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BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011

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BAHAN SEMINAR JUJ

PROJEK JAWAB UNTUK JAYA (JUJ) NEGERI PAHANG TAHUN 2011

BIOLOGI

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Page 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Contents Format Analysis Tips Questions - SPM 2009 Question paper (paper 2 & 3) Marking scheme Example of student’s answer Marking Skill 2 3-4 5 - 10 11 -18 19 - 48 49 - 63 82 - 85 86 - 89

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BIOLOGY SPM EXAM FORMAT ( STARTING FROM 2003) SUBJECT CODE : 4551
Criteria Type of instrument Type of item Paper 1(4551/1) Objective Test Objective Item Multiple choice Each item followed by four alternative answers A, B, C or D 50 ( Answer all the questions ) Paper 2(4551/2) Subjective Test Paper 3(4551/3) Written Practical

Subjective Item Subjective Item : Section A : structured Structure Item Item Section B :Essay Open ended Item Respond (Essay )

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Total Question

Section A : 5 items (Answer all the questions – Section B : 4 items (Answer any two questions) Refer to SPM 2008 format (latest)

Structure Item 1 – 2 item (Answer any one question) Open ended responds: 1 item ( Essay written ) 50 Write the answer in the space provided in the question paper 1 hour 30 minutes Science process skill : 16 aspect Max score :3

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Total Marks Responded

50 Blacken one space at OMR form

100 Write the answer in the space provided in the question paper 2 hours 30 minutes Knowlegment – 10 Understanding – 20 Application skill – 30 Analysis skill – 15 Synthesis skill – 15 Evaluation - 10 Refer Example instrument: Paper 4551 / 2

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Duration Construct scoring

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Item example based on construct

1 hour 15 minutes section A : Knowlegment – 25 Section B : Understanding – 15 Section C : Application skill - 10 Refer Example Instrument: Paper 4551 / 1

Refer Example instrument: Paper 4551 / 3

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Marking

Dichotomous Mark: 1 or 0

Scoring is analytical based on scoring rubric

Scoring is analytical based on rubric at

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Context

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Level of difficulties Easy : E Moderate : M Hard : H

Construct from All learning Area are tested R:S:T=3:1:1 ( 25 easy item : 15 moderate item :10 hard item )

Construct from All learning Area are tested R:S:T=4:4:2 ( 40marks easy Item: 40marks moderate item : 20marks hard item ) Overall R:S:T=5:3:2 Scientific calculator

level 3. Construct are tested from suitable learning area. R:S:T=3:1:1 ( 30 easy item : 10 moderate item : 10 hard item )

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Adding apparatus

Scientific calculator

Scientific calculator

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- P1 OB 2 2008 P2 P3 S E 1 2 ½ 1/5 - P1 OB 2 2009 P2 P3 S E 1 2 .. Dynamic Ecosystem 9. Chemical Composition Of The Cell 5.3 Analysis of the SPM Biology Exam Questions Analysis of the SPM Biology Questions (2006-2010) CHAPTER P1 OBJ 1. Respiration 8. Nutrition 7. Cell Structure and Cell Organisation F O R M F O U R 3. Introduction of Biology 2..- P1 OBJ 4 2007 P2 S E 1/2 - P3 1 2 .1 - P1 3 2010 P2 P3 S E . Endangered Ecosystem 2 - - 1 - 1 1 - - - 3 - - - - 3 - - - 1 4 1 - 3 4 2 4 2 1 - 2 - - - 2 9 4 5 3 1/3 - 1 1 1/ 3 1 1 - 8 5 3 1 - 1 1 1 - - 2 6 6 3 4 2/3 1 - 1 1 - 1 - - 2 5 6 4 3 ½ - 1 1 5 . Cell Division 6.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 1. Movement of substance Across The Plasma Membrane 2 2006 P2 S E 1 - P3 1 2 .1 - 4 - 1 - 1 2 1 - - - 3 - 4/5 - 1 5 1/5 - - - 2 1 - 4.

1 . Transport 2. Coordination and Response 4. Locomotion and Support 3. Variation 5 3 5 9 2 3 2006 P2 P3 S E 1 2 .1 1 1/ 2 1 - 6 . Inheritance 6. Reproduction and Growth 5.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 CHAPTER P1 OB F O R M F I V E 1.1 1 1 - P1 OB 4 7 6 2 3 2007 P2 P3 S E 1 2 2/ 3 2/ 3 1 1 1 - P1 OB 6 3 5 5 2 2 2008 P2 S E ½ 1 1 1 1 - P3 1 2 - P1 OB 7 1 4 4 2 1 2009 P2 P3 S E 1 2 1 1 1 1/ 3 1 - P1 OB 3 1 4 7 3 3 2010 P2 P3 S E 1 2 .

2 : Studying osmosis using an osmometer (page 24) 2005 Q1 Q2 2006 Q1 Q2 2007 Q1 Q2 2008 Q1 Q2 X 2009 Q1 Q2 2010 Q1 Q2 2 3 CHAPTER 3: Movement of substances across the plasma membrane Activity 3.4: Investigate the effects of pH on the breakdown of starch by amylase. (page 30) X X 5 CHAPTER 4: Chemical composition of the cell Activity 4.4: Studying the effects of pH on the activity of pepsin (page 39) 7 CHAPTER 4: Chemical composition of the cell Activity 4.1 Size of molecule that can diffuse through a semipermeable membran CHAPTER 3: Movement of substances across the plasma membrane Activity 3.hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal and plant cells. (page 41) 8 CHAPTER 4: Chemical composition of the cell X 7 .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 EXPERIMENTS CHECKLISTS FORM 4 (SPM 2004-2009) No 1 Topic CHAPTER 3: Akt:3.4 and 3. (27-28) 4 CHAPTER 3: Movement of substances across the plasma membrane Activity 3.3: Studying the effects of temperature on salivary amylase activity (page 36) X 6 CHAPTER 4: Chemical composition of the cell Activity 4.6 : Determining the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of a plant.4 : Studying the effects of hypotonic .

(page 93) (page 93 – 94) X X X 15 x 8 . (page 61 – 62) 11 CHAPTER 6: Nutrition Activity 6.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Activity 4.6: Investigating the differences between inhaled and exhaled air in terms of oxygen and carbon dioxide contents. (page 65 – 66) 12 CHAPTER 6: Nutrition Activity 6.11 Investigating the effects of carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.8 : Studying the effects of macronutrient deficiency in plants (page 72) 13 CHAPTER 6: Nutrition Activity 6.5: Studying the effects of substrate concentration on salivary amylase activity (page 42) /(SPM : Concentration of albumen) 9 CHAPTER 4: Chemical composition of the cell Activity 4.1: Determining the energy value in food samples.6: Studying the effects of enzyme concentration on salivary amylase activity (page 43) 10 CHAPTER 6: Nutrition Activity 6.11 Investigating the effects of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis.3: Determining the vitamin C contain in various fruit juices. (page 76) 14 CHAPTER 6: Nutrition Activity 6. CHAPTER 7: Respiration Activity 7.

