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Unit 1

Background and Fundamentals

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

OVERVIEW OF AGS1200 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

OVERVIEW OF AGS1200 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System
Overview of the GSM Cellular System
AGS1200 Volume 1

Inter-office Trunks

MSC
MSC-BSS Trunks

PSTN

BSC 1

BSC 2

BSC 3

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Background and Fundamentals

AGS1200 VERSUS CC1200

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

AGS1200 VERSUS CC1200

Background and Basic Cellular Concepts

GSM System Services and Station Features

System Architecture Overview

Condensed
Mobility Management and Location Updating

Call Management

The GSM Radio Link

AT&T’s GSM Product Line - IBS 2000 BSS

- 5ESS MSC - AT&T’s OMC
Japan Digital Cellular - IDO GSM Data Services

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Background and Fundamentals

WHAT IS GSM?
GSM is a Global System for Mobile communications. Hopefully when you hear or see the phrase "global system for mobile communication," you visualize a wireless telephone. While GSM is a Pan-European cellular mobile radio system, it is much more. GSM is a "public telecommunications system." This point should become clear as various GSM requirements are presented in the upcoming units in this course. A GSM mobile user will be able to receive services similar to those provided in the fixed public switched telephone network. Whereas there are many mobile radio systems that are not connected to the public telephone networks, those that are must conform to public telecommunication system standards and possess recognizable features. For example, it must be possible to make and receive telephone calls in the same general way as in fixed networks. Users must be able to dial a phone number and be connected to the number of interest, irregardless whether the dialed number corresponds to a mobile or fixed station. By using the same national and international dialing procedures that exist today, a mobile user should be able to dial anyone’s phone number in the world. Similarly, incoming calls from anywhere in the world must be possible. Data and messaging services must also be available. In short, a GSM cellular phone must behave just like a fixed telephone, but without wires.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

WHAT IS GSM?
Group Speciale Mobile

Global System for Mobile communication

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Background and Fundamentals

AGS1200 AND THE GSM SPECIFICATION
The following table can be used as a quick guide to the GSM Specification documents. The total number of pages in the GSM recommendations exceed 5000. _ _____________________________________________________  Topics Covered _ GSM Series  _____________________________________________________     1.02 - 1.06  GSM overview, glossary  _ _____________________________________________________   abbreviations, service phases   GSM services and features _2.01 - 2.88 _____________________________________________________  3.01 - 3.88  PLMN functions, architecture,     _ _____________________________________________________   numbering and addressing, procedures   MS-BSS interface _4.01 - 4.88 _____________________________________________________  5.01 - 5.10  Radio link  _ _____________________________________________________   _6.01 - 6.32 _____________________________________________________   Speech processing   Terminal adaptation _7.01 - 7.03 _____________________________________________________  8.01 - 8.60  BSS-MSC interface, BSC-BTS interface  _ _____________________________________________________   _9.01 - 9.11 _____________________________________________________   Network interworking, MAP  11.01 - 11.11  MS conformity and SIMs _ _____________________________________________________    _11.20 - 11.40  BSS, MSC, HLR, VLR, simulation and testing  _____________________________________________________   _12.00 - 12.21  Network management _____________________________________________________

A more detailed index to all sections within the GSM specifications is provided in Appendix 1, with the information organized as follows: — — — — — Section number Number of pages in the section Latest version number Date of latest version Section/Recommendation title

There are three ways to obtain copies of GSM recommendation sections: • Borrow and copy section(s) from a co-worker. • Borrow and copy section(s) from a designated contact for your work location (see Appendix 2 for the names of the contacts). • Request a paper copy of a section via Linus (see Appendix 2 for procedures).

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

AGS1200 AND THE GSM SPECIFICATION

GSM 5.01

GSM 1.02

GSM 2.02

GSM 3.01

GSM 4.01

5.10 6.01 6.32

GSM 8.01

GSM 9.01

GSM 11.01

GSM

GSM

11.21 12.00

1.06

2.88

3.88

4.88

7.01 7.03

8.60

9.11

11.20

11.40 12.21

COMPLEMENTS BUT DOES NOT REPLACE!

GSM = Global System for Mobile communication

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Background and Fundamentals

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background

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Background and Fundamentals

EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS ACCESS TECHNOLOGY

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

1992 -.Background and Fundamentals EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS ACCESS TECHNOLOGY Cellular Radio Technology Paging Cordless Telephone Technology Technology Now Analog Technology Continuous Miniaturization Analog Single Channel 1991 Digital Technology Digital Multi Channel 199? Personal Communications Networks Version 1.22:04:45 [djw1027.0.0 March 12.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-13 .

0.Background and Fundamentals WIRELESS SERVICES TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVE Version 1.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-14 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 August 2. 1993 -.

Mobility WIRELESS SERVICES TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVE Coverage High Speed Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-15 May 2.0.16:51:14 [djw1062. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Paging Airphone National Vehicular Speeds Version 1.0 Specialized Mobile Radio Cellular Regional Digital Microcell (PCN) Walking (Limited Area) Walking (Very Limited Radius) CT-2/ Telepoint Cordless Local Area Selected Sites Home/ Office Background and Fundamentals 1-Way Receive Only 2-Way Initiate Only 2-Way Broadcast Full 2-Way Utility .

1993 -.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-16 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Background and Fundamentals MARKET TRENDS IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION Version 1.0.0 August 2.

0. 1992 -.17:23:29 [djw1029.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1989 1993 Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-17 .0 March 12.Background and Fundamentals MARKET TRENDS IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION 60 Millions of Units 11% 40 Growth PAGERS 20 0 1988 1989 1993 60 Millions of Units 40 25% Growth CORDLESS TELEPHONES 20 0 1988 1989 1993 60 40% Millions of Units 40 Growth CELLULAR TELEPHONES 20 0 1988 Version 1.

0.0 February 9. Also provided are the year that cellular service was put into operation. Version 1.Background and Fundamentals CELLULAR SYSTEMS IN EUROPE TODAY The chart shows the types of cellular system(s) in service in each country and the radio band of operation (in MHz). 1992 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-18 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .16:27:55 [djw0683.

NMT-900 C-Netz (450) NMT-450 TACS-900 (900) RTMS (450). NMT-900 Radiocom-2000 (200. NMT-900 C-Netz (450) TMA (450). NMT-900 Natel-C (900) NMT-450 TACS-900 In Service _________ 1984 1987 1988 1982 1982 1985 1986 1986 1985 1985 1985 1985 1981 1989 1982 1981 1987 1986 1985 ∗ RF band in MHz Version 1.17:52:20 [djw0683. 400. NMT-900 (900) NMT-450.Background and Fundamentals CELLULAR SYSTEMS IN EUROPE TODAY Country _ ________________ Austria Belgium Cyprus Denmark Finland France Western Germany Iceland Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom _ Type of System (RF band∗) ____________________________ C-Netz (450).0 January 31. 800) NMT-450. TACS-900 NMT-450.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-19 . TACS-900 AFT2 (450) AFT2 (450) NMT-450. D-Netz (900) AFT2 (450) NMT-900 (900) NMT-450 (450).0. 1992 -.

0 February 9.Background and Fundamentals OBJECTIVES OF THE PAN-EUROPEAN GSM BASED SYSTEM The primary objective of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) organization was to produce an integrated mobile communication standard that supports international roaming. Version 1.16:32:58 [djw0684.0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-20 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Increased capacity was a secondary objective. 1992 -.

0.17:52:55 [djw0684. 1992 -.0 January 31.Background and Fundamentals OBJECTIVES OF THE PAN-EUROPEAN GSM BASED SYSTEM • Integrated European system with international roaming • Increase available cellular radio capacity • Take advantage of digital price/performance • Accommodate new technology and services Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-21 .

0 August 2. 1993 -.0.Background and Fundamentals ADOPTION OF GSM STANDARD Version 1.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-22 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

0 June 30.13:41:02 [djw0685.Background and Fundamentals ADOPTION OF GSM STANDARD Austria Bulgaria Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark Federal Republic of Germany Finland France Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Australia India Singapore <and more??> Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-23 . 1992 -.0.

CEPT WARC EEC GSM Conference European Postal Telecommunications Radio World Conference European Economic Community Global System for Mobile communication Version 1. Belgium. The way to 1991 was paved by a number of bold technical decisions.0.0 April 15. or based on trials carried out under the supervision of a GSM working party. 1992 -. sometimes ahead of the necessary confirmatory research and development work. made in 1987. At the outset it was recognized that the best way of achieving this was to create a new European-wide cellular standard. One of the technically far-reaching decisions. however.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-24 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Background and Fundamentals KEY EVENTS The pan-European cellular mobile radio system was conceived in 1982 by a committee of the Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT). The first commercial system is expected to be activated the end of August 1991 in the Federal Republic of Germany. The GSM objective was to create the possibility of opening public service throughout Europe in the early 1990s. visualized only in general terms and the full extent of the standard did not become apparent until a fairly advanced stage in its development. The intended outcome was. unless a standard was available to positively encourage convergence. CEPT foresaw a growing need during the 1980s and 1990s for public cellular radio. The GSM is part of CEPT and is based in Brussels.18:14:17 [djw0686. rested on the results of radio and speech coding trials held in Paris which pointed strongly towards the adoption of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) digital techniques. In 1987 the GSM system became a digital system. The acronym GSM is commonly used to refer to both the group as well as the Pan-European cellular network project. but accompanied by a widening divergence of systems.

17:54:17 [djw0686.0 January 31. and modulation method 13 European countries agree to install systems in 1991 1988 1991 Industrial development started First systems deployed Version 1. 1992 -.Background and Fundamentals KEY EVENTS 1982 CEPT adopts WARC 79 recommendation allocating 890-915 MHz and 935-960 MHz for land mobile GSM created to set standard 1985 1987 EEC supports GSM standards throughout community Digital technology standards set for TDMA. channel coding. speech coding.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-25 .0.

December 23/30. there will still be some growth on the analog cellular systems for some years to come.1 1 .Background and Fundamentals EXPECTED GROWTH IN EUROPEAN CELLULAR 1991-1994 Most of the cellular growth in Europe is expected to be on the GSM system. This figure does not include subscribers to the new Personal Communications Networks (PCNs) operating at 1800 MHz. "Uncommon Market". Electronic Engineering Times. Version 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-26 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0. By 1994. There are estimates that more than 15 million GSM mobile subscribers may exist by the end of the decade.21:52:59 [djw0900. 1992 -.0 March 1. However. especially where capacity is not an issue. more than 4 million subscribers are expected to be on the GSM system compared to a total of over 11 million cellular subscribers in Europe.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-27 .0 June 30.Background and Fundamentals EXPECTED GROWTH IN EUROPEAN CELLULAR 1991-1994 12 S 10 u b s 8 c r i 6 b e r 4 s (Millions) 2 l Tota r Cellula Analog GSM 1991 Souce: EMCI Inc.0. 1992 1993 Year 1994 Version 1. 1992 -.15:21:41 [djw1135.

0 April 3. 1992 -.Background and Fundamentals SECOND GENERATION CELLULAR STANDARDS Looking at today’s cellular products. Version 1. while North America. IS-54 is an enhancement to. all sharing a common analog standard. by at least three other dual-mode AMPS enhancements in various stages of development. Thus. but with radically different advanced technologies. which has enjoyed from the outset continental compatibility of all cellular equipment. present cellular technology. not to mention complicated. North America and Europe seem to be moving in opposite directions. The situation in North America is enriched. All these "first generation" systems rely on analog frequency modulation for speech transmission and in-band signaling to move control information between terminals and the rest of the network during a call. Second generation cellular will conform to at least three different standards: one for western Europe--Global System for Mobile communications. Europe will migrate from a collection of incompatible analog systems to a single digital system. rather than a replacement for. Thus.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-28 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS). in cellular. we find at least six different incompatible standards employed in different parts of the world. will see the deployment of various dual-mode technologies.0. the North American standard specifies dual-mode operation. It incorporates the first generation standard.21:31:45 [djw0554. and a third for Japan. and adds a digital voice transmission capability to new subscriber equipment. While the European and Japanese standards will be applied to completely new cellular systems operating in dedicated frequency bands. one for North America--an Electronic Industry Association Interim Standard (IS-54).

American Digital Standard) existing 900-MHz Bands.21:24:25 [djw0554. 48k kb/s • JDC (Japanese Digital Cellular Standard) parts of IS-54 and GSM Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-29 .0. 270 kb/s • IS-54 (N.Background and Fundamentals SECOND GENERATION CELLULAR STANDARDS • GSM (European Digital Standard) new 900-MHz Spectrum. TDMA. TDMA.0 March 15. 1992 -.

Background and Fundamentals THE RADIO SPECTRUM Version 1.14:29:21 [djw1042.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-30 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 March 5.0. 1992 -.

46 & 49 Cordless Phones (CT-1) 824-849 & 869-894 902-928 940-941 Cellular Phones ISM band "Telepoint" (CT-2) 1850-1990 PCN frequency in MHZ in Japan 830-832 Airplane Phone 860-885 Cellular NTT & IDO (receive) 915-940 Cellular NTT & IDO (transmit) 1500-??? PCN frequency in MHZ Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-31 . 1992 -.S.Background and Fundamentals THE RADIO SPECTRUM in Europe 864-868 CT-2 890-915 & 935-960 Cellular Phones (GSM) 1710-1880 PCN 1880-1900 DECT frequency in MHZ in the U.20:27:41 [djw1042.0 March 15.0.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-32 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .20:27:41 [djw1042.Background and Fundamentals Version 1.0. 1992 -.0 March 15.

1993 -.Cellular System Major Components Version 1.0.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-33 .0 August 2.

a subscriber’s phone is connected by lines to switching offices (sometimes called end offices) in the PSTN. an end office is replaced with a Mobile-services Switching Center (MSC) which is connected by trunks and data links to a radio Base Station (BS) which covers the area where the Mobile Station (MS) is located.13:43:37 [djw0901. In the basic mobile connection.0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-34 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . These end offices are connected to each other by a network of inter-switch trunks which may include other switches (not shown). In these connections. 1992 -. Version 1.0 June 30. The communications medium between the mobile station and the base station is over a duplex radio frequency channel as shown.Background and Fundamentals POTS / MOBILE TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS The upper figure depicts a typical connection used for Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

........... ............................ • BASE STATION ........ ............0 May 15.................................. ........ 1991 -....0. ...................... . ... .... ... ........LINE .. . ...... SWITCHING OFFICE TRUNKS SWITCHING OFFICE LINE .ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-35 .. SWITCHING OFFICE TRUNKS MOBILE SWITCHING CENTER TRUNKS & DATA LINKS SUBSCRIBER SET MOBILE STATION Version 1.. ..... SUBSCRIBER SET SUBSCRIBER SET BASIC MOBILE TELEPHONE CONNECTION ....... .... ........... ............. ....Background and Fundamentals POTS / MOBILE TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS BASIC POTS CONNECTION . ...........11:09:45 [djw0901..................... ....... ........

0. the MSC will switch the call from one base station to another in what is called a "handover" or "handoff. The MSC interconnects the cellular network with the land network. and the Mobile Station (MS).13:05:04 [djw0902. Typically." Each base station is assigned a set of radios and radio channels. TYPICAL MSC FUNCTIONS • Provide switched connections with PSTN • Provide switched connections between mobile subscribers • Provide coordination over signaling with mobiles • Coordinate the location and handover process • Provide custom services to mobile users • Collect billing data • Collect traffic data • Provisioning/service orders • Maintenance TYPICAL BASE STATION FUNCTIONS • Provide RF transmission and reception • Provide data communications with the MSC and mobile stations • Locate mobiles • Perform routine maintenance testing • Perform equipment control and reconfiguration functions • Perform voice-processing functions • Perform call setup. In a typical cellular system. As a mobile travels from cell to cell. an MSC will serve a number of base stations.Background and Fundamentals LAYOUT OF A CELLULAR SYSTEM The three major components of a cellular system are the Mobile-services Switching Center (MSC). one base station can serve several mobile stations located within its cell area simultaneously.0 June 22. the Base Station (BS). and call termination functions • Handover or receive a mobile from another cell-site while calls are in progress TYPICAL MOBILE STATION FUNCTIONS • Provide a telecommunications interface to subscribers • Provide RF transmission and reception • Transmit and receive user information and control data • Perform voice-processing functions • Perform initialization and self-test functions Version 1. call supervision.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-36 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . each of which serves a coverage area called a cell. 1992 -.

BS BS .0.11:09:49 [djw0902. .0 May 15. . MSC . BS .Background and Fundamentals LAYOUT OF A CELLULAR SYSTEM TO TELEPHONE NETWORK . BS BS . BS BS BS MS MSC Base Station Mobile Station Mobile Switching Center Radio link Land links Version 1. 1991 -. MS .ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-37 .

the given spectral allocation is shared in time by a number of users. 1992 -. In TDMA.0 February 9.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-38 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0. M. by assigning each to a specified time interval called a time slot. Version 1. each of which can carry a single information channel. In FDMA.17:01:35 [djw1038.Background and Fundamentals MULTIPLE ACCESS METHODS The two major access methods used for mobile telephone communications is Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). a given spectral allocation is broken into a number of individual radio channels. N.

0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Time Slot M ch 1-39 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 February 5.Background and Fundamentals MULTIPLE ACCESS METHODS FREQUENCY DIVISION MUTIPLE ACCESS (FDMA) Frequency 1 Frequency 2 ch ch Frequency N ch TIME DIVISION MUTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA) Time Slot 1 ch Time Slot 2 ch Version 1.17:16:47 [djw1038. 1992 -.

17:11:54 [djw0903.Background and Fundamentals FDMA/TDMA STRUCTURE USED IN GSM In the GSM cellular system there are 124 duplex radio channels (labeled 1 through 124).txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-40 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Version 1.0. each containing 8 time slots (labeled 0 through 7).0 February 9. 1992 -.

.... .. .. .. ..... ........ .... ....... ... .... Slot 0 . ... ......... ... ... . ................. Slot 7 ch ch Frequency 1 Frequency 2 ......... . . ch ch ch Version 1.... Slot 1 ch ..... . ...... . ...... ..... ... ... . ... ... .... ......... ......... .....0 May 15... ... . .... . ..... ... . .....0.. ... .. ................ . .......... .... . .. .... . . . ... .. .. . ..... ...... .. . ....11:13:43 [djw0903. ..... . 1991 -..Background and Fundamentals FDMA/TDMA STRUCTURE USED IN GSM Time Domain ....... .... . Frequency 124 ch ch Frequency Domain . .. ......... .. ch ................. ...... ....ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-41 .. .. ... ..

1992 -. Radio channels come in frequency pairs.17:14:29 [djw0904.0 February 9.Background and Fundamentals SPECTRAL ALLOCATION When a mobile station is assigned to an information channel in GSM. a radio channel and a time slot are also assigned.0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-42 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . one for the uplink path and one for the downlink path. Version 1.

11:07:58 [djw0904..0 May 15.0.Background and Fundamentals SPECTRAL ALLOCATION 124 Uplink Channels uplink 124 Downlink Channels downlink .ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-43 . 1991 -. • GSM supports 124 duplex radio channels • Each radio channel pair can support up to 8 simultaneous calls Version 1. .

A maximum of 8 mobile stations can share the same radio channel in the example shown.17:10:01 [djw0905. Version 1. However. In the base station to mobile station direction.Background and Fundamentals TDMA OPERATION The complete set of allocated time slots is called a TDMA frame. Thus. information directed to a given mobile station is sent only during the given mobile station’s assigned time slot for that direction. transmission from a given mobile station to a base station occurs in bursts.0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-44 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Each mobile can transmit only during its assigned time slot in a frame as shown. which is supported on a different radio frequency channel. transmission is continuous. 1992 -. with TDMA.0 February 9.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-45 .Background and Fundamentals TDMA OPERATION Frame X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame X + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Base Station MS 0 MS 1 MS 5 MS 7 Version 1.15:24:42 [djw1139.0 June 30. 1992 -.0.

0. 1992 -.Background and Fundamentals TDMA FRAME ORGANIZATION For Traffic Channels ACCH ch TDMA TF TS ms Associated Control Channel Channel Time Division Multiple Access TDMA Frame Time Slot Millisecond Version 1.0 March 5.16:56:03 [djw1069.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-46 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

25 Tail Guard Bits Bits TDMA Frame T S 0 T S T S T S 3 T S 4 T S T S T S 7 T S 0 T S T S T S 3 T S 4 T S T S T S 7 T S 0 T S 4.0.Background and Fundamentals TDMA FRAME ORGANIZATION For Traffic Channels Slot 0 Frequency 1 Frequency 2 ch ch ch ch Slot 2 ch ch ch ch Slot 4 ch ch ch ch Slot 6 ch ch ch ch Frequency 124 ch ch ch ch ch ch ch ch 0.615 ms T S T S 3 T S 4 T S T S T S 7 1 2 5 6 1 2 5 6 1 2 5 6 T F 0 T F 1 T F 2 T A T F C F C 11 H 12 A C C 22 23 H T F T F 120 ms Multiframe Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-47 .08:40:30 [djw1069. 1992 -.0 March 20.577 ms Time Slot Data Bits 3 Head Bits 57 1 Training Sequence 26 Control Bits 1 Data Bits 57 3 8.

txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-48 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1992 -.0 June 1.14:28:04 [djw1114.0.Background and Fundamentals MULTIPLEXING VOICE AND SIGNALING Using 13k bps Speech Coding Version 1.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-49 .0. 1992 -.Background and Fundamentals MULTIPLEXING VOICE AND SIGNALING Using 13k bps Speech Coding Frame 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of Information Transmitted/Received by a Mobile Station every 26 Frames (120 msec) Frame # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Slot # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Traffic Information Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Associated Signaling Frame # 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Version 1.14:22:57 [djw1114.0 Slot # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Traffic Information Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Idle (no transmission) June 1.

0 August 2.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-50 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Background and Fundamentals MULTIPLEXING 2 VOICE CALLS Using 6. 1993 -.5k bps Speech Coding Version 1.0.

0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-51 . 1992 -.5k bps Speech Coding Frame 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 user 2 user 1 Type of Information Transmitted/Received by two Mobile Stations every 26 Frames (120 msec) Frame # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Slot # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Traffic Information Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Signaling (user 1) Frame # 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Version 1.14:24:03 [djw1115.0 Slot # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Traffic Information Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Signaling (user 2) June 1.Background and Fundamentals MULTIPLEXING 2 VOICE CALLS Using 6.

18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-52 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0. 1993 -.5k bps Speech Coding Version 1.0 August 2.Background and Fundamentals ISDN-LIKE CHANNEL STRUCTURE Requires 6.

0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-53 .Background and Fundamentals ISDN-LIKE CHANNEL STRUCTURE Requires 6.5k bps Speech Coding Frame 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of Information Transmitted/Received by a Mobile Station using 2 B channels every 26 Frames (120 msec) Frame # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Slot # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Traffic Information B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel Associated signaling Frame # 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Version 1. 1992 -.14:25:24 [djw1116.0 Slot # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Traffic Information B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel Idle (no transmission) June 1.

Tebes. T. R. I. basic cellular concepts have not changed much since then.Background and Fundamentals CELLULAR CONCEPTS A basic overview of cellular concepts is provided from Pages 1-55 through 1-73. K. the article by V. and G. MacDonald Z. and J. Jr. Tsiang G. L. While 1979 may seem like a long time ago. A. The picture illustrated below is a copy of the BSTJ cover page which lists all the articles within the journal. The entire January 1979 BSTJ was devoted to the AT&T Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) system. THE BELL SYSTEM TECHNICAL JOURNAL JANUARY 1979 VOL. Feggeler.0. R. Fluhr and P. Fisher J. C. I. C.0 June 5. Huff Introduction. Plitkins. J. MacDonald in the January 1979 Bell System Technical Journal (BSTJ) is easy reading and provides more details. H. and J. If you are interested in additional details. Wingard S. Porter K. T. C. E. E. H. and T. A.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-54 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Ehrlich. G. Peck. Walker N.16:03:20 [djw1100. J. 1992 -. R. Young V. Hunnicutt. 1 ADVANCED MOBILE PHONE SERVICE W. S. Background and Objectives The Cellular Concept Control Architecture ISSN0005-8580 1 15 43 71 Mobile Telephone Switching Office Voice and Data Transmission 97 A Subscriber Set for the Equipment Test A Service Set for the Telephone Control Unit Cell-Site Hardware 123 145 153 Development Support Systems The Cellular Test Bed 201 215 The Development System Contributors to This Issue Papers by Bell Laboratories Authors 249 271 277 Version 1. Zysman D. C. DiPiazza. Smith R. Fisher. 58. Chadha. S. F. Arredondo. NO.

Cellular Concepts Version 1.0.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-55 . 1993 -.0 August 2.

1993 -.0 August 2.Background and Fundamentals SIMPLE NON-CELLULAR (NON-PRACTICAL) WIRELESS SYSTEM Version 1.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-56 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0.

0 November 20.Assign all GSM frequencies to the one tower .Background and Fundamentals SIMPLE NON-CELLULAR (NON-PRACTICAL) WIRELESS SYSTEM Radio frequency coverage area PSTN London . 1991 -.Maximum simultaneous calls = 992 (124 * 8) Version 1.0.One high-power transmit/receive tower in middle of London .17:10:13 [djw1001.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-57 .

Background and Fundamentals BASIC CELLULAR PRINCIPLES Version 1.0.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-58 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 August 2. 1993 -.

pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-59 .Background and Fundamentals BASIC CELLULAR PRINCIPLES • Fixed spectral allocation limits the number of channels that can be used • Channels must be reused throughout service area to support service demand • Signal attenuation with distance allows channel reuse Version 1.17:59:12 [djw0690. 1992 -.0 January 31.0.

0. Version 1. 1992 -.Background and Fundamentals CHANNEL REUSE Radio channels can be reused provided the separation between cells containing the same channel set is far enough apart so that co-channel interference can be kept below acceptable levels most of the time.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-60 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 February 10.13:41:47 [djw0906.

. 1991 -.11:08:02 [djw0906. . .ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-61 .Background and Fundamentals CHANNEL REUSE F A B F A B G E D C E G C D A B F G C E D Channels divided into 7 channel sets A. .0 May 15.G and reused throughout service area in three 7-cell clusters Version 1.0.

Background and Fundamentals CHANNEL REUSE EXAMPLE USING GSM FREQUENCIES CLUSTER SIZE = 7 Version 1. 1993 -.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-62 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 August 2.0.

Background and Fundamentals CHANNEL REUSE EXAMPLE USING GSM FREQUENCIES CLUSTER SIZE = 7 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55 62 69 76 83 104 90 111 5 12 19 26 33 40 47 54 61 68 82 89 96 117 103 110 97 75 6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55 62 69 76 83 104 90 111 5 11 124 4 118 7 14 1 8 21 28 35 42 18 25 32 39 15 22 29 36 49 56 63 70 46 53 60 67 43 50 57 64 77 84 91 98 71 78 85 92 74 81 88 95 105 112 99 106 113 102 109 116 119 123 3 10 2 9 120 12 16 23 30 37 65 17 24 31 38 44 51 58 45 52 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 115 122 19 26 33 40 47 54 61 68 82 89 96 117 103 110 97 75 72 79 86 93 100 107 114 121 11 124 4 118 7 14 1 8 21 28 35 42 15 22 29 36 18 25 32 39 49 56 63 70 43 50 57 64 46 53 60 67 77 84 91 98 71 78 85 92 74 81 88 95 105 112 99 106 113 102 109 116 119 123 3 10 2 9 120 16 23 30 37 65 17 24 31 38 44 51 58 45 52 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 115 122 72 79 86 93 100 107 114 121 Version 1.0 June 1.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-63 .16:05:20 [djw1076. 1992 -.

18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-64 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1993 -.0 August 2.0.Background and Fundamentals CELL COVERAGE AREA Version 1.

1991 -.14:55:05 [djw1002.0 November 12.0.Background and Fundamentals CELL COVERAGE AREA Theoretical Hexagon Coverage Area Possible Real Cell Coverage Area Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-65 .

9.Background and Fundamentals OTHER CELL CLUSTERS The more cells in a cluster..2 2 . Version 1. Some valid cluster sizes that allow this are: 1.0 February 10.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-66 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . the greater the separation between co-channel cells when other clusters are deployed. . 7. Ericsson Review No. 1992 -. Personal Communications based on Digital Cellular.0. 12. 3. Jan Swerup and Jan Uddenfeldt. Ericsson has been advertizing that a cluster size of 3 can be achieved while still maintaining an acceptable level of service quality.. 3.. 4. The idea is to keep co-channel cell separation the same throughout the system area for cells of the same size. 1991.13:52:12 [djw0907.

