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1

SEMINAR REPORT

On

CHAMELEON CARD


Submitted Ior partial IulIillment oI award oI the degree oI

Bachelor of Technology

In

Electronics and Communication Engineering


Submitted By

PALLAVI PANDEY
0819231027


Under the Guidance oI

MR. NAGENDRA YADAV
Assistant proIessor



Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering
G. L. BA1A1 INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Plot no. 2, Knowledge Park III, Gr. Noida
Session: 2010-11



Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering
G. L. BA1A1 INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Approved by AICTE, Govt. of India & Affiliated to U.P. Technical
University, Lucknow]

CERTIFICATE



CertiIied that Pallavi Pandey have carried out the seminar work presented
in this report entitled ~Chameleon Card Ior the award oI Bachelor of
Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering during the
academic session 111 Irom Gautam Buddha Technical University,
Lucknow. The seminar embodies result oI the work and studies carried out
by Student himselI and the contents oI the report do not Iorm the basis Ior
the award oI any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else.






Mrs. Ananya Karmakar Mr.Nagendra Yadav
(Seminar Coordinator) (Seminar Guide)
Assisstant ProIessor Assisstant ProIessor
EC Deptt. EC Deptt.





ProI A. K. Tiwari
H. O. D., EC Deptt


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



I am very thankIul to everyone who all supported me, Ior I have completed my
seminar eIIectively and moreover on time.
I am equally grateIul to my guide Mr. Nagendra Yadav. He gave me moral
support and guided me in diIIerent matters regarding the topic. He had been very
kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines oI this seminar and correcting
my doubts. I thank him Ior his overall supports.
Last but not the least, I would like to thank my Iriends who helped me a lot in
gathering diIIerent inIormation, collecting data and guiding me Irom time to time
in making this seminar .Despite oI their busy schedules, they gave me diIIerent
ideas in making this seminar unique.
Thanking you
Pallavi Pandey
B.tech rd year
191


















TABLE OF CONTENTS



CHP NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT 5

1. INTRODUCTION 6

2. NEED FOR CHAMELEON CARD 8
.1 INCREASING CREDIT FRAUDS 8
. IDENTITY THEFT 11
. DUMPSTER DIVING 12

. SOCIAL ENGINEERING 12
.5 PISHING 13
.5.1 Pay Pal 14
3. APPEALING FEATURE OF CHAMELEON CARD 15
.1 RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION 15
.1.1 Antenna 16
.1. Transceiver 17
.1. Transponder 19
.1. Transducer 20
.1.5 Barcode 21
4. SECURITY FEATURE OF CHAMELEON CARD 23
.1 Biometric 23
. Authentication 24
. Finger scanning 25
. Ridges 26
.5 BiIurcations 27

5. HOW DOES A CHAMELEON CARD WORKS 28

6. CONCLUSION 29

7. LIST OF REFERENCES 30

5

ABSTRACT



The Chameleon Card is a programmable card in development at the
Chameleon Network that can represent each oI owner`s credit, debit and
consumer cards as required, making it unnecessary to carry all oI the
aIorementioned.
Chameleon Networks has a plan Ior both reducing all that clutter in your wallet
and making it a lot more diIIicult to steal your credit cards. The Chameleon
cards black strip covers a programmable transducer that mimic the inIormation
oI the magnetic strips oI the cards it is replacing. A new handheld device Irom
chameleon, the pocket vault, programs the credit card to take place oI any
credit card the consumer chooses Ior transaction.
The chameleon card will take the Iorm oI whatever piece oI plastic you
desirecredit card, ID, discount card, membership card, ATM. Just use your
Iingerprint to code the blank Chameleon Card to take on the identity oI the card
oI your choice and it appears Ior use. It can be used anywhere a magnetic
striped card can be scanned. Reload the Chameleon Card aIter use. Worried
about losing it? No problem, it selIerases aIter use or in 15 minutes. The
device that creates the Chameleon Card is the Pocket Vault, Irom Chameleon
Network. The Pocket Vault stores all the cards oI your choice and is being
heralded as the world's Iirst electronic wallet. Anticipated Cost: $19.
Shoppers will be able to swipe their chameleon cards through the same
magnetic readers used in stores and banks today. And instead oI reading bar
codes oII the back oI customerloyalty cards, retail barcode readers will scan
the bar code displayed on the pocket vault itselI.













CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION


Chameleon Network, in Concord, Massachusetts, plans to replace the stacks oI
credit, bank and customerloyalty cards burdening modern consumers with a
single, rewritable Chameleon Card, which works just like an ordinary card with
a magnetic strip.
The Chameleon Card's black strip covers a programmable transducer that
mimics the inIormation on the magnetic strips oI the cards it is replacing. A
new handheld device Irom Chameleon, the Pocket Vault, programs the
Chameleon Card to take the place oI any credit card the consumer chooses Ior
a transaction.
Shoppers will be able to swipe their Chameleon Cards through the same
magnetic readers used in stores and banks today. And instead oI reading bar
codes oII the back oI customerloyalty cards, retail barcode readers will scan
the bar code displayed on the Pocket Vault itselI.
The Pocket Vault has a slot Ior the Chameleon Card, but has no buttons or
stylus. The device, which will be about halI the size oI an iPaq pocket PC, will
be on sale in stores such as Best Buy and Circuit City as early as January 5,
according to Chameleon CEO Todd Burger.
Firsttime users oI the Pocket Vault will read their old credit cards with the
device, which stores their inIormation internally and backs it up to an online or
local database in case the Pocket Vault is lost or stolen. Each credit card stored
on the Pocket Vault is then represented by an icon on the device's touchscreen
display.
The Pocket Vault also prompts its owners to place their Iingerprints on the
device's reader pad to create a biometric proIile.
To use the Chameleon Card Ior a credit card transaction, a shopper taps the
logo on the Pocket Vault's display representing the credit card account he
wants to use. Seconds later, the Pocket Vault spits out the shopper's Chameleon
Card, with the selected credit card account number, expiration date and logo
imprinted on its Ilexible display, and its transducer reconIigured to work in the
store's or bank's magnetic card reader.
The Pocket Vault, which Burger expects to sell Ior less than $, will also
replace ExxonMobil's Speedpass and similar radioIrequency identiIication
applications with its own, builtin RFID chips.


But the Pocket Vault promises to do more than prevent slipped discs caused by
overstuIIed wallets. Its security Ieatures should also help saIeguard shoppers
Irom the devastation oI credit card Iraud and identity theIt, said Burger.
The Pocket Vault will only power up when it detects its owner's Iingerprint.
And unlike an ordinary credit card, the inIormation stored on a Chameleon
Card becomes unreadable (and the transducer inoperable) within 1 minutes.
The Pocket Vault also switches oII shortly aIter ejecting a Chameleon Card.
That's plenty oI time Ior a shopper to swipe his Chameleon Card through a
magnetic reader at the grocery store, but hardly enough Ior a thieI to do much
damage to the shopper's credit.
"Your worst possible exposure," said Burger, "is that a thieI may be able to get
in one illegal purchase in the 1 minutes aIter the card is ejected Irom
the (Pocket Vault)."
























CHAMELEON CARD WITH POCKET VAULT


CHAPTER 2


NEED FOR CHAMELEON CARD


2.1 INCREASING CREDIT FRAUDS







9










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2.2 IDENTITY THEFT


DeIinition Identity theIt is a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces oI
personal inIormation, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in
order to impersonate someone else. The inIormation can be used to obtain
credit, merchandise, and services in the name oI the victim, or to provide the
thieI with Ialse credentials. In addition to running up debt, an imposter might
provide Ialse identiIication to police, creating a criminal record or leaving
outstanding arrest warrants Ior the person whose identity has been stolen.
Identity theIt is categorized in two ways: true name and account takeover. True
name identity theIt means that the thieI uses personal inIormation to open new
accounts. The thieI might open a new credit card account, establish cellular
phone service, or open a new checking account in order to obtain blank checks.
Account takeover identity theIt means the imposter uses personal inIormation
to gain access to the person's existing accounts. Typically, the thieI will change
the mailing address on an account and run up a huge bill beIore the person
whose identity has been stolen realizes there is a problem. The Internet has
made it easier Ior an identity thieI to use the inIormation they've stolen because
transactions can be made without any personal interaction.
Although an identity thieI might crack into a database to obtain personal
inIormation, experts say it's more likely the thieI would obtain inIormation by
using oldIashioned methods. Retrieving personal paperwork and discarded
mail Irom trash dumpsters (dumpster diving) is one oI the easiest ways Ior an
identity thieI to get inIormation. Another popular method to get inIormation is
shoulder surIing the identity thieI simply stands next to someone at a public
oIIice, such the Bureau oI Motor Vehicles, and watches as the person Iills out
personal inIormation on a Iorm.
To prevent identity theIt, experts recommend that you regularly check your
credit report with major credit bureaus, Iollow up with creditors iI your bills do
not arrive on time, destroy unsolicited credit applications, and protect yourselI
by not giving out any personal inIormation in response to unsolicited email.
Identity theIt is sometimes reIerred to as "iJacking."

