Ending the War to End All Wars Overview Students will learn about the armistice that ended

of World War I and the Paris Peace Conference, which decided the fate of post-WWI Germany. A short PowerPoint centered discussion introduces students to the armistice and various national reactions to it. Students then assume the roles of one of the “Big Four” leaders at the Paris Peace to debate the fate of post-war Germany and create their own version of the Treaty of Versailles. Finally, students compare their Treaty of Versailles with the actual Treaty and then make predictions about its effects on the post-World War I world. Grades 9,11 Courses World History, US History North Carolina Standard Course of Study for World History • Objective 5.1: Analyze the causes and course of World War I and assess its consequences. • Objective 5.2: Assess the significance of the war experience on global foreign and domestic policies of the 1920s and 1930s North Carolina Standard Course of Study for US History • Objective 10.01: Elaborate on the causes of World War II Materials • “Ending the War to End All Wars” accompanying PowerPoint, available in the Database of Civic Resources o To view this PDF as a projectable presentation, save the file, click “View” in the top menu bar of the file, and select “Full Screen Mode” o To request an editable PPT version of this presentation, send a request to hinson@sog.unc.edu • Paris Peace Conference Simulation Roles and Supplemental Documents (attached) o US President Woodrow Wilson o British Prime Minster David Lloyd George o French Premier Georges Clemenceau o Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando o Blank Treaty of Versailles Handout o Treaty of Versailles Summary Handout Essential Questions: • How did World War I end? • What was the Paris Peace Conference? • What issues did the Treaty of Versailles settle? • What issues were not settled at the Treaty of Versailles? • How did the Treaty of Versailles contribute to World War II? Duration One 90 minute class period Student Preparation Students should be familiar with the causes and course of World War I. This lesson should be completed toward the end of the World War I unit.

North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.civics.org

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1918 and pose the following questions to the students: • What does the NY Times headline tell you about Germany? o Germany is turmoil. Optional Activity: Have 9 student volunteers who represent each figure to come to the front of the classroom and take the same position as the people in the image. they will assume the character of the person in the image labeled with the corresponding number and write a first-person response to what they are thinking. Michigan Gazette on November 11.A temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement between opponents. 3. give them a 1 minute warning and tell them to review what they have written in preparation for sharing. Move to slide 5 & 6 – “Armistice Fast Facts & Armistice Terms” – and pose the following questions to the students: • As you look at the painting depicting the signing of the Armistice. Then. After revealing slide 7 – “After the Armistice” – inform them that this picture was taken a few minutes after the Armistice was signed.Procedure Warm Up: Armistice Day Cartoon 1. Instruct students to take out a piece of paper and then count off each student from 1 to 9 before moving to slide 7. Move to slide 3. Have the class brainstorm for a minute what the word “armistice” means and solicit a few student responses. which contains the definition of armistice . German Empire is disbanded because the Kaiser has fled. Tell students that based upon the number they drew. or appropriate? 5. without revealing any information. In numerical order. Ask students to share their writings and then discuss the following questions: • What types of important information did you hear from these characters? • Did anything surprise you? Did anyone interpret one of the figures very differently than you would have? Explain. Once students have had time to formulate and write down their thoughts. project slide 2 of the “Paris Peace Conference” PowerPoint and. Transition to slide 4 which contains a picture of the front page of the New York Times from November 11. people are upset with the armistice. • What do you notice about the terms of the Armistice? Do you think that Germany had any input in writing the Armistice agreement? • Using what you know about World War I. too lenient. allow students to silently view the image for a few minutes. North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.and compare the student definitions to the dictionary definition. They could be sitting on purpose as a sign of disrespect to the Germans. do you think the Armistice is too harsh.civics. a truce . seeing. pose the following questions to the class: • What features jumped out at you when you first saw this picture? • What do you think the helmet represents? How can you tell? What do you notice about the helmet? • What is under the helmet? What do you think it represents? • What type of bird is in this image? What is the bird holding in its mouth? What do these symbols represent? • What do you think the date signifies? The Armistice 2. 1918 – the same day the World War I armistice was signed.org 2 . • If you had to give this picture a caption or title. 4. Inform students that this cartoon appeared in the Cedar Rapids. etc. what would it be? • How do you think people in England and France reacted to news of the Armistice? • How do you think people in the United States reacted to news of the Armistice? • Who is noticeably absent from the picture? Do you think this was intentional? • How do you think people in Germany reacted to news of the Armistice? 6. hearing. have the students read their first-person monologues. what do you notice about the German delegation? o They’re all standing • What do you notice about the Allied personnel? Do you think that they’re sitting on purpose? What do you think that indicates? o They’re all sitting except for one officer. As a warm up. feeling. they have a new government.