1992 -.0.0 July 6.14:28:48 [djw1142.Background and Fundamentals OTHER CELL CLUSTERS 3-Cell Cluster 4-Cell Cluster 7-Cell Cluster Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 9-Cell Cluster Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-67 .

Radio channels were assigned using a frequency reuse factor of 7.13:55:37 [djw0908. With continued subscriber growth.0 February 10.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-68 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . three new small cells are added in the region shown.Background and Fundamentals CELLULAR GROWTH THROUGH CELL SPLITTING The example shown assumes that 14 cells were required at startup to cover a specified system area. Version 1. 1992 -.0.

ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-69 .Background and Fundamentals CELLULAR GROWTH THROUGH CELL SPLITTING G E C B G A E D G F C B A E Initial layout of 14 cells (K = 7 reuse) G E E A F G C B G A E C B G A Add 3 new cells to high traffic area D E Version 1. 1991 -.0.0 May 15.11:08:27 [djw0908.

0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-70 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 February 10. 1992 -.Background and Fundamentals CONTINUED GROWTH Growth continues as five more cells (including two that are at the next size smaller) are added to a high traffic region as shown. Version 1. Notice that the cell with channel set F now serves a smaller area.14:01:09 [djw0909.

Background and Fundamentals CONTINUED GROWTH G E D B E F B A E G C C C B G A A C B G Adding 8 more cells to high traffic area D E Version 1.0 May 15. 1991 -.ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-71 .11:08:30 [djw0909.0.

Therefore. the propagation laws in force indicate that the levels of co-channel interference will be received from six surrounding cells all using the same channel set. both of which reduce the number of prime interference sources to one. which each antenna illuminating a sector of the cell. and with a separate channel set allocation to each sector. The three sector case is generally used with a seven-cell repeat pattern. The improved cochannel rejection in the six sector case however. results in a four-cell repeat pattern being possible.Background and Fundamentals SECTORIZED ANTENNAS As cell sizes are reduced.21:21:14 [djw1004. However. and the end result is a much higher capacity system. This means that the total traffic which can be carried for a given level of blocking is reduced. 1992 -. There are two commonly used methods of sectorization. giving an overall requirement for 21 channel sets (reuse factor of 7 times 3 sectors).txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-72 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . particularly the rejection of secondary interferers. the ability to use much smaller cells through sectorization greatly outweighs such drawbacks.0 March 22. giving an overall requirement for 24 channel sets (reuse factor of 4 times 6 sectors). and thus a reduction in trunking efficiency. one way of cutting significantly the level of interference is to use several directional antennas at the base stations. using three 120 degree sectors or six 60 degree sectors. A disadvantage of sectorization is that the larger channel sets required results in fewer channels per sector.0. Version 1.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-73 .20:24:10 [djw1004.0.0 March 15.Background and Fundamentals SECTORIZED ANTENNAS 120 Degree Sector Three Sector Coverage Area (120 degrees each sector) 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 320 310 300 290 260 270 280 Typical Radio Wave Propagation Pattern for a 120 Degree Antenna (viewed from top) Version 1. 1992 -.

0.Background and Fundamentals Version 1.0 March 15.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-74 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .20:24:10 [djw1004. 1992 -.

0.18:18:13 [unit01] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-75 .0 August 2. 1993 -.Mobile Stations and Features Version 1.

Handheld stations Mobile stations can come in five power classes which define the maximum Radio Frequency (RF) power level that the unit can transmit: Class I II III IV V Max RF Power (Watts) 20 8 5 2 0.0. Version 1. Vehicular stations 2 .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-76 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .8 Vehicular and portable units can be either class I or II.14:08:05 [djw0910. while handhelds can be class III. or V. Portable stations 3 .Background and Fundamentals TYPES OF MOBILE STATIONS Three basic types of mobile stations are defined: 1 . IV.0 February 10. 1992 -.

0.Background and Fundamentals TYPES OF MOBILE STATIONS Vehicular Stations Available Power Classes I or II 20w 8w Transmitter/ Receiver Portable Stations I or II 20w 8w Handheld Stations III or IV or V 5w 2w 0. 1992 -.8 Version 1.0 June 30.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-77 .15:23:58 [djw1138.

15:23:58 [djw1138. 1992 -.0 June 30.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 1-78 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Background and Fundamentals Version 1.0.

0 August 2.18:18:29 [unit02] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0. 1993 -.Unit 2 System Architecture Overview Version 1.

Since interfaces between network elements are open and standardized. The PSTN/ISDN interface are regulated at the national level and are outside the scope of the GSM recommendations. often referred to as network elements are defined in • • • the GSM Specifications. All interfaces other than the ones listed in the previous bullet carry signaling message only (e. D. Interfaces not labeled with one of the above identifiers are not defined within the GSM specifications. • Version 1. F. and Um (or air interface).System Architecture Overview GSM LAND-MOBILE NETWORK REFERENCE MODEL • Standard open interfaces between entities. A-bis. Abis. User information associated with a voice/data call between a mobile station and another entity in the PSTN/ISDN use the Um.. G. and PSTN/ISDN interface.0 April 14.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-2 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0. E. C. These interfaces are labeled: A. no voice circuits). B.00:29:08 [djw1091.g. 1992 -. A. a given service provider has total flexibility in choosing and mixing different vendor’s equipment in their network.

0 April 22. 1992 -.System Architecture Overview GSM LAND-MOBILE NETWORK REFERENCE MODEL VLR In other Networks G VLR AUC B BSS BTS D Um Abis A BSC MSC C HLR MS E F Other MSCs PSTN/ISDN Network EIR AUC BSC BSS BTS EIR HLR ISDN MS MSC PSTN VLR - Authentication Center Base Station Controller Base Station System Base Transceiver Station Equipment Identity Register Home Location Register Integrated Services Digital Network Mobile Station Mobile Switching Center Public Switched Telephone Network Visitor Location Register Version 1.18:33:24 [djw1091.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-3 .

1992 -.0 April 13.System Architecture Overview GSM NETWORK MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE Version 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-4 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0.23:54:22 [djw1050.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-5 .0. 1992 -.00:36:48 [djw1050.System Architecture Overview GSM NETWORK MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE NMC ADC AUC OMC HLR MSC VLR EIR A BSS ADC AUC BSS EIR HLR MSC NMC VLR - Administration Center Authentication Center Base Station System Equipment Identity Register Home Location Register Mobile Switching Center Network Management Center Visitor Location Register Version 1.0 April 14.

data link and network levels with corresponding OSI functionality. a service function does not limit it in terms of OSI functionality. Other user parts like the Telephone User Part (TUP) and the Data User Part (DUP) are not shown in the diagram. Note that a SS7-network user is considered to implement also OSI level 4 to 7 functionality.20:44:52 [djw1047. which may generate or receive an SS7 message is labeled with a Signaling Point Code (SPC). 4ESS. The MTP in the lower part provides a routing service for its users. 5ESS. Their functions are provided in the ISDN-UP protocol. It uses in its level-3 header level-3 addresses. NCP). It consists of three levels: the physical. in the greater scheme of things. that is. called Destination Point Code (DPC) or Origination Point Code (OPC) according to whether it is the destination or the origin of a level-3 MTP message. 1AESS. to select the next data link to forward the message. Every network entity (STP. 1992 -.0 February 10. the Signaling Point Codes (SPC) or Point Codes (PC) to forward "upper part" messages to their destination in the network. The fact that the SS7 function is.System Architecture Overview THE SS7 ARCHITECTURE The SS7 protocol levels can be subdivided horizontally into two major parts: the lower part or transport services part and the upper part or user part.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-6 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Version 1.0.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-7 .23:31:59 [djw1047. 1992 -.0 February 14.0.System Architecture Overview THE SS7 ARCHITECTURE OSI Model SS7 Protocol Model Non circuit related Circuit related OMAP Application TCAP ASEs user parts ISDN-UP Presentation Session Transport NULL SCCP Network MTP Level 3 Data Link Physical MTP Level 2 MTP Level 1 transport services parts OMAP ASE TCAP ISDN-UP SCCP MTP Operations Maintenance & Administration Part Application Service Element Transaction Capability Application Part ISDN User Part Signaling Connection Control Part Message Transfer Part Version 1.

Version 1. then a BSC can manage handovers between two of its subordinate BTS without involving the MSC. RF combiners.00:41:32 [djw1090.048 Mbps). A BSC can be physically positioned anywhere (geographically speaking) between a MSC and its BTSs.0. however. A BTS can be only be connected to one BSC. BTSs are connected to a BSC over standard 32 channel digital facilities (operating at 2. Each BTS serves a cell area. A BSC manages resources and executes procedures that are common to all BTSs. If a BSC is equipped with a time-slot switching fabric. There does not appear to be a specification within the GSM standards with respect to the maximum number of BTSs that can connect to one BSC (at least the author of this material hasn’t stumbled across any requirements yet). It is advantageous to cluster adjacent BTSs under the the same BSC to minimize the MSC involvement with handovers. an antenna. With the future need for micro-cells it will be necessary. BTS equipment will most likely be co-located with the antenna. RF amplifiers.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-8 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1992 -. to support antennas that can be remote from the rest of the BTS control complex.System Architecture Overview BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS) ARCHITECTURE • A Base Station System (BSS) consists of one Base Station Controller (BSC) and a multiple • • • • • • • • • • • Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). A BTS consists of a controller. A BSC is connected to a MSC also over standard 32 channel digital facilities.0 April 14. and much more. A BSC can only be connected to one MSC. radio transmitter/receivers.

0.23:13:24 [djw1090.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-9 . 1992 -.System Architecture Overview BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS) ARCHITECTURE MSC A A BSC 1 BSC 2 BSS 1 Abis Abis Um BTS BTS BTS Cell Version 1.0 April 13.

0 January 31. The TRX serves full duplex communications to the MS.CONTINUED BSS BSC BTS BCF TRX Base Station System Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Base Control Function Transceiver The BSC control one or more BTSs.18:24:52 [djw0694. Version 1.0. The BCF handle common control functions within a BTS.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-10 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .System Architecture Overview BSS . The BTS serves one cell in the cellular network and contains one or more TRXs. 1992 -.

System Architecture Overview BSS .ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-11 .0 June 1.0. TRX • • BCF BSS • Responsible for communicating with mobile stations in cell areas • Radio equipment of a BSS may sustain one or more cells • One BSC controls one or more BTSs • One BTS serves one cell Version 1. 1992 -.10:21:34 [djw0920. .CONTINUED BTS To OMC A-bis TRX • • A BCF To MSC BSC BTS .

19:40:38 [djw1046. and changes (e. In the Connection Management (CM) layer.0. The Mobility Management (MM) layer deals with supporting such functions as location updating. and segmentation to allow for long messages on the upper layers.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-12 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . and encryption management in a mobile environment. The physical layer (L1) of this interface is also referred to as the radio subsystem layer. and to other functional units in the MS and network subsystem (which includes the BSS and the MSC) for supporting traffic channels. error detection and correction. flow control. the Short Message Service (SMS) protocol of this layer supports the high level functions related to the transfer and management of short message services. the Call Control (CC) entity controls end-to-end call establishment. control.0 February 10. The protocol is similar to ISDN LAPD and is called LAPDm. This layer interfaces to the data link layer and the radio resource management sublayer in the Mobile Station (MS) and base station. during handover). and the Supplementary Services (SS) entity supports the management of supplementary services. Details on the MS to network interface are described in the GSM 04 series. Version 1. Finally. The GSM data link layer (L2) functions include link multiplexing. Both protocols are very similar to those used in the fixed network. At the physical level. authentication. release.. 1992 -.System Architecture Overview MOBILE-STATION/BASE-STATION INTERFACE The signaling protocol model for the "air" interface at the mobile station is shown. The Radio Resource (RR) layer manages the dialog between the MS and BSS concerning the management of radio connections. most signaling messages carried on the radio path are in 23 octet blocks.g. It includes such things as connection establishment.

1992 -.0.System Architecture Overview MOBILE-STATION/BASE-STATION INTERFACE Um MS BS Signaling Protocol Reference Model at MS Connection Management (CM) CC L3 SS SMS Mobility Management (MM) Radio Resource Mangement (RR) L2 L1 LAPDm Physical Layer (radio subsystem) CC SS SMS LAPDm Call Control entity Supplementary Services support entity Short Message Service support entity Link Access Procedures on Dm channel Version 1.23:31:08 [djw1046.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-13 .0 February 14.

Therefore. For mobile-to-mobile calls in larger networks. How voice facilities are connected between MSC are outside the scope of the GSM recommendations. • An MSC can be connected to only one VLR. the MSC would typically consult one HLR. this is highly unlikely since the EIR provides a centralized and geographic independent function.0 April 14.System Architecture Overview MOBILE SERVICES SWITCHING CENTER (MSC) Functions of the MSC include: • Call handling that copes with mobile nature of subscribers (e. Version 1. • The MSC consults an HLR to determine how a call should be routed to a given mobile station. A detailed discussion on inter-MSC voice facilities is provided in the Handover Section in the Call Management Unit.0. 1992 -.g.01:50:27 [djw1092. • An MSC would communicate typically with one EIR. a MSC could consult HLRs of other systems to help minimize the trunk paths to the other mobile station. all mobile stations that move around under base stations connected to the MSC are always managed by the same VLR.. While it is possible for an MSC to communicate to multiple EIRs. paging) • Management of required logical radio-link channel during calls • Management of MSC-BSS signaling protocol • Control of inter-BSS handovers • Acting as a gateway MSC to interrogate the HLR for routing incoming calls to the called MS • Exchange of signaling information with other system entities • Other normal functions of a local exchange switch in the fixed network MSC interfaces with other network elements. • A given MSC can be interconnected to other MSC to support inter-MSC handovers. • An MSC typically controlled by one OMC. For incoming calls to a mobile station.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-14 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . The E interface is only a signaling interface and should not be confused as a voice path.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-15 .0 April 22.18:34:05 [djw1092.0. 1992 -.System Architecture Overview MOBILE SERVICES SWITCHING CENTER (MSC) OMC VLR EIR B F BSS A MSC BSS A C C HLR HLR E E PSTN/ISDN Network Other MSC Other MSC Version 1.

0. Version 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-16 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .18:29:25 [djw1048. 1992 -. The BSSOMAP supports all the operations and maintenance communications of BSS.0 January 31. The BSSAP is further divided into DTAP and BSSMAP. BSSMAP is responsible for all aspects of the radio resource handling at the BSS. See GSM 08 series for more details. The signaling transport mechanism is handled by the MTP and SCCP parts of SS7. DTAP is in shape of transferring layer 3 messages between the MS and the MSC without BSC involvement in the analysis. The application parts of divided between BSSAP and BSSOMAP. Error free transport is handled by a subset of MTP and the logical connection is handled by a subset of SCCP.System Architecture Overview BSS/MSC INTERFACE (A) The physical layer of the A interface is a 2 Mbps (32 x 64 kbps) standard CCITT digital connection.

0 February 14.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-17 .System Architecture Overview BSS/MSC INTERFACE (A) A MSC BSS Signaling Protocol Reference Model BSSAP DTAP BSSMAP BSSOMAP SCCP MTP Level 3 MTP Level 2 MTP Level 1 distribution BSSAP DTAP BSSMAP BSSOMAP SCCP MTP BSS Application Part Direct Transfer Appliation Part BSS Management Application Part Operations and Maintenance Application Part Signaling Connection Control Part Message Transfer Part Version 1.23:32:32 [djw1048. 1992 -.

0 January 31.0.System Architecture Overview MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL CM MM RR LAPD LAPDm BTSM BSSAP SCCP MTP Connection Management Mobility Management Radio Resource Management Link Access Procedures on D channel Link Access Procedures on Dm channel BTS Management BSS Application Part Signaling Connection Control Part Message Transfer Part Version 1. 1992 -.18:30:17 [djw1049.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-18 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

SCCP MTP BSSMAP SCCP MTP Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-19 .0 April 13. BTSM LAPD Phys.0. BTSM LAPD Phys. 1992 -.23:19:04 [djw1049.System Architecture Overview MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL Um MS BTS A-bis BSC A MSC A CM Um MM CM A-bis MM BSSMAP RR’’ RR RR’ LAPDm Phys. LAPDm Phys.

and their location information. The location information is stored as a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) which is a directory number that the network can use to route calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) where the mobile subscriber is located at the time of the call.System Architecture Overview HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR) The Home Location Register (HLR) contains the identities of mobile subscribers (called International Mobile Subscriber Identities or IMSIs).txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-20 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .21:57:30 [djw0697. their service parameters.0.0 February 10. Version 1. 1992 -.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-21 .System Architecture Overview HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR) AUC OMC C MSC HLR C D D MSC VLR VLR Contains: Identity of mobile subscriber Directory number of mobile subscriber Subscription information on teleservices and bearer services Service restrictions (if any) Supplementary services Location information for call routing Version 1.13:04:12 [djw1132. 1992 -.0 June 12.0.

22:00:20 [djw0698.System Architecture Overview VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR) The Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains the subscriber parameters and location information for all mobile subscribers currently located in the geographic area (i.0. The VLR allocates the MSRN and (when required) a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) for secret identification of the mobile subscriber on the radio link. 1992 -.0 February 10.e..txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-22 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Version 1. cells) controlled by that VLR.

System Architecture Overview VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR) OMC VLR G B MSC VLR G D D VLR B MSC HLR HLR Contains: Identity of mobile subscriber Directory number of mobile subscriber Copy of subscriber data from HLR Location area where mobile is registered Temporary mobile subscriber identity Version 1.0 June 12.13:04:57 [djw1133.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-23 . 1992 -.

txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-24 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .02:12:50 [djw1093.0. and fraudulent list are referred to as the: white. Version 1. suspect. suspect. the valid. or known to be fraudulent.0 April 14. It contains the identities of mobile station equipments (IMEIs) which may be valid.System Architecture Overview EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER (EIR) IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity This database is accessed during the equipment validation procedure when a mobile accesses the system. 1992 -. gray and black lists. In the GSM recommendations.

0 April 14.0.System Architecture Overview EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER (EIR) F OMC MSC EIR F MSC Contains: Valid list Suspect list Fraudulent list list of valid Mobile Equipment identities list of Mobile Equipment identities under observation list of Mobile Equipment identities for which service should be barred Version 1.02:11:08 [djw1093.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-25 . 1992 -.

The HLR. GSM does not define the interface between the HLR and AUC. If a mobile station is visiting other networks. Most vendors will probably integrate the AUC and HLR. The only other network element that communicates with an AUC is the corresponding Home Location Register (HLR). The AUC is a database that contains a unique Authentication Key (Ki) for each mobile subscriber.System Architecture Overview AUTHENTICATION CENTER (AUC) • Since a GSM cellular system is based on a wireless access method. in turn. such as adding/changing/deleting Authentication Keys (Ki).txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-26 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . The main reason one might want to separate the AUC from an HLR is to not burden an HLR with CPU intensive algorithms. The Operational Maintenance Center (OMC) interfaces with the AUC for administration purposes. Information regarding encryption (cipher) key generation is provided on Page 3-88. this interface is not an open interface. the VLR in the other networks communicate the mobile station’s HLR. The AUC also contains algorithms which generate authentication parameters. The authentication process is discussed in more detail on Pages 3-82 and 3-84.0 June 24. retrieves information from the AUC and passes this information to the requesting VLR. No other network elements communicate with the AUC. These algorithms can be CPU intensive. it is necessary for mobile stations to transmit their identity to the network. • • • • • • Version 1. The purpose of an Authentication Center (AUC) is to generate authentication parameters that are used by Visitor Location Registers (VLRs) to make sure the identity transmitted by a mobile station is the correct identity and to generate encryption/cipher keys that will be used to encrypt the radio path. The AUC can be viewed as an adjunct computer to the HLR. Consequently. 1992 -.18:09:55 [djw0549.0. which has been delegated the responsibility of managing authentication keys and generating authentication parameters.

...... .......10:25:27 [djw0923..................... ................. 1992 -.........System Architecture Overview AUTHENTICATION CENTER (AUC) OMC AUC .....................ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-27 ..... ........................ ...........0.... ......0 June 1............ ............. HLR • Contains subscriber authentication data called Authentication Keys (Ki) • Generates security related parameters needed to authorize service using Ki • Generates unique data pattern called a Cipher Key (Kc) needed for encrypting user speech and data Version 1.....

The mobile ASEs plus TCAP make up the Mobile Application Entity (AE) of SS7. 1992 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-28 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . The MAP layers provide the necessary signaling functions needed to provide services such as setting up mobile facilities for voice and non-voice applications in a mobile network.12:10:37 [djw0911. It uses the SCCP for routing.0 February 3.System Architecture Overview MOBILE APPLICATION PART (MAP) Information transfer between GSM PLMN entities use the Mobile Application Part (MAP) of SS7. and only Class 0 (connectionless datagram) service is required. It uses the services of the TCAP part of SS7. MAP consists of a Mobile Application and several Application Service Elements (ASEs). Version 1.0.

. . . . . . .. .. .... . ... . . ... . ... .. . . . .System Architecture Overview MOBILE APPLICATION PART (MAP) Mobile Application Part (MAP) ••• . Mobile Application Entity (AE) SCCP MTP L3 MTP L2 MTP L1 Version 1.. . .. .21:52:15 [djw0911. . . . . .. . . . ASE ASE TCAP . . . . . ..ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-29 . .. . . . . . . .0. . . .. . .. .. 1992 -... .. ... . ... . ..0 February 10.. .. . .. . ... .

1993 -.System Architecture Overview MAJOR PROCEDURES SUPPORTED BY MAP Version 1.0.0 August 2.18:18:29 [unit02] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-30 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

1992 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-31 .0.0 June 23.18:19:17 [djw0551.System Architecture Overview MAJOR PROCEDURES SUPPORTED BY MAP • Location registration and cancellation • Handover procedures • Handling of supplementary services • Retrieval of subscriber parameters during call set-up • Authentication procedures Version 1.

to keep the vu-graph from being too busy. it is a collection of MSC areas within a common numbering plan (e. The MSCs are the functional interfaces between the fixed networks and a PLMN for call set-up. A similar tpe of interconnection may exist for the interaction between the MSCs of one PLMN.4.System Architecture Overview PUBLIC LAND MOBILE NETWORKS (PLMNs) The following is the definition of a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) from the GSM recommendations1 A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is established and operated by an administration or Registered Private Operating Agency (RPOA) for the specific purpose of providing land mobile telecommunication service services to the public. A PLMN may be regarded as an extension of a network (e. and 300k subscriber MSC. GSM Recommendation 03. consisting of one of each network element (AUC.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-32 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . The PLMN operator would need to decide how many HLRs.5. 1992 -. Version 1.13:45:34 [djw1007. The GSM recommendations do not define the maximum capacity for each network element--this is a vendor specific detail. MSC. the PLMNs may be regarded as independent telecommunications entities even though different PLMNs may be interconnected through the ISDN/PSTN Packet/Public Data Networks (PDNs) for forwarding of call or network information. a given vendor might provide a product line consisting of a 1000k subscriber HLR.1. or a combination of dedicated paths and the use of a PDN. of course.0. Functionally. VLR. HLR. use a PDN.. same National Destination Code) and a common routing plan. The largest size PLMN could serve an entire country and can consist of any number and combination of network elements. With regards to the diagrams on the following page. There is not a one-to-one capacity relationship between network elements. 500k subscriber VLR. Not shown in the PLMN examples on the following page are Base Station Systems (BSSs) and Operation Maintenance Centers (OMCs). BSSs and OMCs. A PLMN can consist of more than one OMC. A PLMN does not cross country boundaries. are essential components of a PLMN. Presented on the following page is a simple example of two PLMNs. 1 . The size of a given PLMN could be small (serve one city). It is left up to each PLMN operator to purchase network elements from one or more vendors and and properly engineer these network elements. One could have dedicated signaling paths between each network element. and EIR).g. Version 3.02. For example.g. the solid lines between each network element represent message communication signaling paths. Section 2. ISDN).0 May 28. VLRs and MSCs would be required to meet their needs.. The signaling path topology between network elements is decided by the PLMN operator.

0 February 3.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-33 .12:30:34 [djw1007. 1992 -.0.System Architecture Overview PUBLIC LAND MOBILE NETWORKS (PLMNs) AUC HLR Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) VLR VLR MSC MSC MSC AUC EIR HLR EIR VLR Signaling Network VLR MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) Version 1.

0 February 10. Version 1.System Architecture Overview GSM SYSTEM AREA (GSA) A GSM System Area (GSA) is the entire coverage area where a GSM mobile subscriber can receive wireless access from one or more GSM Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs). Not to be confused with a GSM system area is the definition of a "GSM Service Area".txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-34 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .22:18:59 [djw0912.0. 1992 -. This is the sum of all regions that a GSM subscriber can roam (including their home system area) and get calls from another party without the calling party knowing which region the subscriber happens to be located.

1992 -.System Architecture Overview GSM SYSTEM AREA (GSA) GSM PLMN Area GSM PLMN Area GSM PLMN Area GSA GSM PLMN Area GSM System Area (GSA) Version 1.0 June 30.15:22:11 [djw1136.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-35 .0.

1993 -.0 August 2.0.18:18:29 [unit02] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-36 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .System Architecture Overview SERVICE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS Version 1.

0. 1992 -.0 February 3.System Architecture Overview SERVICE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS • Time from switch-on to service ready: 4 sec in home system 10 sec in visiting system • Connect Time to called network: 4 sec • Release Time to called network: 2 sec • Time to Alert mobile of inbound call: 4 sec in 1st attempt 15 sec in final attempt • Maximum gap due to handover: 150 ms if intercell 100 ms if intracell • Maximum one-way speech delay: 90 ms • Intelligibility of speech: 90% Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 2-37 .12:13:13 [djw0552.

12:13:13 [djw0552.0.0 February 3. 1992 -.System Architecture Overview Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 2-38 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

1993 -.0 August 2.Unit 3 Mobility Management Version 1.0.18:18:37 [unit03] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

Mobility Management UNIT OVERVIEW Version 1.0 June 28.0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-2 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.11:32:03 [djw0447.

0 July 2.Mobility Management UNIT OVERVIEW Location Areas Mobile Station Identification Routing Calls to Mobile Stations Mobile Station Registration Types Confidentiality and Security Detailed Location Registration Scenario Version 1.0.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-3 .13:47:00 [djw0447. 1991 -.

If a vendor was to provide a VLR and MSC as separate network elements. For example.0. 1992 -. The GSM standard allows for a vendor to combine/integrate several network elements into one network element. if a vendor was to integrate the VLR with the MSC. you’ll find details concerning the sequence and format of messages exchanged across a given interface. it is assumed in this unit that all network elements are implemented separately. then the vendor is not required to implement the "B" interface as defined in the GSM specification. the "B" interface defines all messages and their organization between the Visitor Location Register (VLR) and the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). then all messages exchanged between the VLR and the MSC must conform to the "B" interface specification.14:10:33 [djw0428.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-4 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . In the standard. Version 1.Mobility Management GSM REFERENCE MODEL The purpose of this unit is to present mobility management concepts for a cellular system based on the GSM standard.0 February 3. as illustrated on the following page. To convey GSM mobility managements concepts to the fullest extent. For example. the interfaces between combined network elements are "internal" and do not need to conform to the GSM specification. When this is done. thus requiring all interfaces as illustrated in the following page. All information presented and terminology used is based on the GSM reference model with the interfaces as illustrated on the following page. The GSM standard is an open interface specification.

Mobile Station .Public Switched Telephone Network .Base Transceiver Station .Visitor Location Register BSS BSC Abis MSC BTS Um MS Version 1.Mobility Management GSM REFERENCE MODEL AUC EIR VLR D G C HLR F ISDN MSC VLR B PSTN A E AUC BSC BSS BTS EIR HLR ISDN MS MSC PSTN VLR .Integrated Services Digital Network .14:17:56 [djw0428.Base Station System .Equipment Identity Register .Authentication Center . 1991 -.0 November 27.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-5 .Mobile Switching Center .Home Location Register .Base Station Controller .0.

1991 -.0.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-6 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobility Management Version 1.14:17:56 [djw0428.0 November 27.