6 Estimating the population size of animals using capture.2 : Investigating the process of anaerobic respiration in yeast (page 85) CHAPTER 8 :Dynamic Ecosystem Activity 8. light intensity and nutrients on the activity of yeast (page 119) X 21 CHAPTER 9: Endangered Ecosystem Activity 9.11 Studying the effects of temperature.1 Investigating interspecific competition of plant CHAPTER 8: Dynamic Ecosystem Activity 8. release and recapture technique (page 113) 20 CHAPTER 8: Dynamic Ecosystem Activity 8.2: Investigating the level of pollution in several different sources of water (page 128 – 129) 9 . mark.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 16 CHAPTER 7: Respiration Activity 7. pH.5 Investigating the distribution of plants using the quadrat sampling technique (page 111.112) Modified (using Grid) X 17 X 18 19 CHAPTER 8: Dynamic Ecosystem Activity 8.

To investigate continuous variation and discontinuous variation in human.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 EXPERIMENTS CHECKLISTS FORM 5 (SPM 2003-2009) No 1 Topic CHAPTER 1:TRANSPORT To study one of the factor of affecting the rate of transpiration. CHAPTER : VARIATION . CHAPTER 6: VARIATION . X 10 .To investigate the importance of camouflage in the survival of a species 3 4.To study the effect of different quantities of water intake of urine output. . 2003 Q 1 Q 2 2004 Q 1 Q 2 2005 Q 1 Q 2 2006 Q 1 Q 2 2007 Q 1 Q 2 2008 Q 1 Q 2 2009 Q 1 Q 2 2010 Q 1 Q 2 2 CHAPTER 3: COORDINATION AND RESPONSE.

More information for each question can get from graph. Read the question carefully for three times to you understand what are the questions ask. iii. * Deleted wrong answer completely * Used 2B pencil. ii.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 1. Vii Examples of questions form for paper 1 * Remember the fact * Making conclusion * Application * Observation * Knowlegment * Comparisons * Identify the problem * Calculation 11 .4. reject all destructor and guess the best answer when you are not sure the best answer. vi.4 TIPS FOR EXAM 1. Don’t take more than 11/2 minutes for each question to make sure enough time for all questions. Make ( / ) for true statement. Try to answer easy questions first. iv. followed by moderate questions and students have enough time to answer difficult questions. v.1 Objective Question – Paper1 i. Make sure answer all the questions and remark all the answer and make sure: * One question only one answer. table. and diagram that given.

data. experiment or investigation. table or graph.2 Subjective Question Encourage the students to review the essay question first (Part B Paper2 ). this because students will have enough time to think some facts or explaination. Characteristics of alveolus : Accept Thickness of alveolus is only one cell Surface of alveolus is wet A lot of network of blood capillaries covering the alveolus Reject Alveolus is thin wet A lot of blood capillaries 12 . diagram.. Almost structure questions based on diagram. one number or one simple sentence Don’t combine the right fact with the wrong fact Follow the instruction like : Give two examples of……. Space for write the answers and mark at end of the essays or structure questions are given will show how long the answer must be write.before answer the structure question. No need write in long sentence or copy again part of the question.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 1. Calculation must be show. Answer can be in equations form. table. so students should give only two examples. Part B ( 60 minutes ).4. graph that suitable with fact. Understand all the information given. Time suggestion to answer Paper 2: Part A ( 90 minutes ). for Paper 3 : Question 1 ( 50 minutes ) and Question 2 ( 40 minutes ) Answer in one word. flow chart. the third example will not get the mark.

must write in full sentence Write chemical equation : * In word form [ / ] Glucose + oxygen [ X ] Glucose + oxygen * In chemical form [ / ] C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Carbon dioxide CO2 + H2O + water + energy + energy 13 .One characteristic must compare between two subject in one sentence .If answer in table.Separate sentence between similarities and differences . evaluation. give your opinion. clear. Students must state like ‘ I agree / I accept / I’m not agree / I’m not accept that statement given ( 1 mark ) and followed by opinion Draw a diagram * No artistic * Big (suitable size).Must have similarities and differences .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Instruction verb like justification. * Label the diagram correctly and line for label can’t be cross together * Neat and without broken lines Draw a enzyme structure: Size and shape of the enzyme must same with the original Comparison .

Parental Gamete .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Draw the hybrid cross (Inheritance) * Has key * Label the schema diagram .Reject : Supply / give energy Don’t copy again part of the question because this is not get any mark.4. scale of apparatus Example : State changes in color State increase of thermometer reading State changes in time State changes in volume ( end of experiment ) • State the VALUE OF MV & RV • The observation that can be making inference 14 .F1 Phenotype Male gamete and female gamete are fertilization * Reject combine / attach Function of mitochondrion – Generate / provide energy .3.3 Paper 3 1.1 Question 1 i) Measuring using number Measure / record the data using apparatus that given in the experiment / question with the correct unit Example : Record scale / thermometer reading.Parental Genotype . table. stop watch. burette with the correct units ( if not given) ii) Observing Making observation based on the experiment given not on the theory. ruler. measuring cylinder.4. syringe. What can observe / see only – from data. 1.F1 Genotype .

Must state PARAMETER like volume.State that apparatus using to get the result for responding and controlled variables. iii) Rate of transpiration iv) Rate of enzyme reaction Controlled variable: Variable that constant during . length . 5% sucrose solution 10% sucrose solution Replace papaya juice with orange juice Change the concentration of albumen Must state the apparatus or state the formula using Example : i) Measure and record the final length of potato strip using ruler ii) Measure and record the final temperature of water using thermometer iii) Calculate the rate of transpiration using formula : distance divided by time iv) Calculate the rate of enzyme reaction using formula concentration of albumen dived by time Must state the PARAMETER and VALUE 15 Responding variable: Variable that are measure after experiment / result Example i) Final length of potato strip. mass. inference (ii) correspond with observation (ii) .Must infer MV & RV If wrong / reject observation automatic inference will reject / wrong iv) Controlling Variables . responding and manipulated variables correctly and method to handle variable correctly. controlled.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 iii) Making Inferences . mass of food. temperature. time.Able to state all the variables. ii) Final temperature of water. type of fruits Method to handle variable correctly Change in mass/concentration / water Or used different mass/ concentration / type of food Example : Used different mass of food Used 30% sucrose solution.Inferences must be correspond with the observation ( inference (i) correspond with observation (i) . . concentration of sucrose solution.Making initial conclusion / cause based on observation . Variable Manipulated variable: Variables that are changed in the experiment Examples: Temperature of water bath.

Answer with correct unit 16 .All points plotted correctly (1m) . clear.Both axes labeled with correct units . .Smooth curve and correct shape (1m) Chart .Title of the chart .Big (suitable size).Bars plotted correctly .Uniform scale .Work out accurate calculation .Sufficient and systematic data (observational data ) Graph .Correct shape Diagram . chart or diagram.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 experiment Example: Initial temperature of water.No artistic . graph.Neat and without broken lines Calculation .Column and row with correct title and units ( manipulated and responding variable) .Replacement with correct data . type of enzyme and APPERATUS Example : Fix the temperature at 370C using thermometer Fix volume of water at 20ml using measuring cylinder Fix concentration of starch at 10% Fix type of enzyme is pepsin v) Making hypothesis Make a statement of hypothesis by relating the manipulated variable (MV) with the responding variable (RV) and showing the specific relationship (H). concentration of starch.Wright formula .Label the diagram correctly and line for label can’t be cross together . vi) Communication Presenting the data in certain form like table.Both axes labeled with correct units (1m) .Uniform scale . volume of water. Table .

able to state correctly the relationship between the variables Support with theory viii) Relationship between space and time .Relationship between manipulated / responding variable with time .Refer to RV .Base on experiment. or time . volume) . refer observation . color.Quantity and time (concentration.Based on the communicating data.Can’t base on theory xi) Classifying Can group the answer base on the certain character 17 .Support with theory ix) Predicting Give once value that may be true base on the trend / data before and support by Theory x) Defining by operation . HP .Including data.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 vii) Interpreting Data .