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2.3 DUMPSTER DIVING


DeIinition Dumpster diving is looking Ior treasure in someone else's trash. (A
dumpster is a large trash container.) In the world oI inIormation technology,
dumpster diving is a technique used to retrieve inIormation that could be used
to carry out an attack on a computer network. Dumpster diving isn't limited to
searching through the trash Ior obvious treasures like access codes or
passwords written down on sticky notes. Seemingly innocent inIormation like a
phone list, calendar, or organizational chart can be used to assist an attacker
using social engineering techniques to gain access to the network. To prevent
dumpster divers Irom learning anything valuable Irom your trash, experts
recommend that your company establish a disposal policy where all paper,
including printouts, is shredded in a crosscut shredder beIore being recycled,
all storage media is erased, and all staII is educated about the danger oI
untracked trash.



2.4 SOCIAL ENGINEERING


DeIinition In computer security, social engineering is a term that describes a
nontechnical kind oI intrusion that relies heavily on human interaction and
oIten involves tricking other people to break normal security procedures. A
social engineer runs what used to be called a "con game". For example, a
person using social engineering to break into a computer network would try to
gain the conIidence oI someone who is authorized to access the network in
order to get them to reveal inIormation that compromises the network's
security. They might call the authorized employee with some kind oI urgent
problem; social engineers oIten rely on the natural helpIulness oI people as
well as on their weaknesses. Appeal to vanity, appeal to authority, and old
Iashioned eavesdropping are typical social engineering techniques.
Another aspect oI social engineering relies on people's inability to keep up with
a culture that relies heavily on inIormation technology. Social engineers rely on
the Iact that people are not aware oI the value oI the inIormation they possess
and are careless about protecting it. Frequently, social engineers will search
dumpsters Ior valuable inIormation, memorize access codes by looking over
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someone's shoulder (shoulder surIing), or take advantage oI people's natural
inclination to choose passwords that are meaningIul to them but can be easily
guessed. Security experts propose that as our culture becomes more dependent
on inIormation, social engineering will remain the greatest threat to any
security system. Prevention includes educating people about the value oI
inIormation, training them to protect it, and increasing people's awareness oI
how social engineers operate.

2.5 PISHING
DeIinition Phishing is an email Iraud method in which the perpetrator sends
out legitimatelooking email in an attempt to gather personal and Iinancial
inIormation Irom recipients. Typically, the messages appear to come Irom well
known and trustworthy Web sites. Web sites that are Irequently spooIed by
phishers include Pay Pal, eBay, MSN, Yahoo, Best Buy, and America Online.
A phishing expedition, like the Iishing expedition it's named Ior, is a
speculative venture: the phisher puts the lure hoping to Iool at least a Iew oI the
prey that encounter the bait.
Phishers use a number oI diIIerent social engineering and email spooIing
ploys to try to trick their victims. In one Iairly typical case beIore the Federal
Trade Commission (FTC), a 1yearold male sent out messages purporting to
be Irom America Online that said there had been a billing problem with
recipients' AOL accounts. The perpetrator's email used AOL logos and
contained legitimate links. II recipients clicked on the "AOL Billing Center"
link, however, they were taken to a spooIed AOL Web page that asked Ior
personal inIormation, including credit card numbers; personal identiIication
numbers (PINs), social security numbers, banking numbers, and passwords.
This inIormation was used Ior identity theIt.
The FTC warns users to be suspicious oI any oIIiciallooking email message
that asks Ior updates on personal or Iinancial inIormation and urges recipients
to go directly to the organization's Web site to Iind out whether the request is
legitimate. II you suspect you have been phished, Iorward the email to
spamuce.gov or call the FTC help line, 1FTCHELP.
1