0.0 August 2. 1993 -.Location Areas Version 1.18:18:37 [unit03] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-7 .

is information indicating whether mobile stations are barred from using this base station to access the network. it will respond with a page response message. As a mobile station moves from one cell area to another. when powered on and idle (i.e. it will detect that the control channel associated with a new cell area has a stronger signal than the current cell control channel. Once a mobile station is locked onto a control channel. In order to deliver a call to a mobile station. a page message must be broadcast on the control channel from the BTS for which the mobile is currently monitoring.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-8 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . If the mobile station hears its identification code broadcast on the paging channel.21:21:39 [djw1058. it listens for general system parameters and page messages that may be directed to the mobile station.Mobility Management PAGING A MOBILE STATION • Mobile stations. • • • • • Version 1. Base Station Controllers (BSCs) and Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) will be unaware of a mobile station’s exact location. Multiple BTSs must be used to page a mobile station for situations where BSCs/BTSs are unaware of mobile station movement. One of the system parameters being broadcast. not engaged in a call). 1992 -. It will retune and lock its receiver to the new control channel.0. periodically scan a list • of broadcast control channels looking for the channel with the strongest signal strength. If a mobile station does not report its movements.0 March 22. for example.

1992 -.21:36:40 [djw1058.0 April 3.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-9 .Mobility Management PAGING A MOBILE STATION Inter-office Trunks MSC MSC-BSS Trunks PSTN BSC 1 BSC 2 BSC 3 Version 1.

09:57:57 [djw1043. The difficulity in delivering a call to a mobile station is knowing which cell area should be paged. cities in other countries. nor is the mobile subscriber required to notify anyone of her/his location in order to receive calls. the network must be capable of delivering a call to a mobile station whether it is currently located in its home Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) area. and/or possibly a competitor’s PLMN serving the mobile’s same home area.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-10 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . One possibility would be to have all cells in Europe page a mobile station when delivering a call to a mobile subscriber.0 July 7. and how many cell areas should be paged. • • • • Version 1. Consequently. Involving too many cells in the paging process for call delivery can introduce performance problems. 1992 -.0.Mobility Management WHERE IS THE MOBILE STATION? • One of the primary objectives of the GSM recommendations is to provide a standard that supports international roaming without requiring the calling party to be aware of the location of the mobile subscriber.

Mobility Management WHERE IS THE MOBILE STATION? Version 1.15:50:00 [djw1043. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-11 .0.0 February 4.

eventually a resource becomes a bottleneck. 1992 -. Each base station’s paging channels have a finite number of slots and transmission speed for broadcasting page orders.0 April 16.0. Most likely the limiting resource would the capacity of the paging channel. Base station real-time might become a bottleneck if a base station is unable to perform other call handling responsibilities because of the volume of pages that it is being asked to broadcast. it is necessary to form regions/clusters of cells and page only the cluster of cells for which the mobile is known to be situated. These clusters are referred as location areas.Mobility Management PAGING PERFORMANCE • Paging performance problems can result if too many cell areas are paged when attempting to • • deliver a call to a Mobile Station (MS). • • • Version 1. If a base station doesn’t have adequate overload controls.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-12 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .10:56:38 [djw1059. To keep the paging performance within a safe range. it is also possible to encounter other bottlenecks such as base station real-time. As the page attempt rate increases to a given base station. however. it is possible that the number of successful pages can start to decrease as the page attempt rate increases beyond the saturated point.

14:26:58 [djw1059.0.0 February 25. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-13 .Mobility Management PAGING PERFORMANCE Pa Pag MS ging Pag ing A ing MS Ch Pag B ann MS ing el Pa C MS ging Pa D MS ging Pa E MS ging F Base Station Successful Transmitted Pages Paging channel or Base Station processing limit Page Attempts Version 1.

After a mobile station registers in a given location area. Home Location Registers (HLRs) are unaware that geographic regions are divided into Location Areas. The volume of page orders on paging channels and the processing demands of BSSs increase as the size of location areas become larger. 1992 -. When a mobile station is powered-on (i. it must compare the location area code being broadcast by the new BTS with the location area where it last registered. associated with the new registered area. that are associated with Location Area 1 will be broadcasting a location area code that represents Location Area 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-14 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . which of course is not practical.. All BTSs. When delivering a call to a mobile station. in every network.16:03:00 [djw1055. See Page 3-20 for more details on MSC areas. only one location area is paged. previously powered off). A Mobile Station is required to register each time it enters a new location area. For example.e. the mobile station will register. The volume of mobile station registrations increase as the size of location areas become smaller. to its nonvolatile memory. If the values are different the mobile station will register. if a mobile station is known to be within Location Area 1. Each Location Area is made up of one or more Cell Areas. It is the responsibility of the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to manage location areas.Mobility Management LOCATION AREAS AND CELL AREAS • A GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) area is divided into regions called Location • • • • • • • • Areas (LAs). for example. is required to broadcast on its broadcast control channel what location area it represents. • • • • • • Version 1. All mobile stations must be equipped with nonvolatile memory. an idle mobile station (when powered up and not engaged in a call) is tuned to the strongest broadcast control channel. If the location area values are different.0 June 5. The largest possible location area size is the total cell coverage area of one Mobile Switching Center (MSC). every Base Transceiver Station (BTS). As a mobile station moves from one cell area to another. a Mobile Station is free to move around within the location area without registering. otherwise the mobile will not register. The term "geographic registration" is often associated with the concept of dividing a PLMN area into regions whereby a mobile station automatically registers when it moves between location areas. Once registered.0. The smallest possible location area size is equal to one cell. then all 59 cells representing Location Area 1 will broadcast a page message to locate the mobile station. it will write the location area code. The optimal size of a location area depends on which resources become a bottleneck and/or which resources are most expensive. As discussed previously. In order for mobile stations to detect changes in location areas. it will lock on to the strongest cell broadcast control channel and then compare the location area code being broadcast with the value stored on its nonvolatile memory.

01:03:29 [djw1055.Mobility Management LOCATION AREAS AND CELL AREAS VLR 1 Location Area 1 Cell Area Location Area 2 Location Area 3 Location Area 4 Location Area 5 Location Area 6 Location Area 7 Border between VLR regions VLR 2 Version 1.0.0 March 13.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-15 . 1992 -.

Since the GSM recommendations is a multinational standard. The LAC portion of the LAI is a flexible length code (up to 2 octets maximum) identifying a location area within a PLMN. MCCs are administered within CCITT. Version 3.1. 1992 -. Section 4.3. We will find out later in this course that a global cell identity is necessary for handing-over a call. between networks. for a given mobile station. Version 3.00:34:42 [djw1056.3 With a global cell identity.1. Reference: GSM 3.3. Mobile Network Code (MNC). a unique MNC should be assigned to each of them.Mobility Management LOCATION AND CELL AREA IDENTIFICATION Location areas.0 June 2. contribute to a hierarchy of information that can be used to qualify a given location area.1. are actually represented with a 3-field code known as a Location Area Identification (LAI).03.1. Version 1. as described on previous page.4.03.2 The allocation of NMCs is the responsibility of administration(s) within each country.4. the administration of unique Location Area codes is simplified if the high-ordered field of an LAI is partitioned on a country basis and administered by in international standards organization. 2 . Page 10. Section 4.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-16 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . and Location Area Code (LAC). every GSM cell in the world has a unique code. This reserved value is use in some special cases when no valid LAI exists in mobile stations. Page 9. If more than one GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) exist in a country. 3 . except an all zeros pattern which is reserved. Version 3. Section 2. which is more than enough location areas codes even for a very large PLMN.1. 1 . The maximum number of location areas within a PLMN is 65535 (216 − 1). Reference: GSM 3.2. Also illustrated on the following page is the organization of a global cell identification.0.4.03. Page 4.1 The reason for the having a 3-field LAI structure is help insure that all Location Areas have a unique code. A global cell identity consists of a LAI plus a 2 octet cell identity. This part of the LAI can be coded using a full hexadecimal representation. Each of the 3-fields in an LAI consisting of: Mobile Country Code (MCC). Reference: GSM 3.

1992 -.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-17 .0 February 24.15:09:39 [djw1056.Mobility Management LOCATION AND CELL AREA IDENTIFICATION Location Area Identification MCC MNC LAC Cell Global Identification MCC MNC LAC CI Location Area Identification MCC Mobile Country Code (3 decimal digits) Mobile Network Code (2 decimal digits) Location Area Code (2 octets) Cell Identity (2 octets) MNC LAC CI Version 1.

JDC-TDMA. Any identity starting with a MCC should not thought of as phone number. such as 234. Just because 7 MCCs have been reserved for the United States does not mean that the US has any plans on adopting the GSM cellular standard.4 5 It is interesting to note that Mobile Country Codes are defined in the CCITT recommendations and not in the GSM recommendations.163 -.. CCITT Recommendation E. not just the European countries. MCCs are used to communicate information between network elements within a PLMN and between PLMNs. • Help support handovers between PLMNs.212 -. CDMA. IS-54 TDMA.0 May 28.g.e.13:45:37 [djw1008. CCITT is the proper owner of Mobile Country Codes. MCCs have been defined for all countries in the world.Identification Plan for Land Mobile Stations Version 1. 1992 -. Standardizing MCCs for all countries in the world helps support the future possibility of mobile subscribers in a given Personal Communication Network (PCN) to visit PCNs in other countries and receive service even if the "terminal" (e. • Determine which PLMN a given mobile station was previously registered. others have two digits. and the United States has a one digit CC. Could it be that 7 MCCs were reserved with one MCC for each of the 7 Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs)? The CC numbering plan has evolved over the years. MCCs have nothing to do with the PSTN.0. The author does not know exactly why a new numbering plan was introduced for mobiles (i. MCCs are fixed length: 3 digits. CCs are used by the PSTN to route international calls. 4 . etc ) access protocol access protocols are different between countries. do not confuse CC with MCC. MCCs are used strictly within PLMNs to support the following capabilities (not intended to be a complete list): Determine where a given mobile station’s home PLMN resides.. Again. which uses CCs. The author strongly suspects that the CC numbering plan was too restrictive and that introducing a MCC numbering plan provided the necessary flexibility. CCITT Recommendation E. MCCs) and why Country Codes are not sufficient.Numbering Plan for the International Telephone Service 5 . The PSTN will never be offered a directory number that would start with a MCC. Since the CCITT standards organization are responsible for international standards. Notice that the United States has 7 MCCs and one CC.Mobility Management COUNTRY CODES AND MOBILE COUNTRY CODES PARTIAL LIST The following table lists a small percentage of the defined Country Codes (CC) and Mobile Country Codes (MCC) as defined in the CCITT recommendations. GSM-TDMA.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-18 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Some countries have three digit CCs. To place an international call to a mobile subscriber whose home is in the United Kingdom. fixed exchange ISDN. one would have to specify "44" as the country code. Mobile stations are assigned phone numbers that conform to the international dialing plan.

235 214 208 244 240 222 204 310 .316 505 440.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Mobile Country Code (MCC) 234.0.17:18:48 [djw1008.Mobility Management COUNTRY CODES AND MOBILE COUNTRY CODES PARTIAL LIST Country Country Code (CC) 44 34 33 358 46 39 31 1 61 81 965 Version 1. 1992 -. 441 419 United Kingdom Spain France Finland Sweden Italy Netherlands United States Australia Japan Kuwait Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-19 .0 January 30.

When a call does arrive to MSC 3. it will inform VLR 2 of an incoming call. a mobile station visits Location Area 234-06-02 under MSC 3. • An MSC area may consist of one or several location areas. for example. • As you should know.0. is to make sure that all calls to be delivered to the mobile station are routed to MSC 3. to location area 234-06-01 the mobile station will automatically register when it detects the change in location areas. Part of this registration process.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-20 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1992 -. the relationship between MSC areas and location areas is presented. • A location area. VLR 2 will execute procedures which makes sure that all incoming calls for the mobile station are routed to MSC 2. If the mobile station moves from location area 234-06-02. in this example. VLR 2 will process the registration.Mobility Management MSC AREAS AND LOCATION AREAS Illustrated previously was the relationship between cell areas and location areas. however.19:07:11 [djw1060. VLR 2 will receive the location registration from the mobile station via MSC 2. Here. a location area is represented by a cluster of cell areas which share the same location area identification. for example. to have all base stations in Location Area 2 page the mobile station. If. cannot exceed the size of an MSC area. which will be expanded in much more detail later.0 May 6. Version 1. • An MSC area is equal to the sum of all the cell areas associated with base stations connected to the MSC. A base station can only be connected to one MSC. VLR 2 will instruct MSC 3.

0 May 18. 1992 -.Mobility Management MSC AREAS AND LOCATION AREAS VLR 1 VLR 2 MSC 1 MSC 2 MSC 3 Location Area 234-05-01 Location Area 234-05-03 Location Area 234-06-02 Location Area 234-05-02 Location Area 234-06-01 Location Area 234-06-03 MSC 1 Area MSC 2 Area MSC 3 Area Version 1.21:09:55 [djw1060.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-21 .

. A GSM service area may consist of several PLMN areas. A PLMN area. Idle mobile stations tune to the strongest broadcast control channel. cannot exceed the size of a country. and hopefully a large pool of traffic channels. Once a signaling network is deployed that allows all PLMNs to communicate between each other (which will take many years for such a network to evolve) the GSM service area will be equal to summation of all regions that provide GSM service (i. A country can consist of one or several PLMN areas. A VLR may be in charge of one or more MSC areas. however.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-22 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . A MSC area may consist of one or several location areas. VLR Area A mobile station roaming in an MSC area is controlled by the Visitor Location Register (VLR) in charge of this area.. however. be part of a country. It is over this channel that mobile stations receive page messages. A GSM service area may consist of one country. This geographic area is equal to the sum of all the cell areas associated with base stations connected to the MSC. Version 1.e. A PLMN area can consist of several VLR areas. MSC Area The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) area is the part of the network covered by an MSC.0 February 4.g. A location area. A PLMN area is a collection of MSC areas within a common numbering plan (e. A location area may include one or several cell areas. however. PLMN Area A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is established and operated by an administration or registered private operating agency. 1993 -. GSM Service Area The GSM service area is defined as an area in which a mobile station can be reached without the caller’s knowledge of the actual location of the mobile station. all European countries and other non-European countries that deploy GSM systems). cannot exceed the size of a VLR area. same National Destination Code) and a common routing plan. a small pool of stand alone dedicated signaling channels.0.13:29:20 [rjt1057. Since the standard now assumes that the VLR and MSC are combined. All cells within a given location area transmit the same location area identification on their broadcast control channels. An MSC area. A VLR area may be divided into one or several location areas. When delivering a call to a mobile station. Location Area A location area is defined as an area in which a mobile station may move freely without registering. A VLR is responsible for registering mobile stations as it moves between location areas. the VLR area consists of one MSC area. all cells in the last known location area are paged.Mobility Management SUMMARY OF AREA RELATIONSHIPS Cell Area A cell is an area of radio coverage associated with a Base Transceiver Station (BTS). cannot exceed the size of an MSC area. Each cell area has a broadcast control channel. or include several countries.

18:23:44 [djw1057. 1992 -.0.Mobility Management SUMMARY OF AREA RELATIONSHIPS Cell Area Location Area MSC Area VLR Area PLMN Area Country GSM Service Area Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-23 .0 February 24.

There could be one HLR in London or there could be ten HLRs in London.. The number of HLRs in a given city depends on factors such as: number of competing service providers in the same area. If a new mobile subscriber never turns on their phone (never takes the phone out of the box).0. of course. will request all of the expensive supplementary features! The diagram on the other page illustrates two HLRs in London. The mobile subscriber will be given a phone number and a mobile station.12. the subscriber will receive monthly bills. • • • • The information passed between VLR and HLR is described by the procedures in Recommendation GSM 03. For example. The process of adding a new mobile subscriber to an HLR makes no assumption as to where the mobile station will power up for the first time (i. This is just an example. 1992 -.Mobility Management WHERE THE HLR FITS IN THE PICTURE • The permanent copy of a give mobile subscriber’s service profile exists in only one place in • the world: a Home Location Register (HLR) in its home Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). Assuming the service provider bills subscribers on a monthly basis. The subscriber. whether HLRs are integrated within Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs). If the mobile subscriber never turns on their phone. and size of each system. The individual would need to contact the service provider to request service. The service provider would ask the individual which supplementary services/features the user desires and then would add a new entry to an HLR. HLR 2 in London will be the only HLR database in the world with information pertaining to the mobile subscriber.e.10:02:13 [djw1061. lets assume we have an individual that is a resident of London who decides to subscribe to cellular service. no Visitor Location Register (VLR) will be aware that the mobile station exists until the subscriber turns on his/her phone. Lets assume that information pertaining to the mobile subscriber is inserted into HLR 2 in London.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-24 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . no VLR will ever have information about this particular mobile subscriber.0 April 3. where it will first perform a location update). Therefore. Version 1.

Mobility Management WHERE THE HLR FITS IN THE PICTURE Paris London Rome HLR HLR 1 HLR 2 HLR Signaling Network Paris London Rome VLR 1 VLR 2 VLR 1 VLR 2 VLR 222-06-2 208-12-7 208-12-1 208-12-6 208-12-2 208-12-5 234-06-2 234-06-7 234-06-6 234-06-1 234-06-9 234-06-8 222-06-1 Location Areas 208-12-3 208-12-4 234-06-3 234-06-4 234-06-5 Version 1.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-25 . 1992 -.13:42:06 [djw1061.0 April 3.

0 April 3.Mobility Management Version 1. 1992 -.13:42:06 [djw1061.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-26 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0.

0 August 2.18:18:37 [unit03] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-27 .Mobile Station Identification Version 1. 1993 -.0.

1991 -. MOBILE STATION DIRECTORY NUMBER TRANSLATION Version 1.0.0 June 28.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-28 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobility Management FIXED VS.11:34:01 [djw0663.

0.. 1992 -..0 March 15. Mobile Station DN = Directory Number Version 1. .. ...19:05:52 [djw0663... . . MOBILE STATION DIRECTORY NUMBER TRANSLATION Local Switching Exchange DN PSTN DN Port .....pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-29 ..Mobility Management FIXED VS. Port Fixed Station Mobile Switching Center DN Location Area BSS BSS Location Area Mobile ID PSTN DN BSS BSS BSS Location Area ....

3. Section 3. A user should be able to insert his/her SIM into any ME and be able to place or receive calls. Version 3. The ME. and GSM 11.10 • • • • • 6 . Teleservice 12 (Annex). the user’s SIM must be inserted into the ME. which is the remaining part of a MS. the mobile equipment initiates an immediate release of the call. Page 5.2. realizes all the functions common to all GSM subscribers. Version 3.Mobility Management MOBILE STATION • A GSM Mobile Station (MS) consists of two parts: Mobile Equipment (ME) and a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). Additional information can be found in: GSM 02. 1992 -. Page 15.8 This is because the mobile equipment no longer has any identity. They are not required to purchase mobile equipment since the mobile equipment does not contain any subscriber information.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-30 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . If the MUMS is busy by one subscriber.0. one per subscriber card.2.0. Version 3.1.0 March 22.0. Section 3.17 (SIM. at a network operator’s discretion. its interface with the outside world is in accordance with International Standards Organization (ISO) standards on IC cards (ISO 7816 series). The SIM contains all network related subscriber information.6 In order for a mobile subscriber to place or receive a regular call. of which GSM mobile telecommunication is one of the applications.17. For Integrated Circuit-card SIMs. 9 . and that the mobile subscriber’s location is unknown. 8 . The interface between the SIM and ME is standardized. Functional Characteristics).18.11 (Specification of the SIM-ME Interface). Page 9.0.17.17.2.9 GSM also defines a Multi User Mobile Station (MUMS) whereby the mobile equipment provides multiple card reader slots.4. Section 2. Version 1. 10 . Reference: GSM 02. Reference: GSM 02.0. another call to another subscriber having registered by means of the same MUMS cannot be reached even though this person is not busy. The SIM may be part of a multi-service card.2.21:21:54 [djw0300. Reference: GSM 2. Page 3.03. the mobile subscriber is no longer reachable. Reference: GSM 2. All GSM subscribers must have a SIM.7 If a SIM is removed from a mobile station while a call is in progress. 7 . Version 3. to allow emergency calls to be established from mobile equipment without a SIM. It may be possible.

Mobility Management MOBILE STATION Mobile Equipment Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) .14:21:20 [djw0300.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-31 . Mobile Station = Mobile Equipment + Subscriber Identity Module Version 1.0 June 13. 1991 -.0.

ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-32 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobility Management MOBILE STATION IDENTIFICATION International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) • IMSI is assigned to a MS at subscription time • IMSI uniquely identifies a given MS • IMSI should only be transmitted over the radio path when necessary IMSI (15 digits) MCC MNC MSIN NMSI part MCC — Mobile Country Code [3 digits] (home country) MNC — Mobile Network Code [2 digits] (home GSM PLMN) MSIN — Mobile Subscriber Identification Number NMSI — National Mobile Subscriber Identity Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) • TMSI is assigned to a MS by the VLR • TMSI uniquely identifies a MS within the area controlled by a given VLR TMSI (32 bits max) International Mobile Station Equipment Identify (IMEI) • Uniquely identifies mobile station equipment • Burnt in by the equipment manufacturer IMEI (15 digits) TAC FAC SNR SP TAC — Type Approval Code (6 digits) FAC — Final Assembly Code (2 digits) SNR — Serial Number (6 digits) SP — Spare (1 digit) Version 1.11:08:51 [djw0919.0.0 May 15. 1991 -.

Mobility Management MOBILE STATION IDENTIFICATION Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN) International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) Smart Card (SIM) Jane Doe .0 June 13. 1991 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-33 .14:52:38 [djw0662.0. Version 1.

Mobility Management SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM) Types of information contained in SIM: • International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) • Authentication key (Ki) • Personal Identification Number (PIN) • Subscriber information • Access control class • Cipher key (Kc)∗ • Temporary Mobile Station Identification (TMSI)∗ • Additional GSM services∗ • Location Area Identity (LAI)∗ • Forbidden Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs)∗ * Updatable by network The possibility exists that a Mobile Station (MS) with a plug-in Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) may also have provision for accepting an Integrated Circuit (IC) card. If the IC card is removed then the plug-in SIM takes over the security function. Page 10. 1992 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-34 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . If the IC card is inserted during a call. In this case. Reference: GSM 2. Section 5.0 March 16.0. Version 3. If an IC card is removed during a call.2. the IC card takes precedence over the plug-in SIM.0. Version 1. the call is terminated.09:29:53 [djw0913. the IC card will take precedence after the call has finished.11 11 .17.

1992 -.15:23:00 [djw1137.0 June 30.0.Mobility Management SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM) Mobile Equipment Mobile Equipment SIM Card IC Card Type SIM Plug-In Type SIM Mobile Station = Mobile Equipment + SIM Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-35 .

0 June 1.20:46:56 [djw0436.. All administrative interventions concerning a given mobile subscriber occur on the HLR. Section 3.02. 1992 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-36 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Reference: GSM 3. A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) may contain one or several HLRs: it depends on the number of mobile subscribers.4. Page 5. There are two numbers that serve as primary keys into the HLR database: • International Mobile Station Identity (IMSI) • Mobile Station International ISDN number (MSISDN) The database contains other information such as: • Teleservices and bearer services subscription information • Service restrictions (e. Version 3.31 12 . The HLRs have no direct control of Mobile Switching Centers (MSC)s. roaming limitations) • Supplementary service parameters More information can be found about HLRs in the following sections of the GSM specification: Organization of Subscriber Data: GSM 03.12 The two most noteworthy pieces of information stored in the HLR are: • Permanent copy of mobile subscriber’s subscription information.08 Home Location Register Specification: GSM 11.1.Mobility Management HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR) The Home Location Register (HLR) is a data base in charge of the management of mobile subscribers. This database is used for routing of calls to mobile subscribers managed by this HLR. Version 1.1.g. • Some location information enabling the routing of calls towards the MSC where the mobile station is located (VLR address).0. on the capacity of the equipment and on the organization of the network.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-37 .19:21:29 [djw1118.0 June 1. 1992 -.Mobility Management HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR) IMSI x MSISDN x - Subscriber Data IMSI MSISDN VLR Address x KEYS: International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) CONTAINS: Subscriber data IMSI MSISDN VLR Address Version 1.0.

1991 -. Version 1. All MSCs have one Visitor Location Register (VLR).08." If the mobile station is in its home Mobile Switching Center (MSC) area. The Visitor Location Register specification can be found in Recommendation GSM 11. which can be integrated within the MSC or can be a separate network element. the mobile is simply visiting home.12. The information passed between VLR and HLR is described by the procedures in Recommendation GSM 03.16:21:49 [djw0443. The VLR contains the necessary information needed to handle calls while a mobile station is visiting its controlled area. The organization of subscriber data is detailed in Recommendation GSM 03.32.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-38 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobility Management VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR) According to the GSM specifications a mobile station is always viewed as a "visitor.0.0 December 11.

Mobility Management VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR) IMSI x MSRN x TMSI x x - Subscriber Data IMSI MSISDN LAC TMSI KEYS: International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) CONTAINS: Subscriber data IMSI MSISDN Location Area Code (LAC) of Mobile Station TMSI Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-39 . 1992 -.19:22:10 [djw1119.0.0 June 1.

Location Area Identification . The Mobile Subscriber’s data has been entered into the service provider’s HLR database. The Location Update message from the MS contains the IMSI and old LAI. 0 The subscriber has signed up with a service provider and has been provided with a SIM card and MSISDN. with the single exception of emergency calls which are to be setup even if the subscriber is not registered.Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE First Time This must be done prior to the first phone call (incoming or outgoing).Location Update .14:11:22 [rjt1063.0. 3 The VLR send a MAP message to the HLR requesting subscriber data for the subscriber identified by the IMSI.Base Station System .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-40 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobile Country Code .Home Location Register . The VLR uses the IMSI to determine which HLR should be queried for this subscriber.Mobile Station ISDN number .) The mismatch in the LAIs triggers the MS to initiate a Location Registration.Mobile Subscriber or Station . 1993 -.0 February 4. The BSS then adds the new LAI in the header of the message before it passes it onto the MSC. 2 The VLR gets the Location Update information from the MSC and determines that it must retrieve subscriber data from the HLR. 1 The Mobile Subscriber has turned the phone on and the phone notices that the Location Area Identification (LAI) in the broadcast does not match the LAI on the SIM. BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM VLR .International Mobile Subscriber Identity .Mobile Switching Center .Country Code . (In this case the LAI on the SIM is null since this is the very first use of this SIM.Visitor Location Register Version 1.Mobile Application Part .Subscriber Identity Module .

1993 -.0 March 4.15:04:53 [rjt1063.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-41 .0.Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE First Time LAI = 208-06-01 PARIS VLR 2 IMSI = 234-02-1234567 BSS 1 MSC BSS 2 Registration (IMSI = 234-02-1234567) (LAI (old) = NULL) BSS Header: (LAI (new) = 208-06-=01) 3 Update Location (IMSI = 234-02-1234567) 1 London HLR 0 IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = NULL Version 1.

The VLR assigns a TMSI to this subscriber. BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM TMSI VLR .Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE First Time -.Visitor Location Register Version 1.International Mobile Subscriber Identity .Subscriber Identity Module .Mobile Station ISDN number .Mobile Application Part . 1993 -.0 March 3. The VLR builds a subscriber record and stores the new LAI with that record.Mobile Country Code . mobile terminations and future roaming to new VLR areas.Mobile Subscriber or Station .) The VLR/MSC sends a message to the MS accepting the Location Update request and assigning the TMSI for the MS.e.Continued 4 5 6 6a 7 8 The HLR checks the subscriber’s permissions to ensure roaming is allowed and stores the VLR address for future use (i.) The HLR sends a MAP message to the VLR with the subscriber’s data. An acknowledgment of the receipt and writing of the subscriber data is sent to the HLR.Home Location Register .. The HLR signals Update Location Complete.Mobile Switching Center .Location Update .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-42 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Base Station System .16:43:35 [rjt1064.Location Area Identification .0.Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity . (This step is optional and is at the discretion of the service provider.Country Code .

0. 1993 -.0 March 4.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-43 .15:06:01 [rjt1064.Continued LAI = 208-06-01 BSS 1 PARIS VLR 7 IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 6666 Subscriber Data LA = 01 MSC BSS 2 Registration Accepted (TMSI = 6666) (LAI = 208-06-01) 6 8 5 Subscriber Data Subscriber Data Acknowledge 6 6a Update Complete London HLR IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Paris 4 Version 1.Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE First Time -.

Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement within VLR Area Location Updates are never done during a phone call. The VLR gets the Location Update information from the MSC and determines the MS has previously registered in this VLR area. but the LAI changes. The VLR updates the LAI for this subscriber in the VLR record. BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM VLR . Movement between Location Areas (actually between BSSs) during a phone call are covered in the Handover portion of section 4.0.Country Code .Subscriber Identity Module .14:22:04 [rjt1065.Mobile Switching Center .International Mobile Subscriber Identity .Mobile Application Part . The Location Update message from the MS contains the TMSI and old LAI. 1 2 The Mobile Station notices that the Location Area Identification (LAI) in the strongest broadcast channel does not match the LAI on the SIM.0 February 4.Location Update . The BSS then adds the new LAI in the header of the message before it passes it onto the MSC. The mismatch in the LAIs triggers the MS to initiate a Location Update.Mobile Subscriber or Station . 1993 -.Home Location Register .Location Area Identification .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-44 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobile Station ISDN number .Visitor Location Register Version 1.Mobile Country Code .Base Station System .

1993 -.Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement within VLR Area PARIS VLR 1 IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 6666 Subscriber Data LA = 20 2 Registration (TMSI = 6666) (LAI(old) = 208-06-01) BSS Header: (LAI(new) = 208-06-20 LAI = 208-06-01 BSS 3 LAI = 208-06-20 BSS 4 London HLR IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Paris Version 1.0 March 4.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-45 .15:07:00 [rjt1065.0.

Base Station System .Subscriber Identity Module .cont.Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity .Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement within VLR Area -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-46 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .International Mobile Subscriber Identity .Mobile Application Part . 3 4 The VLR assigns a new TMSI to this subscriber.Mobile Country Code .Home Location Register .) The VLR/MSC sends a message to the MS accepting the Location Update request and assigning the TMSI for the MS.Country Code .0.Mobile Switching Center . 1993 -.Location Area Identification .Mobile Subscriber or Station .14:28:12 [rjt1066. BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM TMSI VLR .Location Update .Mobile Station ISDN number . (This step is optional and is at the discretion of the service provider.Visitor Location Register Version 1.0 February 4.

Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement within VLR Area -.17:44:39 [djw1066.cont.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-47 . PARIS VLR 3 IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 7777 Subscriber Data LA = 20 Registration Accepted (TMSI = 7777) (LAI = 208-06-20) LAI = 208-06-01 2 4 BSS 3 LAI = 208-06-20 BSS 4 London HLR IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Paris Version 1.0.0 June 8. 1992 -.

Mobile Station ISDN number .0 February 4. In order to retrieve the IMSI.Location Area Identification .Subscriber Identity Module .Home Location Register .Visitor Location Register Version 1.Mobile Country Code .Base Station System .14:45:56 [rjt1067. 2 3 4 5 BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM VLR .Location Update . The old VLR responds with the IMSI and Authentication data if requested.0. this is the last resort since the intent is to not transmit the IMSI across the Air interface to the extent possible. Once given the IMSI. The mismatch in the LAIs triggers the MS to initiate a Location Registration.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-48 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . which is necessary to query the HLR.International Mobile Subscriber Identity .Mobile Subscriber or Station . 1993 -. It is optional to request Authentication data at this time also. the VLR/MSC can query the MS for the IMSI directly.Mobile Application Part . the new VLR can determine the MS’s HLR. The BSS then adds the new LAI in the header of the message before it passes it onto the MSC. The VLR send a MAP message to the HLR requesting subscriber data for the subscriber identified by the IMSI. However.Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement between VLRs 1 The Mobile Station notices that the Location Area Identification (LAI) in the strongest broadcast does not match the LAI on the SIM. the VLR queries the old VLR for the IMSI using the TMSI.Country Code . The VLR gets the Location Update information from the MSC and determines from the old LAI that the TMSI does not identify a VLR record on this system. If steps 2 and 3 fail for any reason. The Location Update message from the MS contains the TMSI and old LAI.Mobile Switching Center .

0 March 4.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-49 .15:08:19 [rjt1067.Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement between VLRs PARIS VLR IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 7777 Subscriber Data LA = 20 BSS 3 LAI = 208-06-20 BSS 4 London HLR IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Paris 3 IMSI Response (IMSI = 234-02-1234567) 2 5 Update Location (IMSI = 234-02-1234567) Need IMSI (TMSI = 7777) Optional: Ask for Authentication Parameters too ROME VLR 4 IMSI = 234-02-1234567 BSS 8 LAI = 222-03-68 1 Registration (TMSI = 7777) (LAI(old) = 208-06-20) BSS Header: (LAI(new) = 222-03-68) BSS 5 Version 1. 1993 -.

Mobile Country Code . 1993 -. 9 The VLR builds a subscriber record and stores the new LAI with that record.Mobile Application Part .International Mobile Subscriber Identity .0. 7b The HLR acknowledges the Update Location is complete.Visitor Location Register Version 1.) 7 The HLR sends a MAP message to the VLR with the subscriber’s data.Subscriber Identity Module . 7a Assuming the VLR record was built with no problems..Mobile Station ISDN number .Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity .cont.Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement between VLRs -.Base Station System .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-50 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .16:41:16 [rjt1068.Mobile Switching Center . 6 The HLR checks the subscriber’s permissions to ensure roaming is allowed and stores the new VLR address for future use (i.Home Location Register .Country Code . the VLR assigns a TMSI to this subscriber.Location Update .e. (This step is optional and is at the discretion of the service provider.0 March 3. mobile terminations and future roaming to new VLR areas. The VLR writes the subscriber’s data to a new VLR record.) 10 The VLR/MSC sends a message to the MS accepting the Location Update request and assigning the TMSI for the MS. 8 The HLR notifies the old VLR the MS has registered in a new VLR area and the record at the old VLR should be deleted.Mobile Subscriber or Station . Also.Location Area Identification . the VLR acknowledges the subscriber data receipt. BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM TMSI VLR .

Mobility Management LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement between VLRs -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-51 .0. PARIS VLR IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 7777 Subscriber Data LA = 20 BSS 3 LAI = 208-06-20 8 Delete Record (IMSI = 234-02-1234567) BSS 4 London HLR IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Rome 6 7 7a Subscriber Data Subscriber Data Acknowledge 7b Update Complete ROME VLR 9 IMSI = 234-02-1234567 TMSI = 8888 Subscriber Data LA = 68 BSS 8 LAI = 222-03-68 10 Registration Accepted (TMSI = 8888) (LAI =222-03-68) BSS 5 Version 1.0 March 4.15:09:41 [rjt1068.cont. 1993 -.

15:09:41 [rjt1068.Mobility Management Version 1. 1993 -.0 March 4.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-52 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0.

1993 -.Routing Calls to Mobile Stations Version 1.0 August 2.0.18:18:37 [unit03] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-53 .

Public Switched Telephone Network Version 1.0.Mobile Station Roaming Number .Mobile Switching Center .Mobility Management MOBILE STATION ROAMING NUMBER (MSRN) MSC MSISDN MSRN PSTN .23:31:17 [djw0604.Mobile Station ISDN number . 1992 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-54 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 April 10.

Mobility Management MOBILE STATION ROAMING NUMBER (MSRN) Home MSC Visited MSC . 1991 -.. . PSTN .. . . .. . . . . .. ... .. . .0 June 13. .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-55 . ... . . . .0.. MSISDN .. MSISDN .. . . .. MSISDN .. .14:25:03 [djw0604. .. . . .. .... MSRN . .. MSISDN Local Exchange Version 1.

0 April 10.Mobile Station Roaming Number .23:31:25 [djw0602.0. 1992 -.Mobile Switching Center .Public Switched Telephone Network Version 1.Mobile Station ISDN number .Mobility Management MSC DIRECTORY NUMBER ALLOCATION MSC MSISDN MSRN PSTN .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-56 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

0 May 23.0.13:31:19 [djw0602. 1991 -.Mobility Management MSC DIRECTORY NUMBER ALLOCATION Trunks Trunks MSC LOCAL EXCHANGE PSTN MSC Directory Number Spectrum MSISDN Used to reference home subscribers MSRN Used to reference visiting subscribers Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-57 .

Normal digit analysis on the home MSC indicates that calls with this MSRN should be routed to the PSTN. The MSRN allocation described in this scenario is called per call MSRN allocation. the MSRN is stored at the HLR for the entire time the MS is registered in a VLR area.Mobile Application Part .Mobile Station Roaming Number . 1993 -.Public Switched Telephone Network .Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity .08:33:15 [rjt0201.) and releases the MSRN for future use.Mobility Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Mobile Located in Non-Home MSC Area The following diagram shows an example of call routing and signaling paths for a mobile station terminated call. 11 The MSC sends page requests to the BSS(s) in the LAI. is the per registration MSRN allocation. Another option in the standards. 12 The BSS(s) page for the Mobile. 2 The PSTN.Mobile Switching Center . etc.Mobile Station ISDN number . the MSC digit analysis recognizes it as an MSRN and asks the VLR for the MS associated with this MSRN. 6 The HLR passes the MSRN onto the home MSC. 9 When the incoming call with this MSRN arrives at the MSC. 3 The home MSC does digit analysis and notes that this number is an MSISDN for a MS.0 February 5. BSS HLR IMSI MAP MSC MSISDN MSRN TMSI PSTN VLR . 7 The home MSC reroutes the call using the MSRN. but not supported by any known service providers. 10 The VLR retrieves the associated VLR record (TMSI. 4 The HLR sends a MAP routing query for this IMSI (MSISDN to IMSI translation done in the HLR) to the last known VLR address. last reported LAI.Base Station System . 8 Normal digit analysis within the PSTN indicates that this MSRN should be routed to the visited MSC. 5 The VLR assigns a temporary MSRN associated with this IMSI and sends the MSRN back to the HLR.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-58 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Visitor Location Register Version 1. but requires a very large number of MSRNs.Home Location Register . routes the call to the home PLMN/MSC of the Mobile Subscriber. This allows the network to skip steps 4 and 5. 1 A user on a land-line phone dials the MSISDN of a Mobile Subscriber.International Mobile Subscriber Identity . In the second case.0. using normal digit analysis. A MAP routing query for this MSISDN is sent to the MS’s HLR.

17:44:23 [djw1121.0 June 12.0.Mobility Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Mobile Located in Non-Home MSC Area Gateway MSC BSS 1 Home MSC 2 BSS 2 3 6 MS ISD N MSISDN MSRN 1 MS RN Home PLMN Voice Path Signaling N ISD MS HLR 7 4 PSTN IMSI 5 MSRN VLR N SR M 9 10 Visited PLMN 8 MSRN TMSI & LAC TM 11 SI BSS 1 12 TM SI Visited MSC BSS 2 Version 1. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-59 .

In the second case. the MSRN is stored at the HLR for the entire time the MS is registered in a VLR area. the last known VLR address is in this PLMN.International Mobile Subscriber Identity . 7 The home MSC reroutes the call using the MSRN.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-60 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 6 The HLR passes the MSRN onto the home MSC. last reported LAI. 4 The HLR sends a MAP routing query for this IMSI (MSISDN to IMSI translation done in the HLR) to the last known VLR address. 1993 -.15:34:41 [rjt0200.Visitor Location Register Version 1. Normal digit analysis on the home MSC indicates that calls with this MSRN are terminated on this MSC.Home Location Register .Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity .Mobility Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Mobile in Home MSC Area The following diagram shows an example of call routing and signaling paths for a mobile station terminated call within the Home MSC area.0 February 4.. 2 The PSTN. is the per registration MSRN allocation.Public Land Mobile Network .Base Station System . BSS HLR IMSI MAP MSC MSISDN MSRN TMSI PLMN PSTN VLR . 10 The BSS(s) page for the Mobile. 3 The home MSC does digit analysis and notes that this number is an MSISDN for a MS.Mobile Switching Center .Mobile Station ISDN number .) and releases the MSRN for future use. Another option in the standards.0. but not supported by any known service providers. (In this case. but requires a very large number of MSRNs. routes the call to the home PLMN/MSC of the Mobile Subscriber.Mobile Station Roaming Number .Mobile Application Part .Public Switched Telephone Network .) 5 The VLR assigns a temporary MSRN associated with this IMSI and sends the MSRN back to the HLR. etc. using normal digit analysis. 1 A user on a land-line phone dials the MSISDN of a Mobile Subscriber. 9 The MSC sends page requests to the BSS(s) in the LAI. 8 The VLR retrieves the associated VLR record (TMSI. The MSRN allocation described in this scenario is called per call MSRN allocation. This allows the network to skip steps 4 and 5. A MAP routing query for this MSISDN is sent to the MS’s HLR.

1992 -.0 June 12.17:43:16 [djw1134.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-61 .0.Mobility Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Mobile in Home MSC Area 4 IMSI HLR N SR M MSRN 5 VLR M SR N LA C 9 7 8 DN SIS M 3 6 1 TM SI & N ISD MS TM SI BSS 1 10 TM SI 2 MSISDN Home MSC BSS 2 PSTN Voice Path Signaling Version 1.

Public Land Mobile Network . but not supported by any known service providers. 4 The HLR sends a MAP routing query for this IMSI (MSISDN to IMSI translation done in the HLR) to the last known VLR address.0.Mobile Station Roaming Number .Mobile Application Part . using normal digit analysis.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-62 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .16:04:03 [rjt0203. etc. 8 When the incoming call with this MSRN arrives at the MSC. 3 The Gateway MSC does digit analysis and notes that this number is an MSISDN for a MS.Base Station System .Public Switched Telephone Network . 9 The VLR retrieves the associated VLR record (TMSI.Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity . routes the call to the home Gateway MSC in the home PLMN.Visitor Location Register Version 1. the MSC digit analysis recognizes it as an MSRN and asks the VLR for the MS associated with this MSRN. 10 The MSC sends page requests to the BSS(s) in the LAI.Mobile Switching Center .Mobile Station ISDN number .0 February 4. 1993 -. (In this case. 1 A user on a land-line phone dials the MSISDN of a Mobile Subscriber. the last known VLR address is in this PLMN. but requires a very large number of MSRNs. Another option in the standards.Home Location Register . 6 The HLR passes the MSRN to the Gateway MSC.International Mobile Subscriber Identity . last reported LAI.) and releases the MSRN for future use. The MSRN allocation described in this scenario is called per call MSRN allocation. the MSRN is stored at the HLR for the entire time the MS is registered in a VLR area. BSS HLR IMSI MAP MSC MSISDN MSRN TMSI PLMN PSTN VLR .Mobility Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Via Gateway MSC The following diagram shows an example of call routing and signaling paths for a mobile station terminated call with a Gateway MSC in the Home PLMN. A MAP routing query for this MSISDN is sent to the MS’s HLR. In the second case. 11 The BSS(s) page for the Mobile. 2 The PSTN. 7 The Gateway MSC routes the call using the MSRN. This allows the network to skip steps 4 and 5. is the per registration MSRN allocation.) 5 The VLR assigns a temporary MSRN associated with this IMSI and sends the MSRN back to the HLR.

0.17:46:29 [djw1124.0 June 12. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-63 .Mobility Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Via Gateway MSC BSS 1 MSC BSS 2 1 MSISDN 3 DN SIS M N SR M 6 HLR 4 Gateway IMSI 5 PSTN DN SIS M 2 MSRN Home MSC Home PLMN VLR 9 8 7 N SR M MSRN TMSI & LAC 10 TM SI BSS 1 11 TM SI Visited MSC Voice Path Signaling BSS 2 Version 1.

A MAP routing query for this MSISDN is sent to the MS’s HLR.Public Switched Telephone Network .Mobile Station Roaming Number . but requires a very large number of MSRNs. 3 The HLR sends a MAP routing query for this IMSI (MSISDN to IMSI translation done in the HLR) to the last known VLR address. and the rerouting of the call based on the MSRN. The MSRN allocation described in this scenario is called per call MSRN allocation. Another option in the standards. the MAP query of the HLR.15:56:44 [rjt0202. is the per registration MSRN allocation. last reported LAI. This allows the network to skip steps 3 and 4. 2 The PSTN. the MSRN is stored at the HLR for the entire time the MS is registered in a VLR area. 7 When the incoming call with this MSRN arrives at the MSC. using normal digit analysis.Mobile Switching Center .Mobile Station ISDN number . notes that this number is and MSISDN for a MS.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-64 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Visitor Location Register Version 1. BSS HLR IMSI MAP MSC MSISDN MSRN TMSI PLMN PSTN VLR . In the second case. The Intelligent PSTN supports the identification of an MSISDN. the MSC digit analysis recognizes it as an MSRN and asks the VLR for the MS associated with this MSRN.Mobile Application Part . 8 The VLR retrieves the associated VLR record (TMSI. 1 A user on a land-line phone dials the MSISDN of a Mobile Subscriber. 9 The MSC sends page requests to the BSS(s) in the LAI.) and releases the MSRN for future use. 6 The Intelligent PSTN reroutes the call using the MSRN. 5 The HLR passes the MSRN to the Intelligent PSTN. 10 The BSS(s) page for the Mobile.Home Location Register . etc.0 February 5.Base Station System .International Mobile Subscriber Identity .Public Land Mobile Network . Normal digit analysis indicates that calls with this MSRN are routed to the visited MSC. but not supported by any known service providers.0.Mobility Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Intelligent PSTN The following diagram shows an example of call routing and signaling paths for a mobile station with an Intelligent PSTN.Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity . 1993 -. 4 The VLR assigns a temporary MSRN associated with this IMSI and sends the MSRN back to the HLR.

17:45:25 [djw1123. 1992 -.0.Mobility Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Intelligent PSTN BSS 1 Home MSC BSS 2 1 Home PLMN 2 Voice Path Signaling N ISD MS DN MSIS MSRN 5 HLR 3 PSTN IMSI 4 MSRN VLR N SR M 7 6 8 Visited PLMN MSRN TMSI & LAC TM 9 SI BSS 1 10 TM SI Visited MSC BSS 2 Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-65 .0 June 12.

1992 -.0 June 12.17:45:25 [djw1123.Mobility Management Version 1.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-66 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

18:18:37 [unit03] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-67 . 1993 -.0 August 2.Mobile Station Registration Types Version 1.0.

0 June 28. 1991 -.11:57:00 [djw0676.0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-68 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobility Management 3 TYPES OF MOBILE STATION REGISTRATION Version 1.

0. 1991 -.0 June 28.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-69 .12:00:34 [djw0676.Mobility Management 3 TYPES OF MOBILE STATION REGISTRATION • GEOGRAPHIC Based • TIME Based • ON/OFF Based Version 1.

the mobile station executes a location update procedure.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-70 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobile Switching Center . it compares the LAI received to the last registered LAI. 1992 -. Each BTS transmits on its broadcast control channel the Location Area Identification (LAI) that it represents. stored on the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).Mobility Management GEOGRAPHIC BASED REGISTRATION Each cell area is served by a Base Transceiver Station (BTS). If the two LAIs are different.Visitor Location Register Version 1. it retunes to a new broadcast control channel.23:32:51 [djw1081. LA MSC VLR . As a mobile station moves from one cell area to another. Each time the mobile station retunes.Location Area .0.0 April 10.

13:54:43 [djw1081.0 April 3.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-71 . 1992 -.Mobility Management GEOGRAPHIC BASED REGISTRATION VLR MSC LA 1 LA 1 LA 2 LA 2 LA 1 LA 2 LA 2 Version 1.

1991 -.12:03:16 [djw0677. Update intervals are broadcast by base stations. Note: • Units of 1 deci-hours • Minimum Interval: 6 minutes (1 deci-hour) • Maximum Interval: 25.5 hours (255 deci-hours) • Timeout value sent on broadcast channels to mobiles • Timeout value can be set to infinity Version 1.0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-72 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobility Management TIME BASED REGISTRATION Mobile periodically registers.0 June 28. Updates depend on mobile station activity.

pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-73 . 1991 -.0 June 28.Mobility Management TIME BASED REGISTRATION TIMER MANAGEMENT: • Timer is reset when mobile station activity has taken place • Mobile station initiates location updating when timer expires • Mobile station timer value is kept in memory when turned off Version 1.12:02:07 [djw0677.0.

6. it will perform an IMSI attach operation only if the PLMN operator has this capability activated. As you might suspect.4. Reference: GSM 3.0. the mobile station will first check to see if it is still in the same location area.12. The IMSI detach signal sent from the mobile station to the MSC is not acknowledged. the mobile subscriber that you have dialed is unavailable") or redirected to another directory number. it will perform the procedure associated with geographic registration (and no IMSI attach message will be sent).Mobility Management ON/OFF BASED REGISTRATION The term "ON/OFF Based Registration" is NOT a term used in the GSM standards. the calling party will possibly be connected to an appropriate announcement (e. Instead.1. Version 3. Page 7.g. The activation and implementation of this capability is optional within the fixed infrastructure of a PLMN. Details concerning whether a mobile station is available or unavailable in a PLMN is useful information to a VLR.g.13 The support of the IMSI attach/detach operation is mandatory in mobile stations. The IMSI attach signal sent from the mobile station is acknowledged from the MSC. The IMSI attach operation is the action taken by a mobile station to indicate to the PLMN that the station has reentered an active state (e. Reference: GSM 3. the mobile station will execute its normal location registration procedure.4. If the acknowledgement indicates that the mobile station is not registered or that the mobile station’s identification is not sufficient (i. "were sorry. the station is powered up and/or that a SIM card has inserted into the mobile equipment).14 If the mobile has not moved into a new location area.. 1993 -.. the station is powered down or the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) has been removed).4. Section 3.e TMSI). If a mobile station is known to be unavailable (marked as deatached). Version 1. Section 2. ON refers to the mobile station being powered on and OFF refers to the mobile station being powered off.g. Version 3. and a call is to be delivered to it.1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-74 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 14 . The terms "International Subscriber Identity (IMSI) attach" and "IMSI detach" are used in the GSM standard. 13 . The IMSI detach operation is the action taken by a mobile station to indicate to the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) that the station has entered an inactive state (e.12. especially with regards to delivering calls to a mobile station. Page 3. If the mobile has entered a new location area. and is used here to help convey a concept. Information transmitted on the "broadcast control channel" from each Base Transceiver Station (BTS) tells mobile stations whether IMSI attach/detach is supported. When a mobile station is powered on (or SIM card inserted).0 February 4. the VLR will not request that the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) page the mobile station in its last registered location area.16:13:11 [rjt0678.

pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-75 .0 February 4. 1993 -.0.Mobility Management ON/OFF BASED REGISTRATION • IMSI ATTACH – mobile power-up = attach – mobile power-up causes a location update with type=attach • IMSI DETACH – mobile power-down = detach – mobile power-down causes a flag on the VLR record to prevent paging Version 1.16:27:01 [rjt0678.

0.Mobility Management Version 1.16:27:01 [rjt0678.0 February 4. 1993 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-76 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

Confidentiality and Security Version 1. 1993 -.0.18:18:37 [unit03] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-77 .0 August 2.

12:09:19 [djw0679.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-78 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobility Management CONFIDENTIALITY & SECURITY MECHANISMS Version 1.0 June 28. 1991 -.0.

21:45:11 [djw0679.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-79 .0 April 3. 1992 -.Mobility Management CONFIDENTIALITY & SECURITY MECHANISMS • Use of TMSI instead of IMSI • Mobile Station Authentication • Encryption of information on the radio path • Mobile Equipment validation Version 1.0.

Mobility Management WHY AUTHENTICATE? One of the major problems for the Analog Cellular providers has been fraudulent users. Version 1. Hackers replicate the identity of legitimate mobile stations so they can make long distance phone calls at no charge.0.0 February 4.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-80 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .16:34:36 [rjt0914. 1993 -. One of the advantages of the digital systems is the message oriented protocol supports a greater ability to protect and authenticate the subscriber identity.

14:28:23 [djw1141.0 July 6.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-81 . 1992 -.Mobility Management WHY AUTHENTICATE? IMSI/TMSI Hacker Shack Version 1.0.

13:45:44 [djw1053.0.0 May 28.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-82 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1992 -.Mobility Management SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY AUTHENTICATION AND CIPHERKEY SETTING Activities that may trigger authentication: • Before each registration – change in location areas – change in MSRN • Before each call set up attempt – mobile originated – mobile terminated • Before some supplementary services change – activation – deactivation Version 1.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-83 .16:46:27 [djw1053. 1992 -.Mobility Management SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY AUTHENTICATION AND CIPHERKEY SETTING IMSI/TMSI RAND Rand # Generator RAND RAND A8 Kc Ki A3 SRES A3 SRES Ki A8 Subscriber Identity Module SRES Signed response to the RAND = Yes/No Kc Mobile Station Network Ki = Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (128 bits) Kc = Cipher Key (64 bits) RAND = Random Number (128 bits) SRES = Signed Response (32 bits) A3 = Authentication Algorithm A8 = Cipher Key Generating Algorithm Version 1.0.0 May 7.

consisting of a Random Number (RAND).Base Station System .10. 1993 -. .Signed Response A8 BSS IMSI Ki RAND VLR .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-84 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Reference: GSM 9.Authentication Algorithm .Home Location Register .16:52:04 [rjt1054.International Mobile Subscriber Identity .8.5.0. Signed Response (SRES). it needs to obtain authentication information from the mobile subscriber’s home network.Cipyer Key . The Kc is provided to the BSS if ciphering of the data over the Air interface is to be provided.Individual Subscriber Authentication Key .Public Land Mobile Network . 16 . and the Cipher Key (Kc).1. The MS runs the RAND and Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) (stored on the SIM) through the A3 and A8 algorithms to get the SRES and Kc. If the SRES from the MS matches the SRES from the AUC.16 The VLR can request up to 5 sets of parameters to be returned. Section 5.02.15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The VLR requests Authentication Parameters. Page 300.8. Section 5. The BSS passes the message and RAND onto the MS.0 February 4.Random Number .0. The Authentication Parameters are provided to the VLR. Version 3.0.02. Reference: GSM 9. The VLR can be provided with either of the following information: • the authentication key (Ki) • a set of RAND/SRES/Kc vectors If the VLR and HLR are in different Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs).3. In order for a VLR to authenticate a mobile subscriber. And the BSS sends the SRES back to the VLR/MSC. Version 3. Version 1.Visitor Location Register A3 AUC HLR Kc PLMN SRES 15 . The MS sends the SRES back to the BSS. the MS passes authentication.Mobility Management AUTHENTICATION PROCESS Network View VLRs have the responsibility of managing the authentication process. from the mobile station’s HLR. The VLR/MSC initiates the authentication process by sending a message with the RAND to the BSS. then the HLR should only return sets of RAND/SRES/Kc. Page 216.Cipher Key generating Algorithm .Authentication Center .

17:50:00 [djw1054. 1992 -.0 May 26.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-85 . RAND. RAND. Kc Kc Kc Kc Kc RAND One Record Entry 7 Kc BSS 6 SRES Version 1. SRES. SRES. RAND. RAND.0. SRES.Mobility Management AUTHENTICATION PROCESS Network View AUC Random # Generator RAND Ki A3 & A8 Algorithms SRES Kc RAND IMSI HLR Home PLMN 1 IMSI 2 RAND. SRES. SRES. Kc Visited PLMN VLR SR ES 4 RA ND 5 3 RAND. SRES.

Mobility Management ENCRYPTED TRAFFIC CHANNEL INFORMATION Version 1. 1993 -.0.0 August 2.18:18:37 [unit03] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-86 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

577 ms Time Slot Data Bits 3 Head Bits 57 1 Training Sequence 26 1 Data Bits 57 3 8.25 Tail Guard Bits Bits Control Bits 114 data bits encrypted (per timeslot) Type of Information Transmitted/Received by a Mobile Station every 26 Frames (120 msec) (using 13k BPS speech coders) Frame # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Slot # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Traffic Information Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Associated Signaling Frame # 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Slot # 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Traffic Information Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Idle (no transmission) Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-87 .0.Mobility Management ENCRYPTED TRAFFIC CHANNEL INFORMATION Frame 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 Frame 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.0 June 3. 1992 -.20:32:23 [djw1117.

1992 -. Exclusive OR Truth Table IN 1 0 IN 1 IN 2 OUT IN 2 0 1 0 1 OUT 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Version 1.0.10:28:24 [djw1082.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-88 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobility Management DATA ENCRYPTION PROCESS The following figure shows the truth table for an exclusive or gate.0 June 1.

