Welfare of Masses


Under the Guidance Of

Toward the fulfillment of Third Year Mechanical Engineering, Semester-I

Of University of Pune Academic Year 2010-11



This is to certify that Holkar Gaurav Pandurang Roll No. TM-140. A student of T.E. (Mechanical Engineering Department) Batch 2010-11, has satisfactorily completed a seminar report on “Crankless Engine” under the guidance of Prof. L.R.Bhandarkar towards the partial fulfillmeent of the Third Year Mechanical Engineering, Semester I of the Pune University.

Prof. L.R.Bhandarkar
(Seminar Guide) (Examiner)

Prof Mrs R.R.Desai



Desai.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take up the opportunity to express our gratitude towards all those who have been instrumental in the completion of this seminar.R. Head of Department and also the staff of Mechanical Department.Bhandarkar for his precious guidance and encouragement throughout the development of the seminar. I also express our sincere thanks to Mrs. R. R. Holkar Gaurav Pandurang TE (Mechanical) Roll No. TM-140 3 . I am extremely thankful to the seminar guide Prof. L.

2A Side Thurst 4.Need of work 3.References Figure Index Figure 2.Advantages 7.Future Scope 9.1 Forces on piston 3.Introduction To Revetec Engine 5.Conclucions 10.2Rotating Parts of a Revetec engine Page No 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 17 18 19 20 20 21 22 Page No 8 10 11 12 12 14 17 18 18 19 4 .1 Engine Components 3.1 Cross Section of a single cylinder Engine 3.4Effect of Inertia forces on crank moment 4.3Torque Lever on the Cam 5.3Inertia forces on connecting rod 3.1 Inability to utilize entire gas force 3.1Proposed modified cam engine 4.Drawbacks 8.2Crank moment for various positions of piston 3.1 Prototype engines 6.1Cam driven Revetec Engine 5.2Cam Design 5.Contents Topic 1.2Cam Profile Design 4.Basic Engine Components 2.2Unbalanced Forces on the Engine components 3.1A Inertia Forces 3.Cam Engine 4.Introduction 2.1Construction 4.

However there is limited scope for development of the engine in its present configuration. In this seminar. an attempt as been made to point out these drawbacks and a modification has been suggested. are resulting from the mechanism these engines use to transfer force and motion. since the drawbacks that these engines suffer from. 5 . which has the potential to solve these drawbacks and much more. provided that extensive research and development goes into the optimization of the proposed design. it is of prime importance that the efficiency of these engines is improved upon to give better fuel economy with lower emissions.Abstract: The conventional engine that we have been using for over a century suffers from certain inherent drawbacks. These shortfalls are a major reason why these engines operate on very low thermal efficiencies (typically 30 %). In the present scenario.

Engines) External Combustion Engines (E. Engines are widely used for motive applications. I. C. combustion takes place inside the engine while in E. The heat engine basically converts the chemical energy of fuel into thermal energy by a process called combustion and utilizes this thermal energy to do useful work. 6 . C Engines) Internal or External combustion engines are classified by the fact that in I. While power from man’s muscles and that from animals were harnessed before. The use of E. engines. One of the major reasons for our rapid development has been due to improvements in transportation. Heat engines can be broadly classified as • • Internal Combustion Engines (I. is the fact that we are capable of sustained generation and wide use of mechanical power. C. Engines. C. C. the boost to development came when man learnt the art to convert energy from one form to other. As a result. [1] The machine which does this job of energy conversion is called an Engine. Engines the combustion takes place outside the engine and only the heat energy developed by the combustion process is utilized in the engine. Normally most of the engines convert thermal energy into mechanical energy and hence they are called ‘Heat Engines’. C.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The distinctive feature of our civilization today. one that makes it different from all others. Engines in transportation is questionable since they require bulky apparatus and operate on much lower thermal efficiencies than the I. C.

1 ENGINE COMPONENTS A cross-section of the single cylinder spark ignition engine with overhead valves is shown in fig. 3.2] 7 .[1.Chapter2 BASIC ENGINE COMPONENTS AND NOMENCLATURE Even though the reciprocating internal combustion engine looks quite simple. There are hundreds of components which have to perform satisfactorily to produce power. 2. they are highly complex machines. The major components of the engine and their functions are briefly described below.

