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Elements of the marketing mix are often referred to as the "Four 'P's", a phrase used since the 1960's

Product - It is a tangible good or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry & the hotel industry or codes-based products like cellphone load and credits. Typical examples of a mass produced tangible object are the motor car and the disposable razor. A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system. Packaging also needs to be taken into consideration. Every product is subject to a life-cycle including a growth phase followed by an eventual period of decline as the product approaches market saturation. To retain its competitiveness in the market, product differentiation is required and is one of the strategies to differentiate a product from its competitors. Price The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. The business may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same product. Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketeer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principal elements together, which is common in film promotion. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and events. Word of mouth is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important role in word of mouth and Public Relations (see Product above). Place A way of getting the product to the consumer and/or how easily accessible it is to consumers.

Any organization, before introducing its products or services into the market, conducts a market survey. The sequence of all 'P's as above is very much important in every stage of product life cycle Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. In recent years the 4 P's have been updated to include several more factors. Some people even go up to as many as 27 P's.[citation needed]its not giving details

intensive distribution
Definition

A marketing strategy under which a company sells through as many outlets as possible, so that the consumers encounter the product virtually everywhere they go: supermarkets, drug stores, gas stations, and the like. Soft drinks are generally made available through intensive distribution.

Selective distribution is a retail strategy that involves making a product or group of products available only in certain markets. This is the opposite of open distribution, where a product line is distributed to as many markets as possible. There are several reasons for employing this approach, including the potential for limiting competition and minimizing distribution costs so that net profits are higher. The process of selective distribution focuses on identifying specific markets where a companys products are highly likely to be favored by consumers in the area, while avoiding distribution to areas where there is less of a chance of gaining a significant market share. Often, this situation comes about because a number of similar products are already available through certain markets, and the level of competition is higher. By choosing to distribute goods through handpicked retailers within certain geographic regions, it is possible to avoid some of this competition, while still tapping into the demand for products of that type.

ypes of distribution
Three types of distribution can be used to make product available to consumers: (1) intensive distribution, (2) selective distribution and (3) exclusive distribution. In intensive distribution, the product is sold to as many appropriate retailers or wholesalers as possible. Intensive distribution is appropriate for products such as chewing gum, candy bars, soft drinks, bread, film, and cigarettes where the primary factor influencing the purchase decision is convenience. Industrial products that may require intensive distribution include pencils, paperclips, transparent tape, file folders, typing paper, transparency masters, screws, and nails. In selective distribution, the number of outlets that may carry a product is limited, but not to the extent of exclusive dealing. By carefully selecting wholesalers or retailers, the manufacturer can concentrate on potentially profitable accounts and develop solid working relationships to ensure that the product is properly merchandised. The producer also may restrict the number of retail outlets if the product requires specialized servicing or sales support. Selective distribution may be used for product categories such as clothing, appliances, televisions, stereo equipment, home furnishings, and sports equipment. When a single outlet is given an exclusive franchise to sell the product in a geographic area, the arrangement is referred to as exclusive distribution. Products such as specially automobiles, some major appliances, certain brands of furniture, and lines of clothing that enjoy a high degree of brand loyally are likely to be distributed on an exclusive basis. This is particularly true if the consumer is willing to overcome the inconvenience of traveling some distance to obtain the product. Usually, exclusive distribution is undertaken when the manufacturer desires more aggressive selling on the part of the wholesaler or retailer, or when channel control is important, exclusive distribution may enhance the product's image and enable the firm to charge higher retail prices.

Sometimes manufacturers use multiple brands in order to offer exclusive distribution to more than one retailer or distributor. Exclusive distribution occurs more frequently at the wholesale level than at the retail level. In general, exclusive distribution lends itself to direct channels (manufacturer to retailer). Intensive distribution is more likely to involve indirect channels with two or more intermediaries.

marketing myopia
Definition
A short-sighted and inward looking approach to marketing that focuses on the needs of the company instead of defining the company and its products in terms of the customers' needs and wants. It results in the failure to see and adjust to the rapid changes in their markets. The concept of marketing myopia was discussed in an article (titled "Marketing Myopia," in July-August 1960 issue of the Harvard Business Review) by Harvard Business School emeritus professor of marketing, Theodore C. Levitt (1925-2006), who suggests that companies get trapped in this situation because they omit to ask the vital question, "What business are we in?"
Consumer Goods Classification

Also based on sustainability, the products are also classified by whom and for what the consumers of these products are consumed. Based on these criteria, the product can be differentiated consumer goods (consumer goods) and industrial goods (industrial goods). Consumer products are consumed by final consumers for their own interests (individuals and households), and not for commercial purposes. Consumer goods generally can be classified into four types, namely consumer goods, commercial goods, specialty goods, and goods Unsought. This classification is based on buying habits of consumers, as evidenced by the following three aspects (effort) of consumers to reach a purchase decision, (b) assigns the attributes that consumers use in a purchase, and (c) the frequency of purchase. 1. Convenience Goods Consumer products are goods that have generally high frequency of purchase (often purchased), take the time soon, and requires only minimal effort (very small) in comparison and purchase. Examples include cigarettes, soap, toothpaste, batteries, candy, letters and news. Convenience products themselves can be further grouped into three categories, namely, staples, impulse goods and goods emergencies. a. Staples is consumer goods purchased on a regular basis or periodically, such as soap and toothpaste.

b. Impulse goods are goods that are purchased without prior planning or research effort. Usually, the movement of goods available and on display in many scattered places, so that consumers do not search for him. Example candy, chocolate, magazines. Usually, the pulse produced on the display near the cash or strategic locations in supermarkets. c. Relief goods are goods purchased if the consumer feels the need is urgent, such as umbrellas and raincoats during the rainy season. 2. Shopping Goods Purchases of goods are goods that in the process of selection and purchase by consumers in different alternatives that are available. Comparison criteria include price, quality, and model of each item. Examples of household equipment, clothing and furniture. Purchases of items consisting of two types, namely commercial properties homogeneous and heterogeneous goods trade. a. Homogeneous shopping goods are goods that the consumer is considered similar in quality but different enough in price. Thus, consumers who try to find the cheapest price by comparing the price in a store with another example, the store is a tape recorder, television and washing machine. b. Commercial goods are goods that heterogeneous appearance and characteristics (features) are considered more important by consumers as the price aspect. In other words, consumers perceive it differently in terms of quality and attributes. For example, for household goods, furniture and clothing. 3. Especially Goods Specialist shops are goods which have characteristics and / or identification of a single brand in which a group of consumers willing to make a special effort to buy it. General types of specialized products branded luxury products and a specific model, such as Lamborghini cars, the clothes designed by famous designers (eg Christian Dior and Versace), Nikon, etc.. 4. Unsought Goods Unsouqht goods are goods that are not known to consumers or is already known, but are not generally thought of buying it. There are two types of unsouqht goods, which goods and property regularly Unsought Unsought now. a. Unsought regular products are goods that actually exists and is known to consumers, but did not buy it. For example, free life insurance, tombstones, cemetery.

b. Unsought New products are products that customers totally new and totally unknown. This article is the result of innovation and development of new products, so that many consumers do not know. Each company must understand that the criteria for a product, including the guy who, according to each individual. You might think that television as a good purchase to purchase a TV it will go to several stores before deciding to buy this TV brand. However, for someone can be a good specialty television and he just wanted to give the Sony TV. Classification of products at a May consumer goods change with the length of an article available on the market. For example, when for the first time, a tape recorder, specialty items from Sony. We have a growing number of other brands, the tape is already a good shopping for various community groups.