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Chapter 10 - The Q Manual REFERENCING

One of the more technical aspects of assignment writing at university relates to referencing. As there are numerous acceptable systems of referencing, you will need to consult the unit outline for each unit in order to ascertain which style is preferred by your tutor or unit co-ordinator. If the unit outline does not provide this information, simply ask your tutor or consult the Q Manual. Once the style has been determined, it is important that all conventions pertaining to that style are consistently adopted. The key considerations are, therefore, attention to detail and consistency. This chapter examines the nature and benefits of referencing and provides examples of two referencing systems, including the author-date (commonly referred to as the Harvard method of citation) and documentary-note (or footnote/endnote) method of citation. 10.1 What is referencing? Referencing or citing refers to the acknowledgement of various sources of information you have used in preparing your written assignments. It means acknowledging the authority of an author or proof or evidence in support of your argument. The works to which you have referred should be acknowledged in two places - "in-text" and "end-text". In-text referencing means that you place a citation directly after you have used the information. This could be at the beginning of a sentence, the end of a paragraph or the end of a sentence, or after a direct quotation. On the other hand, the end-text referencing refers to a reference list or bibliography, which is a complete list of all the sources you have used in the preparation of your assignment and is always placed at the end of an assignment. End-text referencing should provide complete information concerning each source, including the names of the authors, year of publication, title of the text or journal, edition, page and volume numbers, the name of the publisher and place of publication. 10.2 When should you reference? When you: Quote the author's exact words Copy the author's tables, figures and/or diagrams Paraphrase an author's ideas using your own words Summarise the author's ideas 10.3 Why should you reference your work? There are numerous benefits of referencing. Referencing appropriately: Avoids plagiarism and the subsequent failing of the assessment and/or unit Lends credibility to your view in that citing other works substantiates your own line of argument Gives recognition to authors/sources whose arguments/empirical research you have used Allows the reader of your assignment to locate the articles, texts and electronic sources you have used in your writing Demonstrates to the reader the breadth of your research, that is, the range of sources you have used Demonstrates how up-to-date your research is Demonstrates the depth of the research ie how effectively you have utilised the extant literature in a particular field or discipline 10.4 Referencing systems There are a number of different referencing styles which can be adopted for academic writing. The two most common are: Author-date systems such as the Harvard or APA (American Psychological Association) systems Numeric styles such as the Vancouver, footnote or endnote systems, often referred to as the "documentary-note" system. 10.4.1 Author-Date System Although very popular, there appears to be no one universally accepted author-date system. For example, there are several versions of the "Harvard" system, which can create confusion for students. Nevertheless, all authordate systems have one thing in common - the name/s of the author/s and the year of publication are listed first. Hence the name, "author-date" system. 10.4.2 Author-date System for in-text citations As mentioned previously, the term "in-text" means that you cite an author or source within the text of your assignment, at a point where his or her point/argument appears. Every fact or idea which you have used to establish your own line of argument must be accurately and consistently cited. Generally, the in-text reference should show: the last name/s of the author (or authors) the year of publication page number (if it is a direct quotation, statistics, a table or diagram The following examples illustrate generally how in-text citations can be used in assignments.

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It is arranged alphabetically according to the authors' last names and is placed at the end of the assignment. cite only the first-listed place. the in-text citation would show: Consideration of expatriate adjustment is becoming increasingly important (Mahoney & Trigg.4. If you have cited the arguments/ideas of more than one author. as these may differ the title of the book is italicised there is minimal capitalisation of the title any edition other than a first edition is noted after the title of the work the publisher's place of publication is usually the site of their main editorial office. 2002). OR Mahoney & Trigg (2001) and Stone (2002) consider the social adjustment of expatriate employees to be an increasingly significant issue. in some author-date systems there will variation in terms of the use of brackets. If more than one place is shown. Stone. Remember to provide an alphabetic list of the authors and do not group references by type of publication. commas and colons. 2001. rather than the front cover. 2002).3 Author-date reference list A reference list is a list of all the sources you have used in the body of your assignment. Although the author/s and date are invariably listed first. The reference list or end-text references for texts should include the following: Author/s names and initials Book title (in full) Edition or volume number if it is not the first edition Name of publisher Place of publication For example: Please note the following: the title should be the one which appears on the title page of the book. The reference list or end-text references for journal articles should include the following: Author/authors Title of article Title of journal Issue details Volume details Page numbers of article 2 ." for pages and the positioning of the place of publication.Deegan (2002) suggests there are numerous methods which may be adopted. The following table provides examples of what the Faculty of Business and Economics recommends you include in a reference list. the abbreviation of "pp. the use of full-stops. 10. OR Few authors have approached the topic in this way (Deegan.