Engine mainly because the mechanism that the conventional engine uses (viz.Fig.C.1 INABILITY TO UTILISE THE ENTIRE GAS FORCE The first and most important drawback of the conventional engine is the fact that it cannot utilize the entire pressure generated by the combustion of fuel and convert it into usable work. This is inherent to the I.1 CROSS-SECTION OF A SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINE Chapter 3 NEED OF WORK 3. 8 . single slider crank chain  I. 2.C.

This moment is not enough to efficiently transfer motion to the crank.[3. b). As we see in fig 4. however it is not substantial until 30 deg ATDC and reaches its maximum value only after 40% of the piston stroke is completed. i.6] 9 . As the piston moves away from TDC.e. a. As we move further down the stroke the crank moment increases. the crank moment obtained by the connecting rod at TDC is necessarily nil as the connecting rod and the crank arms are in line with each other and there is no effective moment arm.Engine mechanism) is itself inefficient in converting the reciprocating motion of the piston to the rotary motion of the crankshaft. c) and then drops at a rapid rate which mirrors its rise.4. at about 60 deg ATDC (fig 4. a very small crank moment is obtained (fig 4. Thus it is very evident that the (combustion characteristics of the fuel) has nothing to do with the mechanism by which power is transmitted from the piston to the drive line. in a conventional engine.

3. The path of motion of the connecting rod is not along or about the cylinder axis.FIG.1 FORCES ON THE PISTON A)INERTIA FORCES The con rod gives rise to considerable inertia forces. The weight of the con rod is also not uniformly distributed. The con rod has to be robust rigid and tough to withstand the 10 . but it pulsates on either side of it. but concentrated at its ends.

[4] The large inertia forces due to the mass of the con rod and the components of the other forces due to the angularity of the con rod causes increase in piston side thrust and also loads the bearings heavily(fig. 9).2CRANK MOMENT FOR VARIOUS POSITIONS OF THE PISTON 3.effects of these unbalanced forces and also to transmit the high compressive stresses at the start of the expansion stroke. This causes increased friction losses and reduces thermal efficiency and also increases noise and vibration in the engine. 3. (a) (b) (c) FIG.2 Unbalanced Forces on the Engine Components A) SIDE THRUST 11 .

more gas force can be converted into usable power which would be available at the driveline. 3.6] FIG. However at any other position of the piston.The connecting rod (con rod) is one of the components of the engine that is a major source of unbalanced forces in the engine. If these forces were reduced or eliminated. the con rod is in line with the crank and the entire gas force is transmitted along the axis of the con rod.[3. Hence this would not give any effective moment arm to the crank and would only load the bearings. This is called piston side thrust. but it eats away a major chunk of the gas-pressure moment in the initial and crucial stage of the expansion stroke 12 .3 INERTIA FORCES ON THE CONNECTING ROD The unbalanced inertia forces due to the various reciprocating and pulsating engine components has to be overcome by the engine to produce any usable power.a we can see that at TDC or BDC. Even though the inertia forces assist to some extent in the expansion and the compression stroke. In fig 4. the angularity of the connecting rod causes it to press the piston against the cylinder wall and the cylinder wall to react against the piston.

As a result the weight of the engine further increases and power to weight ratio of the engine is considerably lowered. 3. 1) Remove inefficient engine components i.e. the crank arm and the connecting rod. a design modification of the motion transfer is suggested. Also about 25% of the usable heat is lost to the exhaust because the engine is not able to convert the gas force into usable work 4) THE CAM ENGINE: In this seminar. 13 .4 EFFECT OF INERTIA FORCES ON CRANK MOMENT B) FORCES DUE TO OTHER FACTORS To accommodate the entire assembly and also to damp some of the vibrations caused due to the reciprocating parts.FIG. the engine block becomes tough. It consists of the following basic changes. This further increase the load on the drive and ultimately lesser tractive force is available to the driver. heavy and bulky. about 15% of the power generated by the engine is lost as frictional losses. Thus we can see that due to various drawbacks in the configuration of the basic conventional engine.

the piston would act as the follower and is provided with a roller bearing with the inner race fixed to the piston assembly and the outer race fixed to roll on the cam profile (fig. lot of the engine weight has already been reduced. FIG. 14 .2) Replace the components by a cam of suitable profile. 11).1 CONSTRUCTION The engine would consist of a bilobed cam mounted on the splined crankshaft. In this case. Since heavy engine components like the connection rod and the crank arm has been eliminated.1 PROPOSED MODIFIED ENGINE 4. Further reduction in weight can bed brought about by reducing or eliminating the piston skirts and also by drilling holes on the cam. 4.