and ask the students to view the cartoon – “Tasks of Peace” – and then discuss the following questions: • Describe what is happening in this cartoon? • What does this cartoon imply about the state of Europe after World War I? • Why wasn’t the Armistice enough to end the war? o It was only a temporary agreement to stop fighting and it only concerned Germany. & 10 which show French. many German leaders proclaimed to the returning troops that “no enemy has vanquished you. 9. • Can you guess who the man holding the knife is? o Philipp Scheidemann. This leads to a popular resentment of the Weimar Government and Hitler exploits these feelings when he becomes leader of Germany. Continue onto slide 12 displaying a postcard depicting the feelings of many Germans toward the Armistice. The caption reads. One of the reasons that Germans believed in the “stabbed in the back” legend is that many felt that they had been winning the war all along – all of the major fighting took place outside of Germany’s borders. Continue on to slide 13. think about it!” • Can you identify any of the figures in the image? Who is the fat man looking on with approval? o The German Army. why might it be difficult to achieve peace? North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www. navy. the Germans had made peace with the Russians. the arrival of the Americans erased any advantages the Germans may have had against the Allies.” Discuss: • What do you think Matthias means? • What does this tell you about what he thinks about the armistice? What is he accusing France and Britain of? • Do you think the German people agree or disagree with him? Why? 9. He was the man that called for an armistice with the Allied forces. for his role in signing the Armistice. inform students that Matthias Erzberger was assassinated in 1921 by an ultra-nationalist group. but it cannot die. Teacher Note: The figures sitting in the background are “wealthy Jews . Continue through slides 8. • What does this tell you about German feelings towards the Armistice? o They felt that the new government stabbed the German Army and the German people in the back and accepting such unfavorable terms. Refer back to the “After the Armistice” image on slide 8 and ask students: • What country’s representatives are absent from the image? o Germany • What do you think the German reaction to the Armistice was? Why? Proceed to slide 11 displaying the following quote from Matthias Erzberger. and American reactions to the news of the Armistice.7. and increasing opposition to the war from the German army. “Germans.civics. British. Pose the following questions to the class: • Why do you think everyone is so happy? • What do you notice about the two “British Reaction” images? Are they similar or different? What does each one tell you about the mood in Britain after the news of the Armistice? 8.org 3 . German signatory of the Armistice: “a nation of seventy millions can suffer. “Peace-ing” the World Back Together: The Paris Peace Conference 10.” The “stab in the back” theory becomes an important part of anti-Jewish Nazi propaganda under Hitler’s regime. the leader of the provisional government that ran Germany after the Kaiser’s abdication.the alleged perpetrators of the deed. To illustrate how unpopular the Armistice was with many Germans. Matthias Erzberger • What is the man with the knife doing? o Sneaking up on the German army – while they are still fighting – and stabbing them in the back. and home front. not the rest of the Central Powers. Organisation Consul. Many scholars argue that reality was different – the German army was out of reserves. • How would you go about creating peace after such a devastating conflict? • Using the information you just learned.

