ¾ °  ¾€€ n     ¯ nf°½¾n–¾ ¾  f¾ ¾nf¾¾n   f¾°f° ¯°°9¾n f½  ¾n °–    nf€° f°¾€¾ f½ n¾¾ ¯f°f@ f½ °°°f¾f°f¯  f @ f½  J€  °½ ¾ ° ¾ €°°–    f° . .f°  f°  – .–f¯ ¾n ¾¾ €  °n f °°°f¾ .ff°f9n ¾¾f°  fnf°–°°¯ ° ¯f° °n°nf ½¾n °f¯n  ½¯ °f½¾n–   f° n½ ¾ f½¾n–nf¯ € ½ ¾¾°¾–– ¾°–f–¾½ff¾–°€nf° °    ½¯ °f° ¯f° °f°n € ½ ¾¾°   .

°nf9¾n–f¾ ¾f ¾ °   ½f¯ °€9¾n–f D° ¾€°¾fD f°f .

f¯½f–°   .

f€°fn€9€ ¾¾°f9¾n–f¾ ¾f ¾ f¾ €¾€ ¾f° °–¾n€½€ ¾¾°f ½¾n–   @ °f€@f°¾½ ¾°f9¾n–f¾°f   ff¯.f¾ f°¾f€f° °°n  °  ½ ¾ ¾fn¯ ° ° nf¾¾n fn¯ °f° ¾¾ I¯               .

  ¾  ff½ ¾ ¾ ½ ¯ °°f€€ n°  ½¯ °° ¾¾¯° ¾   ¾ ½J½ ½ ¾ @ 9fnn € f@ f½       @ f°€ ½¾° ½ ¯ ° n° n  9½¯ f f°  ¾ff°€ D° ¾ ¾    ¯f° ¾½°¾ nf½ @  ½ ¯ °n–€f° f° f¾ °  f   .f°  ¯°¾f  ffn° ½ ¯ ° ¾f°–f°fnn ¾     € f° ¾¾ ¾n  ½fn n ¾ ° ½½nf¯½¾  @ ° °. ¾n½°f ff°   ½¯ ° ¾f f°– °f¾    °° f f¾€ @¾¾°½ n ° €f°– °f¾  ¯f° ¾   ½  °n°–   ½ f ¾   If.

f° ° –nf °   ½¯ °f½¾n–   ° f¯ €€½ ¾  ½ n ¾f°  .°€  °n €f f  nf¾°9¾n– ° ¾  ¾nf ½fn° f°°–¯     ° ½ ¾  –nf f¾ ¾€¯f°nf f .

°°¯€.

f f°–.

f¾f f° ° n   f°¾fn°f¯  f°°€ °f¯ °¯ °  ½¯ °f½¾n–   f° f  f° ff¯n½½¾  ¯ €°–¯ ¯ ¾€ ° €   f¾ f   ¾¯ €°–¯ ¯    – .f°  9 ¾ .° f° ¯°  f°f° ¾½ ¾ ¾@ –°€.

f°¾½ ¾   9f °¾€fn¯ °f  °fn¯ ° f°   f°– f° ½ ¯ °   f 9 ¯fn½ ¾    ¾ .°¾n¾° ¾¾°   f °€  nf¯ f.° f° ½f°€   f ¯¾½  °f € ¯f° f°f°  –°¾€ –°f° ¾n °n    f° @¯f¾½ ¾ @ ¯½ f¯ °f°   ½¯ ° f°– °f¾ ° ¯½f°n  € ¯½ f¯ °€   ½¯ °€½ ¾°ff°  ff½  ¯¾ °¯½f°¾ €¯ °  ¾ fn° ¯½ f¯ °     f° f½ ¾ ¾ nf f°°–  f°  ½f° ° €f°  ¯ ff€¯  ¾ f¾ ° f¾¯f° ½¾nf°f¾¾     f° f½ ¾ ¾fn ° n°n ½€¾ € €€nfn  f°€°– € ff nf°–     9¯°f° n f– ¾½½¾  ¯f©f¾°n– ° ¾f°  °°¯ °¾fn–   ¾f½ ¯f° f @ n°   ¯¾½f¾¾ fn f°  nf – ° °°¯ °n f°    .

°   .¯½f° f f@ €.° " °¾ ¾ fn°¯ °f f  ¾°¯° ¾f° ° n   ¯@ €.

  .–° - ¾n °n  n  ¾°f¯  .nf ff°–ff°  – ¯f– .

–°  - ¾n °n f¾ ° ¾n f¾  €€° ¾f°   f° ½ ¾ °¾¯ °f  °¾   °  € f° °°-f ½ ¾ @ ½½nf¯½¾f¾fn–° ¯f½     J¾°½ ¾ ¾ °¯f°-f f–f  €¾f° ¯f  ff  n¯ °f9¾n–                .