3.Responding variable -1m . 2M 1M 0M 1m 1m 18 .Relationship between manipulated and responding variable .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 1.4.1m v) List of apparatus and materials (04) 3M Don’t separate between apparatus and materials vii) Experimental Procedure or method (05) 3M List down the complete and correct technique used based on the following criteria: K1 : Technique of assembling the apparatus and materials to carry out the experiment K2 : Technique of fixing the constant variable K3 : Technique of changing the manipulated variable K4 : Technique of measuring the responding variables K5 : Technique of taking precautions to increase accuracy State precautionary in the experiment Scoring : K’s 5K 3-4K 2K 1K viii) Presentation of data (06) 3M .Manipulated variable . iv) Variables (03) 3M .In question form.2 Question 2 ( NEW FORMAT) i) Problem statement (01) 3M .Controlling variable .End of sentence has question mark (?) iii) Hypothesis (02) 3M Make a statement of hypothesis by relating the manipulated variable with the responding variable and showing the specific relationship.1m .Title of column and row with correct unit (manipulated and responding variable) List Manipulated Variable correctly Score 3M . .

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 1.5 PAPER 2 – SPM 2009 Section A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section 19 .

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5. An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different duration of activity on percentages of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. the student rest for 10 minute and his exhaled air is collected to analyse the carbon dioxide content in the air sample. Potassium hydroxide solution is used to absorb carbon dioxide in exhaled air.2 PAPER 3 1. a J-tube is used to analyse the carbon dioxide content in the exhaled air. Activity Before using potassium hydroxide solution Initial reading for all activities Length of air column 10 cm Table 1 42 . Table 1shows the reading of sample air column for all the four activities carried out by the student. In this experiment. 2 minutes and 3 minutes. The exhaled air is collected immediately after each activity. In this experiment.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 1. The experiment is repeated with the same students after running on the spot 1 minutes.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Table 2 shows the result of the length of the air column after being treated with potassium hydroxide solution. Activity After being treated with potassium hydroxide solution Resting minutes 0 Length of air column cm cmcm cm 1 minutes running on the sport Length of air column cm cm cm 2 minutes running on the sport Length of air column 3 minutes running on the sport cm cm Length of air column cm cm Table 2 43 .

[3 marks] 1(b)(i) (ii) State the inferences from the observations in 1( b) (i). …………………………………………………………………………. Observation 2: ……………………………………………………………………….BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 (a) Record the lengths of the air column in the four boxes provided in Table 2. Inference from observation 2 : …………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………….... ……………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………….. Inference from observation 1: …………………………………………………………………………. [3 marks] 1(b )(ii) 44 .……………………………………………………………………….. Observation 1: . [3 marks] For examiner’s use 1(a) (b) (i) State two different observations made from Table 2.

... …………………………………………………………………………………. Method to handle the variable …………………………………………. …………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………….. …………………………………………. 1(c) Table 3 [3 marks] (d) State the hypothesis is for this experiment. …………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………….BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 (c) Complete Table 3 based on this experiment. …………………………………………. For Examiner’s Use Variable Manipulated variable ……………………………… ……………………………… ……………………………… Responding variable ……………………………… ……………………………… ………………………………. [3 marks] 1(d) 45 .. …………………………………………. Controlled variable ……………………………… ……………………………… ………………………………. ………………………………………...

Using the data in 1(e)(i) . [3 marks] 1(e)(ii) 46 .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 For Examiner’s Use (e) (i) Construct a table and record all the data collected in this experiment. draw a line graph of percentage of carbon dioxide against the time of activity . Your table should have the following titles: Type of activity Initial and final readings of the lengths of air column Percentage of final readings of the lengths of air column Use the formula : Initial length of Air column Final length of Air column x 100% Percentage of Carbon dioxide = Initial length of air column 1(e)(i) [3marks] (e) (ii) Use the graph paper provided answer this part of the question.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Graph of the percentage of carbon dioxide against the time of activity Percentage of carbon dioxide (%) Time (min) 47 .

.. [3 marks] 1(g) (h) State the operational definition for exhale air.…………… ………………………………………………………………………….. [3 marks] 1(i) 1(h) 48 ..... ………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………….…. …………………………………………………………………………………….…………. [3 marks] For Examiner’s Use 1(g) 1(f) (g) This experiment is repeated on the same student but the exhaled air is collected 10 minutes after each activity... ………………………………………………………………………………………….. explain the relationship between the time of activity and the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air sample... Predict the percentage of carbon dioxide released.…..……………………………. ………………………………………………………….………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………. Explain your prediction.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 (f) Based on the graph in 1(e)(ii). .…. ……………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………..….

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 (i) The following list is part of the materials and apparatus used in this experiment. Material Apparatus Table 4 1(i) [3 marks] Total 49 1(g) . Beaker Boiling tube Exhaled air sample Rubber tube Water J-Tube For Examiner’s Use Potassium hydroxide solution Complete Table 4 based on the list given above.

plan a laboratory experiment to study the effect of interspecific competition between maize and paddy plants on their growth. The effect of the competition is shown in their growth such as the height. Competition between individuals of different species is called interspecific competition and competition between individuals of the same species is called intraspecific competition. Based on the above information. The planning of your experiment must include the following aspects: Problem statement Hypothesis Variables List of apparatus and materials Experimental procedure or method Presentation of data [17 marks] END OF QUESTION PAPER 50 . Organisms in an environment compete with each other for the same basic needs in their survival. size and dry mass.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 2.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 No 1 (a)(i) Mark Scheme Able to label P and S Answer P: plasma membrane S: Rough endoplasmic reticulum Sub Total Mark Mark 1+1 2 (ii) Able to explain the function of the chromosomes Sample answers P1: Chromosomes carry genetic information P2: Which determines the characteristics and function of the cell/ For synthesis of enzymes/ protein (b) Able to explain what will happen to the production of extra cellular enzyme if olgi apparatus and S are absent.) the protein cannot be modified P4: Protein cannot be sorted P5: Enzyme cannot be packaged P6: Enzyme/ protein cannot be transported out of plasma membrane Any 4 (c) Able to explain why the sperm cells contain more mitochondria Answer P1: Mitochondria generate energy P2: Sperm need more energy to propel/ swim toward the uterus/ Fallopian tube (d) Able to explain how lysosomes eliminate damaged organelles in the cells Sample answers P1: Lysosomes secretes lysozyme/ hydrolytic enzymes P2: that digest/ hydrolysed the damaged organelles 51 1+1 2 4 4 1+1 2 1+1 2 12 . Sample answers P1: The production of (extracellular) enzyme is incomplete//no Production of enzyme P2: (Without S) the synthesized protein cannot be transported to Golgi apparatus P3: (Without golgi apparatus.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 2 (a) Able to name the processes involved in the movement of X and Y Answer Process of X: Active transport Process of Y: Diffusion/ passive transport 1+1 2 (b)(i) Able to name X and Y Answer X: Any examples of ions/ Calcium ion/ potassium ion/ sodium ion/ iodine Y: Oxygen 1+1 2 1+1 (ii) Able to describe the movement of Y Sample answers P1: Y diffuses from alveolus to blood capillary P2: From higher concentration to lower concentration 3 (c) Able to explain the condition of the plant cell after being immersed in the solution Sample answers P1: P2: P3: P4: P5: The cell flaccid/ plasmolysed The cell is hypotonic Water diffuse out from the cell By osmosis The plasma membrane moves away from the cell wall Any 3 1+2 (d) Able to state one advantage and two disadvantages of method used Sample answers Advantage A1: Last longer A2: Less spoilage of food Disadvantages D1: Less nutrient content D2: Change in colour of food D3: Change in taste of food 2 3 3 12 52 .