the United States. Slides 14 & 15 provide background information about the Paris Peace Conference and the lesser known treaties that emerged from the conference. Once the group has completed their votes. Resources • PBS – “The Great War”: http://www. If there is a tie. Share the following quote from David Lloyd George commenting on the Treaty of Versailles: “We shall have to fight another war again in 25 years time. Britain. France. Teacher Note: To ensure that all students are completing their work within the group.civics. fill out the “Peace Terms Proposal” section of your handout. After each of the “Big Four” has presented. Place students into groups of 4. Inform students that they are going to assume one of the personas of the “Big Four” and decide the fate of Germany after World War I. After the allotted time. revisit the unresolved provision until a majority vote can be reached. a Second World War could have been avoided? Additional Activities • Assign the students a country – Germany. Allow groups 30 minutes to work on their peace proposals. fill out the “Versailles Treaty” handout. move onto the others and then. Italy and Germany reacted to the Treaty? 14. provide each group with the attached “Treaty of Versailles” summary and instruct them to compare their group’s version with the actual treaty. You will present your proposal to the other world leaders and attempt to persuade them to adopt all or parts of your treaty. Next.org/greatwar/ North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www. the United States. the group will vote on what terms to adopt. Distribute the attached handouts and corresponding document sheets and review the instructions: Directions: Answer the questions you’ve been assigned on a separate sheet of paper.11. one for each of the following roles: US President Woodrow Wilson. Treaty of Versailles Simulation 12. 13. British Prime Minister David Lloyd George. French Premier Georges Clemenceau. Britain. • See the Consortium’s lesson. using the documents provided and your knowledge of World War I. and Italian Premier Vittorio Orlando." • What does this quote tell you about George’s feelings toward the Treaty? • Do you agree with him? If so.pbs.org 4 . skip that provision. who do you think will fight another war? • Do you think that if the treaty was different. Discuss the following questions to debrief: • How does your group’s treaty differ from the real Treaty of Versailles? • Was it difficult to make a decision deciding on the fate of Germany? • Did you agree or disagree with the role you were assigned? • Did your group find it easy or difficult to reach a consensus? What section of the treaty was the hardest to reach a consensus for? • What country was noticeably not represented in your conference? Why do you think this happened? How did this impact the decision making process? • How do you think people in France. assign an individual grade based upon student responses to their questions and a group grade based upon the final copy of the Versailles Treaty handout. or Italy – and have them write a letter to the editor explaining why they support or oppose the Treaty of Versailles. “Rise of Totalitarianism”. Provide them with frequent updates of the remaining time and circulate throughout the room to ensure that they stay on task.

000 323.9 billion Source: http://www.7 33.civics.212 4.000 22.1 billion $19.000 600.4 46.390 8.002 907 120.000 800.800 2.850.810 1.751 10.958 34.1 0.000 50.000 4.357.000 4.516 300 335.062.388.355.477 37.615.706 331.904 64.343 267.386.000 250.000 266.558 7.160.000 100.2 67.500 3 80.000 8.467 8.000 191.850.318 7.500 3.000.000 975.152.000 13.2 71.652 537.000 400.829 7.058 3. Country Total Mobilized Forces Killed Wounded Prisoners and Missing Total Casualties Casualties as % of Forces ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS Russia British Empire France Italy United States Japan Romania Serbia Belgium Greece Portugal Montenegro TOTAL 12.000 116. The data in the tables below reflect numbers from several sources and are consistent with most experts' current estimates.3 35.000 27.edu/historyonline/us32.686 21.000 5.061 27.620.190.000 42.750.4 57.216.222 3.200 8. the questionable accuracy of the recording system used and the loss or destruction of a number of official documents.706 2.000 204.pbs.700.000 750.8 34.3 40.200.197.000 707.800 2.800.digitalhistory.831 4. because of different definitions used each category.950.410.800.000 152.235 6.9 90.000 133.716 5. Exact figures are still in dispute.3 39.000 4.000 908.0 52.000 230.466.8 73.000 13.038.121.3 billion $17.210 535.904.189.706 45.html War Expenditures & National Income Nation British Empire France US Germany Expenditures $23 billion $9.018 1.org/greatwar/resources/casdeath_pop.659 1.810 1.266.919 7.528.3 ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS Germany AustriaHungary Turkey Bulgaria TOTAL GRAND TOTAL 11.0 34.2 22.800 650.000 947.000 2.371 1.000.000 22.188.148 44.090 9.000 152.000 87.World War I Casualty Figures One way to understand the violence and slaughter that occurred in the Great War is to examine the number of casualties and deaths.020.919 15.106 93.cfm National Income (1914) $11 billion Unavailable $37 billion $12 billion North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.629.631 4.000 33.000 1.427 76.773.404.000 65.150.200.1 7.142.000 7.000 12.000 12.5 Source: http://www.448 21.154 1.000 5.000 325.142.9 11.000 7.090.org 5 .200.700 1.500.uh.029 3.000 2.291 20.000 3.

civics.org 6 .World War I Maps Europe in 1914 German Colonies Togoland German New Guinea German West Africa German East Africa German Southwest Africa The Disputed Territories Trieste Tyrol Dalmatia Treaty of London (1915) North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.