The movement if the piston in a conventional engine is the function of crank rotation. we can control the displacement. Another drawback of the conventional engine. The cam profile is also customized to give maximum torque lever over a greater no. after the piston has covered about 40% of its travel. However in case of the cam engine we can customize the piston acceleration and alter it to suit a particular fuel and / or torque application. app. This problem is overcome using the cam of suitable profile which would give maximum mechanical advantage at around 20 deg ATDC (i. One thing that has to be considered in the modified design is that. This increases wear and thus lubrication requirement of the assembly. In the cam engine the piston rod is made integral to the piston and two roller bearings are mounted on either side of it. velocity and acceleration of the piston by controlling the cam profile. the cranking distance is determined by the length from the point of contact of the bearing with the cam to the centre of the output shaft. i. However since the piston is acting as the follower in the modified engine. side thrust is considerable reduced. thus losing valuable cylinder pressure. however. of degrees of rotation which transfers the torque to the output shaft more efficiently over the entire operating range. Some side thrust. of degrees of rotation. The cam can be designed to provide the same max torque lever as that of the conventional engine over a larger no.We have seen how insufficient the conventional engine is in converting the gas forces into usable force. we have seen is that the piston displacement. It is also seen that the force ‘Ps’ generated due to the angularity of the con rod causes side thrust on the piston during major part of the stoke. so as to attain better control over the combustion. In the conventional engine. For the entire stoke. will 15 . velocity and acceleration is a function of crank position. ATDC.e. Since the gas force is transmitted along the axis of the piston rod to the roller bearings. one of the major hurdles facing the of force was the fact that mechanical advantage is obtained at around 60 deg. 10 % of the piston travel).e. However this is a major drawback as the motion of the piston should compliment the rate of expansion of the burnt gases so as to fully utilize the potentially available gas force without shock and vibration.

This eliminates the need for large piston skirts as in the case of conventional engine.2CAM DESIGN The cam for the model was designed to simulate the same piston motion as that of the conventional engine for the purpose of 16 . 4.still be present due to the reaction from the bearings. Also since the side thrust is reduced the effective gas force available at the lever arm is increased and more torque is generated on the output shaft. The con. In the cam engine the same mechanical advantage is provided by the cam in a much smaller space. Due to its pulsating motion causes vibration in the engine. Rod is usually kept 4 times the length of the crank arm. Since parts like the gudgeon pin and the crank pin are eliminated.) available to the crank and also increases friction losses by inducing piston side thrust. a. friction losses would be substantially reduced. Rod is an irregularly reciprocating member and gives rise to unbalanced inertia forces which reduces the effective crank movement (fig. there are no friction losses due to these parts. This increases the size f the engine and hence its weight. Hence there would not be much change in the overall weight of the engine due to the cam. This result in more power and increase in the thermal efficiency of the engine. Since the cam engine has fewer moving parts than the conventional engine. The weight of the cam is comparable to the weight of the crank arm with the balancing weight. (n=l/r=4). Hence the cam engine would be much smaller in sixe than a comparable conventional engine. To have optimum mechanical advantage the length of the con. b. Eliminating the connecting rod gives the cam engine two major advantages over the conventional engine. But this is much lesser than what exists in a conventional engine.

The variation of piston displacement with respect to crank rotation is given in the graph. (fig.4.2)Cam Profile Design 17 ..comparing and analyzing the two configurations.2). 4.

4.[6] 5)Introduction to Revetec Engine 18 . This would also help in keeping the idle speed of the engine lower.(a) FIG. The basic advantage of the cam engine is that we can make the cam give the maximum mechanical advantage when there is maximum gas pressure in the cylinder.3 TORQUE LEVER ON THE CAM (b) Of course the cam provides lesser and lesser torque lever as the piston advances in its stroke but cylinder pressure also decreases as the stroke advances. Thus we can get more power output from the engine with the same quantity of fuel burnt.