PHISHING



2.5.1 PAY PAL

DeIinitionPayPal is a Webbased application Ior the secure transIer oI Iunds
between member accounts. It doesn't cost the user anything to join PayPal or to
send money through the service, but there is a Iee structure in place Ior those
members who wish to receive money. PayPal relies on the existing
inIrastructure used by Iinancial institutions and credit card companies and uses
advanced Iraud prevention technologies to enhance the security oI transactions.
Max Levchin and Peter Theil Iounded PayPal in 199. Levchin and Theil
hoped to make online shopping more appealing to the consumer by creating a
secure payment system that would be as easy to use as taking money out oI
your wallet. To send money through PayPal, you just enter the recipient's e
mail address and the amount oI money you want to send them.
By mid, PayPal's Mountain View, CaliIorniabased oIIices were
administering over million accounts in countries around the world.
EBay, the popular Webbased auction enterprise, acquired PayPal in October
.
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CHAPTER
FEATURES OF CHAMELEON CARD

3.1 RFID (RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION)



DeIinitionRFID (radio Irequency identiIication) is a technology that
incorporates the use oI electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio
Irequency (RF) portion oI the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identiIy an
object, animal, or person. RFID is coming into increasing use in industry as an
alternative to the barcode. The advantage oI RFID is that it does not require
direct contact or lineoIsight scanning. An RFID system consists oI three
components: an antenna and transceiver (oIten combined into one reader) and
a transponder (the tag). The antenna uses radio Irequency waves to transmit a
signal that activates the transponder. When activated, the tag transmits data
back to the antenna. The data is used to notiIy a programmable logic controller
that an action should occur. The action could be as simple as raising an access
gate or as complicated as interIacing with a database to carry out a monetary
transaction. LowIrequency RFID systems ( KHz to 5 KHz) have short
transmission ranges (generally less than six Ieet). HighIrequency RFID
systems (5 MHz to 95 MHz and . GHz to .5 GHz) oIIer longer
transmission ranges (more than 9 Ieet). In general, the higher the Irequency,
the more expensive is the system.
1





RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION









1

3.1.1 ANTENNA
DeIinitionAn antenna is a specialized transducer that converts radioIrequency
(RF) Iields into alternating current (AC) or viceversa. There are two basic
types: the receiving antenna, which intercepts RF energy and delivers AC to
electronic equipment, and the transmitting antenna, which is Ied with AC Irom
electronic equipment and generates an RF Iield.
In computer and Internet wireless applications, the most common type oI
antenna is the dish antenna, used Ior satellite communications. Dish antennas
are generally practical only at microwave Irequencies (above approximately
GHz). The dish consists oI a paraboloidal or spherical reIlector with an active
element at its Iocus. When used Ior receiving, the dish collects RF Irom a
distant source and Iocuses it at the active element. When used Ior transmitting,
the active element radiates RF that is collimated by the reIlector Ior delivery in
a speciIic direction.
At Irequencies below GHz, many diIIerent types oI antennas are used. The
simplest is a length oI wire, connected at one end to a transmitter or receiver.
More oIten, the radiating/receiving element is placed at a distance Irom the
transmitter or receiver, and AC is delivered to or Irom the antenna by means oI
an RF transmission line, also called a Ieed line or Ieeder.




PARABOLOIDAL ANTENNA
1

3.1.2 TRANSCEIVER


DeIinitionA transceiver is a combination transmitter/receiver in a single
package. The term applies to wireless communications devices such as cellular
telephones, cordless telephone sets, handheld twoway radios, and mobile two
way radios. Occasionally the term is used in reIerence to transmitter/receiver
devices in cable or optical Iiber systems.
In a radio transceiver, the receiver is silenced while transmitting. An electronic
switch allows the transmitter and receiver to be connected to the same antenna,
and prevents the transmitter output Irom damaging the receiver. With a
transceiver oI this kind, it is impossible to receive signals while transmitting.
This mode is called halI duplex. Transmission and reception oIten, but not
always, are done on the same Irequency.
Some transceivers are designed to allow reception oI signals during
transmission periods. This mode is known as Iull duplex, and requires that the
transmitter and receiver operate on substantially diIIerent Irequencies so the
transmitted signal does not interIere with reception. Cellular and cordless
telephone sets use this mode. Satellite communications networks oIten employ
Iullduplex transceivers at the surIacebased subscriber points. The transmitted
signal (transceivertosatellite) is called the uplink, and the received signal
(satellitetotransceiver) is called the downlink.