Document A: The Fourteen Points Fourteen Points. Evacuation by the Central Powers of Serbia. 4. Evacuation of German troops from Russian territory. 2004. 11. 5. 7. answer the attached questions to create a peace proposal to present to your fellow world leaders. Source: Lyons. 3. 6. At the conference. 4th ed.com/EBchecked/topic/1381765/Treaty-of-London Wilson’s Reaction: […] Western Powers refused to grant Italy the extensive compensation it had expected along the Adriatic Coast. 13.org 7 . The Allies wanted Italy’s participation because of its border with Austria. documents below.civics. northern Dalmatia. Internationalization of the Dardanelles and self-determination for non-Turkish peoples under Turkish control. Germany welcomed this basis for peace when on the verge of defeat by the Allies some months later.US President Woodrow Wilson Directions: You are United States President. Print North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www. Woodrow Wilson. Freedom of the seas in peace and war. except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action to enforce international covenants. Britain. 1918.] Source: http://www. Italy joined the war [. 10. maps. You’re aiming for the following results at the Paris Peace Conference: to end war by creating a League of Nations. taking into account the interests of the colonial population as well as those of the rival colonial powers. Removal of international trade barriers where-ever possible and establishment of equal trading conditions among the nations accepting the peace. Readjustment of the frontiers of Italy along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. The others were not impressed with Italy’s performance in the war. then engaged in the Communist revolution. Adjustment of colonial claims. based upon the consent of the governed and sustained by the organized opinion of mankind. Evacuation of German troops from Belgium. you must try convince your fellow world leaders to adopt your resolution to World War I.britannica. These principles were set forth by Wilson in an address to the United States Congress on January 8. 1918. and Wilson was opposed to giving the Italians territory that contained predominantly South Slav populations. and Romania. World War II: A Short History. Despite opposition of most Italians. and Russia to bring Italy into World War I. and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the Balkan states.” Source: http://history. The. openly arrived at. 8.htm Document B: Treaty of London and Wilson’s Reaction Treaty of London (1915). 12. to determine its form of government without outside interference. with restoration to France of Alsace-Lorraine. to obtain a peace without victory.com/world-war-i/fourteen-points. In a speech on July 4. 14-15. Opportunity of autonomous development for the peoples of Austria-Hungary. southern Tyrol. to ensure that Germany is not destroyed. who favored neutrality. a set of 14 principles proposed by President Woodrow Wilson as a basis for ending World War I and for keeping the peace thereafter. In summary form. Michael. Upper Saddle River. Wilson described the spirit of the Fourteen Points: “What we seek is the reign of law. 9. Italy was promised Trieste. An independent Poland with access to the sea. Abolition of secret diplomacy by adoption of open covenants (agreements). Reduction of armaments to the lowest point consistent with public safety. and an opportunity for Russia. the Fourteen Points were: 1. 14. Establishment of a general association of nations to afford mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to large and small nations alike. A secret treaty between neutral Italy and the Allied forces of France. Evacuation and restoration by Germany of French territory. Montenegro. Using the casualty charts. granting of seaports to Serbia. and other territories in return for a pledge to enter the war within a month. NJ: Prentice Hall..howstuffworks. 2.

revisit the unresolved provision until a majority vote can be reached. or left alone? Why? Why might Wilson be willing to give Tyrol & Trieste to the Italians. the group will vote on what terms to adopt. how much and how did you arrive at that figure? Should Germany’s army and navy be disbanded? Why or why not? Does Germany have a right to defend itself from outside invasion? Should a Polish state be created out of German lands? Why or why not? Should the United States ask for any German colonies as part of the peace settlement? Why or why not? What German territory. 5. fill out the “Peace Terms Proposal” section of your handout. skip that provision. move onto the others and then. 6. 4. If there is a tie. Questions 1. 8. fill out the “Versailles Treaty” handout. Why do you think the Germans were quick to negotiate after Wilson delivered his Fourteen Points speech and after the US entered the war? Peace Terms Proposal War Guilt Clause Territorial Requests • • • • • United States: _________________________________________________________________________________________ France: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ United Kingdom: _______________________________________________________________________________________ Italy: _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Poland: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ War Reparations Amount Should There Be a League of Nations? North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www. should go to France or England? Should the Rhineland be given to France. using the documents provided and your knowledge of World War I. 9. Does any country bear the blame for starting World War I? If yes.Name ___________________________________ US President Woodrow Wilson Handout Directions: Answer the questions you’ve been assigned on a separate sheet of paper. Once the group has completed their votes. 3.civics. After each of the “Big Four” has presented. why? Do you think that Germany should pay war reparations to the Allies? If so. demilitarized (no German army stationed can be stationed there). 2. You will present your proposal to the other world leaders and attempt to persuade them to adopt all or parts of your treaty.org 8 . as opposed to many of his European counterparts – specifically French Premier Georges Clemenceau? Why might the United States be more forgiving towards Germany? 10. if any. but not Dalmatia? Why do you think that the President Wilson wanted to impose a soft punishment on Germany. 7. which one is guilty and why? If no. Next.

