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OBJECTIVES AND CHALLENGES: Why a 'future normal' green office building? Built as a commercial office building for Sustainable Energy Africa and other organizations. Investors and SEA wanted to "walk the talk" and show it could be done as a commercial investment (with limited financial resources and no grant financing) - that this can be a normal way of building in the future!! This project aims to demonstrate: A commercially viable green building including maximum lettable space with adequate parking, cost effective design and materials
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Resource efficient building Healthy and beautiful working environment Design responsive to user needs Environmentally responsible building and operations
Important determinants of design:
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Tenant needs Participative design and construction Passive solar design Efficient and environmentally responsible resource use Local availability of materials Limited finances Financial viability Simple structure Modular layout for easy adaptability
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Architectural design must practice green building as a necessary element in a sustainable society, and the green building of curtain walls must manage environmental performance and material recycling. Through our experience in Japan's harsh environmental and climatic conditions, we have earned an edge in environmental technologies. We share that edge, and our understanding of the needs of architectural design, as we collaborate closely with architects. We realize their concepts with curtain wall engineering solutions that encompass all elements of design, procurement, manufacturing, construction, and maintenance, while taking us closer to a sustainable society. Green Building, also known as green construction or sustainable building, is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's lifecycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:
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Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degreedation
A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture.
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1 Reducing environmental impact 2 Goals of green building o 2.1 Siting and structure design efficiency o 2.2 Energy efficiency o 2.3 Water efficiency o 2.4 Materials efficiency o 2.5 Indoor environmental quality enhancement o 2.6 Operations and maintenance optimization o 2.7 Waste reduction 3 Cost 4 Regulation and operation 5 International frameworks and assessment tools 6 See also 7 References 8 External links
Reducing environmental impact: Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. Buildings account for a large amount of land use, energy and water consumption, and air and atmosphere alteration. Considering the statistics, reducing the amount of natural resources buildings consume and the amount of pollution given off is seen as crucial for future sustainability, according to EPA.The environmental impact of buildings is often underestimated, while the perceived costs of green buildings are overestimated. A recent survey by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development finds that green costs are overestimated by 300 percent, as key players in real estate and construction estimate the additional cost at 17 percent above conventional construction, more than triple the true average cost difference of about 5 percent. Goals of green building: The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and the environment pollution concern in the 1970s. The green building movement in the U.S. originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. There are a number of motives to building green, including environmental,
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modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of an existing structure. optimize systems. building as a process is not as streamlined as an Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 4 . as it has the largest impact on cost and performance. rain gardens. The concept stage. Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement. and for reduction of rainwater run-off. In designing environmentally optimal buildings. Also known as sustainable design. Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health.. However. Also. there are fundamental principles that persist from which the method is derived: Siting and Structure Design Efficiency. Operations and Maintenance Optimization. this approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy amongst the practices used. e. using sunlight through passive solar. and Waste and Toxics Reduction. and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs. in fact. While the practices. reduce loads. Materials Efficiency. are used as well. and social benefits. Energy Efficiency. individual green building technologies may work together to produce a greater cumulative effect. Many other techniques. is one of the major steps in a project life cycle. the objective function aims at minimizing the total environmental impact associated with all life-cycle stages of the building project. and generate on-site renewable energy. such as using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water. Water Efficiency. employed in green building are constantly evolving and may differ from region to region.g. On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. Siting and structure design efficiency: The foundation of any construction project is rooted in the concept and design stages. active solar. However. or technologies.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 economic. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources. with the proper synergistic design. The essence of green building is an optimization of one or more of these principles. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources.
A variation of every design variable may affect the environment during all the building's relevant life-cycle stages. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing water conserving fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and low-flow shower heads. the demands on the supplying aquifer exceed its ability to replenish itself. ceilings. Another strategy. and reused on-site. porches. In addition. One critical issue of water consumption is that in many areas of the country. Solar water heating further reduces energy loads. purified. Energy efficiency: Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy use. Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power. (the barrier between conditioned and unconditioned space).Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 industrial process. is often implemented in low-energy homes. used. composed of a multitude of materials and components each constituting various design variables to be decided at the design stage. To increase the efficiency of the building envelope. Point of use water treatment and heating improves both water quality and energy efficiency while reducing the Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 5 . facilities should increase their dependence on water that is collected. Designers orient windows and walls and place awnings. The protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a building may be accomplished by designing for dual plumbing that recycles water in toilet flushing. Water efficiency: Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key objectives in sustainable building. and trees to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in the winter. In addition. hydro power. and floors. effective window placement (day lighting) can provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting during the day. or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper. and varies from one building to the other. they may use high-efficiency windows and insulation in walls. wind power. reducing sewer traffic and increasing possibilities of re-using water on-site. buildings are much more complex products. passive solar building design. To the maximum extent feasible. never repeating itself identically.