P. Q (b)(i) Able to explain the chromosomal behavior in stage R Sample answer P1: pairing of homologous chromosomes P2: Bivalent/ tetrad formed P3: Exchanged of genetic material (Any 2) (ii) Able to state one importance of the chromosomal behavior Sample answers (causes) variation (c) Able to explain how zygote is formed Sample answers P1: Sperm is haploid and ovum is (also) haploid P2: Sperm fused/ fertilized with ovum P3: To form diploid zygote (Any 2) (d)(i) Able to state the number of chromosome in the offspring Answer 45 Able to name the genetic disease suffered by the offspring Answer Turner’s Syndrome Able to give reason for the disease Answer Lack of one X chromosome 53 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 (ii) 1 1 (iii) .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 3 (a)(i) Able to name the cell division Answer Meiosis I/ Meiosis 1 1 (ii) Able to arrange the stages of cell division in the correct sequence Answer R. S.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 (iv) Able to explain how radioactive rays causes this genetic disease Sample answers P1: Radioactive rays is a mutagen P2: Causes (chromosomal) mutation P3: Lead to non-disjunction of X chromosome (Any 2) 2 2 12 4 (a) Able to name the level of organization in protein structure X and Y Answers Protein X: primary structure Protein Y: secondary structure (b) Able to describe the structure of protein X Sample answers P1: consists of one polypeptide chain P2: sequence of amino acids (c) Able to explain how the products are formed Sample answers P1: Hydrolysis take place P2: peptide bond is broken down P3: to form dipeptides/ peptides (Any 2) (d) Able to state why animal proteins are first class protein Sample answers Animal protein contain all the essential amino acids (e)(i) Able to explain the effects of high temperature at 65C on silk garment Sample answers P1: Protein denatured P2: Structure of protein change P3: Shape of the protein change 3 3 1 1 2 2 1+1 2 1+1 2 54 .

1 at the humerus and 1 at ulna Able to state the characteristic of P which helps in the movement Sample answer 1 1 Inelastic// strong Able to explain the action of the muscles which cause the movement Sample answers 3 3 P1: antagonistic action// triceps contract.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 (ii) Able to suggest two ways to maintain the quality of the silk Sample answers P1: Wash in cold/ warm water// do not wash in water in high temperature P2: Do not dry the silk under direct sunlight P3: Dry cleaning 2 2 12 (Any 2) 5 Able to draw triceps muscle that is involved in the movement Answer 1+1 2 Drawing criteria M: Triceps muscle is thinner than biceps T: 1 tendon at scapula. biceps relax P2: transmitted a force to the ulna by tendon P3: pull ulna downward/ forearm straightens Able to explain the health problem faced by an old person when tissue X is impaired Sample answers 3 3 55 .

pituitary gland secretes FSH to ovary causing ovary secretes oestrogen (Any 4) Max: 4 12 56 .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 P1: Difficulty in movement/walking P2: Pain/ swelling/ stiffness at the joints P3: Due to wear ant tear of X/ cartilage// X become thinner P4: Osteoarthritis/ arthritis (Any 3) 3 3 Able to explain why an athlete must do a warming up exercise before starting an event Sample answers P1: To increase temperature of the body/ muscles P2: Enabling more efficient use of energy// increase the production of ATP P3: Increase blood circulation// increase the heart beat// supply more Oxygen P4: Prevent muscles injuries/ muscles cramp (Any 3) 6 (a) (i) Able to explain why pituitary gland is a ductless gland and a master gland Sample answers P1: Pituitary gland secretes hormones P2: (Directly) into the blood stream P3: Which transport the hormones to the target organ P4: (Pituitary gland secretes hormones) which stimulate other endocrine glands (to secretes their hormones)// any example: P5: Specific examples.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Able to explain the role of the pituitary gland in regulating the blood osmotic pressure when intake of water is too little Sample answers Max: 8 P1: (When intake of water is too little) blood osmotic pressure/ concentration is higher (than the normal range)/ increase P2: Osmoreceptor/ hypothalamus detects the increase/ the change (a) (ii) (in the blood osmotic pressure) P3: And produce (electrical) impulse P4: Which stimulates pituitary gland P5: to release / secretes (more) ADH/ antidiuretic hormone P6: ADH increase the permeability P7: of the collecting ducts / distal convulated tubule P8: More water is reabsorbed (from the tubules into the blood capillary) P9: (Resulting in) blood osmotic pressure decrease / back to normal P10: Urine produced is less/ more concentrated (Any 8) Max: 8 (b) Able to explain the transmission of impulse across Q Sample answers P1: Q is synapse/ synaptic cleft P2: When (electrical) impulse reaches the synaptic knob/ terminal/ terminal axon/ dendrite/ presynaptic membrane P3: It triggers/ stimulates/ causes the (synaptic) vesicles P4: To release neutrotransmitter P5: Mitochondrion (in the synaptic terminal)produces energy/ ATP P6: For active transport/ transmission of the impulse// synthesis of Neurotransmitter 57 .

the transmission is in the form of an electrical impulse// reconversion of impulse in the form of chemicals (back) to electrical impulse is formed at R (Any 8) 7 (a) Able to explain what happen to the tree after one month Sample answers P1: The part of the stem above the ring swells/ bigger P2: Because the organic food substances / glucose (synthesized during photosynthesis)/ accumulates at this part of the stem P3: Food cannot be transported below the ring/ downwards P4: Because the phloem is removed (Any 4) Max: 4 20 (b) Able to explain how the process of transpiration can prevent overheating in plants Sample answers Max: 8 P1: Heat from the sun/ sunlight is absorbed by the leaves P2: (Heat from the sun causes) water on (the external surface of) the mesophyll cells/ leaves to evaporate P3: Thus the air space (in the mesophyll layer) is saturated with water vapour P4: Outside the stomata/ leaves.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 P7: (the neurotransmitter) diffuse across synaptic cleft/ synapse/ Q P8: To the dendrite/ neurone R/ post synaptic membrane P9: Transmission of information/ (across Q) is in the form of chemicals// the transmission of information across Q involves conversion impulse from electrical impulse to the form of chemicals impulse P10: Reachin R. the air in the atmosphere is drier/ has less water (vapour) than in the leaves/ less humid// the 58 .