TRANSCEIVER
19

3.1.3 TRANSPONDER


DeIinitionA transponder is a wireless communications, monitoring, or control
device that picks up and automatically responds to an incoming signal. The
term is a contraction oI the words transmitter and responder. Transponders can
be either passive or active.
A passive transponder allows a computer or robot to identiIy an object.
Magnetic labels, such as those on credit cards and store items, are common
examples. A passive transponder must be used with an active sensor that
decodes and transcribes the data the transponder contains. The transponder unit
can be physically tiny, and its inIormation can be sensed up to several Ieet
away.Simple active transponders are employed in location, identiIication, and
navigation systems Ior commercial and private aircraIt. An example is an RFID
(radioIrequency identiIication) device that transmits a coded signal when it
receives a request Irom a monitoring or control point. The transponder output
signal is tracked, so the position oI the transponder can be constantly
monitored. The input (receiver) and output (transmitter) Irequencies are
preassigned. Transponders oI this type can operate over distances oI thousands
oI miles.Sophisticated active transponders are used in communications
satellites and on board space vehicles. They receive incoming signals over a
range, or band, oI Irequencies, and retransmit the signals on a diIIerent band at
the same time. The device is similar to a repeater oI the sort used in land
based cellular telephone networks. The incoming signal, usually originating
Irom a point on the earth's surIace, is called the uplink. The outgoing signal,
usually sent to a point or region on the surIace, is the downlink. These
transponders sometimes operate on an interplanetary scale


TRANSPONDER




3.1.4 TRANDUCER


DeIinition A transducer is an electronic device that converts energy Irom one
Iorm to another. Common examples include microphones, loudspeakers,
thermometers, position and pressure sensors, and antenna. Although not
generally thought oI as transducers, photocells, LEDs (lightemitting diodes),
and even common light bulbs are transducers.
EIIiciency is an important consideration in any transducer. Transducer
eIIiciency is deIined as the ratio oI the power output in the desired Iorm to the
total power input. Mathematically, iI ! represents the total power input and "
represents the power output in the desired Iorm, then the eIIiciency , as a ratio
between and 1, is given by:
"/!
II

represents the eIIiciency as a percentage, then:

1"/!
No transducer is 1 percent eIIicient; some power is always lost in the
conversion process. Usually this loss is maniIested in the Iorm oI heat. Some
antennas approach 1percent eIIiciency. A welldesigned antenna supplied
with 1 watts oI radio Irequency (RF) power radiates or 9 watts in the
Iorm oI an electromagnetic Iield. A Iew watts are dissipated as heat in the
antenna conductors, the Ieed line conductors and dielectric, and in objects near
the antenna. Among the worst transducers, in terms oI eIIiciency, are
incandescent lamps. A 1watt bulb radiates only a Iew watts in the Iorm oI
visible light. Most oI the power is dissipated as heat; a small amount is radiated
in the UV (ultraviolet) spectrum.








1

3.1.5 BAR CODE (OR BARCODE)


DeIinitionA bar code (oIten seen as a single word, -arcode) is the small image
oI lines (bars) and spaces that is aIIixed to retail store items, identiIication
cards, and postal mail to identiIy a particular product number, person, or
location. The code uses a sequence oI vertical bars and spaces to represent
numbers and other symbols. A bar code symbol typically consists oI Iive parts:
a quiet zone, a start character, data characters (including an optional check
character), a stop character, and another quiet zone.
A barcode reader is used to read the code. The reader uses a laser beam that is
sensitive to the reIlections Irom the line and space thickness and variation. The
reader translates the reIlected light into digital data that is transIerred to a
computer Ior immediate action or storage. Bar codes and readers are most oIten
seen in supermarkets and retail stores, but a large number oI diIIerent uses have
been Iound Ior them. They are also used to take inventory in retail stores; to
check out books Irom a library; to track manuIacturing and shipping
movement; to sign in on a job; to identiIy hospital patients; and to tabulate the
results oI direct mail marketing returns. Very small bar codes have been used
to tag honey bees used in research. Readers may be attached to a computer (as
they oIten are in retail store settings) or separate and portable, in which case
they store the data they read until it can be Ied into a computer.
There is no one standard bar code; instead, there are several diIIerent bar code
standards called symbologies that serve diIIerent uses, industries, or
geographic needs. Since 19, the UniIorm Product Code (UPC), regulated by
the UniIorm Code Council, an industry organization, has provided a standard
bar code used by most retail stores. The European Article Numbering system
(EAN), developed by Joe Woodland, the inventor oI the Iirst bar code system,
allows Ior an extra pair oI digits and is becoming widely used. POSTNET is
the standard bar code used in the United States Ior ZIP codes in bulk mailing.
The Iollowing table summarizes the most common bar code standards.