Polyurethane blocks are being used instead of CMTs by companies like American Insulock. ecology blocks. better OHS management. roman self-healing concrete . sea grass. and/or recyclable (e. baked earth. and lighting quality. Materials efficiency: Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo (because bamboo grows quickly) and straw. and productivity of occupants. expanded clay grains. and other products that are non-toxic. maximizing recycling (because manufacture is in one location). etc. less noise and dust. Trass.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 amount of water in circulation. Indoor environmental quality enhancement: The Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) category in LEED standards. The LEED IEQ category addresses design and construction guidelines especially: indoor air quality (IAQ). renewable. and they are environmentally friendly. concrete (high and ultra high performance. high quality elements. adobe. Where possible. well-being. etc. or VOC's. dimension stone. foundry sand.g. Linoleum. and demolition debris in construction projects Polyurethane heavily reduces carbon emissions as well. recycled metal. lumber from forests certified to be sustainably managed. vermiculite. thermal quality. to maximize benefits of off-site manufacture including minimizing waste. panels made from paper flakes. building elements should be manufactured off-site and delivered to site. Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation.) from other Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 6 . dry cleaners. rammed earth. flax linen. compressed earth block. The use of non-sewage and greywater for onsite use such as site-irrigation will minimize demands on the local aquifer. recycled stone. and other air impurities such as microbial contaminants. calcium sand stone. clay. one of the five environmental categories. wood fibre plates. less cost. coconut. reusable. Buildings rely on a properly designed HVAC system to provide adequate ventilation and air filtration as well as isolate operations (kitchens. was created to provide comfort. sisal. Indoor Air Quality seeks to reduce volatile organic compounds. cork. sheep wool. such as coal combustion products. Polyurethane blocks provide more speed.) The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) also suggests using recycled industrial goods.
Ensuring operations and maintenance (O&M) personnel are part of the project's planning and development process will help retain the green criteria designed at the onset of the project. To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants. construction and demolition phases of a building's life-cycle. For example. wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines. Personal temperature and airflow control over the HVAC system coupled with a properly designed building envelope will also aid in increasing a building's thermal quality. in California nearly 60% of the state's waste comes from commercial buildings During the construction phase. Although the goal of waste reduction may be applied during the design. by providing on-site solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills. Operations and maintenance optimization: No matter how sustainable a building may have been in its design and construction. can be used for subsurface irrigation. one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. The addition of new green technologies also falls on the O&M staff. it can only remain so if it is operated responsibly and maintained properly. Many building materials and cleaning/maintenance products emit toxic gases. water and materials used during construction. for non-potable Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 7 . Welldesigned buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 occupancies. Avoiding these products will increase a building's IEQ. Creating a high performance luminous environment through the careful integration of natural and artificial light sources will improve on the lighting quality of a structure. These gases can have a detrimental impact on occupants' health and productivity as well. Waste reduction: Green architecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy. several options exist. During the design and construction process choosing construction materials and interior finish products with zero or low emissions will improve IAQ. such as VOC's and formaldehyde. it is in the O&M phase that green practices such as recycling and air quality enhancement take place. or if treated. Every aspect of green building is integrated into the O&M phase of a building's life. "Greywater".
new appliances and modern technologies tend to cost more money.. higher worker or student productivity can be factored into savings and cost deductions.g. It is projected that different sectors could save $130 Billion on energy bills. An alternative to this process is converting waste and wastewater into fertilizer. liquid fertilizer can be produced. lodging and Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 8 . This concept was demonstrated by a settlement in Lubeck Germany in the late 1990s. which avoids these costs and shows other benefits. By collecting human waste at the source and running it to a semi-centralized biogas plant with other biological waste. which eliminates airfare. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes. offsetting greenhouse gas emission. ground transportation. We come to you. but yield 10 times as much over the entire life of the building. Photo-voltaic.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 purposes. life-cycle cost. Budget: Your budgetary requirements are our primary concern. e. Scope and Limitations: The Benefits Logistics: You choose the date. to flush toilets and wash cars. Green Education Services offers corporate discounts to help your bottom line. location. The savings in money come from more efficient use of utilities which result in decreased energy bills. Practices like these provide soil with organic nutrients and create carbon sinks that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Producing artificial fertilizer is also more costly in energy than this process. Also. Cost: The most criticized issue about constructing environmentally friendly buildings is the price. and setting that best fit your firm’s needs. time. some green buildings have yielded $53 to $71 per square foot back on investment. Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of energy. The stigma is between the knowledge of up-front cost vs. Most green buildings cost a premium of <2%. Studies have shown over a 20 year life period.