18:15:50 [djw1082.0.Mobility Management DATA ENCRYPTION PROCESS MOBILE STATION BASE STATION TDMA Frame # (22 bit counter) TDMA Frame # (22 bit counter) K C A5 K C A5 cipher block 11100111 11001010 11100111 cipher block Receive data Transmit data 00101101 00101101 Exclusive Or Encrypted Data over Air Interface A5 Kc .eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-89 . 1992 -.0 May 26.Encryption (Cipher) Key Version 1.Data encryption algorithm .

I.e.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-90 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . It would be a mistake to use your SIM card in a known-to-be-stolen piece of equipment. it doesn’t interfere with other users conversations.Mobility Management WHY VALIDATE MOBILE EQUIPMENT? Since the subscriber identity is kept on the SIM which can be inserted in a variety of GSM phones. Version 1. The equipment itself hasn’t been stolen or restricted from service for some other reason. 1993 -.. it is necessary to ensure that the phone being used on the network 1 .17:08:15 [rjtimei. because the subscriber’s identity can be associated with the IMEI at the time of the call.0 February 4. Has been approved to work on GSM systems. 2 .0. etc.

..... ............. .......... ..... ........ .......... . .. ....... ...................... ......... . ..... . . .... ........ . .. .. ... ........... .. .ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-91 ... . ......... ....... . .... ..... ......... ........... ....... ......... ... .... . ...... . ....... .. ......... .. .. ........... ... ..... .. ..... . ......... .... .................. ......... .................. . . ......... ......... .. ........... .... . .. ..... ... will travel..... .. ...................................... ... ... .... ..... ......0 May 15........ ...... .. .. ..... . .......... . ....... ......... ... ........ SIM ... ...............0........... . ........ .. ..... have ... .... ...Mobility Management WHY VALIDATE MOBILE EQUIPMENT? .......... ... .....11:15:24 [djw0915.... . .. ..................... ... $39.. ....99 ea or best offer Version 1. .... ....................... ........... 1991 -... ....... ....... ....... . ..................................... ......... .. ........... ........... ....... ....... SIM $ . .. ............. ... .............. ........ ... . .. ................ . ...... ........ ..

This equipment has been approved. . 1 .0 February 5. On the approved MS type list. On the approved MS type list. .Mobile Switching Center .This equipment is within the range of approved equipment.Equipment Identity Register .Mobile Station . 3 .This equipment is included in the ranges of equipment which are approved for this network. The MSC sends a MAP query to the EIR requesting the status of the IMEI The EIR returns one of four possible responses.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-92 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . . etc. but provide special call records or alert the service provider this MS is in use. but service to this MS is restricted.0.). Not on the approved MS type list. but this MS should not be provided service (stolen. The MS provides the IMEI.This equipment has not been included in the ranges of equipment which are approved for this network. On the approved MS type list. 2 .International Mobile Station Equipment Identity Version 1. but listed as monitor this particular MS. .Mobility Management EQUIPMENT VALIDATION PROCESS 1 2 3 4 The MSC requests the IMEI from the MS. 4 . EIR MS MSC IMEI . 1993 -.08:11:03 [rjt0916.

0.ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-93 .Mobility Management EQUIPMENT VALIDATION PROCESS EIR IMEI CHECK Response 4 CHECK IMEI 3 Request IMEI 1 MSC IMEI 2 MS Version 1.0 June 5. 1991 -.18:38:21 [djw0916.

0.ped] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-94 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .18:38:21 [djw0916. 1991 -.Mobility Management Version 1.0 June 5.

1993 -.0 August 2.18:18:37 [unit03] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-95 .0.Detailed Location Registration Scenario Version 1.

txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-96 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 July 3.Mobility Management PHASES OF A MOBILE STATION LOCATION REGISTRATION UPDATE Version 1.13:48:41 [djw0680.0. 1991 -.

0 July 6.Mobility Management PHASES OF A MOBILE STATION LOCATION REGISTRATION UPDATE • Request for Service • Authentication∗ • Update Location Registers∗ • Ciphering∗ • TMSI Reallocation∗ ∗ Phase might not occur Version 1.14:56:59 [djw0680.0.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-97 . 1992 -.

0 The mobile station enters a new cell area. The mobile station determines that it has entered a new Location Area and transmits a Channel Request message over a common access channel. Once the base station receives the Channel Request message. In this example. In this example we’ll assume that the mobile provided a TMSI. The new VLR has two options: 1 2 3 4 5 6 • Derive the identity of the old VLR from the LAI. It is over the SDCCH that the mobile station will communicate with the BSS and MSC. The mobile station can identify itself either with its IMSI or TMSI. and compares this LAI with the LAI stored in the SIM. we’ll assume that the networking capability between VLRs doesn’t exist and that the new VLR is only left with the option of requesting the mobile station to supply its IMSI. Random Access Channel (RACH). it is assumed that a mobile station enters a new location area that is under control of a different VLR (referred to as the "new VLR") than the one the mobile station is currently registered (referred to as the "old VLR"). 8 9 Version 1. the IMSI of the mobile station must be determined. supplied in the location update request message. The MSC informs its VLR of the location update request. want to avoid transmitting the IMSI across the Air interface as much as possible. This message also causes the startup of a SCCP connection. 1993 -.0 February 5. Included in this message is the mobile station Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) and Location Area Identification (LAI). The MSC forwards the IMSI response to the new VLR.Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Request for Service In the following location update scenario. listens to the Location Area Identity (LAI) being transmitted on the broadcast channel. The VLR sends to the MSC a request for the mobile station’s IMSI. This message is also used to complete the establishment of the SCCP connection between the BSS and the MSC. Also included in this message is the LAI of the last area the mobile station was registered. Although unlikely.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-98 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . The BSS transparently transfers this message to the MSC.15:59:55 [rjt0617. The VLR analyzes the LAI supplied in the message and determines that the TMSI received is associated with a different VLR (old VLR). This message also establishes a layer 2 signaling connection between the mobile station and the base station. First Choice! • Request the mobile station supply its IMSI. Second Choice. which represents the area where the mobile subscriber was last officially registered. 7 The MSC forwards the VLR’s IMSI request to the mobile station. The mobile station reads its IMSI and transmits it to the BSS over the SDCCH.0. Note that this message is sent transparently through the BSS. and request the old VLR to supply the IMSI for a particular TMSI. The base station forwards the location update request message to the MSC. it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the mobile station over the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). The mobile station transmits a location update request message to the base station over the SDCCH. In order to proceed with the registration. it is possible that the mobile will have to retry this message several times. The access scheme for this channel is similar in concept to slotted ALOHA.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update Request Request IMSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Request . . . . . . .0 February 4. . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMSI Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 -. Location Update . . . . . . . . Request IMSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Request for Service Um A B MS BSS MSC New VLR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMSI Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17:08:57 [rjt0617. . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . Channel Assigmnent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request . . . . .

0 February 4. Since we assumed that we were unable to communicate with the old VLR on the previous page. The VLR compares the SRES returned from the mobile station with the expected SRES receive earlier from the AUC. The GSM standard allows a VLR to request in advance up to 5 "authentication parameters" from the Authentication Center (AUC). it is virtually impossible for unauthorized individuals to obtain this key to impersonate a give mobile subscriber. Since the authentication key. Each time the AUC produces a set of authentication parameters. 1993 -. the new VLR sends a request to the HLR requesting authentication parameters for the specified IMSI. Version 1. we’ll assume that authentication passes. 16 The mobile station returns the generated SRES to the MSC. Authentication is built around the notion that an Authentication Key (Ki) resides in only two places: in an Authentication Center (AUC) and in the user’s SIM. and Kc) available for the registering IMSI. In this scenario. Ki.0. The AUC then generates a random number (RAND). 14 The VLR then sends a message to the MSC requesting that the mobile station be authenticated.17:17:58 [rjt0618. SRES. 12 The AUC. the mobile passes authentication.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-100 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . The mobile station saves Kc for later. and Kc. 17 The MSC forwards SRES to the VLR.e. 15 The MSC forwards the authentication request message to the mobile station.Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Authentication Since the air interface is vulnerable to fraudulent access. applies the random number (RAND) and Ki to both its Authentication Algorithm (A3) and Cipher key generation Algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and Cipher Key (Kc). via the HLR. Included in the message is a random number (RAND). and will use Kc when it receives command to cipher the channel. 10 If authentication is to be performed on the mobile station. appropriate actions will be taken--which could result in the SIM being disabled. In this scenario. one to five copies) of authentication parameters: RAND. SRES. 13 The HLR forwards the requested number of authentication parameters to the VLR. lets assume that we have to request authentication triplets from the AUC. 11 The HLR forwards this request to the authentication center. If equal. is (or should) never transmitted. The AUC then returns to the HLR the requested number (i. The mobile station reads its authentication key (Ki) from the SIM. using the IMSI. it is possible that the "new VLR" will not have any "authentication triplets" (RAND. applies the Ki and RAND to both the authentication algorithm (A3) and the cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and a Cipher Key (Kc). extracts the subscriber’s authentication key (Ki). it is necessary to determine if the International Mobile Station Identity (IMSI) received from the mobile station is from the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) that was assigned this IMSI.. If unequal. the values will be different.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15:07:14 [djw0618. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authenticate Mobile Station Authentication Response . . . Get Authentication Parameters Authentication Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 1. . . . .Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Authentication B MS MSC NEW VLR D HLR AUC 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Get Authentication Parameters Authentication Parameters . . Authenticate Mobile Station Authentication Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 February 4. 18c The VLR sends an Insert Subscriber Data Result message to the HLR to confirm that the VLR record has been built correctly. 18b The HLR sends the VLR the subscriber data in an Insert Subscriber Data message. 18a The VLR requests the subscriber data from the HLR to build the VLR record for this MS. 21 The old VLR deletes the subscriber record and sends an acknowledgement of deletion to the HLR. 1993 -.Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Update Location At this point. Version 1. we are ready to request the subscriber data from the HLR. inform the HLR that the mobile station is under control of a new VLR and that the mobile station can be deleted from the old VLR.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-102 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 19 The HLR marks the HLR record for that subscriber with the new VLR address and confirms that the MS is now considered to be registered in the new VLR. the HLR will send a message to the old VLR informing it that the VLR entry for the specified IMSI can be deleted. 20 If the mobile station is also registered in an old VLR. The VLR builds the VLR record.0.17:34:31 [rjt0619.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Result Location Updated . . . . . . . 1993 -. . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-103 . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Update Location New VLR D D HLR Old VLR 18a 18b 18c 19 20 21 . . . . . . . . . .0 February 4. . . . . . . . . Delete Mobile Station Mobile Station Deleted . . . . Update Location Insert Subscriber Data Insert Subsc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17:34:26 [rjt0619. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26 The BSS upon receiving the cipher mode complete message uses the cipher key it previously received from the MSC to cipher the downlink channel. and transmits a confirmation over the ciphered channel to the BSS. 22 The VLR requests the MSC to cipher the radio channel.0. the radio channel is encrypted before sending the new TMSI to the mobile station.Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Ciphering At this point in time." The remaining task for the new VLR is to allocate and transmit a new TMSI to the mobile station. 24 The BSS retrieves the cipher key. 25 The mobile station uses the cipher key generated previously when it was authenticated to cipher the uplink channel. Included in this message is the Cipher Key (Kc). The BSS then sends a cipher complete message to the MSC. For security reasons. Kc. the HLR and "old VLR" have been informed that the mobile station has registered with a MSC under the control of the "new VLR. 23 The MSC forwards this request to the BSS. Version 1. 1991 -. which was made available eariler during authentication.13:43:26 [djw0620.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-104 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 June 14. from the message and then transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to begin ciphering the channel.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Ciphering Um A B MS BSS MSC Set Ciphering New VLR 22 23 24 25 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 1. . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1.0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15:08:59 [djw0620. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Complete . . . . . . .

28 The MSC forwards the location update complete message to the mobile station. The BSS then informs the MSC that the signaling connections has been cleared.Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE TMSI Reallocation 27 The VLR informs that MSC that the mobile location update sequence is complete.0. 31 The BSS sends a "radio resource" channel release message to the mobile station and then frees up the Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) what was allocated previously. Version 1. 32 The MSC releases its portion of the SCCP signaling connection.0 June 28. 30 The MSC requests the BSS to tear down the SCCP signaling connection be released between the MSC and the mobile station. The mobile then an update complete message back to the MSC.11:43:43 [djw0621.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-106 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -. 29 The mobile station retrieves the new TMSI value from the message and updates its SIM with this new value. The VLR forwards in this message the new TMSI for the mobile station.

. . . . . . . .Mobility Management MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE TMSI Reallocation Um A B MS BSS MSC New VLR 27 28 29 30 31 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update Complete Release Radio Signaling Channel . . . . . . . Location Update Accept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 1. . . . Location Update Accept Clear Signaling Connection Clear Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 3-107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . .15:10:05 [djw0621. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 3-108 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.Mobility Management Version 1.0 July 1.15:10:05 [djw0621.0.

Unit 4 Call Management Version 1.0 March 2. 1993 -.13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

1991 -.11:08:43 [djw0459.Call Management UNIT OVERVIEW Version 1.0 June 28.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-2 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

Call Management UNIT OVERVIEW Mobile to Land Call Scenario Land to Mobile Call Scenario Mobile to Mobile Call Scenario Handover Overview Handover Scenarios Version 1.16:20:43 [djw0459.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-3 . 1991 -.0 May 16.

11:32:21 [djw0410.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-4 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.Call Management GSM REFERENCE MODEL Version 1.0 June 28.

Home Location Register .Visitor Location Register BSS BSC Abis MSC BTS Um MS Version 1.Call Management GSM REFERENCE MODEL AUC EIR VLR D G C HLR F ISDN MSC VLR B PSTN A E AUC BSC BSS BTS EIR HLR ISDN MS MSC PSTN VLR .Mobile Switching Center .Mobile Station .14:17:56 [djw0410.Equipment Identity Register .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-5 .Base Station System .Integrated Services Digital Network .Authentication Center .Base Transceiver Station .Public Switched Telephone Network .Base Station Controller .0 November 27. 1991 -.

0 June 28. 1991 -.11:09:19 [djw0212.Call Management REQUIRED FACILITIES FOR A MOBILE-LAND CALL Version 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-6 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

12:27:46 [djw0212. . . . 2.Fixed Station) BSS MSC PSTN . .0 July 30. . MSC . . Radio Channel (Mobile Station . . 4.Call Management REQUIRED FACILITIES FOR A MOBILE-LAND CALL Public Land Mobile Network Radio Channel BSS Voice Trunk Mobile Station . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-7 . 3. . . . 1991 -. . . . . . Fixed Public Land Network Voice Trunk Line PSTN Fixed Station 1. . .MSC) Voice Trunk (MSC . . . . . .BSS) Voice Trunk (BSS . . .Mobile Switching Center . .Base Station System . . .PSTN) Line (PSTN . .Public Switched Telephone Network Version 1.

1991 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-8 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .12:27:46 [djw0212.0 July 30.Call Management Version 1.

0 March 2.Mobile to Land Call Scenario Version 1.13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-9 . 1993 -.

Layer 3 Specification   CCITT Q.15:19:26 [djw0672.761-Q. 1991 -.0 November 20.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-10 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .08  Base Station to Switch Interface.764  ISDN User Part   Version 1.721-Q.08  Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Specification   GSM 08.Call Management PHASES OF A MOBILE TO LAND CALL The following table provides references to GSM and CCITT recommendations that pertain to a mobile originated call: __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Title _ Recommendation      GSM 04.725  Telephone User Part  _________________________________________________________________  _CCITT Q.

1991 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-11 .0 June 28.11:52:39 [djw0672.Call Management PHASES OF A MOBILE TO LAND CALL • Request for Service • Authentication∗ • Ciphering∗ • Equipment Validation∗ • Call Setup • Handover(s)∗ • Release ∗ Phase might not occur Version 1.

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service
The following is an example of an interprocessor message scenario for a mobile-to-land call. It is assumed that the mobile station is already registered with the system and has been allocated a Temporary Mobile Identification Number (TMSI). 0 A mobile originated call starts by the user entering the directory number digits, associated with the person to be called, on the mobile station handset. The user presses the "send" key after all digits have been entered. Mobile station transmits a channel request message over a common access channel, Random Access Channel (RACH). The access scheme for this channel is similar in concept to slotted ALOHA. Although unlikely, it is possible that the mobile will have to retry this message several times. Once the base station receives the Channel Request message, it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the mobile station over the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). It is over the SDCCH that the mobile station will communicate with the BSS and MSC until a traffic channel is assigned. The mobile station transmits a service request message to the base station over the SDCCH. Included in this message is the mobile station TMSI and Location Area Identification (LAI). This message also establishes a layer 2 signaling connection between the mobile station and the base station. The base station forwards the service request message to the MSC. This message also causes the startup of a SCCP connection, if the mobile station does not have any other call instances active. The MSC informs its VLR that a particular mobile station is requesting service.

1

2

3

4

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service

Um

A

B

MS

BSS

MSC

VLR

1

2

3

4

5

. . . . . . Channel Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Service Request

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Service Request

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-13

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Authentication
Since the air interface is vulnerable to fraudulent access, it is necessary to determine if the TMSI received from the mobile station is from the SIM that was assigned this TMSI. Authentication is built around the notion that an Authentication Key (Ki) resides in only two places: in an Authentication Center (AUC) and in the user’s SIM card. Since the authentication key is (or should) never be transmitted, it is virtually impossible for unauthorized individuals to obtain this key to impersonate a give mobile subscriber. 6 Three authentication parameters (also referred to as "authentication triplets") are required by the VLR in order to authenticate a given mobile station: an authentication random number, an authentication signed response, and a cipher key (RAND, SRES, and Kc). The VLR is capable of requesting and storing up to five authentication triplets (per registered subscriber) from the AUC, via the mobile subscriber’s HLR. In this scenario, we’ll assume that the VLR does not have any authentication triplets available for the TMSI requesting service. Since the mobile station is registered with the VLR, the VLR is capable of translating the mobile station’s TMSI into its IMSI. The VLR transmits a request to the mobile station’s HLR requesting more authentication parameters. Included in the message is the IMSI of the mobile station. The HLR forwards this request to the authentication center. The AUC, using the IMSI, extracts the subscriber’s authentication key (Ki). The AUC then generates a random number (RAND), applies the Ki and RAND to both the authentication algorithm (A3) and the cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and a Cipher Key (Kc). The AUC then returns to the HLR an authentication triplet: RAND, SRES, and Kc. The HLR forwards the authentication triplets to the VLR. The VLR then sends a message to the MSC requesting that the mobile station be authenticated. Included in the message is a random number (RAND). The MSC forwards the authentication request message to the mobile station. The mobile station reads its authentication key (Ki) from the SIM, applies the random number (RAND) and Ki to both its authentication algorithm (A3) and cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and Cipher Key (Kc). The mobile station saves Kc for later, and will use Kc when it receives command to cipher the channel. The mobile station returns the generated SRES to the MSC. The MSC forwards SRES to the VLR. The VLR compares the SRES returned from the mobile station with the expected SRES receive earlier from the AUC. If equal, the mobile passes authentication. If unequal, appropriate actions will be taken--which could result in the SIM being disabled. In this scenario, we’ll assume that authentication passes.

7 8

9 10 11

12 13

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Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Authentication

B

D

MS

MSC

VLR

HLR

AUC

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

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Authenticate Mobile Station Authentication Response

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Authenticate Mobile Station

Authentication Response

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Get Authentication Parameters

Authentication Parameters

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Get Authentication Parameters Authentication Parameters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0
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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-15

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Ciphering
14 The VLR requests the MSC to cipher the radio channel. Included in this message is the Cipher Key (Kc), which was made available eariler during authentication. 15 The MSC forwards this request to the BSS. 16 The BSS retrieves the cipher key, Kc, from the message and then transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to begin ciphering the channel. 17 The mobile station uses the cipher key generated previously when it was authenticated to cipher the uplink channel, and transmits a confirmation over the ciphered channel to the BSS. 18 The BSS upon receiving the cipher mode complete message uses the cipher key it previously received from the MSC to cipher the downlink channel. The BSS then sends a cipher complete message to the MSC.

Version 1.0
June 14, 1991 -- 15:23:46 [djw0636.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-16

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Ciphering

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BSS

MSC
Set Ciphering

VLR

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Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete

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Version 1.0
June 24, 1991 -- 13:48:52 [djw0636.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-17

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Equipment Validation
At this point in time, the mobile station has been authenticated and the radio channel is being encrypted. Two events will now occur in parallel: • The MSC interrogates the mobile station for its equipment number and checks the equipment against information in the Equipment Identity Register (EIR). • The mobile station, after receiving the cipher command, forwards a call setup request to the MSC. For ease of discussion in this scenario, the equipment validation phase is shown to occur before the mobile forwards the the call setup request message.

19 The MSC transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to respond with its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). 20 The mobile station upon receiving this request, reads its equipment serial number and returns this value to the MSC. 21 The MSC then requests the EIR to check the IMEI for validity. The EIR will first check to see if the IMEI value is within a valid range. If so, it then check so see if the IMEI is on a suspect or known list of invalid equipment. 22 The EIR returns to the MSC the results of the IMEI validation. If the results are negative, the MSC might abort the call or possibly let the call continue but inform the network service provider of the event. In this scenario, we’ll assume that the IMEI is valid. It would not be to wise of a mobile subscriber with a valid SIM card registered in their name to steal mobile equipment. If such a subscriber was to initiate a call on a piece stolen equipment, that was reported as stolen in the EIR, the mobile station would pass authentication and fail equipment validation. Since the system knows the IMSI of the individual using the stolen equipment, the system could report to the network provider the identification of the SIM owner.

Version 1.0
June 14, 1991 -- 15:40:32 [djw0637.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Equipment Validation

MS

MSC
IMEI Request

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EIR

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22

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IMEI Response

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Check IMEI

IMEI Check Results

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Version 1.0
June 24, 1991 -- 14:02:08 [djw0637.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-19

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup -- with Mobile
23 The mobile station transmits a call setup request to the MSC after it begins ciphering the radio channel. Included in this request message are the dialed digits. 24 The MSC, upon receiving the call setup request message, will request the VLR to supply subscriber parameters necessary for handling the call. The message will contain the called number and service indication, if required and available. 25 The VLR will check for call barring conditions, such as the mobile station being barred from making specific outgoing calls (e.g., international calls), or possibly if some supplementary services are active which prevent the call from being granted. If the VLR determines that the call can not be processed, the VLR will provide the reason to the MSC. In this scenario, we’ll assume that this procedure is successful. The VLR returns a message to the MSC containing the service parameters for the particular subscriber. 26 The MSC informs the mobile station that the call is proceeding. 27 The next four steps involve establishing voice path resources between the MSC and the mobile station. The MSC allocates an available trunk to the BSS currently serving the mobile station. The MSC sends a message to the BSS supplying it with the trunk number allocated, and requests the BSS to allocate a radio traffic channel for the mobile station. 28 The BSS allocates a radio traffic channel and transmits this assignment to the mobile station over the Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). 29 The mobile station tunes to the assigned radio traffic channel and transmits an acknowledgment to the BSS. 30 The BSS connects the radio traffic channel to the assigned trunk to the MSC. Since a small portion of a radio traffic channel is available for out-of-band signaling, the SDCCH is no longer used for signaling between the BSS and mobile station. The BSS deallocates the SDCCH. The BSS then transmits a trunk and radio assignment complete message to the MSC.

Version 1.0
June 17, 1991 -- 11:47:02 [djw0638.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-20

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup -- with Mobile

Um

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MS

BSS

MSC

VLR

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Call Setup Request

Assign Radio Channel Radio Assignment Complete

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Call Proceeding Assign Trunk & Radio

Trunk & Radio Assignment Complete

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Access Subscriber Data

Subscriber Data

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Version 1.0
June 24, 1991 -- 13:19:29 [djw0638.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-21

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup -- with Land Network
At this point in time a voice-path has been established between the mobile station and the MSC. The mobile station user hears silence since the complete voice path has not be yet established. The last phase of setting up a mobile-originated call involves the MSC establishing a voice path from the MSC to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). 31 The MSC sends a network setup message to the PSTN requesting that a call be setup. Included in the message are the mobile station’s dialed digits and details specifying which trunk should be used for the call. 32 The PSTN may involve several switching exchanges before finally reaching the final local exchange responsible for establishing applying ring to the destination phone. The local exchange will play audible (ringing tone) over the trunk, or series of trunks (if several intermediate switching exchanges are involved), to the MSC. At this point in time, the mobile station use will hear ringing tone. The PSTN notifies the MSC with a network alerting message when this event occurs. 33 The MSC informs the mobile station that the destination number is being alerted. Note, this is primarily a status message to the mobile station. The mobile station user will hear a ringing tone from the destination local exchange through the established voice path. 34 When the destination party goes off-hook, the PSTN will inform the MSC of this event. This event usually triggers the beginning of billing. At this point, the mobile station user will be connected to the desired destination party. 35 The MSC informs the mobile station that connection has been established. 36 The mobile station acknowledges the receipt of the connect message. Note: the type of signaling used between the MSC and the PSTN is not defined and within the scope the GSM recommendations. In general, the MSC interface with the PSTN must conform to the signaling conventions used within a given country. The message titles network setup, network alerting, and connect on the following page are generic terms. For a MSC-PSTN interface based on Signaling System number 7 (SS7), the network setup message would be an Initial Assignment Message (IAM).

Version 1.0
November 20, 1991 -- 14:43:52 [djw0639.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-22

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup -- with Land Network

MS

MSC

PSTN
Network Setup

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Alerting

Connect Connect Acknowledgment

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Network Alerting

Connect (answer)

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Version 1.0
June 24, 1991 -- 13:17:48 [djw0639.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-23

Q.Call Management MOBILE TO LAND CALL Release -. it responds with the appropriate acknowledgment.Mobile Initiated Under normal conditions. upon receiving this signal. If the mobile station has one or more other instances of a connection active between itself and the MSC (such a receiving a short message or using the second B-channel for a data call).725) or release message (Q. 43 The BSS acknowledges that it has released all allocated dedicated resources. The actual type of message (or messages) sent to the PSTN depends on country (or possibly local) signaling conventions. short messages. A network initiated release is illustrated in the land-to-mobile scenario in the upcoming pages. 39 The MSC asks the mobile station to begin its clear procedure.. and/or data call) all sharing the same MS-MSC dedicated signaling connection. 1992 -. The above 4 steps causes a given instance of a call to be released.761 . 40 After the mobile station has performed its clear procedure. be a clear-forward message (Q.0 January 31. the MSC sends a clear command to the BSS asking it to release all allocated dedicated resources for a given SCCP connection. there are two basic ways a call concludes: mobile initiated and network initiated. then the next three steps are not performed. In this scenario. which involves searching and retuning to the strongest base station control channel.g.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-24 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .764). With respect to signaling. The mobile station will then go back to its idle mode of operation.15:54:05 [djw0640. call waiting. As mentioned earlier in this course. 3way call. A SCCP connection is established when a MS first gains access to the network and is torn down when all call activity instances have concluded. the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) layer of the "A-interface" between the BSS and MSC is used in a connection oriented fashion. 38 The MSC. This message could. 41 Assuming that there are not more instances calls with this mobile station. we’ll assume that the mobile user initiates the release of this call. sends a request to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to release the call.721 . Version 1. The mobile station sends a disconnect signal to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). 42 The BSS instructs the mobile station to release from radio traffic channel.Q. for example. 37 The mobile user initiates the conclusion of a call by pressing the "end" button (the button might be labeled with a different term) on the mobile equipment. a mobile station can have several instances of calls (e.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Clear Command Clear Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management MOBILE TO LAND CALL Release -. . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-25 . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Complete Channel Release . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mobile Initiated Um A MS BSS Disconnect MSC PSTN 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 . . . . . . . . . . . .10:26:02 [djw0640. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Release . . . . . . . . . .

0 July 2.10:26:02 [djw0640.Call Management Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-26 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.

0 March 2.13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-27 . 1993 -.Land to Mobile Call Scenario Version 1.

0 June 28.Call Management PHASES OF A LAND TO MOBILE CALL Version 1. 1991 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-28 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .11:53:48 [djw0673.