L. Pettigrew. Newman. Cambridge University Press. South Melbourne. Shell revised 2004.. Warne. Hardy. L.G. Luthans. Business. 3. C." Organization Development Journal. "Analysis of demand for electronic stock trading: a statistical approach". 24 May. issue number and page reference should follow the journal title 10. (1999). Malaysia. 1. viewed 9 Nov. pp. & Yu. Department of Industry. C. Melbourne. 49-59. & Fitzgerald. Coghlan. Melin. 'Ex-Enron figure reported near a plea of guilty'. Coghlan.5 Example of an author-date reference list Reference list The Age.G. "Parmalat cooked the books worldwide: police". 3 . (2001). Organization Development Journal. Vol. C. (2002). Organization Development Journal. & Nord.A. A. S. Vol. viewed 7 Jan.For example: Please note the following: Minimal capitalisation is suggested for the titles of articles Double quotation marks should be used for the title of an article Italics and maximum capitalisation is recommended for the title of the journal The volume number. 9 th edn. (2004).M. (2002a). W. measuring and leading organisational innovation".M. Australian Government Printing Service. (2003). "Appreciative inquiry with an executive team: Moving along the action research continuum". D. Organisation Development and Change. (2003). No. pp. Eichenwald. Vol. S. M.) (1996). Vol. in Innovative forms of organizing. P. "Facilitating learning and change". 2. Handbook of Organization Studies. F. Sage Publications. Australian business innovation: a strategic analysis. "What are we going to do about taxation anyway?" (2003). Ruigrok & T. 8 January. 2. (television program). S. D. SBS Television. & Quintanilla.com/2004/01/08business08ENROhtml?hp>.R. Organization Development Journal. S. C. viewed 20 Sept. in Proceedings of theSixth International Research Conference on Quality.T. Sage Publications. 2. 1. London.R. London. (2004) "Commission rejects plan to test Tax Office staff". News p. 10. The Age. p. 'People management dualities'.L. (2004).com>. D. Collaborative Action research for English Language teachers. Innovation and Knowledge Management. (2001).shell. Organizational Behavior. 44-48. No. Canberra. Sanchez-Runde. 20. <http:www. 19. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research. No. Zhang. W. R. J. Clegg.J van den Bosch. No. T.. McGraw-Hill Irwin. H. (eds. "Participatory action research: Should social inquiry be conducted democratically?". Cummings. (2002b).M. (2002).. A. Science and Technology (2004). T. Nelson Thomson Learning. Numagami. "The difficulties of defining. 20. Cambridge. "Putting 'research' back into OD and action research". Vol.P. Krimmerman. 4. 2004. Vol. 9. dependent variables. F. Burns. Kuala Lumpur. No. (2004). available from Proquest. A.nytimes. 7 January. Philosophy of Social Sciences. 20. eds. Corporate World Series. 2004. Sanchez-Runde. & Worley. & Simon. Boston. 2004. K. 31. No. New York Times. Massini. <http:www. Waddell. 7 January. Whittington. Hopkins. Pacific Rim 2 nd edn.