the plant loses heat P9: Causes the cooling effect on the plants/ reduce the temperature (Any 8) (c) Able to explain the similarities and the differences of blood circulatory system in X and Y Sample answers S: Similarities D: Differences Max: 8 S1: Both have closed circulatory system S2: Blood flows in blood vessels S3: Both have heart S4: Which pump blood to body cells S5: Both have valves in veins S6: Blood flows in one direction only (Min 2) Differences X D1 Double circulation// systemic and pulmonary circulation D2 Blood flows through heart twice D3 Heart has 2 atria and 2 59 Blood flows through heart once Heart has 1 atrium and 1 Y Single circulation .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 concentration of water (vapour) in the air space is higher than the concentration of water (vapour) in the atmosphere P5: Sunlight/ on a hot day (stimulates) the opening of stomata P6: Water in the xylem is drawn/ absorbed into the mesophyll cells P7: To replace the water lost during evaporation/ transpiration P8: Thus.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 ventricles D4 D5 Has a four chambered heart Deoxygenated blood from the heart is pumped to the lung D6 Oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart to body cells D7 Oxygenated blood has higher pressure D8 Gases exchange occurs at lungs/ alveolus ventricle Has a two chambered heart Deoxygenated blood from the heart is pumped to the gills Oxygenated blood flow from gills to body cells Oxygenated blood has lower pressure Gases exchange occurs at gills/ filaments/ lamellae (Max 6) 20 8 (a) Able to explain why the mangrove ecosystem has to be preserved and conserved Sample answers Max: 10 P1: Act as (shore) protection// barrier against strong coastal winds/ waves// waves breaker P2: To prevent soil erosion/ landslide/ flash flood/ damage from tsunami P3: (Cable/ prop/ knee) roots (in soft and muddy soil) traps sediments/ soil / rubbish / garbage P4: Thus. maintaining water quality P5: Maintaining/ increasing biodiversity/ varieties of organisms P6: As a site of breeding/ feeding of fauna/ aquatic animals P7: As a habitat for fauna/ animals P8: Conserving species/ organisms/ fauna P9: Allows longer life span (for aquatic organisms 60 .

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 P10: Maintaining the population of species/ organisms// maintaining balanced ecosystem/ food web/ food chain/ dynamic ecosystem P11: Source of raw materials for construction industry/ piling/ furniture / boats/ houses/ production of charcoal/ tannin/ source for research P12: As an eco-tourisms attraction P13: minimize climate change/ drought/ hash climate/ maintaining the temperature P14: Prevent/ reduce green house effect/ global warming P15: by maintaining CO2/ O2 content in the atmosphere// reduced CO2 (Any 10) Max: 10 (b) Able to explain the effect of an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere on the ecosystem Sample answers P1: green house effect P2: green house gases/ CO2 trapped/ absorb more heat in the atmosphere P3: (The layer of green house gases/ CO2) acts as an insulator/ barrier P4: To prevent heat (energy) from being transmitted to space// heat is reflected back to earth// heat cannot escape to the space P5: Causes a rise in temperature (of the atmosphere)/ leads to global warming P6: Melting of glaciers/ ice sheets P7: Cause sea level to rise/ flood/ sinking of the island P8: Cause changes in wind direction/ sea currents P9: Cause climatic changes/ examples: drought. typhoon P10: High (atmospheric) temperature reduces the rate of photosynthesis P11: Productivity of the crops/ livestock decrease 61 P12: Destruction/ disruption of food chains/ food webs// cause imbalanced ecosystem P13: Cause extinction of species// biodiversity decrease 20 .

L4 : Equation L3 P9 : T/ Ileum secrete erepsin/ peptidase P10: Peptidase is hydrolysed by erepsin/ peptidase to acid amino. 62 Max: 10 . S and T in the system. L1: Fat is not hydrolised. P7: P8: Equation P7 In alkaline medium L2 : Fat is emulsified/ change to tiny droplets// small particles. Sample answer Bread (C) C1: Bread is (rich) in carbohydrate. P3: Equation P2 P4: In acidic medium.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 9 (a) Able to explain how steamed fish is digested in part R. L3 : Fat is hydrolysed by lipase to fatty acid and glycerol. (Any 10) Able to explain the long term effect of consuming excess bread. P2: Which hydrolysed protein to peptone/ polypeptide. C2: High glucose content in blood. butter and fried chicken on a person’s health. B3 / C3 : Cause high blood pressure. Sample answer Max: 10 F: steamed fish rich in protein(P)/ and fat(L) P1: R/ Stomach secrete pepsin. P11: Equation P10 L3 : Fat is hydrolysed by lipase L4 : Fat is hydrolysed to fatty acid and glycerol by lipase. P5: S / Duodenum received trypsin from pancrease P6: Peptones/ polypeptides is hydrolysed (by trypsin) to peptides.

C5: Excess glucose / glycogen is converted to fats. C3 / B3 : Causes high blood pressure B4: Lipid / cholesterol deposited on/in (inner) wall of arteries.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 C4: Diabetes(mellitus)/ glucosuria. Butter (B) B1: Butter is (rich) in fats / lipid B2: Result in high cholesterol level in blood. B7 / C7 : Obesity. C7/ B7 : Obesity. C6: Stored in adipose tissue/ under the skin. Protein (P) P1: Fried chicken is (rich) in protein. P2: Excess amino acid is converted to urea/ ammonium compound.6. (Any 10) 20 1. B4A: Lumen arteries become smaller/ blood flow become slower/ blockage/ clog. B6: Excess fat is stored in adipose tissue/ under the skin. P6: Excess uric acid will cause gout/ explain gout. BIOLOGY 3 Mark Scheme SPM 2010 1 (a) KB0603 – Measuring Using Numbers Score Mark Scheme 63 . B5: Arteriosclerosis/ angina/ stroke/ heart attack/ embolism. P4: More urea to be removed( by kidney). P3: Liver failure/ malfunction. P5: Kidney failure/ malfunction.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Able to record all 4 reading for length of air column correctly. Able to list 2 readings correctly.75 / 9.55 / 9.Type of activity / time of activity P2 : RV .9 9.7 9. Activity Resting (0 min) 3 4 tick Running on the spot ( 1 min) Running on the spot ( 2 min) Running on the spot ( 3 min) Length of air column (cm) 9.8 9.8 / 9.Length of air column 64 .65 / 9. 0 No response or incorrect response (b) (i) [KB0601 .Observation] Score Mark Scheme 3 Able to state any two different observations correctly according to the criteria: P1 : MV .6 2 3 tick 1 2 tick Able to list 3 readings correctly.