using the documents provided and your knowledge of World War I. fill out the “Peace Terms Proposal” section of your handout. You will present your proposal to the other world leaders and attempt to persuade them to adopt all or parts of your treaty. How do you think Clemenceau feels about a League of Nations? Why? Peace Terms Proposal War Guilt Clause Territorial Requests United States: _________________________________________________________________________________________________ France: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ United Kingdom: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Italy: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Poland: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ War Reparations Amount Should There Be a League of Nations? North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www. what and why? Should the Rhineland be given to France. fill out the “Versailles Treaty” handout. After each of the “Big Four” has presented.Name ___________________________________ French Premier Georges Clemenceau Directions: Answer the questions you’ve been assigned on a separate sheet of paper. Next. 2. Once the group has completed their votes. if any. 3. Does any country bear the blame for starting World War I? If yes. or left alone? Why? Why might Clemenceau be reluctant to give Italy all the territory it requested? Why do you think that France wanted to impose a harsh punishment on Germany? How does this contrast with Wilson’s proposals for peace? 10.civics. revisit the unresolved provision until a majority vote can be reached. skip that provision. 4. Questions 1. 9. If there is a tie. move onto the others and then. 7. 6. how much and how did you arrive at that figure? Should Germany’s army and navy be disbanded? Why or why not? Does Germany have a right to defend itself from outside invasion? Should a Polish state be created out of German lands? Why or why not? What German territory.org 9 . demilitarized (no German army stationed can be stationed there). which one is guilty and why? If no. the group will vote on what terms to adopt. 8. why? Do you think that Germany should pay war reparations to the Allies? If so. should go to France? Should any territory be given to the United States and Britain? If so. 5.

Wilson bores me with his Fourteen Points. 14-15.learningcurve.” Source: http://www. Michael.gov. Recognition by Germany of Great Britain’s protectorate over Egypt. 2004. documents below. Lyons Source: Lyons. oppose a League of Nations. At the conference.uk/greatwar Document E: Clauses of reparation restitutions and guarantees “Generally. to be made good at the expense of the German Government. or by sea as the result of German action. in 1914. 4th ed. you must try convince your fellow world leaders to adopt your resolution to World War I. You’re aiming for the following results at the Paris Peace Conference: punishing Germany.civics. Using the casualty charts. World War II: A Short History. Source: http://www. […] F. huge reparations from Germany. 4th ed. North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.org/wiki/Georges_Clemenceau Document C: Preliminaries of Peace with Germany “There are three essential problems which must be solved in order to reconcile the necessary strategic guarantees with the principle of the rights of the People: (1) Guarantees regarding the left bank of the Rhine (military neutralization without political interference) (2) Complete restoration of Poland (which will deal a final blow to Prussian hegemony) (3) The future government of Germany (in conformity with the right of nations to the free choice of their own system of Government). Print. Document A: Short History of France and Germany “Clemenceau desired a harsh peace that would keep Germany permanently crippled or at least postpone its ability to make war for as long as possible.French Premier Georges Clemenceau Directions: You are French Premier. of course. all damage occasioned by the war either in Allied territories which have been occupied by German troops and which have been subjected to bombardment by the German Fleet or aeroplanes. God Almighty has only Ten!” Source: http://en. The French leader hated the Germans and was contemptuous of [US President] Wilson. Cession by the German Government of its sovereign rights over German overseas possessions G. Upper Saddle River. Print. He was determined that it should never happen again.org 10 .learningcurve. Source: http://www. Lyons Source: Lyons. In keeping with French war aims. 2004. and to disband or weaken the German army. Cession to the reconstituted State of Poland of the Polish districts of Prussia. Recognition by Germany of the French protectorate over Morocco in its entirety […] H. and of Upper Silesia as well as access to the Baltic. NJ: Prentice Hall.gov. Georges Clemenceau.15. Michael.” – Historian Michael J. Document B: Clemenceau’s Attitude Toward US President Wilson’s Treaty Proposal “Mr.learningcurve. Restitution to France of the provinces of Germany and [Alsace and] Lorraine seized from France in 1815 and 1871 […] B.gov.wikiquote. of Posnanina. Clemenceau favored its separation from Germany and the establishment of an independent Rhenish state. why.” – Historian Michael J. Clemenceau had experienced two German invasions of France during his lifetime – in 1870 and. return Alsace-Lorraine to France.uk/greatwar Document F: More Territorial Requests “A much more important provision concerned the Rhineland.uk/greatwar Document D: Territorial Clauses “These conditions will indicated the new frontiers of Germany under the form of restittuion of those promises which Prussia had unjustly incorporated either in her own territory or in that of the Germany Empire: A. NJ: Prentice Hall. answer the attached questions to create a peace proposal to present to your fellow world leaders. World War II: A Short History. maps. p. Upper Saddle River.