& Starlicki. I. diffe Resentment-based resistance can be differentiated on the premise that perceptions of organisational fairness provide grounds for resistant behaviour (Folger & Starlicki. 2 nd edn. or limited to. 1. Pearson Education. figure. OR OR A A boundaryless organisation is one "whose design is not defined. Rob Robbins. D. Scott & Jaffe. C. pp. all authors must be cited in the reference list. "Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment"..10. "Institutionalized resistance to organizational change: denial. it is appropriate to include page numbers in the intext citation. or limited to. 1999). (1999). No. A boundaryless organization is one "whose design is not defined. Milton.P. In any case. the horizontal.. Current levels of competition demand that firms consider new ways of organising (Sanchez-Runde. etc or the passage is long. including.the author of the chapter as well as the editors of the book. & Coulter. 1997. Human resource management. Management. Vol. D. Two or three authors ." Reference list: Two or three authors In-text references generally comprise the author/s' last name and year of publication. Folger. 2001b). R. Massini & Quintanilla. Vol. In-text: Rob Stone. M. 29) favours a "pluralistic approach comprising a number of factors. Stagg & Coulter. Bergman. In-text: Reference list: One author citing another In-text: Reference list: Chapter in an edited book Two entries are required . 2003. & Trigg. John Wiley & Sons.. p. 292). 16. R. 1991 cited in Bovey & Hede. Reference list: Mahoney.. p. S. Mahoney & Trigg (2001) have examined a number of issues in relation to. Prentice Hall. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Sydney. Journal of Business Ethics. International business: a managerial perspective. 292). Sydney. Stagg. 917-931.journal article In-text: Reference list: More than three authors Although it is preferable to acknowledge all authors the first time the work is referred to. 2003). No. 1951 cited in Agocs. inaction and repression". Despite the prevalence of phased transitional models supporting organisational change (Lewin.P. vertical or external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure" (Robbins. (2002). pp. In-text: 4 . p.6 Examples of in-text and end-text citations using the author-date system AUTHOR-DATE SYSTEM Use of page numbers If you refer to a direct quotation. Qld. the horizontal. it is also acceptable to use the abbreviation "et al" meaning "and the following". vertical or external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure" (Robbins et al. 2003. Agocs.. (2003). M. (2001). 9. 3 rd edn. many companies undervalue the role of process and people. 35-50.. (1997). Bergman. 12. table. R. In-text: Stone (2002.

. Whittington. p. In-text: Reference list: Department of Industry. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 2004. 2) Hopkins. list the publication years in chronological. C. list the work under the author's name and acknowledge the role of the editor. 2004. 2003. L. Australian Government Printing Service. C. Business. "Parmalat cooked the books worldwide: police". Vol. 24 May). 3) The Age. 8. 2. "Resistance to organizational change: the role of cognitive and affective processes". & Quintanilla. Vol. 534-548. the abbreviation is shown as "eds" for the plural but "ed. No. The Age. R. "Resistance to organisational change: the role of defence mechanisms". A. pp. Australian business innovation: a strategic analysis. Author unknown but there is a sponsoring organisation Occasionally there may not be an identifiable author for. Reference list: Sanchez-Runde. (2001b).A.If the work has been edited but the author's role is of major importance.(Hopkins. London. van den Bosch. (2001a). In this instance. eds. 3. Multiple works by the same In-text: author in same year When you refer to more than one work by the same author. in Innovative forms of organizing. News p. Melin. Massini. In this example.. SBS Television. & Hede. videos. Newspaper article . Bovey & Hede 2001a. J. Canberra. Scott & Jaffe. television program. W. Sanchez-Runde. say. Numagami.specified author In-text: Reference list: Newspaper article unspecified author In-text: Reference list: Audio-visual material including films. "People management dualities". a report or an article. 7 January. transitioning through a period of uncertainty and identifying with the new. Reference list: Identification of this process has been explored through a number of theories (Lewin. If the works were published in the same year. A. Italian magistrates were in the process of unravelling Parmalat's global units when. 7 January. & Hede. The Tax Office has asked 1000 of its staff to undergo controversial aptitude and psychological tests (The Age. 372-382. Science and Technology 2004). Sage Publications. Some doubt was cast on the probity of the producers ("What are we going to do about taxation anyway?". use the name of the sponsoring organisation in the citation. No.. P. TV and radio programs These should be listed by title in the reference list. Bovey. use lower-case letters of the alphabet. p. 2004. 2004.H. A. Bovey. (2004). 16. 1991 cited in Bovey & Hede 2001b). all of which recognise the need for breaking with the past. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 8. Melbourne.H. (2003). 1951 cited in Agocs. W. F. 22." Would apply for one editor. The role of government in developing innovation in the community is increasing in importance (Department of Industry. pp.J. In-text: 5 . M. Science and Technology (2004). W. Ruigrok & T. "Commission rejects plan to test Tax Office staff". 7 January. S. p. Pettigrew. 1997.