BAR CODE


CHAPTER

SECURITY FEATURES OF CHAMELEON CARD

4.1 BIOMETRIC


DeIinition Biometrics is the science and technology oI measuring and analyzing
biological data. In inIormation technology, biometrics reIers to technologies that
measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as DNA, Iingerprints, eye
retinas and irises, voice patterns, Iacial patterns and hand measurements,
Ior authentication purposes.
Ask your biometrics questions at ITKnowledgeExchange.com
Authentication by biometric veriIication is becoming increasingly common in
corporate and public security systems, consumer electronics and point oI sale
(POS) applications. In addition to security, the driving Iorce behind biometric
veriIication has been convenience.
Biometric devices, such as Iinger scanners, consist oI:
O A reader or scanning device
O SoItware that converts the scanned inIormation into digital Iorm and
compares match points
O A database that stores the biometric data Ior comparison
To prevent identity theIt, biometric data is usually encrypted when it's gathered.
Here's how biometric veriIication works on the back end: To convert the biometric
input, a soItware application is used to identiIy speciIic points oI data as match
points. The match points in the database are processed using an algorithm that
translates that inIormation into a numeric value. The database value is compared
with the biometric input the end user has entered into the scanner and
authentication is either approved or denied.



TYPES OF BIOMETRICS




4.2 AUTHENTICATION

DeIinition Authentication is the process oI determining whether someone or
something is, in Iact, who or what it is declared to be. In private and public
computer networks (including the Internet), authentication is commonly done
through the use oI logon passwords. Knowledge oI the password is assumed to
guarantee that the user is authentic. Each user registers initially (or is registered by
someone else), using an assigned or selIdeclared password. On each subsequent
use, the user must know and use the previously declared password. The weakness
in this system Ior transactions that are signiIicant (such as the exchange oI money)
is that passwords can oIten be stolen, accidentally revealed, or Iorgotten.For this
reason, Internet business and many other transactions require a more stringent
authentication process. The use oI digital certiIicates issued and veriIied by a
CertiIicate Authority (CA) as part oI a public key inIrastructure is considered likely
to become the standard way to perIorm authentication on the Internet.Logically,
authentication precedes authorization (although they may oIten seem to be
combined).





4.3 FINGERSCANNING



DeIinition Finger scanning, also called Iingerprint scanning, is the process
oI electronically obtaining and storing human Iingerprints. The digital image
obtained by such scanning is called a Iinger image. In some texts, the terms
Iingerprinting and Iingerprint are used, but technically, these terms reIer to
traditional inkandpaper processes and images.
Finger scanning is a biometric process, because it involves the automated
capture, analysis, and comparison oI a speciIic characteristic oI the human
body. There are several diIIerent ways in which an instrument can bring out
the details in the pattern oI raised areas (called ridges) and branches (called
biIurcations) in a human Iinger image. The most common methods are
optical, thermal, and tactile. They work using visible light analysis, heat
emission analysis, and pressure analysis, respectively.
Biometric Iinger scanning oIIers improvements over inkandpaper imaging.
A complete set oI Iinger scans Ior a person (1 images, including those oI the
thumbs) can be easily copied, distributed, and transmitted over computer
networks. In addition, computers can quickly analyze a Iinger scan and
compare it with thousands oI other Iinger scans, as well as with Iingerprints
obtained by traditional means and then digitally photographed and stored.
This greatly speeds up the process oI searching Iinger image records in
criminal investigations.

FINGERCSANNING

5

4.4 RIDGES

DeIinition In the biometric process oI Iinger scanning, a ridge is a curved line
in a Iinger image. Some ridges are continuous curves, and others terminate at
speciIic points called ridge endings. Sometimes, two ridges come together at a
point called a biIurcation. Ridge endings and biIurcations are known as
minutiae.
The number and locations oI the minutiae vary Irom Iinger to Iinger in any
particular person, and Irom person to person Ior any particular Iinger (Ior
example, the index Iinger on the leIt hand). When a set oI Iinger images is
obtained Irom an individual, the number oI minutiae is recorded Ior each
Iinger. The precise locations oI the minutiae are also recorded, in the Iorm oI
numerical coordinates, Ior each Iinger. The result is a Iunction that can be
entered and stored in a computer database. A computer can rapidly compare
this Iunction with that oI anyone else in the world whose Iinger image has been
scanned.
In theory, iI a complete set oI Iinger images was obtained Ior every person in
the world, and the minutiae analyzed and recorded with suIIicient accuracy, it
would be possible Ior a single computer to determine the identity oI any
individual within seconds.



THE ARCH PATTERN THE LOOP PATTERN





THE WHORL PATTERN



4.5 BIFURCATION


DeIinition In the biometric process oI Iinger scanning, a biIurcation is a point
in a Iinger image at which two ridges meet. BiIurcations have the appearance
oI branch points between curved lines. The number and locations oI the
biIurcations and ridge endings, known as minutiae, vary Irom Iinger to Iinger
in any particular person, and Irom person to person Ior any particular Iinger
(Ior example, the ring Iinger on the right hand). When a set oI Iinger images is
obtained Irom an individual, the number oI minutiae is recorded Ior each
Iinger. The precise locations oI the minutiae are also recorded, in the Iorm oI
numerical coordinates, Ior each Iinger. The result is a Iunction that can be
entered and stored in a computer database. A computer can rapidly compare
this Iunction with that oI anyone else in the world whose Iinger image has been
scanned.







RIDGE ENDING BIFURCATION




SHORT RIDGE (DOT)




CHAPTER 5


HOW A CHAMELEON CARD WORKS DUAL FUNCTION


The Chameleon Card is designed to work in conjunction with a small device
known as a Pocket Vault. It has many security Ieatures that protect against
identity theIt, the physical theIt oI a card, and theIt oI credit card details via
internet. The Pocket Vault contains a builtin RFID (radio Irequency
identiIication) and enough capacity to display user photos .The Pocket Vault
reads and stores the inIormation Irom your cards in a secure Internet session
while docked to a computer. AIter reading the inIormation Irom a card, it
displays an icon Ior it on its touch screen. To make a transaction, you must
identiIy yourselI through Iingerscanning authentication and select the card you
want to use. When you make your selection, the Pocket Vault programs the
appropriate inIormation into the card and emits it
Ior use. The usual inIormation, such as a credit card number and expiration
date, appear on the card's display area. You just swipe the card in the usual way
and a transducer under the card's black strip works with the magnetic card
reader. Although the idea oI only carrying a single card (rather than the dozen
or more in the typical person's wallet) is appealing, the security Ieatures may
be a more compelling reason to purchase the device. Because the Pocket Vault
requires secure biometric authentication, it won't work Ior anyone but the
legitimate user. II
your wallet is stolen, the thieI has no access to inIormation that could be used
to assume your identity. Furthermore, even iI someone steals the card while it's
activated, the potential harm is limited aIter 1 minutes, the inIormation on
the card is rendered unreadable, and the transducer stops working. The device
docks to
your computer Ior online transactions, which means that your inIormation need
never be stored on your computer or on a Web site's customer database, thus
thwarting wouldbe thieves phishing Ior credit card inIormation over the
Internet.


9

CONCLUSION

As prices oI the technology continue go down and as consumers become
accepting and accustomed to it, the use oI biometrics will become the
mainstream Iorm oI payment. Chameleon card is one oI the technology, by
chameleon network, using biometrics.
With use oI this card transaction oI money or getting credits Irom bank will
become easier. With the use oI radio Irequency identiIication the transactions
have been made possible without direct contact oI the person`s credentials, as
was required in case oI bar code.
The security Ieatures included in it makes it rather more appealing. Personal
inIormation will be secured. Only the legitimate users will be able to access the
inIormation and hence no imposter will be able to bring up a heavy bill or do
any illegal activity. And the most striking characteristic oI chameleon card is
that it renders all its inIormation unreadable aIter ten minutes. This is the
suIIicient time required Ior any shopkeeper to get the transaction done but not
enough Ior any thieI to get through your accounts or any personal inIormation.
Thus we can say the use oI chameleon card will lead to reduction in credit card
Irauds to a much larger extent.
With so much oI heavy technology and ease oI use, customers will deIinitely
be satisIied with this card. And our Iuture wallet will be just mm thick and
will contain the only card we need Ior transaction, that is, CHAMELEON
CARD.



















LIST OF REFERENCES

Website


1. www.searchsecurity.techtarget .com
. www.searchnetworking.techtarget.com
. www.whatistechtarget .com
. www.chameleonnetwork.com
5. www.wired.com
. www.slashdot.org
. chameleonXgmail.com
. www.technovelgy.com