Time Management : Your employees can get important work done during breaks with minimal inconvenience or disruption. collaborating and sharing best practices. CONCEPTION 2.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 other out-of-office travel related expenses. Team Building: Your team will be inspired by our interactive approach to teaching. but a dialogue between world-class professionals. GES’s standard one-day LEED training earns 8 HSW + 4 SD credits for all AIA members. Continuing Education Units: Your employees gain valuable CEU’s in the most efficient manner possible. Multiple Offices: Your firm may have multiple sites domestically and/or internationally. learning. Our seminars are not a monologue. Green Education Services will schedule and route custom programs for maximum benefit in the shortest amount of time. CHAPTERISATION: Introduction: Building Life-Cycle: 1. DESIGN Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 9 . As an approved AIA/CES Provider.
etc. Eg: Careful initial design and selection of materials Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 10 . CONSTRUCTION 4. Design for Future: • Durability . USE. purchasing. hemicalcompounds. Consolidation of natural and infrastructural facilities and services -shipping and receiving.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 3. OPERATION & MAINTENANCE Site Characteristics: • Microclimate • Solar paths • Wind patterns • Temperature Variations • Site's connection to surrounding communities. hot water.Resist degradation and obsolescence -Service Life > 20-30 years. • Topography • Drainage patterns • Vegetation • Ecosystems • Soil conditions Reduce Costs of Development and Environmental Impacts Industrial Ecology/Networking: • • Share and reuse materials (waste/byproducts).security. entertainment and conference facilities. and waste energy such as steam. water.
• Select recycled-content building materials and products. scrap metal. asphalt. land clearing. • Design a Recycling plan for building occupants. and construction (DLC) debris – clean wood. Environmental Awareness: Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 11 . Can be retrofitted and adapted for future uses avoids the embodied energy associated with the demolition and construction of a new building. REDUCE > REUSE > RECYCLE Reduce: • • • • Carefully calculate quantity of materials required Avoid excessive packaging Select more durable materials Ensure proper on-site storage and protection of materials Re-use: • • • • • Design materials/products/BUILDINGS for disassembly Retrofit Existing building instead of New construction Relocate entire building instead of demolition Salvage materials prior to demolition Reuse Building materials Recycle (energy expenditure): • Diversion and recycling of demolition. cardboard. concrete and land clearing waste.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 • BUILDING Wears well.
and global resources and environments. By reducing material usage.REFERENCES I – ISSUES RELATED TO MATERIAL SELECTION BACKGROUND: 1. • Increase public awareness about appropriate technologies and the cradle-to-grave energy and waste implications of various building and consumer materials. and therapeutic benefits that nature provides • Promote new human values and lifestyles more harmonious with local. Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 12 .Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 • Reconnect humans with their environment for the spiritual.ISSUES II . Do we need it at all? The most important question that can be asked is whether the material.PRIORITIZATION III .WORKSHEET IV . Recommendation of Study: Green Building Decision Matrix: | . regional. we reduce the cost of the project including labour (and design) but as well we reduce the extraction. emotional. product or component is actually needed at all.
that there is little hope in this system of corporations taking any responsibility for the impacts of their products. However. and entire life cycle cost to the global environment. distribution. 2. education is definitely required. What is the life cycle cost? Life cycle cost or price takes into account the entire cost of employing the product. For example. Unfortunately. it is often difficult for the purchaser to assess whether a product is toxic. this is not the way it’s been. corporations have only been obligated to indicate a product’s ingredients and abide by toxic chemical legislation set out by the various governments. hard scientific data could take years before proof without a doubt. A release and let’s watch rather than a cautionary approach was and is being taken. This amount of time was required for 1 chemical in one reaction never mind the extremely difficult case of identifying the synergistic effects of multiple chemicals reacting together. Place the onus on the manufacturer to prove that the product is safe. for many of us. The problem has many roots. 3. we are literally surrounded by toxic substances. In many cases. And contrary to what some people may suggest. Research the product using one of the many websites or publications that list environmental construction products. Thus. Our environment is increasingly saturated with toxins so much so that an alarming 30% of Canadians now have allergies or chemical sensitivities. only chemicals that had immediate and traceable effects would be investigated. But today. Ask the manufacture for a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). There are two levels of life cycle analysis (LCA): life cycle cost to the purchaser of the product. when selecting exterior siding for a Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 13 . A full 60. Is it toxic? Most of us would suggest that a product that will release toxic substances into the environment should not be used. the costs which are largely not included in the price of the product. Take the cautionary approach and avoid the product if it is not necessary and substitute a less toxic alternative. in most cases. One rule of thumb is to select the product with the least amount of constituents that do not naturally occur in nature. we just don’t have the background and education to comprehend chemical labels or for see the potential effects of using these products (many would suggest ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is probably toxic). And finally. reducing material use not unlike conserving energy is the easiest and most cost-effective means of achieving environmental and economic savings. it is apparent by the success of tobacco companies in keeping their toxic chemicals in their products.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 manufacturing. Thus. Furthermore. Today and in the past. and disposal of the product.000 new chemicals are now in our environment that didn’t exist in 1960. The first approach is largely just an economic analysis. The onus was on the government and ultimately the public to show that it is toxic.