civics. 9. the group will vote on what terms to adopt. 8. should go to England? Should any territory be given to the United States and France? If so. skip that provision. You will present your proposal to the other world leaders and attempt to persuade them to adopt all or parts of your treaty. If there is a tie. fill out the “Versailles Treaty” handout. why? Do you think that Germany should pay war reparations to the Allies? If so. 3. Once the group has completed their votes. what and why? Should the Rhineland be given to France. 6.org 11 . demilitarized (no German army stationed can be stationed there). 2. After each of the “Big Four” has presented. or left alone? Why? Why might Lloyd George be reluctant to give Italy all the territory it requested? Why do you think that Britain wanted to impose a moderate punishment on Germany? How does this contrast with Wilson’s and Clemenceau’s proposals for peace? 10. Next. Questions 1. How do you think David Lloyd George feels about a League of Nations? Why? Peace Terms Proposal War Guilt Clause Territorial Requests United States: _________________________________________________________________________________________________ France: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ United Kingdom: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Italy: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Poland: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ War Reparations Amount Should There Be a League of Nations? North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www. 7. revisit the unresolved provision until a majority vote can be reached. if any. using the documents provided and your knowledge of World War I. move onto the others and then. which one is guilty and why? If no. 4.Name ___________________________________ British Prime Minister David Lloyd George Directions: Answer the questions you’ve been assigned on a separate piece of paper. Does any country bear the blame for starting World War I? If yes. fill out the “Peace Terms Proposal” section of your handout. 5. how much and how did you arrive at that figure? Should Germany’s army and navy be disbanded? Why or why not? Does Germany have a right to defend itself from outside invasion? Should a Polish state be created out of German lands? Why or why not? What German territory.

therefore. and the entire area was to remain permanently demilitarized. documents below. Document A: David Lloyd George’s Reaction to Working with President Wilson and Premier Clemenceau “I think I did as well as might be expected. especially reparation. and to safeguard Britain’s naval superiority. Print. maps. and will do everything possible to enable the German people to get upon their legs again.uk/greatwar Document C: “Some considerations [from David-Lloyd George] for the Peace Conference before they finally draft their terms” “If we are wise. they were to withdraw their forces. but the Allies were allowed to maintain troops there for 15 years. answer the attached questions to create a peace proposal to present to your fellow world leaders. Michael. made upon the human heart by four years of unexampled slaughter will disappear with the hearts upon which it has been marked by the terrible sword of the great war. You’re aiming for the following results at the Paris Peace Conference: a ‘just’ peace that would be tough enough to ‘make Germany pay’. arrogance. an expansion of Britain’s empire. displayed in the hour of triumph will never be forgotten or forgiven. Using the casualty charts. reduce her armaments to a mere police force and end her navy to that of a fifth rate power.” Source: http://www.British Prime Minister David-Lloyd George Directions: You are British Prime Minister. World War II: A Short History.history. NJ: Prentice Hall. but would still allow Germany to trade. David-Lloyd George. Our terms may be severe. while just. p. The impression. the deep impression.” Source: Lyons.org 12 . we shall offer to Germany a peace. Michael.com/this-day-in-history/italian-delegates-return-to-paris-peace-conference North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.” Source: http://www. for their part.15.gov.gov. NJ: Prentice Hall. 2004.15. The maintenance of peace will then depend upon there being no causes of exasperation constantly stirring up the spirit of patriotism. put it in the forefront of the peace that once she accepts our terms.uk/greatwar Document D: Rhineland “Under this agreement [proposed by George and Wilson] the Rhineland remained part of Germany. 4th ed.learningcurve.” Source: Lyons. I would.civics. Document E: Allied Feelings towards the Italians “The leaders of Britain and France. they viewed Italy with annoyance. deeply regretted making such promises [of territory in Austria-Hungary in exchange for Italian participation in WWI]. Document B: “Some considerations [from David-Lloyd George] for the Peace Conference before they finally draft their terms” “You may strip Germany of her colonies. will be preferable for all sensible men to the alternative of Bolshevism [communism]. Print. we will open to her the raw materials and markets of the world on equal terms with ourselves.” Source: http://www. failed to honor their naval promises and repeatedly asked for resources which they then failed to put towards the war effort. 2004. which. We cannot both cripple her and expect her to pay. Upper Saddle River. But injustice. you must try convince your fellow world leaders to adopt your resolution to World War I. feeling the Italians had botched their attacks on Austria-Hungary during the war. all the same in the end if she feels that she has been unjustly treated in the peace of 1919 she will find mean of exacting retribution from her conquerors. World War II: A Short History. […]. Upper Saddle River. p. they may be stern and even ruthless but at the same time they can be so just that the country on which they are imposed will feel in its heart that it has no right to complain.learningcurve. When this period expired. At the conference. of justice or of fair play to achieve redress. 4th ed. seated as I was between Jesus Christ and Napoleon Bonaparte.