0 June 28.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-29 .11:54:01 [djw0673.Call Management PHASES OF A LAND TO MOBILE CALL • Routing Analysis • Paging • Authentication∗ • Ciphering∗ • Equipment Validation∗ • Call Setup • Handover(s)∗ • Release ∗ Phase might not occur Version 1. 1991 -.

txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-30 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 February 4. would connect the incoming call to an appropriate announcement. 3a The HLR returns to the MSC a directory number where the mobile station can be reached. A land-subscriber. 3b The Gateway MSC sets up a voice call to the MSC currently serving the MS. 4 The MSC informs the VLR that a call with a particular MSRN is being terminated on this MSC. 1993 -. or a mobile-subscriber in a different MSC. 2a The MSC sends a message to the HLR requesting it to provide routing information for the MSISDN. 2c The VLR allocates an MSRN and returns it to the HLR. The directory number included in the message is referred to as the Mobile Subscriber ISDN number (MSISDN). if a mobile station is barred from receiving calls or detached. 5 The VLR responds to the MSC by specifying which location area the mobile station is located and its Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). 1 The PSTN routes the call to the Gateway MSC assigned this directory number. dials the directory number (MSISDN) of a mobile subscriber. It is assumed that the mobile station is already registered with the system and has been allocated a Temporary Mobile Identification Number (TMSI). the VLR would inform the MSC that a call cannot be directed to the mobile station.17:56:23 [rjt0641. 0 Version 1. in turn. This is the per-call MSRN allocation case. The MSC.Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Routing Analysis The following is an example of an interprocessor message scenario for a land-to-mobile call. Note. 2b The HLR requests the VLR to allocate a Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN) for this call for this subscriber.

. Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Get Route . . . Get Route . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17:50:44 [rjt0641. . . . . . . .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Routing Analysis PSTN Gate MSC C D HLR VLR MSC 1 2a 2b 2c 3a 3b 4 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incoming Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1993 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incoming Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform Page . . . . . . . . Incoming Call on a Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 February 4. . . . . . . . . Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routing Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 Once the base station receives the Channel Request message.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-32 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 8 When a mobile station hears its TMSI. or IMSI. Included in this message is the mobile station TMSI and Location Area Identification (LAI). if the mobile station does not have any other call instances active. 12 The MSC informs its VLR that a particular mobile station is responding to a page. It is over the SDCCH that the mobile station will communicate with the BSS and MSC until a traffic channel is assigned.Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Paging The MSC uses the location area identity.09:59:33 [djw0642. Although unlikely. it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the mobile station over the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). broadcast on the paging channel. to determine which BSSs should page the mobile station. This message also establishes a layer 2 signaling connection between the mobile station and the base station. The MSC transmits a message to each of these BSSs requesting that a page be performed. Random Access Channel (RACH). 6 Version 1. 10 The mobile station transmits a page response message to the base station over the SDCCH. Included in the message is the TMSI of the mobile station. This message also causes the startup of a SCCP connection. provided by the VLR.0 June 28. 1991 -. it is possible that the mobile will have to retry this message several times. it responds with a channel request message over a common access channel. 7 Each of the BSSs broadcasts the TMSI of the mobile in a page message on the paging channel. 11 The base station forwards the page response message to the MSC. The access scheme for this channel is similar in concept to slotted ALOHA.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Request . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Paging Um A B MS BSS Perform Page MSC VLR 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 . . . . . .10:28:35 [djw0642. . . . . Page Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The VLR is capable of requesting and storing up to five authentication triplets (per registered subscriber) from the AUC. Authentication is built around the notion that an Authentication Key (Ki) resides in only two places: in an Authentication Center (AUC) and in the user’s SIM card. In this scenario. The mobile station reads its authentication key (Ki) from the SIM. SRES. extracts the subscriber’s authentication key (Ki). Included in the message is the IMSI of the mobile station. Since the authentication key is (or should) never be transmitted.Call Management Land to Mobile Call Authentication Since the air interface is vulnerable to fraudulent access. The HLR forwards this request to the authentication center. we’ll assume that the VLR does not have any authentication triplets available for the TMSI requesting service. The mobile station saves Kc for later.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-34 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . The AUC. Included in the message is a random number (RAND). The AUC then generates a random number (RAND). 13 Three authentication parameters (referred to as "authentication triplets") are required by the VLR in order to authenticate a given mobile station: an authentication random number. The VLR compares the SRES returned from the mobile station with the expected SRES receive earlier from the AUC. If equal. The VLR then sends a message to the MSC requesting that the mobile station be authenticated. via the mobile subscriber’s HLR. The mobile station returns the generated SRES to the MSC. 1991 -. and will use Kc when it receives command to cipher the channel. the VLR is capable of translating the mobile station’s TMSI into its IMSI. and Kc). the mobile passes authentication. using the IMSI. In this scenario. applies the random number (RAND) and Ki to both its authentication algorithm (A3) and cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and Cipher Key (Kc). The AUC then returns to the HLR an authentication triplet: RAND. we’ll assume that authentication passes.0 June 28. applies the Ki and RAND to both the authentication algorithm (A3) and the cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and a Cipher Key (Kc). The MSC forwards SRES to the VLR. The MSC forwards the authentication request message to the mobile station. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Version 1. an authentication signed response. and Kc. If unequal. SRES. it is necessary to determine if the TMSI received from the mobile station is from the SIM that was assigned this TMSI.09:59:53 [djw0643. it is virtually impossible for unauthorized individuals to obtain this key to impersonate a give mobile subscriber. The VLR transmits a request to the mobile station’s HLR requesting more authentication parameters. appropriate actions will be taken--which could result in the SIM being disabled. Since the mobile station is registered with the VLR. The HLR forwards the authentication triplets to the VLR. and a cipher key (RAND.

. . . . . .10:30:09 [djw0643. . . . . . Authenticate Mobile Station Authentication Response . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Get Authentication Parameters Authentication Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authenticate Mobile Station Authentication Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Authentication B D MS MSC VLR HLR AUC 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Get Authentication Parameters Authentication Parameters . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Ciphering 21 The VLR requests the MSC to cipher the radio channel. Kc. 1991 -. The BSS then sends a cipher complete message to the MSC. 23 The BSS retrieves the cipher key. which was made available eariler during authentication. Included in this message is the Cipher Key (Kc).12:46:58 [djw0644. 24 The mobile station uses the cipher key generated previously when it was authenticated to cipher the uplink channel. 22 The MSC forwards this request to the BSS.0 July 8.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-36 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . and transmits a confirmation over the ciphered channel to the BSS. 25 The BSS upon receiving the cipher mode complete message uses the cipher key it previously received from the MSC to cipher the downlink channel. Version 1. from the message and then transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to begin ciphering the channel.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Ciphering Um A B MS BSS MSC Set Ciphering VLR 21 22 23 24 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:31:06 [djw0644. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Complete . . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Equipment Validation The purpose of the equipment validation phase is to read the mobile equipment serial number from the mobile station and check it against the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) to determine if special action should be taken. Equipment validation is optional and is controlled by the service provider. the equipment validation phase is shown to occur before call setup. 28 The MSC then requests the EIR to check the IMEI for validity. Equipment validation would typically occur during call setup. 27 The mobile station upon receiving this request. Equipment validation is performed after the ciphering phase and can be performed in parallel with call setup. To keep the message flow diagrams clean in this scenario. the MSC might abort the call or possibly let the call continue but inform the network service provider of the event. 29 The EIR returns to the MSC the results of the IMEI validation. it then check so see if the IMEI is on a suspect or known list of invalid equipment. 26 The MSC transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to respond with its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). or even be performed after the call is setup.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-38 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .21:13:52 [djw0645.0 July 8. we’ll assume that the IMEI is valid. 1991 -. In real-life. such as deny service. If the results are negative. In this scenario. Version 1. the call setup phase will probably be performed immediately after ciphering in order to keep call setup delays at a minimum. If so. reads its equipment serial number and returns this value to the MSC. The EIR will first check to see if the IMEI value is within a valid range.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:31:54 [djw0645. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-39 . . Check IMEI IMEI Check Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMEI Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Equipment Validation MS MSC IMEI Request EIR 26 27 28 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . .

Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Call Setup -. and terrestrial resource already allocated.21:17:55 [djw0646. the BSS would send an assignment failure message to the MSC. 33 The BSS upon receiving an assignment request message allocates an appropriate radio traffic channel and transmits an assignment command over the Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) to the mobile station informing it to change to a new radio channel configuration. Several possible errors include: no radio resource available.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-40 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Version 1. 34 The mobile station tunes to the specified traffic channel and transmits an assignment complete message back to the BSS. 1991 -.. 32 The MSC selects a trunk (terrestrial channel) to the BSS. the mobile station is informed that a call will be setup via a setup message. Assuming that the mobile station passes compatibility checking. the phone rings). requested transcoding/rate adaption unavailable.e. 31 The mobile station. The mobile station no longer uses the SDCCH after receiving a traffic channel assignment. performs compatibility checking before responding to the setup message--it is possible that the mobile station might be incompatible for certain types of call setups. If any of these or other errors occur. upon receiving a setup message. The mobile station then begins alerting the user (i. the mobile station user is unaware that he/she is receiving a call. equipment failure. The MSC then sends an assignment request message to the BSS requesting it to assign a radio resource.with Mobile 30 After the MSC receives the Encipher complete message from the mobile station. Prior to this point in time. 35 The BSS upon receiving the assignment complete message connects the assigned traffic channel to the trunk (terrestrial facility) that was allocated by the MSC. It was assumed in the past 3 steps that the BSS had no complications in assigning and connecting a radio traffic channel to the specified trunk. Included in the message are attributes describing the type of radio resource to be allocated and the trunk (terrestrial channel) to be used. it acknowledges the call setup with a setup confirm message.0 July 8. The BSS places the SDCCH on a free list and transmits an assignment complete message to the MSC.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call Setup Assign Trunk & Radio Channel Trunk & Radio Assignment Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call Setup Confirm Assign Radio Channel Radio Assignment Complete . .0 July 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:32:56 [djw0646. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .with Mobile MS BSS MSC 30 31 32 33 34 35 . . .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Call Setup -. . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

At this point in the call.22:14:53 [djw0647. GSM does not allow a mobile station to ring forever. One of three events can occur: calling party hangs-up. the mobile station will begin alerting the user after it receives a traffic channel assignment. in response to this action stops alerting and sends a connect message to the MSC. This event typically denotes the beginning of the call for billing purposes. Prior to this point. the mobile station sends an alerting message to the MSC. 39 The MSC removes audible to the PSTN and connects the PSTN trunk to the BSS trunk (terrestrial channel).with Land Network 36 As discussed with the previous vu-graph.0 July 8. the calling party heard silence. mobile subscriber answers the phone. Once alerting has begun. 40 The MSC sends the mobile station a connect acknowledgement message.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-42 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Call Setup -. the mobile station is alerting the called party and audible is being played to the calling party. 38 In this scenario. 1991 -. and sends a connect message to the PSTN. 37 The MSC. or the MSC times-out waiting for the mobile subscriber to answer. The mobile station. would begin playing audible ringing to the calling party and sends a network alerting message to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). it is assumed that the mobile subscriber answers the phone. The caller and called party now have a complete talk path. upon receiving an alerting indication from the mobile station. Since a radio traffic channel is a valuable resource. Version 1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Call Setup -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-43 . . . . . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . Mobile Alerting . . . . . . . . . .10:33:46 [djw0647. . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connect (off-hook) . . . . . . Network Alerting Connect . . . . . . .with Land Network MS MSC PSTN 36 37 38 39 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connect . . .

45 Assuming that there are not more instances of calls with this mobile station. which involves searching and retuning to the strongest base station control channel. 43 The mobile station informs the MSC that it has started its clear procedure.g. 41 The calling user hangs up resulting in the PSTN to send a network release signal to the MSC. the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) layer of the "A-interface" between the BSS and MSC is used in a connection oriented fashion. With respect to signaling.Q.15:53:00 [djw0648. for example. The above 4 steps causes a given instance of a call to be released. then the next three steps are not performed. there are two basic ways a call concludes: mobile initiated and network initiated. A SCCP connection is established when a MS first gains access to the network and is torn down when all call activity instances have concluded. 3way call. A mobile initiated release was illustrated in the previous mobile-to-land scenario. This message could.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-44 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . and/or data call) all sharing the same MS-MSC dedicated signaling connection. 42 The MSC asks the mobile station to begin its clear procedure. a mobile station can have several instances of calls (e.Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Release -. be a clear-forward message (Q.0 January 31.Network Initiated Under normal conditions.721 . 1992 -. call waiting. In this scenario. The actual type of message (or messages) received from the remote exchange depends on country (or possibly local) signaling conventions.764). The mobile station will then go back to its idle mode of operation. the MSC sends a clear command to the BSS asking it to release all allocated dedicated resources for a given SCCP connection. 46 The BSS instructs the mobile station to release from radio traffic channel.. 47 The BSS acknowledges that it has released all allocated dedicated resources. If the mobile station has one or more other instances of a connection active between itself and the MSC (such a receiving a short message or has another call on hold). The mobile station completes its clear procedure. 44 The MSC acknowledges receiving the mobile station release message. Version 1. short messages. As mentioned earlier in this course.761 .Q.725) or release message (Q. we’ll assume that the user on the land network side initiates the release of this call.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management LAND TO MOBILE CALL Release -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Channel Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Network Initiated Um A MS BSS MSC PSTN Network Release 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:34:44 [djw0648. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-45 . . . . . . Disconnect Release Complete Clear Command Clear Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1991 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-46 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 July 2.Call Management Version 1.10:34:44 [djw0648.

13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-47 .Mobile to Mobile Call Scenario Version 1.0 March 2. 1993 -.

11:10:02 [djw0499.0 June 28. 1991 -.Call Management PHASES OF A MOBILE TO MOBILE CALL Version 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-48 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

Authentication * .Equipment Validation .Call Management PHASES OF A MOBILE TO MOBILE CALL .0 May 27.Equipment Validation .Call Setup .Routing Analysis .Paging .21:25:47 [djw0499.Ciphering * .Call Setup .Ciphering * .Request for Service .Authentication * .Handover(s) * . Originating Mobile * .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-49 . 1991 -.Release * Phase might not occur Terminating Mobile * Version 1.

pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-50 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .21:25:47 [djw0499.0 May 27.Call Management Version 1. 1991 -.

Handover Overview Version 1.0 March 2.13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-51 . 1993 -.

13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-52 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 March 2. 1993 -.Call Management WHY HANDOVER? Version 1.

1992 -.0 March 2.14:24:36 [djw1045.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-53 .Call Management WHY HANDOVER? Current Radio Path Current Voice Path MSC I can’t hear you!!! PSTN Version 1.

1993 -. This helps avoid "looping handovers" where the MS handed back and forth between a pair of cells with no real difference in quality of signal. However. Version 1.Call Management HANDOVER OPPORTUNITY WINDOW The signal strength and quality on the Handover Candidate cell should be significantly better than the signal on the currently serving cell before an handover for signal strenght reasons is performed. the signal threshold used to begin Handovers is usually lower than the signal threshold used to qualify Candidate cells. The Handover thresholds can be set on a per BTS (Cell) basis and the "art" of tuning the parameters to get the most out of the network is a difficult and demanding process.0 February 4. there is a minimal acceptable signal strength and quality on the current serving cell since the Handover message must be sent and recieved clearly enough to be understood.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-54 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Therefore.18:04:11 [rjthoow.

0 May 5. 1992 -.Call Management HANDOVER OPPORTUNITY WINDOW Handover Opportunity Window BTS A BTS B Earliest Handover Opportunity Latest Handover Opportunity Signal Strength Signal Strength Minimum Acceptable Signal for Handover BTS A Distance Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions BTS B Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-55 .18:53:06 [djw1080.

0 March 2.Call Management HANDOVER PROCESS Version 1.13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-56 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1993 -.

15:34:29 [djw0403.Call Management HANDOVER PROCESS • Measurement of radio signal strength and quality • Analysis of signal strength and quality and decision whether handover should be performed • Execution of handover Version 1.0 March 30. 1992 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-57 .

(For ease of discussion. so that it can determine when a handover should be performed.EXAMPLE While a mobile station is active on a traffic channel. It is the responsibility of the serving BSC to analyze the signal strength measurement reports from the mobile station and decides when a handover should be performed. the mobile station measurement reports will show a gradual decrease in signal strength from its serving BTS while showing an increase in measured signal strength from one or more neighboring BTSs. it has the responsibility of providing signal strength and signal quality measurement data to its serving Base Transceiver Station (BTS) so that the serving Base Station Controller (BSC) can decide if a handover should be performed. by periodically sampling and reporting the signal strength of neighboring BTS control channels. The figure on the following page shows a cellular grid consisting of 17 cell areas. 1992 -. BTS-to-mobile direction) control channels. more to be added later Version 1.15:04:47 [djw1086.) Each BTS has a broadcast control channel.0 July 6. As a mobile station moves away from its serving BTS towards the coverage area of neighboring BTSs. a cell number has been added to the bottom of each antenna tower. the serving BSC initiates the handover procedure. These measurement reports are from the mobile station’s reference point and represent the strength of the signal being received from its serving BTS. If it is determined that there is a better BTS to serve the call. is able to provide valuable information to the serving BSC.Call Management MOBILE STATION MEASUREMENT PROCESS FOR HANDOVER -. The mobile station.e.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-58 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .. plus the signal strength of the neighboring BTS downlink (i.

Slot 3 Mobile Station Monitors: F91.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-59 . F80. F61.Call Management MOBILE STATION MEASUREMENT PROCESS FOR HANDOVER -. 1992 -. F56.S 3 9 10 11 12 91 80 61 13 42 14 21 15 BTS 16 17 Mobile Station Traffic Channel = Freq 29.0 May 28. F41.EXAMPLE 22 5 74 1 2 3 41 33 104 56 120 4 39 5 15 6 19 7 48 8 F2 9. Version 1. F15.12:08:10 [djw1086. F33. F104. F22 F39. F19.

0 May 26. no handover attempt is made. What the serving base station can do. Traffic Balancing Traffic balancing is more of a strategy than a condition with a goal to minimize blocking of radio channels in key cell areas by forcing handovers to another cell area that has under utilized radios. the serving base station has the responsibility of deciding when a handover should be performed. which can be modified by the service provider. It is advantageous to keep both mobile stations and base stations transmitting at their lowest power level (assuming the power levels of both the mobile and base station can be dynamically controlled). especially if the signal strength is good. The serving base station uses the signal strength data of neighboring base stations. in reviewing signal strength measurement data. Version 1. The following diagram list some of the most probable conditions (this is not intended to be a complete list). 1992 -. supplied in the mobile station’s measurement reports. in an effort to escape from the co-channel interferer. An important input to these algorithms are signal level thresholds. however.Call Management FACTORS THAT CAN INFLUENCE THE DECISION TO HANDOVER When a mobile station is active on a call. The GSM specification DOES NOT provide specific rules/requirements as to how a base station should decide when a handover should be performed. to determine if there is a qualified candidate. In general. In order for a "poor signal strength" condition to result in a handover. is to have the mobile hand off to a new frequency and timeslot on the same base station (intra Base Transceiver Station (BTS) handover). Better Candidate It is also possible that both the signal strength and signal quality received by the base station and mobile station are satisfactory. this will probably be the most frequent condition that will trigger a handover. Poor Signal Quality It is possible that the signal strength being received by both the mobile station and base station is satisfactory. For base stations that are being used as overlaid cells (an inner small cell and an outer regular size cell). If the signal level strength of a mobile station’s radio channel falls below a given threshold. One possible situation that can cause this condition is co-channel interference from a distant base station. If there are no candidates. For this condition. The base station.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-60 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . it is unlikely any neighboring base station will be likely candidates to serve the mobile.17:26:44 [djw0605. it is desirable to hand off a call from the "outer server group" to the "inner server group" for situations where the mobile is moving towards the base station antenna. Poor Signal Strength In a typical system. the base station will use information in the mobile station’s measurement reports to see if any other base station(s) are in a better position to serve the call. each base station will contain handover criteria algorithms. decides that there is a better base station candidate that can serve the mobile station. but the quality of the signal is poor--too many bits being received are in error. the measurement reports from the mobile station indicate that there is a neighboring base station who could better serve the mobile station (with regards to signal strength) than the current serving base station. there must be a well qualified candidate base station.

Call Management FACTORS THAT CAN INFLUENCE THE DECISION TO HANDOVER • Poor signal strength • Poor quality of signal • Better candidate • Traffic Balancing Version 1.0 October 7.12:35:35 [djw0605. 1991 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-61 .

BSC for the BSS can perform the handover without the involvement of the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). which requires the MSC to coordinate and switch facilities (handoff the call) between the serving BTS and the candidate BTS. Version 1. thus termed internal or intra-BSS handover. then an external handover is performed.Call Management HANDOVER TYPES 4 LEVELS The type of handover procedure executed depends on what level of switching must be performed in order to move the call from the serving BTS to the new candidate BTS. If the serving and candidate BTSs reside within the same Base Station System (BSS).txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-62 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . There are basically two levels of handovers: internal and external handovers.0 May 8.12:15:46 [djw0546. 1992 -. If the serving and candidate BTSs do not reside within the same BSS.

More likely. due to moving mobile.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-63 .18:07:47 [rjt0546. 1993 -.moving mobile – between BTSs on different BSSs on different MSCs (inter-MSC) . – between different BTSs .moving mobile Version 1. normally due to frequency interference that is avoided simply by changing frequencies. • External Handover (Inter-BSS) – between BTSs on different BSSs within same MSC (intra-MSC) .0 February 4.Call Management HANDOVER TYPES 4 LEVELS • Internal Handover (Intra-BSS) – within same Base Tranceiver Station (BTS) .Rare.

Intra-BSS. BSC 2 reserves an available radio channel from cell area 234-01-10-52 and instructs the mobile station to retune to the new radio channel. and will ask it to receive a handover. Inter-BSS. For this type of handover.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-64 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . At some point in time. Version 1. A probably cause for this type of handover would be poor signal quality (not strength). BSC 2 is also responsible for switching the voice path between MSC A and the old radio channel to the new radio channel. Illustrated is a system consisting of two Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs) with three Base Station Systems (BSSs). Inter BTS (internal handover) Say the mobile station moves from area 234-01-10-51 towards area 234-01-10-52. in this case MSC B. The mobile station has two handover related responsibilities: provide signal strength measurements to its serving base station and to retune to a new radio channel when ordered to do so.0 May 26.17:21:04 [djw1094. Also depicted are cell coverage areas with example global cell identification codes for each Base Transceiver Station (BTS). At some point in time. the handover can be coordinated by BSC 2 without the involvement of MSC A. the mobile station is handed off to a different radio channel within the same cell area: 234-01-10-51. At the same time. the call is being controlled by MSC A. Inter-BSS. BSC 2 would allocate a new radio channel and instruct the mobile station to retune. This is actually an unusual type of handover. Intra BTS (internal handover) For this type of handover. BSC 2 will then determine that there are no base stations connected to it that serves area 234-01-10-55 and will request MSC A to arrange the handover to the candidate cell area. Note: from the mobile station’s reference point. In this situation. Assume that the mobile and land stations are active in a call. BSC 2 will determine from the signal strength measurement reports that the base station responsible for cell area 234-01-10-55 can better serve the call. it is unaware of the 4 levels of handover. MSC A will determine that BSC 3 is responsible for cell area 234-01-10-55 and request it to reserve a free radio channel for a handover. MSC A then needs to determine which neighboring MSC is responsible for the cell area. the candidate cell area would probably be different from the current serving cell area. BSC 2 will ask MSC A to coordinate the handover to 234-01-89-21. MSC A will relay the new radio channel information back to BSC 2.Call Management EXAMPLE OF DIFFERENT HANDOVER TYPES The following vu-graph is intended to help illustrate the 4 types (levels) of handover. Inter MSC (external handover) Say the mobile station moves from area 234-01-10-51 towards area 234-01-89-21. MSC A will switch voice paths between the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and the old BSC (BSC 2) to the new BSC. since it is typically not triggered by poor signal strength--if it was. Intra-BSS. and the mobile is currently in cell area 234-01-10-51. 1992 -. Intra MSC (external handover) Say the mobile station moves from area 234-01-10-51 towards area 234-01-10-55. Similar to previous scenario. BSC 2 will then ask the mobile to retune to the new channel. possibly due to co-channel interference. Since the candidate cell area is also connected to BSC 2. BSC 2 will determine from the signal strength measurement reports that the base station responsible for cell area 234-01-10-52 can better serve the call. MSC A will determine that it has no base stations under its control responsible for the identified cell area.

Call Management EXAMPLE OF DIFFERENT HANDOVER TYPES Inter-office Trunks Land Station MSC B MSC A PSTN MSC-BSS Trunks 0 9-2 1-8 4-0 23 0 0-5 1-1 4-0 23 -53 -10 -01 4 23 BSC 1 BSC 2 BSC 3 -54 -10 -01 34 2 -21 -89 -01 4 23 -51 -10 -01 4 23 -22 -89 -01 34 2 -52 -10 -01 4 23 5 0-5 1-1 4-0 23 Global Cell Identification Mobile Country Code Mobile Network Code Location Area Code Cell Identity Version 1.00:41:06 [djw1094. 1992 -.0 April 16.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-65 .

we have an external handover condition. The MSC is responsible for managing trunk resources. Step 2: Allocation of New Resources • The rank-ordered list of handover candidate cells can contain as few as one member. Thus. • BSS 1. Kc. the identity of the MSC-BSS trunk that was reserved. If the MSC cannot arrange the handover. Version 1. • The MSC reviews the global cell identity associated the best candidate to determine if one of the BSSs that it controls is responsible for the cell area. but let’s assume each BSS is in a different Location Area for this example.Call Management INTRA-MSC INTER-BSS HANDOVER STEPS Provided in the next two vu-graphs is a decomposition of an intra-MSC handover into four basic steps. and a radio traffic channel in the new cell area. two resources must be reserved: a trunk between the MSC and the new BSS. • BSS 1 sends a handover request to the MSC with a rank-ordered list of candidate cells that are qualified to receive the call. makes the decision that a handover should be performed.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-66 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . • BSS 2 reserves a radio traffic channel for the BTS that is associated with the specified candidate cell area and connects the selected radio the to MSC-BSS trunk previously reserved. BSS 1 is informed of the situation and BSS 1 continues to maintain the call. or several members if the mobile is on a cell border adjacent to several cells. BSS 1 reviews the qualified cell areas that are candidates to receive the call and determines that none of the best candidates are associated with Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) that in controls. BSS 1 is also measuring the strength of the signal received from the mobile.0 December 30. The BSS is responsible for managing radio resources. 1992 -. It is assumed in this scenario that a call has already been established between a mobile station and a fixed station. with the solid path representing the voice path. In this scenario. • To perform an intra-MSC handover. A detailed message exchange scenario between network elements can be found on Page 4-104. (so that the rado-path can continue be encrypted one the mobile station is asked to handover). If unsuccessful. the MSC determines that the cell area is associated with BSS 2. from a voice path resource perspective. Step 1: Handover Request from BSS • Mobile station provides signal strength and signal quality measurements to BSS 1. the MSC will then attempt to reserve resources for the next best candidate. in reviewing signal strength data. This process continues until either the proper resources can be reserved for a given candidate or the candidate-list is exhausted. Both BSS 1 and BSS 2 are connected to the MSC. and the radio-path encryption (ciphering) key. BSS 1 and BSS 2 could be in the same Location Area.12:25:58 [djw1024. If the rank-ordered list contains several candidate cells. • The MSC reserves a trunk to BSS 2 and sends a handover request message to BSS 2. the MSC attempts to reserve resources for the best candidate. BSS 2 then return a handover acknowledge to the MSC with the radio channel that has been reserved. Included in this message is the desired cell area for handover.

0 January 5.20:20:25 [djw1024.Call Management INTRA-MSC INTER-BSS HANDOVER STEPS Step 1: Handover Request from BSS Present voice path BSS 1 MSC PSTN BSS 2 Step 2: Allocation of New Resources BSS 1 MSC PSTN BSS 2 Future voice path Version 1. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-67 .