There were a number of limitations to the study (B. present the title of the document followed by the type of document. staff retention is proving to be an even more difficult task (Department of Defence. D. "Simply the best workplaces in Australia". (2003). working paper. Note that if you acknowledge the organisation.. Cooper. in Proceedings of theSixth International Research Conference on Quality. 2002). public discussion paper prepared for the Commonwealth Government. comm. Consideration of this point was made in the early 1990s (House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal & Constitutional Affairs. 24 May." Unpublished works When citing an unpublished thesis. This type of source is not referred to agai n in the reference list.Reference list: "What are we going to do about taxation anyway?" (2003). measuring and leading organisational innovation". Department of Defence. Attracting appropriate defence personnel has been an issue in the past. Australian Government Publishing Service. Innovation and Knowledge Management. V. Half Way to Equal: Report of the Inquiry into Equal Opportunity and Equal Status for Women in Australi a . this should be acknowledged in an in-text reference. pp. 44-48. (television program). Department of Defence (2002). 31 January). 29) suggest that "in the main. ACIRRT. this should be included in square brackets within the citation. Warne. "The difficulties of defining. Corporate World Series. Malaysia. House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal & Constitutional Affairs (1992). S. Personal communication In-text: If you have obtained information directly from an individual or organisation through an interview. Government publications In-text: Reference list: Parliamentary report In-text: Reference list: 6 . In-text: Reference list: Hull. Defence review 2000: our future defence force. Melbourne. & Simon. SBS Television. Note that the title of the working paper is not italicised. Kuala Lumpur. Hull & Read (2003. manuscript or paper. Canberra. University of Sydney. Reference list: Conference paper In-text: Reference list: Not applicable There appears to be no universally accepted definition of innovation (Warne & Simon. pers. meeting or correspondence. 1992). however. Nor is the place of publication stated as it is inferred. Canberra. & Read. (2003). p. employees want an organisational environment where there is mutual respect. 2003). A. [ Monash University] (2004. phone conversation.

7 Author-date system for online/electronic sources If you are using one of the library's databases and you download a journal article as a PDF file. you would have to show the URL.no specified author In-text: Zhang & Yu (2002) argue that it is essential to understand the factors influencing consumer demand for e-trading services. 10. 4. & Yu. Citing online/electronic sources follows many of the conventions already outlined above. M. In that case. 49-59. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research.M.prosci. No. "Overview of change management". Jounal article from the internet . 4. and then the year of publication). Monash University. Reference list: 10. Reference list: In-text: Reference list: 7 . "Analysis of demand for electronic stock trading: a statistical approach". 49-59. T. (1995). you do not have to show a URL because you have an exact copy of the article. Some of the negative consequences of poorly handled change management can include valued staff leaving the organisation. M. Follow the same order for citing online sources in-text as you do for citing printed sources (eg last name of author or sponsoring organization. PhD thesis.8 Examples of in-text and end-text citations using the author-date system AUTHOR-DATE SYSTEM .) URL 10. Vol. Details in the reference list may include some or all of the following depending on the nature of the publication: Author/s. Waddell. Reference list: Journal article from database full-text version The online version of this article is a text version. 2004. simply cite using the method shown above.T. Zhang. use only the date it was revised.M. Bak B BPR online Learning Centre (2003). Journal of Accounting and Finance Research. 1995). (2002).Thesis In-text: Mana Managers may find it useful to consider resistance as a positive aspect of change implementation (Waddell.htm>.com/Change_managementOverview. 2003). use the URL) Place of publication Publisher Type of medium (this will vary) Date of revision Date accessed/viewed (You need to specify the date on which you accessed the site since web sites can frequently change.T. Using resistance positively to implement new manufacturing methods in industry. 2004. pp. 'Analysis of demand for electronic stock trading: a statistical approach'. Zhang.ELECTRONIC SOURCES Journal article In-text: from database PDF version A PDF version of a journal article should be considered in the same way as the hardcopy version. < http://www. viewed 7 Jan. (2002). editors. delays in important projects and a decline in productivity ("Overview of change management". T. Zhang & Yu (2002) argue that it is essential to understand the factors influencing consumer demand for e-trading services. pp. Vol. & Yu. available from Proquest. No. or the organisation responsible for the source Date of publication Title (If the title is abbreviated or not available. If the web site includes both a date of creation and a revised date. D. 10. viewed 16 Feb. If you download a text-only version of the article.