the group will vote on what terms to adopt. 3. why? Do you think that Germany should pay war reparations to the Allies? If so. if any. Does any country bear the blame for starting World War I? If yes. and Britain? If so. Questions 1. or left alone? Why? What type of punishment do you think Italy wanted to impose upon Germany – harsh or lenient? Why? What problems at home does Orlando face? What do you think will happen if he is unable to secure new land for Italy? 10.Name ___________________________________ Italian Premier Vittorio Orlando Directions: Answer the questions you’ve been assigned on a separate sheet of paper. After each of the “Big Four” has presented. 4. move onto the others and then. 8. using the documents provided and your knowledge of World War I. 6. 9. Next. should go to Italy? Should Italy request more than what was promised by the Treaty of London? Should any territory be given to the United States. revisit the unresolved provision until a majority vote can be reached. Once the group has completed their votes.civics. 2. skip that provision. fill out the “Versailles Treaty” handout. France. If there is a tie. how much and how did you arrive at that figure? Should Germany’s army and navy be disbanded? Why or why not? Does Germany have a right to defend itself from outside invasion? Should a Polish state be created out of German lands? Why or why not? What German territory. 7. You will present your proposal to the other world leaders and attempt to persuade them to adopt all or parts of your treaty. which one is guilty and why? If no. 5. How do you think Vittorio Orlando feels about a League of Nations? Why? Peace Terms Proposal War Guilt Clause Territorial Requests United States: _________________________________________________________________________________________________ France: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ United Kingdom: _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Italy: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Poland: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ War Reparations Amount Should There Be a League of Nations? North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.org 13 . fill out the “Peace Terms Proposal” section of your handout. what and why? Should the Rhineland be given to France. demilitarized (no German army stationed can be stationed there).

The Italian flag became a powerful focus of division and hatred.civics. You’re aiming for the following results at the Paris Peace Conference: increase Italian territorial holdings and secure war reparations. the Allies gave them that and more.000 dead. offered much more substantial gains of territory—most of which currently fell within the Austro-Hungarian Empire—and it was under these terms that Italy signed the Treaty of London on April 26. Vittorio Orlando. as Foreign Minister Sonnino urged. as the Left Liberals and Republicans advocated? “ Source: http://www. and trade unionists were disgusted by the costs of the conflict and were inspired by the revolutions in Russia and Germany. Using the casualty charts. answer the attached questions to create a peace proposal to present to your fellow world leaders. Carrying out its part of the bargain. and a legacy of bitterness and division. In the treaty.000 wounded. and territory from the Ottoman Empire.Italian Premier Vittorio Orlando Directions: You are Italian Premier. or should it support U. At the conference. These divisions greatly weakened the postwar political regime and fractured elements of society. at the Paris Peace Conference (1919–20). although they defended the idea of the nation and the war record of the Italian army. you must try convince your fellow world leaders to adopt your resolution to World War I.britannica.org 14 . maps. but at a huge cost: some 600. Many workers. therefore. try to secure the terms of the Treaty of London. President Woodrow Wilson and adhere to the “principle of nationality”—that is. the pro-war groups were themselves bitterly divided when the war ended. Should Italy. documents below. 1915. War memorials were contested all over the peninsula. Returning veterans expected the land that they had been promised in 1917–18.com/EBchecked/topic/297474/Italy/27757/World-War-I-and-fascism North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www.history. where the [former Italian Primer Giovanni] Giolittian majority had never supported the war. peasants. including parts of Dalmatia and numerous islands along Austria-Hungary's Adriatic coast.com/this-day-in-history/allies-sign-treaty-of-london Document B: The cost of victory “Italy won the war. Document A: Treaty of London (1915) “The Entente. Italy was promised the fulfillment of its national dream: control over territory on its border with Austria-Hungary stretching from Trentino through the South Tyrol to Trieste. The victorious patriots and nationalists now detested parliament.” Source: http://www. the Albanian port city of Vlore (Italian: Valona) and a central protectorate in Albania. 950.S. Socialists. be willing to accept less territory in the Adriatic region. for its part. Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary (but not on Germany) on May 23. Furthermore.