The length of air column after running on the spot for 1 min / 2 min / 3 min decreases 3.2 cm 4. No response or wrong response.6 cm 2. The length of air column during resting is highest compared to the length of air column after running on the spot for 1 / 2 /3 min //inversely 4.7 cm / 9. The length of air column during rest is the highest 2.8 cm 5.8 / 9. The time of activity increasing / 0min / 2 min / 3 min 4.9 cm Able to state observation at idea level.6 cm 2 Able to state any one observation correctly or Able to state any two inaccurate observations Sample answers: 1. The length of air column during resting time is 9.Making inferences] Score Mark Scheme Able to make two inference correctly based on the criteria Note : Inference must match observation Criteria : P1 : Infer on time / infer on type of activity 1.3 cm / 0. At time 0 min.7 cm / 9.9 / 9. The change in length of air column after the time 3 min / 2 min / 1 min is 0. 3.8 cm / 9. the length of air column is 9. the shorter the length of air column 5.4cm / 0.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Sample answers: 1. The length of air column is decreasing / 9.6 cm 3. No / less / more activity 65 . The length of air column after running on the spot for 1 min / 2 min / 3 min / is 9.8 cm / 9. At time 0 / 1 / 2/3 minutes. the length of air column is 9. The length of air column depends on activity. 1 0 Scoring Score 3 2 1 0 Correct 2 1 1 1 - Inaccurate 1 2 1 1 - Idea 1 2 1 1 Wrong 1 1 1 1 (b) (ii) [KB0604 . The longer the time of activity.9cm / 9. Sample answers: 1.9cm 2. At 0 minute. The activity is running on the spot. 9.7 / 9.

treated by KOH Sample answers: 1. Potassium hydroxide absorb gases No response or wrong response. During resting. During running on the spot for 1/2/3 minutes the CO released is absorb by potassium hydroxide solution. Air column contain gas 3.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 3 Any 2P’s 2. 1 0 Scoring Score 3 2 1 0 1(c) [KB0610–Variables] Correct 2 1 1 1 - Inaccurate 1 2 1 1 - Idea 1 2 1 1 Wrong 1 1 1 66 . Less / more energy / respiration / exercise / running / vigorous P2 : Infer on length – Carbon dioxide release P3 : Absorb / dissolve / diffuse by KOH solution ** Accept :P3 if P2 correct Reject :CO2 used . 2 Any 1P Sample answers: 1. CO2 is released 2. CO2 is released. Exhaled air contain gas 2. CO2 is released 6. The longer the duration of activity / activity. 4. During running on the spot for 1 /2 / 3 minutes CO2 is released Able to state one correct inference and one-two inference at idea level. During 1/2/3 minutes long / short duration. 5. more CO2is released Able to make one correct inference and one -two inaccurate. Time / Type of activity influences the amount of CO2 released 3. Sample answer: 1. During 1 / 2/ 3 minutes more / less respiration occur . CO2 released is absorb by potassium hydroxide solution. Short / long / duration / time 3. the least carbon dioxide is released and absorbed by potassium hydroxide solution. breath. 2. During resting. During resting. 3.

Able to state 2-3 ticks correctly Able to state 1 tick correctly or no response 67 . (Same) type of activity 4. 3 minutes // Running on the spot at different time Responding variable The length of air column // percentage of carbon dioxide // change in length of air column 3 Using meter ruler (measure) and record the length of air column // Calculate the percentage of CO2 by using formula: Initial Length – Final Length of air column of a column X 100 % Initial length of air column Constant variable 1. The initial length of air column 2. All activities were running on the spot / same activity / fix activity 4.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Able to state all 3 variables and the 3 methods to handle the variable correctly. Fix at room temperature 7. (Same) student 3. Sample Answer : Variables Manipulated variable Time of activity // activity // exercise // duration of activity / time // type of activity Method to handle the variable correctly Change/ varies the time of activity in 0 minute. 1 minute.  Reject way how to handle variable if variable is wrong. Air sample collected immediately / air sample from same student ** Reject : Amount / volume of KOH 6 ticks correctly 2 1 0 4 . J-tube / diameter of J-tube 5. 2 minutes and 3 minutes // Use / varies different time of activity // Running on the spot of 1 minute. 6. Time to collect air sample // air sample 1. Same / fix used diameter of J -tube 5.5 ticks correctly. Temperature 7. Fix / same concentration of KOH solution 6. Fix / used the same length of air column to be 10 cm 2. Same / fix / used one student to carry out all activities 3. 2 minutes. Concentration of KOH solution.

3. 2. 2. The length of air column changes The longer of air column. 4.9 cm 1 Not able to response or wrong response. As (the time of activity) / running on the spot increases. Activity influences affected /depends on the length of air column 2 Able to make a hypothesis at idea level Sample answer: 1. the shorter the time of activity. The length of air column is 9. ( CO2 )gas is released. 0 1(e)(i) [KB0606 – Communicating] 68 . the length of air column decrease // CO2 released increases / Percentage of CO2 increases Able to make a hypothesis relating the manipulated variable and responding variable inaccurately Sample answer: 1.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 1(d) [KB0611. Activity release CO2 .Making Hypothesis] Score Mark Scheme Able to state a hypothesis correctly following all criteria: P1 : Manipulated variable P2 : Responding variable H : Relationship Sample answer : 3 1.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Score 3 Mark Scheme Able to construct a table and record all the data correctly T : Able to state title with the unit correctly – 1mark D : Able to record all the data correctly – 1 mark C : Able to calculate and record the percentage – 1 mark Sample answers Type of activity / Time of activity (min) Resting for 0 minutes ( 0 minutes) Running on the spot for 1 minute (1 minute) Running on the spot for 2 minute (2 minute) Running on the spot for 3 minute (3 minute) Initial length of air column (cm) Final length of air column (cm) Percentage of carbon dioxide (%) 10 10 9.9 9.7 3 10 9. 1 (e)(ii) [KB0612 – Relationship between space and time] 69 .6 4 2 1 0 Able to record two criteria correctly Able to record one criteria correctly No response or wrong response.8 1 2 10 9.

1 mark %CO2 3 4 3 2 1 x 0 1 2 3 Time (min) x x x 2 1 0 Any two criteria correct.( line not more than 5 small boxes from last point) . Any one criteria correct No response or wrong response.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Score Able to draw the graph correctly P (paksi) Mark Scheme : Axes : Uniform scales on both horizontal and vertical axes – 1 mark : Points : All to plot four points correctly T (titik ) . 1(f) [KB0608 – Interpreting Data] 70 .1 mark B ( bentuk ) : Straight line Able to join all 4 points.

depend E . As the time increases. percentage release of CO2 is high. Not able to response. . 2 Able to interpret the relationship incompletely : R + 1E Sample answer: As the time activity increases the percentage of CO2 released is high because more activity / breathing / more respiration / more energy 1 Able to interpret the relationship at idea level Sample answer : As the time of activity increases. inaccurate response or wrong relationship. more activity so the rate of respiration increases.anaerobic respiration . the percentage of CO2 released increases because more energy is required. so respiration takes place faster 2. E1.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Score 3 R+ Any 2E’s Mark Scheme Able to explain the relationship between the time of activity and the percentage of carbo dioxide correctly R. The time of activity is directly proportional to the percentage CO2 release. more O2 used. E3 R : Directly / linearly proportional E1 : Activity / more / less / vigorous / longer / shorter activity E2 : More breathing / rate of breathing / rate of gases exchange E3 : More respiration / cell respiration E4 : More energy / ATP Reject : R – influence . glucose oxidise. 0 1(g) [KB0605 – Predicting] 71 . E2. Sample answer: 1.