maintenance costs (annual paint and repair). Can the product be recycled or just down cycled? For example. recycled. plastic companies are notorious for indicating recyclability but have no interest in indicating to the consumer Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 14 . manufacture etc.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 building.e. Making operating staff more aware of the broader issues and costs of materials is always beneficial. If it is recyclable. building materials should be selected with decommissioning and disposal in mind. but the added costs of transporting the product to the site (local market or across the continent). For example. the rate of consumption of resources and. However. Does it contain recycled content? Post-consumer or post-industrial? A characteristic that many of us are now aware of and understand is recycled content. and impacts on other parties are identified and assessed. Select products that can be returned. water consumption). reused. labour costs to install. The only principle to be aware of is that post-consumer recycled content is preferable to post-industrial recycled content. Moreover. reclaimed. do facilities exist nearby that can recycle it. environmental impacts of extraction. Post-consumer content is material that is being diverted from the landfill. other costs are taken into account besides economic. was it harvested sustainably? Does the local industry support the sustainability of the community? How far did the wood have to be transported (since transportation is the main component of pollution in the process to create lumber)? LCA is not a perfect science. How will the product ultimately be disposed of? Can it be recycled whole or in part? Do facilities exist locally? The two biggest problems with society today are: 1. Any form of LCA employed in decisionmaking is better than none. The designer/builder should select building products in the same manner as it selects paper products for the office . If it was wood. With this more thorough LCA. additional costs (electricity. 2. Fortunately. when selecting exterior siding.). a more thorough approach can be taken to life cycle costing and include the costs that are not included in the purchase price (i.the higher the recycled content the better (and recycle products at the end of their life). the builder would consider not only the unit and total cost of the product. the builder would consider where the product originated. the production of waste. and disposal costs (some building products contain toxic chemicals which may introduce disposal fees). it is a very simple concept that can be easily identified on a product and understood by the consumer. or returned to the Earth as biodegradable material. 4. Post-industrial content is materials that would likely be reused anyway although still beneficial when post-consumer content isn’t available. 5. With this in mind. results are largely dependent on local and individual analysis as all variables change. This approach clearly identifies the broader costs of employing a product and the economic costs directly to the user.
Be aware however. designers and builders only consider the construction cost. distribute. and disposing of this product? Attempt to assess the non-economic impacts of using the product. many conventional cleaning products have constituents that biodegrade but the resulting by-products are toxic in the environment. 8. stainless steel finishes. Some are more obvious than others. even though the operating expense and in some cases disposal costs can be far more significant. For example. 6. 10. Is the product durable? What is the expected lifespan of the product? Is the expected lifespan based on the conditions that the product will be used? A general rule is to select products with the longest lifespan. For example. wood from the virgin rainforests should probably be avoided. use. that there does not exist any legislation on product labelling with respect to the word biodegradable. 9. A great deal of judgment is required in this case. and dispose of this product? Are the totals GHG less than other products? Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 15 . Are there any social impacts to extracting. Educate the manufacturer and distributors when excess packaging is used and place the onus and cost on them to reduce and reclaim the packaging rather than the builder buying material that is then discarded. distributing. concrete pavers vs.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 that facilities don’t actually exist to facilitate recycling of the product. 11. Is it biodegradable? Does it break down into natural constituents? If a product is biodegradable than concerns about disposal are diminished. manufacture. 7. Often this means increased initial cost where life cycle costing (see above) becomes important. Is the product low maintenance? Maintenance is one component of life cycle cost. and research and guidance from reliable sources is valuable. Is the product over packaged? Can the packaging be reclaimed by manufacturer? An easy means of reducing environmental impacts is to select products that have minimal packaging or recyclable packaging. In most cases. Are green house gases produced to extract. For example. Avoid products that contain toxins that ultimately will be released into the environment. manufacturing. Seek advice and guidance from labeling programs such as Environmental Choice logos. concrete pads. using. many types of plastic can only be downcycled into products like parking stops (ultimately creating waste). Furthermore. Attempt to select products that require no maintenance.
use. it is difficult to decide which issue is more important when two issues are in opposition or two products with different issues are compared.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 An issue that we are all aware of is our impacts on the global climate due to our collective release of green 12. distance to extraction and manufacturing. since each issue is not universal in nature but rather dependent on multiple factors (i. using steel might replace using wood treated with toxic preservatives within the park. Is the product from local or regional sources? II – PRIORITIZATION The environmental issues mentioned above are all important. What is the embodied energy of the product? Is it less than the alternatives? 14. Some of the issues include: • Global Warming • • Ozone Layer deterioration Water pollution Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 16 . By identifying and documenting these threats. This is the dilemma for the designer and operator. However. For example. etc. In many cases. and dispose of this product? Are the total ozone depletes less than other products? 13. significant work has gone into trying to prioritize the issues. BUT what about the emissions from the steel manufacturing down the road? The first step for any designer/owner or organization is to identify what are the local and regional environmental threats. decisions as to which issue is more important will become easier.e.) the decisions in many cases are site dependent. To date. climate. distribute. disposal facilities. Thus. Are ozone depleting substances produced to extract. manufacture. the designer and operator must therefore become involved in the decision process and this is where judgment and values are involved.