5.1)Cam Driven Revetec Engine Revetec Engine consists of Two counter rotating “Tribolate”(three lobbed) cams geared both cams contribute to forward motion. The expanded gas then forces the bearings down 19 .Two bearings run along the profile of the cam(four bearing in all) stay in contact with cam at all the time.2)Rotating parts in a Revetec Engine The two cams rotate and raise the piston with a scissor-like action to the bearings.5. Once at the top of the stroke the air/fuel mixture is fired.The bearings are mounted on the underside of the two interconnected pistons which maintain the bearing to Trilobe clearance through the stroke.

The piston assembly slides rigidly through the block via an oil pressure fed guiding system eliminating piston to cylinder-bore contact. (after the piston has moved through just over 40% of its travel. machined. torque requirements and/or rev range. This compares to a conventional engine that reaches maximum mechanical advantage around 60-70deg ATDC. The counter rotation is performed by a reverse gear set at a 1:3 ratio shaft providing two strokes of a piston to 360 degrees of output shaft rotation.Current) The X4v2 is the current prototype under development and based on the X4v1 engine design. A conventional engine's turning distance is half of the piston stroke.1) Prototype Engines X4v2 Prototype .4litre (2007. The effective cranking distance is determined by the length from the point of bearing contact to the centre of the output shaft (not the stroke). assembled and running by the end of 2007. One module can either comprise of two trilobate cams and either two. losing approximately half of the cylinder pressure). The point of maximum mechanical advantage or transfer is around 20-30deg ATDC (when the piston moves approximately 10% of its travel) making the most of the high cylinder pressure. and also reduces piston side shock making ceramic technology suitable. and was fitted and trialled in the GTM trike. The engine was independently tested by Orbital Australia and achieved a top BSFC figure 20 .2. 5. The X4v2 prototype engine was designed. The same as a conventional engine.the ramps of the cams spreading them apart ending the stroke. This reduces wear and lubrication requirements in the cylinder. The piston acceleration throughout the stroke is controlled by the cam “grind” which can be altered to suit a wide variety of fuels. The engine completed tests on the dynamometer. or four pistons in an “X” configuration.

As a result of fewer components. diesel and marine engines. pumps and generators.5% efficiency. 21 . light aircraft engines. buses. Fewer moving and total components.[5]  Approximately one half the size and weight of a conventional engine (for similar applications) combined with improved output substantially increases power/weight and torque/weight ratio.207g/(kW-h) or 39.  more easily manufactured than conventional engines. motorcycles. Applications: The advantages of Revetec’s engine technology can be applied to most internal and external combustion engines for use in motor vehicles. Identical cylinder head assembly (“top end”) to conventional engines. trucks.  Most existing head technology can be either adapted or utilized. 6) ADVANTAGES On comparing with the conventional engine the cam engine has the following advantages.

petrol.  7)Drawbacks  Developing the optimum cam profile would require extensive testing and research. 22 .Many alternative internal combustion engine designs are proposed every year. Most designs would require substantial development and manufacturing investment to enable them to fully realize their advantages. natural of forced aspiration. diesel or gas. two-stroke.  The cam follower mechanism may suffer from the jump phenomenon at high speeds. However a very few of them are developed commercially. This can be overcome by mounting a counter-rotating balancer shaft on the output shaft. Flexible design .can be four-stroke. 8)Conclusions: 1.  The engine would suffer from balancing problems as the cam is not a symmetrical member. Eliminated irregularly reciprocating components such as connecting rods. However it can be over come by using two pistons in an opposed cylinder configuration.

It still needs a lot of development. 9)Future Scope C.M. manufacturing investment to use and disposal. more efficiency and more mileage.F. The cam profile can be perfected upon by model testing and PRO-E analysis. Further I would like to modify an actual engine to the proposed configuration to actually visualize its effects and feasibility. Engine has been developed for more then a century and carries a vast knowledge base with it.E.2. analysis and F.D. 23 . It can use the advancements in ignition control. 4.I. I have simulated the motion of the piston with the model to show that motion transfer is possible.However automobile manufacturers prefer to invest on the tried and tested technology of the conventional engine that is well known and well provided for in the automotive sphere – design.However recent restriction on emissions and the looming shortage of fossil fuel has forced manufacturers to look for alternative technology that would give more power. but its basic configuration provides a promising answer to a lot of questions. The CAM Engine can use this extensive development to enhance its performance even further. air-fuel mixture preparation control etc. 3.The S. analysis could be done on the engine components to obtain optimum design of the components.


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