2. Rate of heart beat 2. cell respiration become slow / back to normal rate / student rest for 10 minutes. (Cell) respiration become slow / low / less energy produce / needed / respiration normal Reject : 1. For activity 2 min 4. No activity given. 1(h) [KB0609 –Defining by Operation] 72 . less energy produced / needed // less CO2 produced. Relax / resting E3. Lactic acid decrease 3. Less than 1% / 2% / 3% / 4% // decreases // low 3. Breathing / gas exchange back to normal rate / stable rate / Breathing normally / condition of student back to normal E2. *** If P wrong (X) .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Score 3 1P + Any 2E Mark Scheme Able to predict the outcome of the experiment correctly. Anaerobic respiration 4. CO2 all ready exhaled / expel / remove / get rid of E4. O2 / oxygen debt 5. Glucose Sample answer: 1. Percentage of CO2 will decrease. automatic no E 2 P+ Any two correct any 1E 1 P only Any one correct 0 Not able to response or wrong response. P : Correct prediction E : Explanation Accept P : 1. Explanation : E1. 1% .

** Reject theorilitical explanation 2 2P’s 1 1P 0 Any two correct Any one correct No response or incorrect response. The length of air column in J-tube is influenced by time of activity.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Score 3 3P’s Mark Scheme Able to define operationally exhaled air based on the result of this experiment. 1(i) [KB0602 – Classifying] 73 . / exhaled air is air column in (J tube) / air sample / air collected in (J-tube) P2 : CO2 is absorbed / diffuse / dissolve by potassium hydroxide (in J-tube) P3 : The length of air column / Percentage of CO2 in J-tube is influenced / affected /depends on /by time of activity // any correct hypothesis ** Reject treated Sample answer: Exhaled air contain CO2 which is absorbed by potassium hydroxide solution. P1 : Exhaled air contains CO2.

6 material and apparatus in Table 4 correctly 4 – 6 ticks 1 Able to list 2-3 material and apparatus in Table 4 correctly 2-3 ticks 0 no response or incorrect response QUESTION 2 ( NEW FORMATE) 74 .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Score 3 Mark Scheme Able to list all material and apparatus in Table 4 correctly Sample answers: Material Apparatus Exhaled air sample Potassium hydroxide solution Water 7 ticks 2 J – Tube Boiling tube Rubber tube Beaker Able to list 4 .

Does competition between two different species / type of plant / organisms affect their growth? 2P . H Able to state a problem statement inaccurately Sample answer 1. Mark Scheme Score 2(i) KB061201 Able to state a problem statement relating the manipulated variable (MV) with the responding variable (RV) correctly 3 P1 : MV. H P2. 2 P1.different / 2 type / species / plant or organisms // maize AND paddy plant P2 : RV . P2 P1. What is the effect of competition between maize and paddy plants on growth / dry mass / height / size ? 2.Height / size / length / any growth parameter H : question form and question mark (?) Sample answer 1. Does competition between paddy and maize affect their growth? 3. What is the effect of competition between two different species of organisms? 2. Competition occurs between two different species. H 1 P1 / P2 No response or incorrect response ** Only H – Reject HYPOTHESIS (02) 0 75 .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 PROBLEM STATEMENT (01) No. What is the effect of interspecific competition on growth / dry mass / height / size ? Able to state a problem statement at idea level Sample answer 1.

Longer duration duration of maize and paddy. Maize plant has higher growth.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 No. Maize plant grow taller than paddy plant 3. Maize and paddy plant had different height / dry mass / size 3. Mark Scheme Score Able to state a hypothesis relating the manipulated variable to the 2 (ii) KB061202 responding variable correctly P1 : MV P2 : RV H : relationship Sample answer 1. 2. the higher the height No response or incorrect response 1 0 VARIABLES (03) 76 . The dry mass / height / size / growth of maize plant is different when grown with paddy plants than when grown alone. Able to state a hypothesis at idea level Sample answer 1. 2. The dry mass / height / size /growth of the maize plants is less when it is grown with paddy plants than when it is grown alone. Stronger type of plant / species grow taller than weaker type of plant / species 3 Able to state a hypothesis inaccurately 2 Sample answer 1. The maize plant wins in the competition 2.

Manipulated : Type / species of plant / seedling // maize and paddy 2. Responding : Dry mass (of plant ) / growth (of plant) / height / size // change / different of height // rate / percentage of growth 3. Fixed : Distance between each seedling // amount of water // number of plant // Quantity / type of garden soil // intensity of sunlight // Duration // size of (seedling) tray // Same species of maize / paddy // humidity ** Reject : initial height / same condition Able to state any two variables correctly Able to state any one variables correctly 1 No response or incorrect response 0 2 LIST OF APPARATUS AND MATERIALS (04) 77 . 2 (ii) KB061203 Mark Scheme Able to state all three variables correctly Score 3 Sample answer 1.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 No.

Beaker.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 2(iv) KB061205 Type of experiment Apparatus Tray and Ruler Basin / seedling box 2A Tray. maize. Oven and Balance 3A Tray. Paddy and Maize + Any 1M Any 2A 2 2A + Paddy and Maize + 1M Any 1A Paddy and Maize 1 1A + Paddy and Maize *** Reject : Box. Ruler and Balance 3A Materials Paddy. Ruler. / Knob solution (water and fertilizer) / (cotton and nutrient). soil and water 4M Marks Height Dry Mass 4M 3 Height : 2A + 4M Size / wet mass / height / fresh mass 4M Dry Mass : 4A + 4M Size : 3A + 4M Hydroponics Tray and Ruler Paddy. Maize And Nutrient solution. flowering pot / vas PROCEDURE ( 05) 78 .

height Step 5-8 are repeated with Tray B maize seedling Maize and paddy seeding are planted alternately All data is recorded / tabulated in a table clean Heated / dried in oven Reject : under the sun Dry mass / height / size instrument and record Average parameter Repeated / mention paddy and maize Label / planted alternately Labeled / planted alternately 79 . one with maize and one mixed. B and C labeled refer to a diagram // describe with one tray with paddy. The seedling trays are filled with equal amount of garden soil Keywords Labeled / describe 3 trays K’s K1 2a Filled with soil Equal amount / value K1 K2 K1 2b Initial reading any growth parameter is (recorded) / taken Example : Measure the initial height / dry mass Initial parameter 3 4a The 5-30 paddy / maize seedlings are planted at 5 cm intervals as shown in the diagram / in the soil / cotton wool The seedlings are watered with the same amount of water every day / the seedling place under the sunlight The trays are weeded After 7-30 days. removed/taken 7 days / more or same 6 7 8a 8b 9a 9b 10 The (root) of seedling plant are cleaned (under running water) The paddy seedlings are heated / dried at (105oC) in an oven NOTE: not for height / size The dry mass paddy / maize seedling are (weighted) and recorded using electronic balance The average dry mass of the paddy seedling is recorded Average result. plants. (5-100) seedlings are removed (from tray A) 5 – 30 seedling // 5 cm Water / sunlight / nutrients Same / equal amount K2 K1 K2 K5 K1 K2 K5 K1 K3 K5 K4 K1 K1 4b 5 weeded After …days.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 2 (v) KB061204 No 1 Description There seedling tray A.

BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 K1 : Preparation of materials and apparatus (any 4) K2 : Operating the constant variable (any 1) K3 : Operating the responding variable (any 1) K4 : Operating the manipulated variable (any 1) K5 : Steps to increase reliability of results accurately / precaution (any 1) O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X O X O X X O X O O X O X X O X O A No. B C Mark Scheme Score Able to describe all the K’s 2 (v) KB061204 5K 3 Any 3-4 K Any 2K 1 No response or incorrect response / 1K 0 2 PRESENTATION OF DATA ( 06) 80 .

Mark Scheme Able to present all the data with units correctly For any growth parameter Sample answer: Tray A(refer diagram) B(refer diagram) C (Paddy) Maize Or Type of plant Paddy Maize Or Type of plant Dry mass / height & unit Initial Paddy Maize Able to present a table with a least two tittles correctly Sample answer Type of plant Change / increase in height of plant & unit Final Difference in dry mass / height & unit // Percentage of growth / Rate growth & unit Change / increase in height of plant / maize and paddy & unit Change / increase in height of plant & unit Score 2 (vi) 2 KB061203 1 No response or incorrect response / 1K 0 1.7 PAPER 3 (EXERCELANCE STUDENT’S ANSWER) 81 .BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 2 (vi) KB061203 No.

The maize plants has a greater height than the paddy plants after the experiment? Variables : Manipulated variable : Species of plant Responding variable : Average height of plant Fix variable : Volume of water available to the plants. Plant another 9 maize seeds and paddy seed alternately with a distance of 5cm from each other at a depth of 1 cm. Record all the data in a table. Water the soil evenly and place the basin in a sunny area. seeds. 4. maize. Measure and record the average height of the maize plants and paddy plants every week for two months using a meter rule.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Problem statement : How does interspecific competition between maize and paddy plants affect their growth? Hypothesis : The stranger species of plants will achieve greater growth is in height. meter rule. Procedure : 1. Materials and apparatus: Basin. 6. 8. 5. Water the plants every morning and evening with equally amount of water for each plant. Plant a maize seed in the soil at a depth if 1cm 3. paddy seeds . water. Plant a paddy seed in the soil at a depth of 1cm at a distance of 5 cm from the maize seed in the same row. distance of plants from each other. 7. soil. Fill the basin with soil 2. Presentation of data Type of plant seedlings Initial height of the plant seedling(cm) Difference in height of the plant seedling (cm) Maize Paddy (POTENTIAL STUDENT’S ANSWER) 82 .

5m x 0. Presentation of data Type of plant which planted on the land Maize plant only Paddy plant only Maize plant and paddy plant Height of plants / m 83 . seeds of maize and paddy plants. Procedure : 1. After 3 months. 7. 0. The observation is recorded in a table.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 Problem statement : What is the effect of interspecific competition between maize and paddy plants on their growth Hypothesis : The interspecific competition between maize and paddy plants will cause the plants to be shorter. The plants of different land are taken care with same priority. meter rule. Water the plants and put fertilizers which are the same throught the experiment and environmental condition is constant. measuring cylinder. A seed of paddy plant is planted on a land of area 0. A seed of maize plant and a seed of paddy is planted on the same land of area 0. water.5m x 0.5m.5m of land. soils. 5. a ruler is used to measure the height of the plants. 4. 6. 2.5m 3.5m x 0. Fix variable : Fertility of soil used Materials and apparatus: Fertilisers.5m x 0.5m. Variables : Manipulated variable : The growth of maize and paddy on the same land or different land Responding variable : The height of the maize and paddy plants. A seed of maize planted on a land of area 0.

Thus.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 EXAMPLE STUDENT’S ANSWER (PAPER 2 – SPM 2010) SECTION C ( SAMPLE STUDENT’S ANSWER) QUESTION 6 (a) (i) The pituitary gland is a ductless gland.. increasing the water level in the blood. This causes the body system to work in a negative feedback metabolism in order to restore the normal osmotic pressure. The pituitary gland is known as the master gland. the transmission of nerve impulse occur from P to neuron R. This is because the pituitary gland is able to control the endocrine gland. In order. The junction of contact between these two neuron has a narrow gap of Q which is known as the synaps. The hypothalamus in return sends a nerves impulse to the pituitary gland. This will triggers a nerves impulse will then move towards the axon of the neuron R. The nerve impulse sent to the pituitary gland stimulates it to produce and secrete anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) into the bloodstream. This is because the hormones secreted by the pituitary glands are not targeted to work near the place at where it is secreted. The hormones secreted by pituitary glands are carried by the blood circulatory system to certain organs or tissue for from the pituitary gland where it works. Thus more water is reabsorbed into the surrounding blood capillaries. The transmission of nerve impulse in neurone are carried out by chemicals in the vessicals of the synaptic knob known as the neurotransmitter. Thus pituitary gland does not require duct as it will secrete the hormone directly into the bloodstream. the water content in the body diseases and the osmotic pressure of blood increases. The ADH hormones will increases the permeability of the wall of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct towards the reabsorbption of water. Pituitary gland secretes hormones that will stimulate other endocrine gland to produce and secretes hormones. The neurotransmitter then diffuse across Q until it touches the dendrite of neuron R. 84 . when the nerves impulse arrives at the swelling of the axon terminal of neuron P known as the synaptic knob. (ii) When the intake of water is too little. (b) The dendrite of neuron R is in contact with the axon terminal of the neurone P. The change in the osmotic pressure is detected by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. the nerves impulse must more across the Q first. This is how the transmission of a nerve impulse from neuron P to neuron R across Q occur. the vessical in the synaptic knob releases neurotransmitter into the Q.

when the cell become hypertonic to the adjacent cell. This is due to the nutrients cannot get to the lower part of the tree. The gaseous exchange in system X occur at the lung while the gaseous exchange in system Y occur at the gill. X and Y has a heart to pump the blood to all part of the body. The lower part as the phloem is removed can’t gain any nutrient and causing its growth to be retarded. Hence. the water concentration of water to the cell that has low concentration of water. Which mean the blood is keep in vessel throughout the circulation. Apart from that the heart in system X consist of two atrium and two ventricle. The main blood pressure come from pumping action of the heart. The water vapours in the air space will diffuse out to the outer environment through the stomata by osmosis down the concentration gradients. The growth in the lower part is retarded. The ring of bark that has been removed contain the phloem. the high temperature in the environment increases the temperature at the tree. the air space become hypertonic to cell in the leaf. hence carry away the heat in the cell. the transpiration prevent the trees from overheating by removing the heat accumulate in the tree via the water vapour through the transpiration. Now. As the differences for X and Y. Then once again the water diffuse out to the environment. the humidity at the environment will be lower compare to the air space in the tree due to the high temperature. ( c) Blood circulatory system X and Y are both closed circulatory system. The removal of phloem causes the nutrient can’t be passed down and accumulate at the upper part of the ring. As for single circulatory system the blood only passes through the heart once in a single circuit. while blood circulation system Y is closed single circulatory system. The food processed from leaves is transported to all part of tree through the phloem. the upper part at removed part will be swollen. QUESTION 7 85 . The heart in system Y only consist of one atrium and one ventricle. water diffuse out from the surrounding cell to the air space. This creates a concentration gradient at water among the tree to the environment.BAHAN SEMINAR BIOLOGI JUJ PAHANG 2011 4551 (a) After a month. This enable the water to transport among the cell and carry away large amount of heat as water has a large specific heat capacity. Hence. when the water vapours diffuse out to the environment. blood circulation system X is closed double circulatory system. Hence. Then the gaseous exchange in the two system is also different. Therefore. (b) During hot day. Double circulatory system is a type of blood circulation system that let the blood passes the heart twice in a single circuit. Therefore the phloem is removed along the bark. Now.

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