 ¾  D  °€ °  °° ½ ¾ @ n–€¯f°  ½¯ ° f¾ ¯°f °  ½¯ °ff°  n–nf½¾n–            . ½ ¾   ¯ nf°9¾nfn¾¾nf°    – .f°  ½ ¾   n–°°–    f½n ¾¾ f¾¾€ n–°°  .

° ° n°–¾ €¯½ ° – °n ¾   ¯ f–f°½ ¾ @ -f € .f–f°½ ¾ °f€€  °In °€ ¯°¾½¾n–  f f ° ½ ¾ f¯ ¾€.

 f –nff° ¾nf °  ¾n½°€  €  ¯½ f¯ °°¯f°  ½¯ °   9  f ½ ¾  9.9 °f–° ¾°°f f½¾n–nf½ ¾°f° °¯ f¾°–   fn. fIff  ¾°n°°nf 9¾n–nf ¾ fn . f .   f°  °½ ¾ @ ° ½ ¾°fJ € °€f° ½½¾°–f°  °¾ ¯ °f€ ° f °€f°n    ° –½½¾ ¾fnn €° – °n     ° f°f° f   °°½ ¾  fn @ .

°n ½f f –n f° f¾nf.

°¾ f°¾° °f€9 ¾°ff° nf 9¾n–½½¾°–f ¾°n°€¯ f°–°¯ f°–ff  ¾°½¾n–nf ¾ fn   ¯° f° .

 °½ ¾  ¾ f¾nn f f  €¯° "Dff° f° ¾  @ ½½¾ fn  °f¾¯¾¾nff° n¯¯°nf° €€n ¾f¾f ¾€f f°   ½¯ °€f@ €¯°   .

nf ½ ¾  -9 € €fn½ ¾°f° ° f½¾n–nf½ ¾°f° °  f  ¾°¯ f¾ €  fn.¾f .       f° f½ ¾ nf€° f°¾€–f° fn° ¾nfn–°      ¾°½ ¾ @ € .

n .

.¯½   ½f° °–°¾¾f–  €½¾n¾nf  ½¯ °   .nf .  °nf° n f– ¾¾ f¾ °¾f° ¯¯f½¾° n nf° ¯ €   ½  °n f½n ¾¾nf ° f½f¾n        ¾      °9° ½½¾ ¾ °n  °fn f°–f– °n °n  f ½½f °  @ f°–f– °¾°n   ff9f°¾ ½½n°   ¯€€ n ° ¾n °n  °f¯ € €  f¾  ¾° f¯ nf°¾¯¾ € ¯°  f° f ½ ¾ °   €€ n ° ¾n °n  @ €° f°¾€¯f°f° f°¯f ¯°¾    f° fnf½ ¾   ½¯ °f@  ¾€ ¾½½¾°–f– ° ¾n° ½  °n ¾ f°  f– ° ¾¾ fnf° n f ¾ °°¯ °¾   ¾ ½ ¾¯¯f f° ½ ¾ ¾ ¾ fn° f°¯ nf°¾¯¾€ ¯°f°  ¯°f  f°°–    ¯ nf°9¾n–nf¾¾nf°¾  n  ff– ° n¾f¾° € ¯ ¾f ¾ ½ ¾ °   ½f¾ ½ ¾ ° f° € €½¾n–      .

      . I½ ¾   ¯ nf°9¾nfn¾¾nf°   °°f¯f¾½½¾ ¾¾¯fn¯f ¾½ ¾¾ n ¯°f½n ¾¾ ¾nf°– % f¾% f ½fnf n¾° ¯f°–   ¾ @  °f° ° f ¯½ ¾ °f¯n¾ ¯¾½½fn   ½¯ °€.

–°° f° n° ¯f° ° ¾ €  ½¯ °f¯ ¾ f¾ ° °f¯n¾¾ ¯¾    ¯° f° .

 °n°   ¯¯° ° ° ¾¾ € n °f €n  °f¾¯½½   ½ ¾ ° ¯ °f¾f ¾€ ¾    fn¯ff° n f– ¾ ¾n  ¾nf ¯° °¾   @ ° €¾n ° ¾   f° f  ½ f ¾¯ €°–¯ ¯€¯ € ° €  f¾ f   ¾¯ € °–¯ ¯ f° °n   ½¾ n €€ f¾f ¾f ¾¾ ¯f°–¾  ½°–nf½f°   ¾ ¾½ff¾ n½f    ¾f¯.

f¾½f° n f– ¾½ ¾ ° f¾ ff¾ €¾½  ½ ¯–nf  °n ff ¾½ n€n– °½ ¯ f ¾n  ° ¾¾ °¾ °°¯ °f°¾¾       °9° ½ ¾ @  f°f  @ ¯ ° °f€¯f°°f f–°–f–f°¾f ff¾f ¯ ¾€ ¾nf¾n °n ¾      – . I  ¯ nf°9¾nfn¾¾nf°½ °€n¯¯ °f° n       .f°  ½ ¾ ¾€¯ ° ½ ¯ °f½¾n–    f€€.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful