Table of Contents

1. 2. 3. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 2 History..................................................................................................................................... 2 The impact of football on British society ............................................................................... 3 3.1. Football and the economy ................................................................................................ 3 Football has created business .................................................................................... 3 Financial problems of football clubs in recent years ................................................ 4

3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.2.

Youth styles and social problems associated with football culture .................................. 4 Fashion and hooliganism style .................................................................................. 4 Racism in soccer ....................................................................................................... 5

3.2.1. 3.2.2. 4.

Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 5 4.1. 4.2. To reduce hooliganism and disorder ................................................................................ 5 To assist football clubs in having healthy finance .......................................................... 6

5.

Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 7

References ....................................................................................................................................... 8

the oldest football rules. some problems appeared. Introduction In recent years. many public companies have been created from football clubs (Oakland. listen to it and read about it. will summarize the history of soccer then it will examine the impact of football on the British economy. firstly. W. the organization monitoring football rules over the world is the International Football Association Board (IFAB). Moreover. in October of 1863. History Football matches with fairly sufficient rules started to be popular in the middle of 19th century in some universities in England. was established (Williams and Wagg. this type of sport has also created social problems due to hooliganism and racism. watch it. In Britain. millions of Britons both male and female will play it. Five years later. the Football League. The first FA cup was organized by C. Economic benefits created by football are considerable. soccer is one of the most popular sporting activities for people (Oakland. This report. 2010). the Fédération Internationale de 2 . Alcock in 1972 with the first international football match between Scotland and England in Glasgow. funerals and even births are arranged around it and children name after those who play it’. soccer is also criticized because it relates to racism and hooliganism. 2006: 285). Football Association of Wales (FAW) and Irish Football Association (IFA) (Williams and Wagg. which was created in Manchester in 1886 with the agreements of FA. Dobson et al (2001) reveals that this event was also the beginning for the modern football. Because of soccer’s attraction and benefits. Oakland (2006) showed that 80 percent of England’s football clubs lost money in 2001. and this match contributed to the foundation of Scottish Football Association (SFA). Media empires are founded on it. This report will illustrate that while football can be seen as big business. As Brimson (2006: 196) said. Today. today. ‘each week. However. before giving some recommendations. christenings. weddings. 2006: 286). the oldest professional football league over the world. According to FIFA. SFA. Cambridge Rules. currently. in 1888. FAW and IFA (FIFA. 1991). In 1904. 1991: 27). youth styles and social issues associating with football culture. 2. was re-written in order to create the Football Association (FA).PM201 Student No: 1011152 Group: B Tutor: Paul Murphy 1. millions of people coming from over the world spend a lot of money on tickets and travelling costs to go to soccer stadiums to see their favorite team and billions of others watch football matches on TV every week.

from 1993 to 1996. benefits from soccer do not only come from match attendances but also from other sources. 2001: 82). as Tunarut et al (2005) presented. on 7 September 1998. ‘football is now big business ’. such as football pools. brought huge economic benefits for football clubs. The impact of football on British society 3. the total match receipts in Football league in 1988-9 season were nearly £20 million (Williams and Wagg (1991: 57). soccer clubs in English Premier League spent over £255 million on player transfers.PM201 Student No: 1011152 Group: B Tutor: Paul Murphy Football Association (FIFA) was found in Paris. due to benefits from football clubs’ TV right. In the transfer market aspect. and footballer transferring market (Williams and Wagg. 2010). For instance. 3. Take broadcasting media as an example. 2001). 2001: 83). not just football clubs benefit from football. and this number increased to £83 million in 1997 and over £125 million in 1998 (Dobson and Goddard. just in the 1999-2000 season. 1991). 3 . 1991). and managements of IFAB currently has four representatives from FIFA and four others from England.1. 2003). soccer clubs in the English Premier League achieved around £530 million in revenues (Dobson and Goddard. broadcasting media. In 2000. Football has created business As Oakland (2006: 286) concluded. According to Dobson and Goddard (2001). Scotland. As BBC (2010) stated.1.1. This. BSkyB wanted to pay £575 million for 100% takeover of Manchester United (Dobson and Goddard. the match attendances of English league were always over 16 million in each season from 1922 to 1999. the majority of football clubs in the Premier and Football Leagues were public or private companies (Oughton et al. These huge profits led to the marked change in the structure of football clubs. the League's earning was basic on the sale of TV rights In addition. It can be seen that one of the most famous football leagues in Britain is now Premier League (Barclays Premier League). Wales and Ireland (FIFA. For example. The foundation of this cup was made with the creation of the Founder Members Agreement on 17th July 1991 (Williams and Wagg. On other hand. obviously. The development of soccer has led to the development of other markets. Football and the economy 3. the profit that Prier League clubs achieved from the BSkyB-BBC contract in each season was about £40 million. In 2003.

1. Youth styles and social problems associated with football culture 3.000. and now this amount of money cannot be enough to pay John Terry for two weeks. bad business sense. 2001). 38 mainly Italian supporters died (Dobson and Goddard.2. is not only economic. in May 1985. and many cannot control their finances. Although these debts of these big clubs can be seen as ‘soft debt’ which means these can be repayments. For instance. respectively (Bose. Financial problems of football clubs in recent years In recent years. For example. but they are seemingly changing to ‘hard debt’ (Beech. Liverpool and Fulham. Most football clubs in Britain are confronting with financial problems.2. but also social and cultural’ (Dobson and Goddard. such as Manchester United is in debt around £716 million. The time for the combination of the skinhead style and the football hooligan style to be ‘skinhead soccer gang’ style or soccer ‘style wars’ marked the most serious time of disorder in football (Williams and Wagg. football has not made benefits for clubs as it did before. at the Liverpool – Juventus match in the European cup. in comparison with £297 million. and huge salaries for top football players (Oakland. As a result. appeared in the 1970s. Fashion and hooliganism style ‘Football’s importance. of course. 2006: 286) stated. As figures showed by Bose (2010). and 4 . 2001: xv). 1991). 80 percent of football clubs still lost money (Oakland. It influenced youth’s fashion. 2006: 286). 2009: 140). the loss of 92 English league clubs peaked at over £1 billion. Another style. 2010). 2001). 3.PM201 Student No: 1011152 Group: B Tutor: Paul Murphy 3. £237 million and £180 million for Arsenal. negative consequences were created by this style. football hooligan. (Back et al. The impact of football on youth culture in Britain was quite obvious since 1950s. and this disease was considered as the serious problem in the late of 1970s and 1980s. Some of the reasons for this crisis are poor club organization. Some top clubs also are now in this situation.2. in 1985 the total television income that Football League received from selling overseas right was £200. 1991). the appearance of skinhead style in the 1960-70s was created by hairstyle of some famous football players and the popularity of t-shirt Baggy style which means football fans wear club shirts with slogans instead of shirts from famous brands such as Lacoste or Perry (Williams and Wagg.1. in 2001 although with the huge profit made from media income. Beech (2009) also illustrated that from 2001 to 2006. For instance.

1999). Besides. according to BBC (2009) the number of hooligans and the amount of disorder in football was smaller than it was before. but the number of black managements working in important positions is very small. in 2006. As BBC (2010) claimed. as Brimson (2006: 187) pointed out. 2008). Racism in soccer Racism in English football became a serious concern from the late 1970s together with the increase in the number of black players among professional football players (Back et al. This problem spread quickly. and because it can also appear on the behavior among footballers. nevertheless.2. Recommendations 4. 3. racism in football in Britain also acts in other areas. In recent years. who were arrested in the UK in 2010. the youngest was just 13 years old. and racism also happened in the match. In recent years. such as the incident occurred in the match between the Republic of Ireland and England in Dublin in February 1995 which forced the match to cancel. More specifically. It can be seen that the relationship between hooliganism and racism is strong. the fight against football racism in England is the best over the Europe. amongst hooligans. 4. both within and outside the country (Clifford Stott et al. owner and directors. ‘not all racist are hooligans. many efforts have made with the appearance of the words Kick It Out and Show Racism the Red Card (Garland et al. in order to reduce racism in football in Britain. From 1990s. there were many English people relating to disorder. However. He made the point that although there is a dramatic increase of the number of black players in Britain from 1980s. but it is reaching to people in younger age.1. and this event was mainly contributed by racist groups among supporters (Back et al. According to Guardian (2006). such as managers.2. there are a number of anti-racism groups trying to tackle racism (Brimson. nevertheless. 2001: 21). To reduce hooliganism and disorder 5 . 2001). 2006: 178). there were around 20 percent of professional footballers are black. The serious concern about racism is because of its prevalence outside hooliganism. racism is not a serious problem. but there were just three managers and three coaches coming from ethic groups (Brimson. just as not all hooligans are racists’. According to Back et al (2001: 23).PM201 Student No: 1011152 Group: B Tutor: Paul Murphy at Euro 96 in England. 2006).

4. Another recommendation is to manage salaries of player as revenues and the position of the club. 2009: 132). This means that footballers will be paid less if the performance of their team reduces. Moreover. Furthermore. 1998). To assist football clubs in having healthy finance According to Beech (2009). avoiding the regelation. alcohol consumption is one of the reasons contributing to aggressive behavior of football supporters. and clubs should rise the level of funding to support the Kick It Out and Show Racism the Red Card (Bassam. said this limit should be 60 % revenues. they also need to avoid promotion because this position can bring clubs a stable number of fans. to tackling racism in football. In order to reduce violence in sport events. developing the relationship with local police is worth because this can assist managers to collect up-to-date information about groups of fans to build maps. a close law needs to be created to control these private companies (Savkovíc and Đorđević. Michel Platini. Beech suggests that clubs should apply a ‘salary cost management scheme’ (Beech. Instead of this method. this in turn can help managers to control situation effectively. 6 . 2001: 14). Besides. the Government. they should develop a long-term relationship with a financially stable investor. football clubs should remain stable position in the middle of the table of a league. This method means that there will be a limit of the percentage of revenues being used to pay salaries. and this is not a long-term approach. This approach can help club balance clubs’ finances as well as encourage players in performing. Football Foundation.PM201 Student No: 1011152 Group: B Tutor: Paul Murphy Firstly. football clubs should do these solutions to remain healthy financially: First of all. Furthermore. and in some situations. he concluded that many clubs now choose a solution that paying more money to buy top footballers. the role of the private security companies is very important. (Savkovíc and Đorđević. such as the president of UEFA.2. This relationship will prevent clubs from achieving fluctuant funding in case their sponsor has a financial crisis. 2010). 2010). Secondly. thus preventing the public from drinking and carrying alcohol around areas that football match takes place can reduce disorder (Home Office.

controlling alcohol consumption around football stadiums. soccer also has negative influence on British behavior. football clubs should use a salary cost management scheme. in recent years. Conclusion It can be seen that football has the ambivalent impact on British society. It. The phenomenon of hooliganism and racism mentioned in this report is an example. financial burdens are drawbacks that this kind of sport brings to soccer clubs. and supports of Government. clubs in the Kick It Out and Show Racism a Read Card. manage the salary of player as the revenue or the position of the club and maintain a stable position at the middle of the table of a league. such as broadcasting media and player transfer market. Football Foundation. Improving the current situation is not easy. however. developing the close relationship with local police and private security companies.PM201 Student No: 1011152 Group: B Tutor: Paul Murphy 5. Moreover. As this report concludes. In order to reduce hooliganism and racism in football. Besides. are necessary. 7 . football has influenced British markets and made many types of new business. can be definitely done with some concrete solutions above. in the economic aspect. However.

p14-15. Bose. 9.stm 4.Why hooliganism and racism are killing football. M.com/classicfootball/history/index.bbc. S and Goddard. From: http://news. Tanzania taps into English Premier League popularity. Spectator. Brimson. London: Headline Book Publishing. S.(1 September 2010). History. Rowe. Oxford: Berg 2.fifa. Back. London: Elsevier Ltd. M. The changing the face of football. Garland. Retrieved March 15th 2011.uk/1/hi/uk/7748183. D. From: http://news.co. FIFA. 8 . From: http://news. The deflating world of English football. S. BBC. 251-266. J. BBC. Retrieved February 8th 2011. The Economic of Football. 3.co. T.(2010).co. Managing Football: An International Perspective. International Journal of the Sociology of Law.(Ed. Kick off.Finance in the Football Industry. From: http://www. Hamil.(26 August 2009).bbc. 27.(2001). Dobson. L. UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge 10. 7.(25 November 2008). Vol. Retrieved February 10th 2011.(2001).K.PM201 Student No: 1011152 Group: B Tutor: Paul Murphy References 1. Retrieved February 10th 2011. Bassam. 312 Issue 9469. U.(2001).uk/sport1/hi/football/africa/8960785. Professor Chadwick.bbc.(2010). 8.(2009). Working Group on Football Disorder.(1999).uk/1/hi/uk/8222857. Report and Recommendations. Hooliganism rears its ugly head. Racist football chanting drops. J. University of Leicester. Beech. BBC.stm 6.).stm 5. Scarman Centre. 119-149.html 11. Policing Racism at Football Matches: An Assessment of Recent Developments in Police Strategies. J. J.(2006). and Sollmos. L. and Crabble.

Psychology. M. C.sport1 13. J. A Quantitative Study of Public Order. P. 9 .(2006). M and Đorđević. Operational Policing Policy Unit. Guardian. Schreiber.guardian. 115-141. Oakland.(1991). Stott. (2003).uk/football/2006/feb/05/newsstory. British Football and Social Change.(2008). Home Office. From: http://www. Savkovíc.co. Policing and Crowd Psychology. M. J. Retrieved March 15th 2011. say Uefa. 15. Williams. C. British Civilization an Introduction.Returning football Clubs to their Communities. 16.(2010).(2006). and Law. and Hunt. Racism alive and kicking in England.( 1998). C. and Adang. O. Towards the Prevention of Violent acts at sport events: Proposal on regional cooperation framework. S. London. London: Mutuo. 14(2).PM201 Student No: 1011152 Group: B Tutor: Paul Murphy 12.Tackling Football Hooliganism. and Wagg. England: Leicester University Press. Public Policy. Oughton. and Livingstone. and McClean. Review of Football-Related Legislation. UK: Routledge. and Mills. Back Home. Belgrade: Belgrade Centre for Security Policy 18. and A. S. 14. 17.

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