• At this point. Step 4: Release of Old Resources • Once the mobile station and BSS 2 synchronize their transmission and establish a new signaling connection.: Call Torn Down . Location Updates are never done during a call.Call Management INTRA-MSC INTER-BSS HANDOVER STEPS CONTINUED Step 3: Handover Execution • If an intra-MSC handover reaches this step. • BSS 2 and the mobile station exchange messages to synchronize/align the mobile station’s transmission in the proper timeslot. • The MSC frees up the old terrestrial facility to BSS 1 and sends a request to BSS 1 to release to old radio traffic channel. after synchronizing. 1992 -. This triggers the geographic Location Update process to begin.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-68 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . • The mobile station retunes and begins transmitting special access messages on the new radio channel. Once the call is completely torn down (the radio traffic channel is released). the Mobile will resume listening to the broadcast channel and will notice that the LAC stored in the SIM memory is different than the LAC on the broadcast channel. is incurring no loss in voice/data transmission in the BSS or MSC. It is stated in the GSM recommendations that the "open interval gap" during handover should not exceed 150 milliseconds for 90% of all handovers. The open interval gap starts in step 3 when the mobile station retunes to the new radio channel and concludes with the mobile station. • BSS 2 informs the MSC when it begins detecting the mobile handing over. BSS 1 has freed up all resources associated with the mobile station. the mobile must do a Location Update to notify the VLR and HLR (if necessary) that they have moved into a new Location Area.0 December 30. the MSC switches voice paths to BSS 2. • In parallel. Version 1. Included in this command is the radio traffic channel number that was reserved within BSS 2. Misc. BSS 2 informs the MSC that the handover has been successfully completed. all necessary resources have been reserved to perform a handover to one of the candidate cell areas. These resource are now available for a new call or to receive a handover.Location Update Since we assumed that BSS 1 and BSS 2 were in different Location Areas.12:31:16 [djw1025. • The MSC instructs BSS 1 to send a handover command to the mobile station.

0 January 5.Call Management INTRA-MSC INTER-BSS HANDOVER STEPS CONTINUED Step 3: Handover Execution Old voice path BSS 1 MSC PSTN BSS 2 New voice path Step 4: Release of Old Resources BSS 1 MSC PSTN BSS 2 Version 1. 1992 -.20:20:29 [djw1025.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-69 .

For example. Reference: GSM 2. In this example. Version 3.1.9. Section 3. Version 3.09.0.08. • The MSC can synchronize the hot switching of the facilities on receipt of the handover complete indication from the new BSS. Section 4.14:07:02 [djw1095. Page 5. 2 . the following list identifies three different ways for a MSC to switch facilities between an old and new BSS: • The MSC can synchronize the hot switching of facilities on receipt of a handover detect indication from the new BSS (as illustrated on the other page).9.0. Version 1. Version 3. • The MSC can use a 3-party bridge connection between the old and new BSS and use the handover complete indication to release the old BSS from the 3-party bridge. 3 . Reference: GSM 2.0 April 17. and Section 2.0.1.2 Illustrated on the following page is an example showing three components to the overall handover open interval gap.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-70 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . Page 2. 1 .08. it is assumed the MSC "hot switches" voice facilities from the old BSS to the new BSS and that the MSC uses the handover detect indication from the new BSS to synchronize switching the paths.3 The benefit of using a 3-party bridge connection is that the MSC does not contribute to the overall open interval gap. Page 8.1.Call Management HANDOVER OPEN INTERVAL GAP Example It is specified in the GSM recommendations that the maximum duration of interruption to a call due to a single handover shall not exceed 150 milliseconds for 90% of all cases.0. Reference: GSM 3. the sum total of all breaks should not exceed 150 milliseconds. How and when a MSC switches facility paths between the old and new BSS is an internal MSC detail. Page 5.1. Section 2.1 It is also specified that if there are several short breaks during a single handover. 1992 -.0. The GSM recommendations does not tie an MSC vendor to any specific method. other than requiring that the MSC component not push the overall open interval gap beyond 150 millisecond.

1992 -.0 Mobile station handover complete.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-71 .Call Management HANDOVER OPEN INTERVAL GAP Example Maximum open interval gap = 150 milliseconds Mobile Station Retuning/Synchronizing BSS Signaling Delay MSC Switching Voice Paths Time Old BSS orders mobile station to handover New BSS detects beginning of handover MSC receives handover detect indication from new BSS Version 1. Begins transmitting user voice/data MSC completes switching voice path (no loss in mobile station voice/data) April 17.12:31:05 [djw1095.

txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-72 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.11:54:27 [djw0674.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER TYPES Version 1.0 June 28.

Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER TYPES • Basic Handover Call is handed from controlling MSC to another MSC • Subsequent Handover Call is handed from 2nd MSC to another MSC Version 1.18:15:16 [djw0674.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-73 . 1992 -.0 May 20.

from a voice path resource perspective.16:04:01 [djw0539. Step 1: Handover Request from BSS • The sequence of events leading up to an MSC receiving a handover request from a BSS for an intraMSC handover is exactly the same for an inter-MSC handover. BSSs do not know the difference between an intra-MSC and inter-MSC handover.Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS A four step decomposition of a basic inter-MSC handover is provided. A very detailed message exchange scenario. See Page 4-66 for details. • Since the events associated with this step were described in the intra-MSC handover scenario. can be found starting on Page 4-110. Version 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-74 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1992 -. from a signaling perspective. with the wide solid path representing the voice path. BSS A is connected to MSC A and BSS B is connected to MSC B. It is assumed in this scenario that a call has already been established between a mobile station and a fixed station. these steps will not be redescribed here. in the next two vu-graphs.0 June 5.

..0 July 29.. BSS B MSC B Future Talk Path .. BSS A MS BSS B MSC B Step 2: Allocation of New Resources MSC A PSTN BSS A.13:54:07 [djw0539..... MS Version 1. . ............pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-75 .Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Step 1: Handover Request from BSS Present Talk Path MSC A PSTN .... 1991 -..

1991 -.Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Continued Version 1.0 June 28.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-76 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .11:10:48 [djw0540.

.... . .... BSS B MSC B Version 1. .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-77 ... .... MS .... MS ..14:02:41 [djw0540. .... .Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Continued Step 3: Handover Execution Old Talk Path MSC A PSTN BSS A BSS B MSC B ... ..... New Talk Path Step 4: Release of Old Resources MSC A PSTN BSS A . 1991 -.0 July 29.

11:11:01 [djw0541.0 June 28.Call Management SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Handback Version 1. 1991 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-78 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

MS .15:00:04 [djw0541... 1991 -.. .. .. BSS B Present talk path MSC B Step 2: Allocation of New Resources Future talk path MSC A PSTN BSS A BSS B MSC B ... ... Version 1....Call Management SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Handback Step 1: Handover Request from BSS MSC A PSTN .. ..0 July 29...pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-79 ... BSS A ... .... .. MS .

1991 -.Continued Version 1.0 June 28.11:11:13 [djw0542.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-80 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Call Management SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Handback -.

.. 1992 -.Call Management SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Handback -.... MS Step 4: Release of Old Resources MSC A PSTN BSS A BSS B MSC B ....pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-81 .15:01:50 [djw0542............ MS Version 1.......0 May 21..Continued Step 3: Handover Execution New talk path MSC A PSTN BSS A BSS B MSC B Old talk path .

0 June 28. 1991 -.Call Management SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 3rd MSC Version 1.11:11:39 [djw0543.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-82 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

..... 1991 -. MSC B MSC C BSS C Step 2: Allocation of New Resources MSC A BSS A PSTN BSS B .. .. MSC B How are MSC interconnected? MSC C BSS C Future talk path Version 1.Call Management SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 3rd MSC Step 1: Handover Request from BSS MSC A Present talk path BSS A PSTN BSS B . ....... MS . MS ....pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-83 ... . .. .. .15:09:45 [djw0543.. . ..0 July 29...

Continued Version 1.Call Management SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 3rd MSC -.11:11:41 [djw0544. 1991 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-84 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 June 28.

.. 1991 -.Call Management SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 3rd MSC -.. ..15:15:22 [djw0544. . MS .0 July 29... .. .. . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-85 .. . . MSC C BSS C Version 1... MS . ..Continued Step 3: Handover Execution MSC A Old talk path BSS A PSTN BSS B MSC B MSC C BSS C New talk path . Step 4: Release of Old Resources MSC A BSS A PSTN BSS B MSC B .

Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER VOICE FACILITIES The voice path for inter-Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handovers can be over dedicated pointto-point trunks. In any of these cases.1 ) / 2 where N = the number of MSCs. Version 1. for example via the PSTN. a tandem switch.17:10:47 [djw0545. via the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). 1992 -. When MSC A places this call. or any combination of these.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-86 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 May 7. The number of interconnecting paths grows rapidly as one introduces more MSCs based on the following formula: Number of paths = N ( N . MSC A sets up a inter-MSC voice connection by placing a call to a directory number that belongs to MSC B. the PSTN is unaware the call is a handover and follows normal call routing procedures and delivers the call to MSC B. Full interconnectivity between all MSCs in the example requires a total of 6 paths. the signaling used to setup inter-MSC voice facilities is the same! This is wonderful! When a call is handed over from MSC A to MSC B.

16:11:46 [djw0545.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-87 . 1991 -.0 May 16.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER VOICE FACILITIES VIA DEDICATED FACILITIES MSC A PSTN MSC C MSC B MSC D Inter-MSC Trunks PSTN Trunks VIA PSTN FACILITIES MSC A PSTN MSC C MSC B MSC D Version 1.

Call Management MSC DIRECTORY NUMBER SPECTRUM Version 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-88 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.11:12:35 [djw0603.0 June 28.

Call Management MSC DIRECTORY NUMBER SPECTRUM Trunks Trunks MSC LOCAL EXCHANGE PSTN MSC Directory Number Spectrum MSISDN Used to reference home subscribers MSRN MSHN Used to reference visiting subscribers Used to reference inter-MSC handovers Version 1.0 May 23. 1991 -.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-89 .12:06:43 [djw0603.

Call Management INTER-MSC SIGNALING Version 1.0 June 28.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-90 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.11:12:08 [djw0669.

. .. . . ... ... ... .... E . .. . .. PSTN . MSC A MSC B .15:37:11 [djw0669... . .. . ...02) .. . .Call Management INTER-MSC SIGNALING Mobile Application Part (MAP) (defined in GSM specification 9. .. . or Inter-office signaling such as ISDN-UP or TUP (outside scope of GSM specification) ISDN-UP = ISDN User Part TUP = Telephone User Part Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-91 . . ..0 June 24.. ... ... .. 1991 -...

1992 -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-92 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Initial Condition Version 1.0 April 20.17:18:13 [djw1109.

13:21:16 [rjt1109.prn] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-93 .Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Initial Condition VLR B PSTN MSC B Talk Path MSC A BSS B2 BSS B1 BSS A Candidate Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-20-65 720-1234 Serving Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-35-43 Version 1. 1993 -.0 March 2.

1991 -.Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Number Allocation Version 1.18:06:03 [djw1110.0 October 8.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-94 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

prn] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-95 .Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Number Allocation VLR B PSTN MSC B Perform Handover (234-02-20-65. Kc) Perform Handover Ack. <radio channel x>) MSC A E Interface PSTN/ISDN Interface BSS B2 BSS B1 BSS A Candidate Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-20-65 720-1234 Serving Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-35-43 Version 1.0 March 2. 1993 -.13:21:35 [rjt1110. (219-9221.

18:06:37 [djw1111.Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Inter-MSC Trunk Setup Version 1.0 October 8.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-96 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.

13:21:47 [rjt1111.0 March 2.Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Inter-MSC Trunk Setup VLR B PSTN MSC B MSC A E Interface Network Setup (219-9221) Setup Complete PSTN/ISDN Interface BSS B2 BSS B1 BSS A Candidate Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-20-65 720-1234 Serving Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-35-43 Version 1. 1993 -.prn] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-97 .

0 October 8. 1991 -.18:07:03 [djw1112.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-98 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Facilities Before Handover Version 1.

12:10:47 [djw1112.0 May 28. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-99 .Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Facilities Before Handover VLR B PSTN MSC B MSC A E Interface PSTN/ISDN Interface Future talk path BSS B2 BSS B1 BSS A 720-1234 Version 1.

txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-100 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .18:07:34 [djw1113.Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Events After Handover Command Version 1. 1991 -.0 October 8.

12:12:58 [djw1113. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-101 .0 May 28.Call Management BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Events After Handover Command VLR B PSTN MSC B Send end signal MSC A E Interface Answer PSTN/ISDN Interface Old talk path H (re and tun ove e r to Co ch mm an an ne d l x ) BSS B2 BSS B1 BSS A New talk path 720-1234 Version 1.

Call Management Version 1.12:12:58 [djw1113.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-102 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1992 -.0 May 28.

Handover Scenarios Version 1. 1993 -.13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-103 .0 March 2.

Mobile Switching Center Version 1.Mobile Station . signal strength. it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions.. While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements).Call Management INTRA-BSS HANDOVER The opposite page diagram shows an intra-BSS handover. 4 The new Cell responds with the traffic channel assignment (frequency and time slot).).g. 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e.09:58:05 [rjt0649. BSS MS MSC . 3 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cell’s common channel and identifies itself with the Handover reference number.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-104 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 February 8. 5 The mobile retunes to the traffic and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to the BSS. traffic balancing. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell.Base Station System . The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving traffic for the active call. 1993 -. 6 The BSS sends a Handover Performed message to the MSC to trigger call record data and Handover Peg counts. The Handover Command tells the MS that a HO is beginning and provides the broadcast or beacon frequency of the new cell and a Handover reference number. etc. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly.

. . . . Physical Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTRA-BSS HANDOVER Um A MS BSS MSC 1 2 3 4 5 6 . . . . .10:36:04 [djw0649. Handover Performed . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 2. . Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . Handover Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

traffic balancing. signal strength.0 February 5. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements). 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell. A Handover Request message is sent to the new BSS with the candidate cell identified. 5 The MSC tells the BSS to begin the Handover and provides the candidate cell frequency and Handover reference number. the MSC is requested to coordinate the Handover through a Handover Required message. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly. The message includes a list of up to three candidate cells.Base Station System .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-106 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 1993 -.).. 3 The MSC evaluates the candidates and chooses the best one.11:13:29 [rjt0650. intra-BSS handover. it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions. This results in the MS beginning the retuning process. If the best candidate cell is not within this BSS.Call Management INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Steps 1 & 2 The opposite page diagram shows an inter-BSS.g. BSS MS MSC . The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving traffic for the active call. 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e.Mobile Switching Center Version 1.Mobile Station . While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction. 6 The old BSS passes the Handover Command onto the MS. 4 The new BSS determines if the candidate cell can support additional calls and if so. etc. returns the general frequency to be used and the Handover reference number for this Handover.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:36:59 [djw0650. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Steps 1 & 2 Um MS Old BSS A A MSC New BSS 1 2 3 4 5 6 . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal Strength .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-107 . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Request Handover Request Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements . . . . . . . . . . .

11:20:47 [rjt0651.Mobile Switching Center 12 13 Version 1. it triggers the MSC to initiate clearing of facilities to and on the old BSS.0 February 5. BSS MS MSC . The old BSS releases the radio channel and trunk and informs the MSC. In addition. The BSS sends a Handover Complete message to the MSC to trigger call record data and Handover Peg counts.Mobile Station . 1993 -. The new Cell responds with the traffic channel assignment (frequency and time slot).txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-108 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Call Management INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Steps 3 & 4 7 8 9 10 11 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cell’s common channel and identifies itself with the Handover reference number. The MSC tells the old BSS to release the radio channel and associated BSS to MSC trunk. The mobile retunes to the traffic and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to the BSS. The new BSS notifies the MSC that the Handover has reached this point and the MSC begins the reconfiguration of the voice path to the new BSS.Base Station System .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Detected .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Steps 3 & 4 Um MS Old BSS A A MSC New BSS 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 2. . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Access . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . .10:38:27 [djw0651. . Physical Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Radio Channel Radio Channel Released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements). etc. 3 The MSC evaluates the candidates and chooses the best one. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell. While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction. signal strength. A MAP message is sent to MSC B requesting a Handover to a specified cell on MSC B. the best candidate is in another MSC area. 6 A Handover Request message is sent to the new BSS with the candidate cell identified.). This results in the MS beginning the retuning process. In this case.1 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . If the best candidate cell is not within this BSS. 10 MSC B responds to the trunk set up attempt as appropriate for the trunk signaling used for that trunk. traffic balancing. Number allocation is specified as a VLR entity operation and the diagram shows a message flow between the MSC and VLR entities. This is similar to the MSRN allocated for the termination of a mobile call. 4 Because Handover between switches will require voice trunks between the switches. etc.). 7 The new BSS determines if the candidate cell can support additional calls and if so. 13 The old BSS passes the Handover Command onto the MS. Version 1. In addition. it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly. 8 MSC B responds to MSC A with an acknowledgement of the Handover Perform and provides the information needed by the MSC (MSHN) and MS (frequency.Steps 1 & 2 The opposite pages diagrams show an inter-MSC handover. The message includes a list of up to three candidate cells. The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving traffic for the active call. 12 The MSC tells the BSS to begin the Handover and provides the candidate cell frequency and Handover reference number. 1993 -. the MSC is requested to coordinate the Handover through a Handover Required message.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -. MSC A sets up a call using the MSHN provided above. a Handover Number (MSHN) is allocated for this handover.09:58:57 [rjt0652. MSC B notes the MSHN and associates the specific Handover activity with the trunk. returns the general frequency to be used and the Handover reference number for this Handover..g. Handover reference number. 5 See item 4 above.0 February 8.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-110. 9 MSC A initiates the process to set up a voice path between MSC A and MSC B in order to support the path switching when the Handover occurs.

Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -.) BSS MS MSC MSHN .Mobile Switching Center .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-110.Steps 1 & 2 (cont.Mobile Station .0 February 8.Base Station System .09:58:57 [rjt0652. 1993 -.Mobile Station Handover Number Version 1.2 .

Call Management Version 1. 1993 -.0 February 8.3 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-110.09:58:57 [rjt0652.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 June 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15:47:20 [djw0652. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform HO . . . . . . . . . . Allocate Handover Number Handover Request HO Request Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Number Allocated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-111 . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Steps 1 & 2 Um MS BSS A A MSC A MSC B BSS B VLR B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 . . . . . . . Handover Command Handover Command . . . . . . . . . Handover Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -. . . . . . . . . . Perform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13:25:01 [rjt0653.0 February 5. BSS MS MSC . 16 The mobile retunes to the traffic and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to BSS B. 18 MSC B sends a Send End Signal over the MAP network which signals MSC A to switch the path from BSS A to the trunk to MSC B. 1993 -. 17 BSS B sends a Handover Complete message to MSC B.Mobile Switching Center Version 1. 21 The old BSS (A) releases the radio channel and trunk and informs the MSC. 20 The MSC tells the old BSS (A) to release the radio channel and associated BSS to MSC trunk.Steps 3 & 4 13 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cell’s common channel and identifies itself with the Handover reference number. 15 The new BSS (B) notifies MSC B that the Handover has reached this point and MSC B connects the incoming trunk to the BSS trunk.Mobile Station .Base Station System . 19 MSC B provides Answer indication for the inter-switch trunk on the trunk signaling system. 14 The new Cell responds with the traffic channel assignment (frequency and time slot).Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-112 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -. . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 June 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel . .16:17:13 [djw0653. . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . Detected . . . . . . . . . . Send End Signal Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Access Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Chan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Radio . . . .Steps 3 & 4 Um MS BSS A A MSC A MSC B BSS B 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1993 -. 23 The anchor MSC (A) also clears the voice trunk connection between the two MSCs using the appropriate trunk signaling type. BSS MS MSC .0 February 8.Mobile Station .After Call Ends The opposite page diagram shows clearing of the resources after an inter-MSC Handover call ends 22 The anchor MSC (A) sends an END signal to the other MSC to signal the end of the MAP/TCAP transaction used to transmit the inter-MSC message during the time of the call.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -.Base Station System .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-114 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . the MSHN is actually released almost immediately after the inter-MSC trunk is setup in the initial stages of the Handover process.09:45:14 [rjt0654. 24 The MS Handover Number is released.Mobile Switching Center Version 1. In the 5ESS Switch implementation. This frees up the number earlier and allows fewer numbers to be allocated for Handover purposes.

15:49:09 [djw0654. . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . Release Handover Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 June 12. . . .After Call Ends MSC A 22 MSC B End Signal VLR B 23 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Release . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-115 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The message includes a list of up to three candidate cells.Mobile Station . 7 MSC B tells the BSS to begin the Handover and provides the candidate cell frequency and Handover reference number.09:59:20 [rjt0655. the best candidate is in another MSC area.. The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving traffic for the active call. While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction. 8 The old BSS passes the Handover Command onto the MS. 5 The new BSS determines if the candidate cell can support additional calls and if so. In this case.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-116 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements).Base Station System . 3 MSC B evaluates the candidates and chooses the best one. etc. Handover reference number. etc.Mobile Switching Center . This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly. This results in the MS beginning the retuning process. 1993 -. The situation is that an inter-MSC Handover has already occurred. A MAP message is sent to MSC A (the Anchor MSC) requesting a subsequent Handover to a specified cell on MSC A. returns the general frequency to be used and the Handover reference number for this Handover.Mobile Station Handover Number Version 1. A subsequent Handover back to MSC A is requested.g. BSS MS MSC MSHN . 6 MSC A responds to MSC B with an acknowledgement of the Perform Subsequent Handover and provides the information needed by the MSC (MSHN) and MS (frequency.). 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handback -.Steps 1 & 2 The opposite pages diagrams show an inter-MSC Handback. traffic balancing.). If the best candidate cell is not within this BSS. signal strength. the MSC is requested to coordinate the Handover through a Handover Required message. 4 A Handover Request message is sent to the new BSS with the candidate cell identified. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell. it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions.0 February 8.

. . . . .15:50:42 [djw0655. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 June 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handback -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command Handover Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Steps 1 & 2 Um MS BSS B A MSC B MSC A BSS A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . . . . . . . . . . Perform Subsequent Handover Subsequent Handover Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Request HO Request Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Steps 3 & 4 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cell’s common channel and identifies itself with the Handover reference number.0 February 5.Base Station System .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-118 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . The new Cell responds with the traffic channel assignment (frequency and time slot).Mobile Station . Since the inter-MSC trunk has been released. MSC A sends a End Signal over the MAP network which signals MSC A to release the previous Handover connections. 1993 -. The old BSS (B) releases the radio channel and trunk and informs the MSC. the MSHN is no longer required and can be released for future use. BSS MS MSC . The mobile retunes to the traffic and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to BSS B. MSC A releases the trunk between A and B.Mobile Switching Center Version 1. The new BSS (A) sends a Handover Complete message to MSC A. The MSC tells the old BSS (B) to release the radio channel and associated BSS to MSC trunk.14:01:49 [rjt0656.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handback -. The new BSS (A) notifies MSC A that the Handover has reached this point.

. . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Signal Network Release Release Handover Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel . . . . . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handback -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Steps 3 & 4 Um MS BSS B A MSC B MSC A BSS A VLR B 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16:18:06 [djw0656. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-119 . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Access Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Chan. . . . . .0 June 12. . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . .

09:59:33 [rjt0657. The situation is that an inter-MSC Handover has already occurred. 3 MSC B evaluates the candidates and chooses the best one. 4 A MAP message is sent to MSC C requesting a Handover to a specified cell on MSC C. 1993 -. etc. A MAP message is sent to MSC A (the Anchor MSC) requesting a subsequent Handover to a specified cell on MSC C.0 February 8. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements).Base Station System .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-120 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .g. While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction.Mobile Switching Center . A subsequent Handover to a third MSC is requested. 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly.Mobile Station Handover Number Version 1. the MSC is requested to coordinate the Handover through a Handover Required message. The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving traffic for the active call. signal strength. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -. If the best candidate cell is not within this BSS. the best candidate is in another MSC area. In this case. The message includes a list of up to three candidate cells..). traffic balancing. it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions.Steps 1 & 2 The opposite pages diagrams show a subsequent inter-MSC Handover.Mobile Station . BSS MS MSC MSHN .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14:54:06 [djw0657. . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal Strength Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1.0 June 12. . . . . .Steps 1 & 2 MS BSS B MSC B MSC A MSC C 1 2 3 4 . Handover Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-121 . . . Perform Handover . . . . . Perform Subsequent Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover reference number.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -. BSS MS MSC MSHN .txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-122 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 7 A Handover Request message is sent to the new BSS (C) with the candidate cell identified. MSC A sets up a call using the MSHN provided above. 6 See item 4 above. returns the general frequency to be used and the Handover reference number for this Handover.Mobile Switching Center .Step 2 continued 5 Because Handover between switches will require voice trunks between the switches. 1993 -.Mobile Station . MSC C notes the MSHN and associates the specific Handover activity with the trunk. 8 The new BSS determines if the candidate cell can support additional calls and if so. etc.). This is similar to the MSRN allocated for the termination of a mobile call.0 February 8. 10 MSC A initiates the process to set up a voice path between MSC A and MSC C in order to support the path switching when the Handover occurs.Base Station System .09:59:41 [rjt0658. 9 MSC C responds to MSC A with an acknowledgement of the Handover Perform and provides the information needed by the MSC (MSHN) and MS (frequency. In addition. Number allocation is specified as a VLR entity operation and the diagram shows a message flow between the MSC and VLR entities.Mobile Station Handover Number Version 1. 11 MSC C responds to the trunk set up attempt as appropriate for the trunk signaling used for that trunk. a Handover Number (MSHN) is allocated for this handover.

. . . . . . . Handover Number . . . . . . . Acknowledge . Version 1. . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -. . . . . . . . . . . .Step 2 continued MSC A MSC C BSS C VLR C 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15:04:32 [djw0658. . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Request . . . . . . . . .0 June 12. . . Handover Request .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-123 . . . Perform Handover Acknowledge Network Setup Setup Complete Allocate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

09:59:49 [rjt0659.Step 2 continued 12 MSC A responds to MSC B with an acknowledgement of the Perform Subsequent Handover and provides the information needed by the MSC (MSHN) and MS (frequency. Handover reference number.Mobile Station . etc.Mobile Switching Center .). BSS MS MSC MSHN .Mobile Station Handover Number Version 1. 1993 -.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -.0 February 8.Base Station System . 14 The old BSS passes the Handover Command onto the MS.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-124 Overview of the GSM Cellular System . 13 MSC B tells the BSS to begin the Handover and provides the candidate cell frequency and Handover reference number. This results in the MS beginning the retuning process.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command . . . . . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15:57:59 [djw0659. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 June 12. . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . Version 1. . . . . . .Step 2 continued MS BSS B MSC B MSC A 12 13 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subsequent Handover Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command. . .

BSS MS MSC .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -.14:28:50 [rjt0660.Mobile Station .Mobile Switching Center Version 1. 17 The new BSS (C) notifies MSC C that the Handover has reached this point.0 February 5. 1993 -. 20 MSC C sends a Send End Signal over the MAP network to MSC A. 19 The new BSS (C) sends a Handover Complete message to MSC C. 16 The new Cell responds with the traffic channel assignment (frequency and time slot). 18 The mobile retunes to the traffic and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to BSS C. 21 MSC C sends Answer across the network trunk signaling system.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-126 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Base Station System .Step 3 15 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cell’s common channel and identifies itself with the Handover reference number.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Send End Signal Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Detected . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-127 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . Handover Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 June 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Step 3 MS BSS C MSC C MSC A 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -.15:28:27 [djw0660. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mobile Station . Since the inter-MSC trunk has been released.14:30:36 [rjt0661. BSS MS MSC . the MSHN is no longer required and can be released for future use.Base Station System .Step 4 22 23 24 25 26 MSC A sends a End Signal over the MAP network which signals MSC B to release the previous Handover connections. 1993 -. The MSC tells the old BSS (B) to release the radio channel and associated BSS to MSC trunk.0 February 5. MSC A releases the trunk between A and B.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-128 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .Mobile Switching Center Version 1. The old BSS (B) releases the radio channel and trunk and informs the MSC.Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -.

. . . . .0 June 12. . . . . . . . . . . . .pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System 4-129 . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Step 4 MSC A MSC B End Signal BSS B VLR B 22 23 24 25 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15:27:50 [djw0661. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Call Management INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Radio Channel Radio Channel Released Release Handover Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . .

15:27:50 [djw0661.Call Management Version 1.pic] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 4-130 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .0 June 12. 1991 -.

Unit 5 5ESS MSC Version 1. 1993 -.0 April 27.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0.16:10:02 [unit05.

1991 -.0 June 28.0.5ESS MSC UNIT OVERVIEW Version 1.10:39:28 [djw.529] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-2 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

HLR.13:53:03 [jjm.0 May 12. VLR. 1992 -. and EIR Implementation Mobile Location Update Scenario Mobile to Land Call Scenario Land to Roaming Mobile Call Scenario Intra-MSC Handover Scenario Inter-MSC Handover Scenario Version 1.0.5ESS MSC UNIT OVERVIEW International 5ESS Architecture Overview . AUC.529] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-3 .