org 15 . Great Britain. The League of Nations The Allied Powers have ____________________________ President Woodrow Wilson’s idea for the creation of a League of Nations because ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www. 1919. France. War Guilt Clause ____________________________________ is responsible for unleashing the terrible forces of “the war to end all wars” because ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ II. Territorial Changes The Allied Powers have decided that the following German lands are to be conceded to the following powers: France Shall receive _________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ The United States Shall receive _______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Great Britain Shall receive ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Italy Shall receive _________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ III.civics. and Italy proclaim that…. the nations of the United States. I. Polish Question On the question of the creation of a Polish State in the Eastern lands of Germany. The Allied Powers have decreed that _______________________________________________ because __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ IV.Treaty of Versailles On this Day of June 28.

West Prussia and most of Posen province to Poland. The war ended on November 11. Part I was the Covenant (constitution) of the League of Nations. and the Dutch government refused to turn him over to the Allies. and the Treaty of Sèvres with Turkey. Germany surrendered its colonies. it also established the League of Nations. the Eupen and Malmèdy districts to Belgium. The other parts dealt with the boundaries of Germany. 1919. The treaty provided that Kaiser William II should be tried as a war criminal. and they all became mandated territories under League of Nations supervision. In addition to ending the war with Germany. Germany made their final reparations payment in 2010. and Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy. Provision was made for the Permanent Court of International Justice. with 32 countries represented but with Germany excluded.000 km 2 ) of territory. and the Nazi party's pledge to repudiate it helped Adolf Hitler come to power in 1933. Urundi and Ruanda to Belgium. Under the famous "war guilt" clause.000 officers and men and the navy to a few small ships. The United States signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921. ( German Danzig (now Gdańsk. The major role was taken by the "Big Four": President Wilson. partly because of objections to the section that established the League of Nations. German rights in Shantung province. 1918. The treaty provided for plebiscites in Schleswig and Upper Silesia. and it was later given to Lithuania. and a district in Silesia to Czechoslovakia. In Upper Silesia the majority voted in favor of Germany. The peace conference met on January 8. Germany lost about 25. German fortifications were forbidden within 50 kilometers (about 31 miles) of the river. Poland) became a free city under the League. Other Penalties On Germany The German army was restricted to 100. signed on June 28. including areas with some of its richest mineral resources. East of the Rhine. Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain. Hitler ignored the treaty's restrictions on rearmament and soon built Germany into the strongest military power in the world. Germany gave up the Memel district to the Allies. The Germans denounced the Versailles Treaty as wicked and unjust. and it went into effect on January 10. Nauru Island to Great Britain and the German Pacific islands north of the Equator to Japan.Treaty of Versailles Summary The Treaty of Versailles is the peace treaty at the end of World War I. northern Schleswig went to Denmark and southern Schleswig remained in Germany. German Loss of Territory Germany ceded Alsace-Lorraine to France. the establishment of new countries in Europe. 1919.000 square miles (65. Premier Georges Clemenceau of France. Allied troops were to occupy the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years. the Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria. the Allies then divided the territory between Poland and Germany. and South-West Africa (Namibia) to South Africa. the "Polish Corridor. The treaty placed the Saar Basin under League of Nations control for 15 years and turned the coal mines over to France. Germany was compelled to accept responsibility for all the loss and damage caused by the war and to pay reparations for damages done to civilians.org 16 . The peace conference met in Paris. The United States Senate rejected the treaty. 1920.civics. But the former emperor had fled to the Netherlands. German New Guinea was awarded to Australia. Terms of the Treaty The treaty had 15 parts. with an armistice based on President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. were granted to Japan. air forces were forbidden. the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary. The other nations ratified the treaty. Part XIII created the International Labor Organization. After the voting. Kamerun (Cameroon) and Togoland were divided between Great Britain and France. German Samoa to New Zealand. and other matters. by Germany and by the Allied and Associated Powers. North Carolina Civic Education Consortium www. In the east a strip of Polish land." separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany. German East Africa (now part of Tanzania) went to Great Britain. war reparations. Separate treaties were made with Germany's allies: the Treaty of Saint-Germain with Austria. but the treaty was signed in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles. China.

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