As with all systems of referencing you will need to consult your unit outline. (2002).Shell. Royal Dutch Shell expanded its operations through acquisitions in Europe. viewed 26 Nov. K. The following publications and web sites may also prove helpful: 8 . Only one number is used at a time even if more than one source is being cited. American Marketing Association. A. Vol. Payne. "Principles of brand asset management". Throughout the early twentieth century. your tutor or unit co-ordinator to establish which form of numeric system is required. "Are Australian knowledge workers prepared to go the 'extra mile'? OCB in an Australian context". Relationship marketing is by no means a new concept (Christopher.nytimes. This section of the chapter on referencing covers footnoting. (2004). Davis.aexp. Eichenwald (2004) suggested that former Enron executives were pressed by prosecutors into providing information implicating others.. viewed 9 Nov. "Ex-Enron figure reported near a plea of guilty". M. AMA Newsletter. Monash eBook collection <http: www. A bibliography or reference list is placed at the end of the assignment. Christopher. American Express Corporate Travel Newsletter. (2001). in Proceedings of the 17 th ANZAAM Conference. Edith Cowan University. There are three parts to this style: The note identifiers. 1. viewed 20 Sept. Eichenwald. < http://www. Luca E. A single note signifies that all sources will be referred to in the accompanying footnote. < http://www. 2001). <http:www. viewed 5 May 2004. For academic purposes it may be more appropriate to use the term "reference list" which means the list of sources an author has cited for a particular assignment or paper.marketing power. <http:www. Loyalty programs are still popular amongst corporate travellers (American Express Corporate Travel Newsletter.com>. Payne & Ballantyne 2002). 2003). (2003). the notes are placed at the base of the table or figure and not at the bottom of the page. 2004. WA. S. New York Times. 2004). Relationship marketing: creating shareholder value. (2001). & Gray J. Business Law and Taxation students should consult with their unit co-ordinators and tutors regarding the specific referencing system required for their discipline. Numbers are usually placed at the end of a sentence or clause and before all punctuation marks except the full stop at the end of a sentence. 46.Article from the internet .netLibrary. According to the Style Manual (2002). Africa and the Americas (Shell. Empirical research conducted by Luca and Gray (2003) suggests that the contribution of knowledge workers to organisational performance is yet to be determined. & Ballantyne D. "Airline news". 2003. the term "bibliography" refers to a list of sources used for the assignment plus any sources the author considers to be of interest to the reader. In relation to tables and figures.author specified In-text: Brand asset management enables companies to maximise the long-term value of their brands from two important perspectives ( Davis. 8 January.com>. (2003).9 Documentary-note System for in-text referencing The documentary-note system is a numeric system which may incorporate either footnotes or endnotes. The use of superscript numerals is recommended for both footnotes and endnotes. No.com/ebook>. Shell revised 2004. 2004. however you will need to consult with your tutor to establish whether a bibliography or a reference list is required.com/2004/01/08business08ENROhtml?hp>. viewed 2 July 2005. CD-ROM.be/Topics/TravellersTools>. Reference list: CD-ROM conference paper In-text: Reference list: Electronic magazine In-text: Reference list: Online book In-text: Reference list: Online newspaper In-text: Reference list: Web page of an organization In-text: Reference list: 10.

R. p.50. Management. John Wiley & Sons. 4 Stone. Mahoney & M. pp.. 1999. D. loc cit. 6 Bibliography: Two or three authors .P. No. John Wiley & Sons. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Qld. 9 . Australian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation. and available at: http://mulr. Milton.law.in the place cited) and "id.law.law.htm).. Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc. Legal Referencing. Folger Folger & Starlicki differentiate resentment-based resistance on the premise that perceptions of organisational fairness provide grounds for resistant behaviour. The PDF version is 167 pages long. "Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment". 1999.edu.unimelb. Note that a fullstop is not required for this Footnote: S. A boundaryless organization is one "whose design is not defined..unimelb.the same) can be used for second and subsequent citations.Fong. 8 OR 8 More than three authors In-text: Any edition after the first edition should be cited.. Trigg. footnoting and end-text citations for the documentary-note system DOCUMENTARY-NOTE SYSTEM One Author. Vol. (1998). Milton. 5 ibid. Qld. 2 nd edn. 4 4 R. Australian Guide toLegal Citation. Sydney.pdf. "op cit. In-text: This approach takes into consideration several significant factors. (1998). first citation Use superscript numerals for the in-text citation. Two or three authors The initials of the authors are placed first in the footnote. 3rd edn. (a preliminary version of the electronic-materials section is available at: http://www. 2003. LULRA Inc. (see:http://www..html).edu. 1. & M.3 3 First footnote: Subsequent footnotes: R. Australian Legal Citation — A Guide. 6 D. vertical or external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure".. 2001. Bergman. 2 nd edn." (opera citato .asp.54-65.edu. Human resource management.in the work previously cited).au/aglc. & Starlicki. Melbourne. Coulter. 2002.. Sydney.P. 35-50. Stuhmcke. pp.au/PDFs/aglc_dl. Starlicki. The year is positioned after the place of publication .. 35 . 1. (1999). Bibliography Folger. "Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as mistreatment". (loco citato . P. Folger & D. International business: a managerial perspective. Human resource management. & Trigg. International business: a managerial perspective." (idem . 32.murdoch. Prentice Hall. C. Prospect. Mahoney. R. or limited to. Rozenberg. Pearson Education. Butterworths.10 Examples of in-text. the horizontal.in the same place). Subsequent citations Latin terms such as "ibid" (ibidem . Stagg. Vol. 10. Sydney. A. Robbins. 6 id. LBC Information Services. Sydney.P. 292.journal article In-text: Footnote: The year is positioned before the page numbers. 12.edu.au/elaw/issues/v4n4/rozenb44. Sydney. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Stone.unimelb. 2001. Pearson Education. p. R. pp.au/mulr/aglc. No. D. 2002. Australian Guide to Legal Citation can be accessed or purchased at: http://mulr. Mahoney and Trigg have examined a number of issues in relation to. (1998).. Bibliography: In-text: Footnote: Rob Stone. M. 12. I. Sydney.