Does it displace a product or material that has a greater environmental impact (i. CHECKLIST: .e.Is there an alternative product or material that has less of an environmental impact over its life-cycle? .Is it a natural or synthetic material? Natural materials tend to have less environmental impacts. . finger-jointed lumber)? . DDT is also biodegradable)? Is this product destinied for the landfill? 2 Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 17 .Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 • Air pollution • • • • • • • • • • Petroleum spills Automobile pollution Persistent Organic Pollutants Logging of Old-Growth forests Habitat destruction Local unemployment Maintenance costs and budget cuts Labour costs Durability and climatic factors Urban sprawl Below is the decision path that we are recommending. This line of questioning should be done for each product introduced into the project.Is the product or material needed at all? .Does it contain potentially harmful chemicals or constituents? 1 .e. Others can be discarded.Is it biodegradable into natural constituents (i. When comparing products. in many cases it will be the product that makes it the furthest down the list.
Is it recyclable? Is it being used in a way that allows it to be recycled (i. 2000 http://www. and the Environment. 2 Generally. HCFCs.Concrete.How does its embodied energy (and thus in general greenhouse gas emissions) compare with alternatives? .buildinggreen.000 as in the case of a building.-based.buildinggreen.S. Carbon.Does it contain recycled content? .C.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 .Cement and Concrete: Environmental Considerations. and Halons.How does its life-cycle environmental impacts compare with alternatives? .Is there a local product or alternative that is comparable that will reduce the impacts of transportation?1 More than 60.com/features/cem/cementconc. Flyash.000 new chemicals have been invented since WW2 and less than 5% of them have been tested for human health impacts. Oxygen. – March 1993 http://www.developed and administered by the U.html . LEED certification is the recognized standard for measuring building sustainability. nonprofit coalition of building Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 18 .Does it contain or use (manufacture/use/maintenance) ozone depleting substances? 3 . 1998 DATA ANALYSIS:.Leed Certification Information What is LEED certification? In the United States and in a number of other countries around the world. – Dec. WORKSHEET REFERENCES: Environmental Building News: . biodegradable means into organic constituents (Hydrogen.com/features/svw/steel_vs_wood. glued or screwed)? .pdf .Steel or Wood framing: which way should we go? – July 1994 http://www. None of them have been tested in combinations of two or more.html . 3 Ozone depleting substances include CFCs. Green Building Council. Achieving LEED certification is the best way for you to demonstrate that your building project is truly "green.com/features/gp/green_products.buildinggreen. a Washington D.What makes a Product Green? – Jan.e. and Nitrogen)." The LEED green building rating system -. never mind 10.
materials and resources and indoor environmental quality.is designed to promote design and construction practices that increase profitability while reducing the negative environmental impacts of buildings and improving occupant health and well-being. The LEED rating system offers four certification levels for new construction -Certified. interiors projects and existing building operations. such as checklists and reference guides. LEED documents. Getting certified allows you take advantage of a growing number of state and local government incentives. Standards are under development to cover commercial "core & shell" construction. new home construction and neighborhood developments. offers compelling proof to you. energy and atmosphere. your clients. including: • • • • • • Information on the LEED certification process. How does one achieve LEED certification? The U. LEED standards cover new commercial construction and major renovation projects. water efficiency. Gold and Platinum -. Green Building Council's LEED website provides tools for building professionals. What are the benefits of LEED certification? LEED certification.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 industry leaders -. Standards are now available or in development for the following project types: o New commercial construction and major renovation projects (LEED-NC) o Existing building operations (LEED-EB) o Commercial interiors projects (LEED-CI) o Core and shell projects (LEED-CS) o Homes (LEED-H) o Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND) A list of LEED-certified projects A directory of LEED-accredited professionals Information on LEED training workshops A calendar of green building industry conferences Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 19 . Silver.that correspond to the number of credits accrued in five green design categories: sustainable sites.S. and can help boost press interest in your project. your peers and the public at large that you've achieved your environmental goals and your building is performing as designed. which includes a rigorous third-party commissioning process.
Thousands of architects. • • • • Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 20 . decide what level of LEED certification you are aiming for and settle on a firm overall budget. Many energy-saving features allow for the resizing or elimination of other equipment. or reduce total capital costs by paying for themselves immediately or within a few months of operation. identify means of offsetting certain expenses with savings in other areas and spot opportunities for synergies in your project. look first at its relationship to other features to see if keeping it will help you achieve moneysaving synergies. such as Platinum.and can assist you in meeting your LEED goal. These professionals can suggest ways to earn LEED credits without extra cost. be sure your entire project team is focused on meeting your LEED goal on budget.a "stretch" goal -.to stimulate creativity. do require additional expenditure and should be budgeted for accordingly Stick to your budget and your LEED goal. product marketers. Hire LEED-accredited professionals.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 Tips for Getting LEED Certified: • Set a clear environmental target. Also consider including an optional higher certification target -. consultants. Prior to beginning. Engineer for Life Cycle Value As you value-engineer your project. Before you decide to cut a line item. engineers. Set a clear and adequate budget. be sure to examine green investments in terms of how they will affect expenses over the entire life of the building. Throughout out the design and building process. as well as LEED credits. Before you begin the design phase of your project. set your goals for "life cycle" value-engineering rather than "first cost" value-engineering. Higher levels of LEED certification. Maintain the environmental and economic integrity of your project at every turn. environmentalists and other building industry professionals around the country have a demonstrated knowledge of green building and the LEED rating system and process -.
Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 CASE STUDY PROFILE: LEED India for New Construction LEED India for Core & Shell Registration Certification List of LEED AP Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 21 .
market-driven programs that are intended to be voluntary. Gold or Platinum.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 LEED: LEED for Homes . looking at the environmental impacts of the building from design through occupancy. There is a rating scale in each area and points are assigned to the building in each category.U. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system is intended to encourage adoption of sustainable green building practices through the use of universally understood performance criteria. Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Air Quality Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 22 . Silver. The overall score determines the LEED rating of either Certified. LEED is a whole building rating system. Green Building Council: The Green Building Council has created a set of standards for sustainable buildings. The LEED Green Building Rating Systems are consensus-based. LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas of human and environmental health. There are five main categories to the LEED rating system and they include. Their goal is to make LEED the primary standard in this area.S.
A building must meet certain prerequisites in each of these categories to earn points in each category. the threshold for achieving a given certification level will increase of decrease. Locations & Linkages and Awareness & Education. low-rise residential. Once all of the prerequisites have been achieved. gold and platinum. the Provider and Green Rater will determine if the home achieves LEED standards and to which level. Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 23 . LEED for Homes is geared toward single-family homes. affordable homes. for 1 bedroom and ~ 500 sq ft per additional bedroom). the total number of credits earned determines if a building is LEED certified and at what rating. A special addition to the LEED for Homes standard is an adjustment based on home size. certified. manufactured & modular homes as well as major (gut) rehab projects on existing homes. While the contractor/builder is responsible for the proper installation and construction of all green features and measures. After review by USGBC. There are four levels of certification. The process by which a home achieves the LEED for Homes certification level is a tiered process. production homes.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 LEED for Homes has added two additional categories. A neutral size has been determined by the USGBC (900 sq. it is the responsibility of the LEED for Homes Provider and Green Rater (third-party verification) to determine the home's compliance with any given prerequisites or credit. This is the means by which the USGBC hopes to influence the building industry to build smaller. After construction has been completed. ft. silver. the home is granted LEED certification and can be marketed as a LEED certified home. each signifying a higher level of sustainable design. more sustainable homes. As the size of the house goes over or under this size.
For starters.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 As with any green building initiative that a homeowner chooses to accomplish. LEED for Homes is not without its costs. registering and certifying a home costs from $375-525 depending on the whether the contractor is a member Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 24 .
To participate in LEED for Homes. If the builder is not a participant in the LEED for Homes program. There are measures addressing sustainable energy and in the future. Another route is to contact the LEED for Homes provider directly to find a local builder who is familiar with the program or has experience in the industry. LEED focuses on reducing the use of energy through efficiency and waste reduction. a more efficient home with proper insulation and air infiltration measures in place will require a smaller HVAC system. appliances. you have a few avenues. finishes and in rare cases. As has already happened with the LEED Green Building Rating Systems. saving money on what is normally a big ticket item. The first is to contact an experienced builder who has completed a sustainable or LEED home in the past. At this point. This cost increase may seem daunting at first but the reduction in operating cost over time. a homeowner may run into extra costs regarding material choices. Indian Green Building Council –LEED Rating Systems: • • • • LEED India –New Construction LEED India –Core & Shell IGBC Green Homes IGBC Green Factories LEED Categories: Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 25 . In addition. For example. The link to the provider locater can be found in the resources section. will pay back the extra costs of construction. There are also up-front cost saving that are often overlooked. they can contact the LEED for Homes Provider that is geographically closest to them.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 of the USGBC. it can be expected that LEED for Homes will grow and mature as the times change and the trends in the building industry become more commonplace. specialized installers. these should play a much larger role in the LEED standards.
Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 • • • • • Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy and Atmosphere Materials and Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Meet all prerequisites Minimum number of points to earn the Certified level of LEED project certification Certification Level Points Certified Silver Gold Platinum 26-32 Points 33-38 Points 39-51 Points 52-69 Points Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 26 .
Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 Prerequisites: • • SS Prerequisite –Erosion & Sedimentation Control ESC Plan during Construction EA Prerequisite 1 –Fundamental Building Systems Commissioning • • • Commissioning Plan –review of design & construction Installation. training & documentation –verification Commissioning Report EA Prerequisite 2 –Minimum Energy Performance • Design building for energy & performance as per ASHRAE 90. functional performance.1-2004/ECBC 2006 EA Prerequisite 3 –CFC Reduction in HVAC & R Equipment Zero-Use of CFC-based refrigerants • • MR Prerequisite –Storage & Collection of Recyclables • Designated Recycling Area & Plan during Occupancy IAQ Prerequisite 1 –Minimum IAQ Performance ASHRAE 62. Credit Description Points Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 27 .1-2004/relevant local code • • IAQ Prerequisite 2 –Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control • Smoking Policy within Building Premises Sustainable Sites: Credit No.
Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 SSc1 SSc2 SSc3 SSc4.1 SSc4. WEc1.2 1 1 1 Energy& Atmosphere: Credit No.1 WEc4.0 Credit Description Water Efficient Landscaping: 50% reduction Water Efficient Landscaping: No Potable Water Use or No Irrigation Water Efficiency in Airconditioning System: 50% Reduce Innovative Wastewater Technologies Water Use Reduction.2 WEc2. 30% Reduction Points 1 1 1 WEc3.1 WEc1.2 Site selection Development Density & Community Connectivity Brownfield Redevelopment Alternative Transportation. Parking Capacity 1 1 1 1 1 SSc4. Credit Description Points Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 28 . Low-Emission & Alternative Fuel Refueling Stations Alternative Transportation. 20% Reduction Water Use Reduction.0 WEc4.3 1 Water Efficiency: Credit No. Public Transportation Access Alternative Transportation.
floors and roof Building Reuse: Maintain 100% of shell & 50% of non-shell Construction Waste Management.2 MRc3.5% Additional Commissioning 10 1 1 1 1 Materials & Resources Credit: Credit No.2 MRc1. Divert 75% from Disposal Resource Reuse: 5% Points 1 1 1 1 1 1 Indoor Environmental Quality: Credit No.5% Renewable Energy: 5% Renewable Energy: 7. MRc1.1 MRc2. Divert 50% from Disposal Construction Waste Management.3 MRc2.3 EAc3.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 EAc1 EAc2. EQc1 Credit Description Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Points 1 Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 29 .1 MRc1.1 Credit Description Building Reuse: Maintain 75% of existing walls.2 EAc2.1 EAc2.0 Optimize Energy Performance Renewable Energy: 2. floors and roof Building Reuse: Maintain 100% of existing walls.
4 1 1 1 1 Innovation in Design: Credit No. 30% above ASHRAE 62.2 1 EQc4.4 Innovation in Design 1-4 Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 30 .2 EQc4. Credit Description Points IDc1.: Adhesive & Sealants Low-emitting materials: Paints Low-emitting materials: Carpet Low-emitting materials: Composite Wood & Agrifiber Products 1 EQc3.3 EQc4.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 EQc2 Increased Ventilation.1 EQc4.1 requirements Construction IAQ management plan: (During Construction ) Construction IAQ management plan: (After Construction/Before Occupancy ) Low-emitting materials.1 1 EQc3.1-1.
improved indoor environmental quality. Green Building Council (USGBC). conserve energy and water. water efficiency. construction.2 By going green with LEED certification. What is LEED? LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). It is an internationally recognized building certification system. Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 31 .2 LEED Accredited Professional 1 Green Buildings and LEED Certification: Going Green: Developed by the U. operations and maintenance solutions. LEED provides building owners and operators with a concise framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 IDc1. providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at improving performance across all the metrics that matter most. reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions and qualify for tax rebates. LEED is an internationally recognized green building certification system. construction.1 LEED provides building owners and operators a concise framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design. It is a building rating system created under the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) to ensure greater environmentally and socially responsible action by encouraging the construction of green buildings. zoning allowances and other incentives in hundreds of cities. CO2 emissions reduction.S. providing third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at improving performance across all the metrics that matter most: energy savings. LEED certification helps to: lower operating costs and increase asset value. operations and maintenance solutions. there are both environmental and financial benefits. reduce waste sent to landfills. and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts.
Eligibility for LEED qualification consists of following a LEED Rating System Checklist that contributes to your specific project tally point total. the project demographics and characteristics. Another important factor that can save Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 32 . improved indoor environmental quality. minimize waste sent to landfills and shows your commitment to environmental sustainability. LEED certification lowers operating costs. LEED for Neighborhood Development extends the benefits of LEED beyond the building footprint into the neighborhood it serves. increases asset value. LEED certification is granted. operations and maintenance. Obtaining LEED certification brings many financial and environmental rewards. reduce harmful greenhouse emissions. Environmentally.usgbc. tenant fit out.org. LEED applies to the entire building lifecycle – design and construction. In LEED 2009 the threshold levels for LEED certification are: Certified: Silver: Gold: Platinum: 40 – 49 Points 50 – 59 Points 60 – 79 Points 80 or more Points The LEED certification rating process is explained in complete detail in the Reference Guides issued for each of the LEED rating systems as well as on line at www. and significant retrofit. What does it take to get LEED certified? The U. zoning allowances and other financial incentives. For example. water efficiency. CO2 emissions reduction.S. allows for qualification of tax rebates. SUMMARY OF FINDING & CONCLUSION: Minimizing your LEED certification costs The cost of LEED certification depends on a variety of factors. there are four. stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts. LEED certification helps conserve energy. Once all tally project prerequisites exceed the minimum number of points necessary to meet the Certified Level.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 These metrics include: energy savings. LEED levels and classes When it comes to LEED classes. Green Building Council’s LEED building rating system is flexible with all types of commercial and residential buildings. including the type of certification desired. grant availability and the experience of the LEED design team.