W. Vol. Massini. No. in Innovative forms of organizing. 534 548.P. C.) A.M. In-text: Footnote: Sanchez-Runde.A. pp. 2001. 2001. A. 534 548. 9. No.. Whittington. Waddell. Current levels of competition demand that firms consider new ways of organising. F. 2001. 372 . Cummings. 2003.. M. 1997. pp. "People management Dualities". Lewin in C. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. Melin. Agocs. Whittington. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. Bovey & A. Vol. Waddell. 917-931. Pacific Rim 2 nd edn. D. (eds. 16. D..H. 2004.G. I. Bergman. Sanchez-Runde. Bovey. "Institutionalized resistance to organizational change: denial. Organisation Development and Change. Agocs. T. No. 16. Journal of Business Ethics. Sanchez-Runde. Ruigrok and T. "Resistance to organisational change: the role of defence mechanisms". pp. 917-931. Despite the prevalence of phased transitional models supporting organisational change many companies undervalue the role of process and people. & Worley. Identification of this process has been explored through a number of theories all of which recognise the need for breaking with the past. Journal of Business Ethics. Sage Publications. & Hede. in (eds. pp. S. 1997. M.abbreviation.G. you need only use one note identifier. "Resistance to organizational change: the role of cognitive and affective processes". "Resistance to organisational change: the role of defence mechanisms". pp. Numagami. R.19 12 Footnote: Bibliography: Chapter in an edited book Two entries are required .. London.. 9. F.J. No.A. 3 rd edn. Numagami. Melin.. 2001. Worley. C. Quintanilla.the author of the chapter as well as the editors of the book. W.M. T. C. 8. Vol. 16.G.. Ruigrok & T. W. Management.23 23 12 Bibliography: Multiple works In-text: If you want to refer to more than one source. pp. R. South Melbourne.) A. The bibliographic information about each source should then be provided in the footnote. W. 198-221. Hede. Pettigrew. Prentice Hall. A.. M. Vol. Hede. Sanchez-Runde. Pettigrew. & Quintanilla. transitioning through a period of uncertainty and identifying with the new. No fullstop required for the abbreviation of "editors". C.C. No. 2003. Vol.12 K.382. pp. & Hede. "Resistance to organizational change: the role of cognitive and affective processes". & Coulter. J. L. Bibliography: Bovey. 372 . Sage Publications. G. "Institutionalized resistance to organizational change: denial. Vol. Bibliography: One author citing another In-text: Robbins. S. inaction and repression". Sydney.H. London. Footnote: H. Cummings & C. 22. Journal of Managerial Psychology.H. 22.J. van den Bosch.. "People management dualities". Bovey & A. Massini & J. inaction and repression". Journal of Managerial Psychology.. Stagg. S. 8. van den Bosch. 8. No.382. 2003. W. L. R. Innovative forms of organizing. 16. Nelson Thomson Learning. 8. 10 .

3. 3. TV and radio programs These should be listed by title in the reference list . "Parmalat cooked the books worldwide: police". Science and Technology.Organisation Development and Change.. Italian magistrates were in the process of unravelling Parmalat's global units when.19 49 Bibliography: Unpublished works When citing an unpublished thesis. p. Pacific Rim 2 nd edn. television program. 7 January. In this instance. Hopkins. The Age. employees want an organisational environment where there is mutual respect. Read. say. TheAge. Business. Hull & Read suggest that in the main.8 "Commission rejects plan to test Tax Office staff". In-text: Footnote: 19 D. a report or an article.16 Footnote: Department of Industry. 7 January. videos. Australian Government Printing Service. In-text: The role of government in developing innovation in the community is increasing in importance. 24 May. 2003.specified author In-text: Footnote: Bibliography: P. 2004. Department of Industry. 49 8 Newspaper article unspecified author In-text: Footnote: Bibliography: Audio-visual material including films. Melbourne. 2. News p. In-text: Footnote: "What are we going to do about taxation anyway?". 2003.. Australian business innovation: a strategic analysis. 21 21 16 Bibliography: Newspaper article . Canberra. television program. Australian Government Printing Service. TheAge. Hull & V. 2004. "Parmalat cooked the books worldwide: police". Corporate World Series. "Commission rejects plan to test Tax Office staff". South Melbourne. P. 2004. 7 January 2004. manuscript or paper. SBS Television. Author unknown but there is a sponsoring organisation Occasionally there may not be an identifiable author for. "Simply the best workplaces in 11 . News p. The Age. Business. Melbourne. The Tax Office has asked 1000 of its staff to undergo controversial aptitude and psychological tests. Canberra. 2004. p. Hopkins. 2004. Australian business innovation: a strategic analysis. use the name of the sponsoring organisation in the citation. Science and Technology. Corporate World Series. present the title of the document followed by the type of document. SBS Television. Nelson Thomson Learning. 24 May. Some doubt was cast on the probity of the producers. "What are we going to do about taxation anyway?". 2.. 7 January 2004.

can be referred to in a footnote.. Not applicable There appears to be no universally accepted definition of innovation. 1992. pp. S. Defence personnel to 2005: our future defence force.5 5 Parliamentary publications In-text: Footnote: House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal & Constitutional Affairs.11 11 33 Bibliography: Government publications In-text: Footnote: Bibliography: Defence personnel to 2005: our future defence force. measuring and leading organisational innovation".33 S. public discussion paper prepared for the Commonwealth Government. Personal communication Personal communications such as interviews. working paper. "The difficulties of defining. "The difficulties of defining. A. University of Sydney. however. Bibliography list: House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal & Constitutional Affairs. Kuala Lumpur. 2003. Australian Government Publishing Service. letters. 2003. Half Way to Equal: Report of the Inquiry into Equal Opportunity and Equal Status for Women in Australia. April. Warne. 1992. pers. etc. 31 January. D. Monash University. Consideration of this point was made in the early 1990s. emails. Innovation and Knowledge Management. pp. Canberra. 44-48. Managers may find it useful to consider resistance as a Thesis In-text: 12 . Australian Government Publishing Service. Innovation and Knowledge Management. ACIRRT. in Proceedings of theSixth International Research Conference on Quality. April. University of Sydney. & Read. Nor is the place of publication stated as it is inferred. measuring and leading organisational innovation". Department of Defence. There were a number of limitations to the study. 2001. V. comm. staff retention is proving to be an even more difficult task. ACIRRT. 2004. Note that the title of the working paper is not italicised. Kuala Lumpur. Canberra. Department of Defence. 2002. Cooper. Simon. in Proceedings of theSixth International Research Conference on Quality. Bibliography: Hull. but they are not generally listed in the reference list.81 In-text: Footnote: Reference list: Conference paper In-text: Footnote: 81 B.Australia". 2003.. "Simply the best workplaces in Australia". Department of Defence. Warne & A. working paper. Canberra. 44-48. Canberra. Malaysia. & Simon. Malaysia. Attracting appropriate defence personnel has been an issue in the past. 2003. Half Way to Equal: Report of the Inquiry into Equal Opportunity and Equal Status for Women in Australi a .