but the real global experiment continues to run on unhindered. New York: 1990. "Energy Generation: The Basic Cause of Current and Future Climate Change. Literature  Skelton. New York: 1990.  Lashof. W.  Kellogg W." Hydrogen Energy Progress VIII. a 5% increase in thermal efficiency corresponds to a 15% reduction in CO2. N. A. whose conclusions become more steadfast in their results. we encourage you to visit www. The world awaits results to further information gathered on greenhouse warming. Current models demonstrate the need to strengthen research into sustainable energy alternatives to the fossil fuel economy. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. As the US Green Building Council and the LEED building rating system continues to evolve. D. Global and Domestic Carbon Dioxide Emissions & their Effect on Climate Change Conclusion: Short-term responses would require an increased efficiency and attention to conservation to all sectors. Conclusion There are many benefits available to you when you build green. L. You can save both time and money by acting now. Policy makers continue to call for additional studies.usgbc. Volume 1. For a coal fired plant. New York: 1984. Veziroglu. Edited by T. Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 33 . Universal Modular Building Solutions works hard to ensure costs are minimized while maintaining quality. Pergamon Press. The Solar-Hydrogen Energy Economy: Beyond the Age of Fire. Policy Options for Stabilizing Global Climate. Pages 145-161.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 you money is selecting the right stage of the design process to seek LEED certification.org/ and www. The more long-term strategy must include fuel switching to lower CO2 content and finally to a renewable source such as solarhydrogen or biomass. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. W.gbci. Universal Modular is able and willing to help you with LEED certification.org regularly to obtain the latest information on the LEED family of rating systems. Many of the effects that may occur under a climate change scenario remain unknown.
W. Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 34 . MA: 1982. A Review of their Interactions. Government Printing Office. H. Volume I and II.S Congress. Energy Technologies for Reducing Emision of Greenhouse Gases. Volume I and II. New York: 1983. Cambridge. Washington D. Possible Climate Consequences of a Man-Made Global Warming. Laxenburg.Emissions and Effects. J. National Academy Press. M. The Greenhouse Trap. I. Jager. Confronting Climate Change. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development/International Energy Agency. London: 1990. G. G. Paris: 1989. Ballinger Publishing Company. London: 1982. Beacon Press.: 1991. H. Carbon Dioxide Review: 1982. J. Proceedings of an Experts Seminar Paris 12th-14th April 1989. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development/International Energy Agency. The Long-Term Imacts of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels. Paris: 1989. Elsevier Applied Science. IEA Coal Research. Report of the DOE Multi-Laboratory Cimate Change Committee.S. Energy and Climate Change.C. Walsh. Oxford: 1978. J. John Wiley & Sons. Chelsea. F. Climate and Society. Lewis Publishers. U. Williams. Proceedings of an Experts Seminar Paris 12th-14th April 1989. MI: 1991. Climate and Energy Systems. D.  Thurlow. Pergamon Press. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Washington. Austria: 1980.  Lyman. Smith. Technological Responses to the Greenhouse Effect.Ó Energy Technologies for Reducing Emision of Greenhouse Gases.: 1990. Additional Resources MacDonald. C. Office of Technology Assessment. Flohn. U. ÒThe Selection of Energy Technologies Under Conditions of Restricted Carbon Emissions. Carbon Dioxide. J. Boston: 1990. Oxford: 1982. Clark.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58  Changing By Degrees: Steps to Reduce Greenhouse Gases. National Research Council.C. Clarendon Press. Carbon Dioxide.
Holland: 1983.C. Greenhouse Gases.C. W. National Research Council. Holland: 1984. Energy and Climate.: 1989. Washington. Shailesh S Singh 28-08-31-5949-2101 Page 35 . and Climate Change. D.: 1977.C. D. Washington. Current Views and Developments in Energy/Climate Research. Report of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee. National Research Council. D. D.Course:PGPPM Module -M-58 Bach. National Academy Press. W. Our Threatened Climate. National Academy Press. Dordrecht. Reidel Pulishing Company.: 1983. National Academy Press. Washington. National Research Council. Bach. Changing Climate. Ozone Depletion. Carbon Dioxide. D. Geophysics Study Committee. Dordrecht. Reidel Pulishing Company. Proceding of a Joint Symposium by the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and the Committee on Global Change.