no specified author In-text: Some of the negative consequences of poorly handled change management can include valued staff leaving the organisation. http://www. 4. viewed 16 February.prosci. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research.com/Change_management Overview. 7 M. 2004. 49-59. delays in important projects and a decline in productivity. Bibliography: Bak "Overview of change management".prosci. Journal article from the internet . 2002.. No. "Using resistance positively to implement new manufacturing methods in industry".ELECTRONIC SOURCES Journal article from database PDF version A PDF version of a journal article should be considered in the same way as the hardcopy version. Vol. "Analysis of demand for electronic stock trading: a statistical approach". 10. Bibliography: Zhang. http://www. No. Article from the internet In-text: Brand asset management enables companies to maximise the long-term value of their brands from two important perspectives. BPR Online Learning Centre 2003. 10. 4. pp. "Analysis of demand for electronic stock trading: a statistical approach". No.com/Change_management Overview.11 Examples of in-text. 1995. available from Proquest. "Analysis of demand for electr electronic stock trading: a statistical approach" Journal of Accounting and Finance Research. 10. 18 Footnote: 18 M. 10. Vol.T. 2004. Waddell.T. viewed 7 January. 27 27 Footnote: "Overview of change management". 4 Bibliography: 10. 2002. Zhang. Yu. PhD thesis. 1995. pp. 2004. 33 13 . 49-59. Monash University.potential positive to change implementation.4 Footnote: D.htm. pp.. 49-59. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research. footnoting and end-text citations using the documentary-note system DOCUMENTARY-NOTE SYSTEM . & Yu. viewed 16 February. viewed 7 January. Yu..M. Monash University. In-text: Zhang & Yu argue that it is essential to understand the factors influencing consumer demand for e-trading services. & Yu. Journal article from database full-text version The on-line version of the article is a text version.htm.T. Zhang & T. BPR Online Learning Centre 2003. In-text: Zhang & Yu argue that it is essential to understand the factors influencing consumer demand for e-trading services. 6 Footnote: Bibliography: Zhang.M. T.M. 2002. M. 49-59. Vol. M. 4. pp. D. PhD thesis.M. 2004. Waddell. "Using resistance positively to implement new manufacturing methods in industry". 2002. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research. T.T. "Analysis of demand for electronic stock trading: a statistical approach". No. & T. Vol. available from Proquest. 4.

Payne. http: www. Davis.netLibrary. viewed 2 July 2005. revised 2004. 2004. "Ex-Enron figure reported near a plea of Guilty". 16 Bibliography: "Airline news".. revised 7 September.nytimes.marketing power. New York Times. American Marketing Association. 14 ..shell. 2003. WA. Online newspaper In-text: Footnote: Eichenwald suggested that former Enron executives were pressed by prosecutors into providing information implicating others. AMA Newsletter. A. Bibliography: Shell. viewed 2 July. 1.netLibrary. Web page of an organization In-text: Footnote: Throughout the early twentieth century.be/Topics/TravellersTools. 2004. "Are Australian knowledge workers prepared to go the 'extra mile'? OCB in an Australian context". K. Electronic magazine In-text: Footnote: Loyalty programs are still popular amongst corporate travellers. 2004. American Express Corporate Travel Newsletter. Monash eBook Collection. "Ex-Enron figure reported near a plea of guilty". 7 September. Payne & D. CD-ROM. 2004. Edith Cowan University.aexp. 16 Airline news". 41 41 Eichenwald. http:www. A.shell. 2003. & Gray. Bibliography: Christopher M. http://www.com. 2004. "Are Australian knowledge workers prepared to go the 'extra mile'? OCB in an Australian context". 2003. 8 January 2004.aexp.Footnote: 33 S. 2003. viewed 5 May. viewed 5 May.nytimes. Bibliography: Davis. 2003. "Principles of brand asset management". http://www. 4. http:www. No. http://www. viewed 26 November. Luca & J. Edith Cowan University. 22 22 M. Gray. in Proceedings of the 17 th ANZAAM Conference. viewed 9 November. 51 E. 51 Bibliography: Luca. New York Times. 2004. CD-ROM. & Ballantyne. 2005..be/Topics/TravellersTools. Relationship marketing: creating shareholder value. Bibliography: Eichenwald. J. Vol. E. American Express Corporate Travel Newsletter . Monash eBook Collection. "Principles of brand asset management". http:www. in Proceedings of the 17 th ANZAAM Conference 2003. p.com. viewed 9 November. 4. Online book In-text: Footnote: Relationship marketing is by no means a new concept. p. 46. S. Africa and the Americas. http:www. Christopher. 2003. revised 2004. 8 January 2004. American Marketing Association.marketing power. Relationship marketing: creating shareholder value. D. http://www.com/2004/01/08business08ENROhtml?hp.. 9 9 Shell. http://www. 2001. Royal Dutch Shell expanded its operations through acquisitions in Europe. Ballantyne.com. 2001. viewed 20 September.com/ebook. WA. viewed 26 November. CD-ROM In-text: conference paper Footnote: Empirical research by Luca & Gray suggests that the contribution of knowledge workers to organisational performance is yet to be determined. viewed 20 September.com/2004/01/08business08ENROhtml?hp.com.com/ebook.