0.5ESS MSC GSM REFERENCE MODEL Version 1. 1991 -.0 June 28.11:32:21 [djw.428] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-4 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

Authentication Center .Mobile Station .Base Transceiver Station .5ESS MSC GSM REFERENCE MODEL AUC EIR VLR D G C HLR F ISDN MSC VLR B PSTN A E AUC BSC BSS BTS EIR HLR ISDN MS MSC PSTN VLR .Mobile Switching Center .Base Station Controller .Equipment Identity Register .Base Station System . 1991 -.0 November 27.0.14:17:56 [djw.Public Switched Telephone Network .Visitor Location Register BSS BSC Abis MSC BTS Um MS Version 1.428] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-5 .Home Location Register .Integrated Services Digital Network .

you can have all or part of the above network elements located on the 5ESS product or any combination there of.0 May 1. the 5ESS has plenty of capacity. Thus. There are several advantages associated with integrating all of the above listed network elements into the MSC and not formally implementing the interfaces between these entities as outlined in the GSM recommendations. EIR. it is not required that all network elements be implemented in different equipment.0. and G interfaces for the HLR. The Operations Maintenance Center (OMC). and MSC to communicate within the 5ESS.8. 1 .1. These GSM interfaces allow the 5ESS to access HLR. The network operator has the option of either integrating the MSC. Page 4. Version 1. C. Since all network elements need to implemented on reliable fault tolerant equipment it makes sense to initially share the same hardware equipment. Version 3. AUC. and EIR for mobile calls originated/terminated on other MSCs in the GSM network. EIR product. and Base Station System (BSS). Section 2. and EIR data located on other entities in the GSM network for calls being processed on the 5ESS MSC product. and Equipment Identity Register (EIR) are being integrated within the MSC. One possible advantage of moving the VLR off the 5ESS would be to increase call handling capacity of the MSC. • Product Availability.0. Authentication Center (AUC). D. AUC.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-6 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . F.1 AT&T has also developed the B. As we will see shortly. Reference: GSM 9. and the EIR all the same 5ESS product or having one 5ESS perform only as a MSC and having another 5ESS product act as a standalone HLR.02. Of all the databases. AUC. VLR. • System Capacity.5ESS MSC GSM REFERENCE MODEL AT&T PRODUCT OFFERING AT&T has developed the GSM system with the following three major GSM Network network elements. the VLR is most tightly coupled with the MSC and will probably never be moved off of the 5ESS. It is important that the price of initial GSM systems be as low as possible since Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) providers will choose vendors based primarily on cost. AUC. AUC. Mobile Switching Center (MSC). E. The Home Location Register (HLR). Conversely. Visitor Location Register (VLR). As specified in the GSM recommendations.14:56:08 [jc706. The primary advantages have to do with: • Product Cost. 1992 -. VLR. HLR. these interfaces also allow the 5ESS to function as a HLR.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-7 .0. 1992 -.0 May 6.15:57:28 [jc706.5ESS MSC GSM REFERENCE MODEL AT&T PRODUCT OFFERING OMC Up to 5 MSCs C MSC D HLR E F G 5ESS International Switch VLR AUC EIR PSTN A BSS Version 1.

1992 -.0.0 May 6.5ESS MSC Version 1.15:57:28 [jc706.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-8 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

0 April 27.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-9 . 1993 -.INTERNATIONAL 5ESS WIRELESS ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW Version 1.16:10:02 [unit05.0.

5ESS MSC SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW Version 1.0 May 4.13:54:31 [jjm. 1992 -.0.519] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-10 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

. . .... ....... . ... ... ... . . ... ...... ... . ... . External . System . . . ..25 X.... ... .. . . . . . .. .....14:17:33 [jjm.25 X. . Administration .. . Service .... ... ... . ... . .. ...... .519] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-11 ..0 May 4. .5ESS MSC SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW . MS .. . . . Air Interface BSS BTS BSC .. ... .... ... . .. ... . . RS-232 .. Center .. .. . . .. .. 1992 -. . OMC SS7 mtce X.. . ... Center .... . .. ..... . . Customer ..... SS7 call proc & mtce voice ... .. .. ..... .... ... .25 . ...... .....0.... ... . .. Billing . ..... .... . . HLR MSC VLR AUC EIR MAP country specific signaling ISUP & MAP PSTN MSC HLR Voice Path Signaling Path EIR AUC Version 1.

Issue 1.17:11:55 [corel783. • 5ESS Training Program -. 1992 -. Version 1. • 5ESS Switch Global Description.System Overview. January 1986.5ESS MSC BASIC 5ESS ARCHITECTURE The following list identifies a few documents/books that provide overview information about the 5ESS Switch. March 1989. 235-390-100.0 April 27. • 5ESS Switch Software.Advanced System Overview. AT&T Technical Journal. • 5ESS Training Program -.0.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-12 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

0 April 23. 1992 -.16:52:21 [corel783.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-13 .0.5ESS MSC BASIC 5ESS ARCHITECTURE 5ESS International Switch AM CM SM SM GSM SM SM Signaling Lines Trunks PSTN Version 1.

400] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-14 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . The hardware architecture of a WSM is basically the same as regular SMs when equipped with trunks. .Mobile Switching Center . Wireless Switching Module (WSM) is used to descibe a switching module that is capable of providing wireless services.Base Station System .Network Control Timeslot . 1992 -.Administrative Module .21:39:40 [djw.0.0 March 1.Public Switched Telephone Network . Switching Modules (SMs) are the main building blocks of the 5ESS MSC. A new Switching Module term.Wireless Switch Module AM BSS CM MSC NCT PSTN SM WSM Version 1. No new hardware is required to be developed on the 5ESS in order to support GSM cellular services.5ESS MSC BASIC 5ESS WIRELESS SWITCH ARCHITECTURE • AT&T is using the 5ESS International Switch as the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for • • • • • cellular service based on the GSM standard.Communications Module . Maximum capacity: 300k subscribers or 500k Busy Hour Call Attempts (BHCA). which performs over 95% of all the call processing.Switch Module . The term "5ESS wireless switch" is commonly used instead of MSC or 5ESS MSC.

17:23:21 [jc784.0 May 4.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-15 .5ESS MSC BASIC 5ESS WIRELESS SWITCH ARCHITECTURE AM 5ESS Switch MSC CM WSM WGSM WSM GSM SM Signaling Signaling Lines Trunks Trunks BSS BSS PSTN & Other PLMN Entities Version 1. 1992 -.

timeslot 16 is recommended for common channel signaling. If desired.31). "Mobile Switching Center (MSC) to Base Station System (BSS) Interface. More information regarding BSS signaling links is provided on Page 5-26. Voice signals are digitally encoded using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)4 Timeslot 16 is recommended for common channel signaling.31) can be used as a signaling channel.2 The following list provides additional details concerning these facilities: • • • • Each facility consists of 32 64 kbps channels (or timeslots)3 30 timeslots are available for voice and/or data connections (slots 1 . any of the 31 timeslots (1 . Timeslot 16 can also be use for regular voice/data connections. then it is not necessary for all facilities to have a signaling link. timeslot 16 can be use for voice/data connections. On the 5ESS. It appears that the AT&T BSS product cannot use timeslot 16 for common channel signaling.704.732. See GSM Recommendation 08. 4 . 1992 -. Layer 1: Structure of Physical Circuits" 3 .18:08:52 [corel712..0 April 23. For more details. timeslot 18). 2 .5ESS MSC 32 CHANNEL DIGITAL FACILITIES USED BETWEEN MSC AND BSSs The type of facilities used to connect Base Station Systems (BSSs) to the the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) are CCITT 2048 kbps (32 channel) digital facilities.711 and G.15 and 17 . For the facilities that are not engineered to carry a signaling link. Version 1. If there are more than one 32 channel digital facilities between the 5ESS and one BSS.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-16 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .g. a timeslot other than slot 16 can be used to transfer signaling messages (e. see CCITT Recommendation G. • Timeslot 0 is used for synchronization/timing • 8 bits per timeslot • 256 bits per frame As state above.0. For more details. see CCITT Recommendation G.04.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-17 .0.Layer 3 Message Transport Part .5ESS MSC 32 CHANNEL DIGITAL FACILITIES USED BETWEEN MSC AND BSSs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 S Y N C VOICE AND/OR DATA S I G VOICE AND/OR DATA ONE FRAME GSM ‘A’ INTERFACE SIGNALING PROTOCOL STACK Direct Transfer Application Part BSS Management Application Part BSS Operations and Maintenance Application Part Signaling Connect Control Part Message Transport Part .17:54:26 [corel712.Layer 2 Message Transport Part . 1992 -.0 April 23.Layer 1 Version 1.

14:52:09 [corel798.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-18 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0. 1992 -.0 April 24.5ESS MSC MAXIMUM DIGITAL FACILITIES PER WSM Version 1.

0 April 24.0.5ESS MSC MAXIMUM DIGITAL FACILITIES PER WSM Communications Module (CM) 1 0 Two NCT Links (256 slots each) WSM Time Slot Intechanger (TSI) Digital Line Trunk Unit 32 channel digital facilities (2.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 0 51 1 2 5-19 . 1992 -.048 Mbps) Maximum of 16 Digital Trunk Facilities (maximum number of timeslots = 480) Version 1.14:51:01 [corel798.

0 April 23.16:36:47 [djw.5ESS MSC WSM TRUNK ENGINEERING • Maximum number of simultaneous calls per WSM = 480 (assuming it is fully engineered with trunks). • Maximum number of simultaneous calls per BSS = 320 (assuming it is full equipped with radios).633] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-20 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0. Version 1. 1992 -.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-21 .5ESS MSC WSM TRUNK Engineering 5ESS MSC WSM 1 WSM 2 WSM 3 WSM 4 DFI Maximum* BSSs per WSM = 16 DFI Maximum* WSMs per BSS = 11 BSS 1 BSS 2 BSS 16 BSS 17 * AT&T DACs products allow you to exceed these maximums Version 1.0 May 11.0.17:18:53 [jc719. 1992 -.

5ESS MSC 5ESS WSM ARCHITECTURE Version 1.10:43:03 [djw.607] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-22 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.0.0 June 28.

5ESS MSC

5ESS WSM ARCHITECTURE

512 Time Slots to the Communications Module (CM)

Wireless Switch Module (WSM)

. ................................... . . . . . . . . . Time Slot . . . . Interchange Unit . . . . . . . . . . . ............(TSIU)............ . . . . ........... . . .................................... . . . . . . . Packet Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit (PSU) . . . .................................... . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . Switch Module . . . . . . . . Processor (SMP) . . . . . . . . . .................................... . . . . .

. .................................................................................................................... . . . . Digital Line Trunk Unit . . 16 DFI Maximum . . . . . . . . . . . (DLTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital Facility . . . . . . . . . DFI DFI DFI . Interface (DFI) . . . . . . . . .................................................................................................................... . . . . .
32 Channel Digital Trunks (2.048 Mbps)

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5-23

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS GLOBAL SM (WGSM) Logical Signaling Path View
One Wireless Switching Module (WSM) in the 5ESS has the global responsibility of distributing signaling messages between Base Station Systems (BSSs) and WSMs, and hence termed the Wireless Global Switching Module (WGSM). As illustrated on the following page, all signaling links from BSSs ultimately terminate on the WGSM. The number of signaling links per BSS can be engineered between two and four (two links should be more than adequate to handle most traffic situations). Since trunks and call handling responsibilities between the 5ESS and a given BSS are distributed across multiple WSMs, it is necessary to have a signaling message switch (the WGSM). The WGSM hides internal 5ESS distributed processor/processing architectural details from BSSs, thus providing the appearance to all BSSs that the MSC is logically one entity. The WGSM provides the capability for any WSM to send messages to any BSS, and vice versa (even if there are no physical facilities between a given BSS and WSM). Later in this unit, you will be introduced with conditions whereby messages sent from a BSS to the MSC can be delivered to a WSM that does not have physical facilities to the BSS. The diagram on the following page shows trunks from BSSs terminating on WSMs and the signaling links terminating on the WGSM. This is a LOGICAL VIEW. Physically, the signaling and voice paths are time-division-multiplexed on 32 channel digital facilities. The "dotted" paths between the WGSM and WSMs are message delivery paths. Message delivery paths (often referred to as MD paths) are nailed up 64k BPS time slots between the WGSM and WSMs for the purpose of delivering signaling messages the correct WSM. Currently, each WSM has one MD path to the WGSM. If a 5ESS is equipped, for example, with 10 WSMs, then the WGSM would have 10 MD paths; one to each of the WSMs. The maximum number of WGSMs that be equipped in a 5ESS is one. Early architectural studies determined that one WGSM would have adequate capacity for switching signaling messages at the maximum advertized call handling load.

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5ESS MSC

WIRELESS GLOBAL SM (WGSM) Logical Signaling Path View

5ESS MSC
CM
64k BPS Nailed up Timeslots

WSM 1

WSM 2

WGSM 3

Voice Trunks

BSS 1

BSS 2

2 - 4 64k BPS SS7 Signaling Links

Legend
Voice Path SS7 Signaling Path Message Delivery Path

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5-25

5ESS MSC

EXAMPLE: FACILITIES BETWEEN 5ESS AND 1 BSS
Illustrated is one Base Station System (BSS) equipped with seven 32 channel facilities which terminates on 4 WSMs. Paths identified with the letter "A" represent facilities that also have a common channel signaling link. Two of the 7 facilities carry the signaling links to BSS 1--which should have more than enough bandwidth to meet maximum call load situations.5 For reliability reasons, it is unwise to place both signaling links on the same facility. Notice that the "B" paths have timeslot 16 available for voice/data connections. The total number of voice/data circuits (trunks) between the 5ESS and BSS 1, in this example, is 215. From a trunk-management standpoint, all 215 trunks are grouped into one "trunk group." If the 5ESS was to receive a call origination message over one of the signaling links from BSS 1, the Administrative Module (AM) would eventually be asked to find an available trunk (out of the 215 member trunk group) serving BSS 1.

5. This example shows facilities with both signaling channels using timeslot 16, per the CCITT recommendations. It is not a requirement that signaling be performed in timeslot 16--other timeslots such as 18 could be used. For hardware reasons, the AT&T Base Station Controller may not be able to use timeslot 16 for signaling.
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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

EXAMPLE: FACILITIES BETWEEN 5ESS AND 1 BSS

5ESS MSC

WSM 1

WSM 2

WSM 3

WSM 4

A

B

B

A

B

B

B

BSS 1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

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S Y N C

VOICE AND/OR DATA

S I G

VOICE AND/OR DATA

0

1

2

3

4

5

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10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

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S Y N C

VOICE AND/OR DATA

VOICE AND/OR DATA

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5-27

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS GLOBAL SM (WGSM) Actual Signaling Path View

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS GLOBAL SM (WGSM) Actual Signaling Path View

5ESS MSC
CM
64k BPS Nailed up Timeslots

WSM 1

WSM 2

WGSM 3

Voice Trunks 2 - 4 64k BPS SS7 Signaling Links

BSS 1

BSS 2

Legend
Voice Path SS7 Signaling Path Message Delivery Path

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5-29

5ESS MSC

BSS-5ESS SIGNALING ARCHITECTURE

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

BSS-5ESS SIGNALING ARCHITECTURE

OMC

5ESS MSC
CM

MD PH

MD PH

MD PH

MD PH

WGSM 3

SMP

SMP ST PH ST PH ST PH

WSM 1

WSM 2

BSS 1
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BSS 2

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-31

5ESS MSC

MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL

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5ESS MSC

MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL

Um MS BTS

A-bis BSC

A MSC

A CM Um MM CM A-bis MM BSSMAP RR’’ RR RR’ LAPDm Phys. LAPDm Phys. BTSM LAPD Phys. BTSM LAPD Phys. SCCP MTP
BSSMAP

SCCP MTP

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5-33

5ESS MSC

PSTN & PLMN-5ESS SIGNALING ARCHITECTURE

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-35 .0.5ESS MSC PSTN & PLMN-5ESS SIGNALING ARCHITECTURE 5ESS MSC CM MD PH MD PH MD PH MD PH GSM 6 SMP SMP ST PH ST PH ST PH SM 4 SM 5 PSTN & Other PLMN Entities Version 1.0 May 6.16:02:41 [jc714.

0 June 28.10:44:16 [djw. 1991 -.5ESS MSC MAP SIGNAL PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE Version 1.488] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-36 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0.

5ESS MSC MAP SIGNAL PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE C. HLR.G MSC.D.D.0 May 6.16:06:05 [jc950.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-37 . 1992 -.F. EIR MSC. EIR MAP TCAP SCCP-CL MTP-3 MTP-2 MTP-1 C.E.F.E.0. HLR.G MAP TCAP SCCP-CL MTP-3 MTP-2 MTP-1 Version 1.

1991 -.0 June 28.0.488] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-38 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .5ESS MSC PACKET SWITCH UNIT SIGNAL LINK ARCHITECTURE Version 1.10:44:16 [djw.

0 SM May 12. 1992 -.15:03:34 [jc951.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-39 .5ESS MSC PACKET SWITCH UNIT SIGNAL LINK ARCHITECTURE DLTU DFI Signaling Data Link TSIU SM T M S DLTU DFI TSIU DF CF PSU ST-PH MD-PH ST-PH MD-PH PF GSM DLTU DFI DF CF TSIU PI CM AM PSU MD-PH PF SMP Version 1.

0.16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-40 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 April 27. 1993 -.5ESS MSC GSM TERMINOLOGY Version 1.

0.Global System for Mobile communication • GSM -.5ESS MSC GSM TERMINOLOGY • GSM -.Group Special Mobile • GSM -.681] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-41 .0 December 6.Global Switching Module Version 1.16:29:14 [djw. 1991 -.

5ESS MSC INTER-SM MESSAGE COMMUNICATION Version 1. 1991 -.0 June 28.0.533] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-42 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .10:44:32 [djw.

23:12:19 [corel715.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-43 .0 February 10.0.5ESS MSC INTER-SM MESSAGE COMMUNICATION 5ESS MSC CM 2 Control Time Slots (CTS) 48k BPS each WSM 1 WSM 2 WSM 3 WGSM 4 GSM 5 SM 6 SM 7 Version 1. 1992 -.

5ESS MSC SUMMARY OF 5ESS MESSAGE SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE Version 1.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-44 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .10:20:18 [corel717. 1991 -.0 November 25.0.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-45 .0.0 May 8.5ESS MSC SUMMARY OF 5ESS MESSAGE SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE 2 48k BPS Control Time Slots (CTS) CM 5ESS MSC WSM 1 WSM 2 SM 5 SM 6 64k BPS Message Delivery Link WGSM 3 GSM 4 64k BPS SS7 Links BSS 1 BSS 2 BSS 3 PLMN PSTN Version 1.15:58:07 [jc717. 1992 -.

0.5ESS MSC EXTERNAL DATABASE ACCESS High Level View Version 1.1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-46 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .07:47:40 [db. 1992 -.0 May 11.

1992 -.5ESS MSC EXTERNAL DATABASE ACCESS High Level View 5ESS Switch MSC 5ESS Switch Data Base WSM WSM Application Data Base GSM GSM SS7 SDL Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-47 .0 June 1.12:11:19 [ccl_c001.0.

07:47:44 [db.0 May 11. 1992 -.5ESS MSC WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS Example Version 1.0.2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-48 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

0 June 1. 1992 -.5ESS MSC WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS Example 5ESS Switch MSC 5ESS Switch Data Base WSM WSM Call Processing SMP HLR SMP MDPH MDPH GSM MD PH MD PH MD PH GSM MD PH ST PH ST PH SS7 SDL ST PH ST PH Version 1.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-49 .12:11:25 [ccl_c002.

07:47:49 [db.5ESS MSC WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS MAP Message Routing Version 1.3] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-50 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0. 1992 -.0 May 11.

0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-51 .0 June 1.5ESS MSC WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS MAP Message Routing 5ESS Switch WSM SMP MAP User MAP TCAP PSU MDPH PSU MD Message PH Delivery SCCP MTP STPH SMP GSM 5ESS Switch GSM WSM SMP SMP MAP User MAP TCAP PSU STPH Distribution MDPH PSU MD PH Message Delivery Message Delivery SCCP MTP Version 1. 1992 -.11:46:07 [ccl_c003.

eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-52 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .5ESS MSC Version 1.11:46:07 [ccl_c003.0 June 1. 1992 -.0.

HLR, VLR, AUC, and EIR IMPLEMENTATION

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-53

5ESS MSC

AT&T GSM HLR, VLR, AUC, & EIR

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:44:56 [djw.520] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-54

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

AT&T GSM HLR, VLR, AUC, & EIR • Maximum HLR Size = 300k subscribers • Maximum VLR Size = 300k registered
subscribers

• Up to 15,000 per WSM

Version 1.0.0
May 4, 1992 -- 14:23:50 [jjm.520] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-55

5ESS MSC

IMPLEMENTATION OF HLR & VLR ON 5ESS

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:45:48 [djw.523] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-56

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

IMPLEMENTATION OF HLR & VLR ON 5ESS

WSM 1
0

WSM 2
N+1

WSM 3
2N+1

HLR & VLR

HLR & VLR

HLR & VLR

N

2N

3N

N = up to 15,000

Version 1.0.0
May 4, 1992 -- 14:44:01 [jjm.523] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-57

5ESS MSC

ROUTING SERVICE REQUESTS TO THE CORRECT VLR

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:46:01 [djw.492] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-58

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

ROUTING SERVICE REQUESTS TO THE CORRECT VLR

WSM 1

WSM 2

WSM 3

VLR

VLR

VLR

MD-PH

MD-PH

MD-PH

ST-PH

ST-PH

WGSM

5ESS MSC

BSS 1
Version 1.0.0

BSS 2

December 11, 1991 -- 16:37:56 [corel722.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-59

5ESS MSC

TMSI ORGANIZATION • The maximum number of Switching Modules (SMs) that can presently be supported within
one 5ESS is 190. The eight bit WSM field with in the TMSI supports the maximum number of SMs. • Since the maximum number of VLR records per WSM is 15,000, 16 bits is required to support this range. • The 8 bit random number field of the TMSI can result in 256 different combinations of TMSI values for a given VLR entry.

Version 1.0.0
June 5, 1992 -- 16:42:59 [djw.467] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-60

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

TMSI ORGANIZATION

31

24 23

11 10

0

WSM Number
8 bits

VLR Index
16 bits

Random Number
8 bits

Version 1.0.0
May 8, 1992 -- 15:33:35 [djw.467] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-61

5ESS MSC

LOCATION OF AUTHENTICATION CENTER

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-62

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

LOCATION OF AUTHENTICATION CENTER

Message Delivery Links

MD-PH
A3 & A8 Algorithms

MD-PH
A3 & A8 Algorithms

WGSM

SMP
HLR/VLR AUC

SMP
HLR/VLR AUC

WSM 1

WSM 2

Version 1.0.0
May 22, 1991 -- 13:58:40 [djw.524] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-63

5ESS MSC

LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER

Version 1.0.0
July 2, 1991 -- 12:49:28 [djw.525] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-64

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

15:30:09 [jjm.0 May 4.5ESS MSC LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER HLR/VLR HLR/VLR HLR/VLR 0 M+1 2M+1 EIR EIR EIR M 2M 3M WSM 1 WSM 2 WSM 3 M = up to 3200 Version 1. 1992 -.525] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-65 .0.

0 May 4.525] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-66 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0.5ESS MSC Version 1.15:30:09 [jjm. 1992 -.

0 April 27.ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION SCENARIO Version 1.0. 1993 -.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-67 .16:10:02 [unit05.

1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-68 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Version 1. 1992 -.0.07:38:55 [lu.0 May 11.1.

5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION TAINAN VLR IMSI TMSI = MCC-02-1234567 = 7777 Subscriber Data LA = 20 BSS 3 LAI = MCC-06-20 Network 6 BSS 4 Network 2 TAIPEI HLR IMSI MSISDN = MCC-02-1234567 = 886-2-741-0051 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Tainan 2 Need IMSI (TMSI = 7777) 3 IMSI Response (IMSI = MCC-02-1234567) (Authentication vectors) 4 Update Location (IMSI = MCC-02-1234567) (VLR Adr = Taichung) 5 Insert Subscriber Data (Subscriber data) TAICHUNG VLR IMSI = MCC-02-1234567 BSS 8 LAI = MCC-03-68 1 Registration (TMSI = 7777) (LAI = MCC-06-20) BSS 5 Network 3 Version 1. 1992 -.0.0 June 8.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-69 .17:37:44 [djw1130.

0.5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION .0 May 11. 1992 -.1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-70 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .Cont Version 1.07:38:55 [lu.1.

0 June 8. 1992 -.17:38:36 [djw1131.5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION .Cont TAINAN VLR IMSI TMSI = MCC-02-1234567 = 7777 Subscriber Data LA = 20 BSS 3 LAI = MCC-06-20 Network 6 8 Delete Record (IMSI = MCC-02-1234567) BSS 4 TAIPEI HLR IMSI MSISDN = MCC-02-1234567 = 886-2-741-0051 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Taichung 6 Network 2 7 Update Complete 6 Subscriber Data Inserted TAICHUNG VLR 9 IMSI = MCC-02-1234567 TMSI = 8888 Subscriber Data LA = 68 BSS 8 LAI = MCC-03-68 10 Registration Accepted (TMSI = 8888) (LAI =MCC-03-68) BSS 5 Network 3 Version 1.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-71 .

07:38:55 [lu.0 May 11. 1992 -.0.5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Request for Service and IMSI Query Version 1.1.1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-72 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 May 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Request . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 1992 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Send IMSI IMSI Result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request (TMSI) . . . . . Request . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19:31:29 [lu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Create VLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (TMSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Request for Service and IMSI Query Taichung MSC MAP Tainan MSC Selected WSM MS BSS VLR WSM VLR SM . . Version 1. Update . . . . Location Update . . . . . . .

.07:44:52 [lu.0 May 11. Create New & Cancel Old VLR Version 1. 1992 -.5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Auth.0.1.2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-74 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

.5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Auth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Update Location .0 . . . . .0. . . . . . . . Authentication Response . . . Subscriber Data Inserted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insert Subscriber Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Create New & Cancel Old VLR Taichung MSC MAP Taipei MSC MAP HLR SM Tainan MSC VLR WSM MS VLR WSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 11. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-75 . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication Request . . . . . . . .19:32:11 [lu. . . . . . . . . Location Update . . Cancel VLR Cancel VLR Acknowledge . . . . . Accepted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1992 -.1.5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION TMSI Reallocation.0 May 11.07:45:02 [lu.3] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-76 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . LU Complete Version 1.0.

. . . . . . . 1992 -. . . . . . . . .0 May 11. .5ESS MSC ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION TMSI Reallocation. . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . Cipher Mode Complete . . . . . . . . . . LU Complete Taichung MSC MS BSS VLR WSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear Complete .19:32:41 [lu. . . . . . . . . . . . Clear Signaling . . . . . . Set Cipher Mode . . . . . . . Release Radio . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-77 .1. . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Set . . . . . . . . Location Update Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update Accept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signaling Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1992 -.1.19:32:41 [lu.5ESS MSC Version 1.0.0 May 11.3] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-78 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

0 April 27.MOBILE TO LAND CALL SCENARIO Version 1.0. 1993 -.16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-79 .

10:46:47 [djw. 1991 -.5ESS MSC VLR SM & TRUNK SM RELATIONSHIP Version 1.493] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-80 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 June 28.0.

0.5ESS MSC VLR SM & TRUNK SM RELATIONSHIP TRUNK WSM VLR WSM WSM 1 Call Control WSM 2 VLR Message Delivery Links MD-PH MD-PH ST-PH WGSM 5ESS MSC Trunks Signaling Data links BSS 1 Version 1.0 June 7.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-81 . 1992 -.12:21:16 [djw1129.

0 June 28. 1991 -.5ESS MSC SMs USED FOR A MOBILE TO LAND CALL Version 1.10:46:59 [djw.0.404] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-82 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

Wireless Switching Module Voice Path Signalling Path Version 1. 1991 -.404] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-83 .Base Station System .Visitor Location Register WSM .14:44:02 [djw.Wireless Global Switching Module .0.Switching Module .5ESS MSC SMs USED FOR A MOBILE TO LAND CALL . GSM SM WSM WGSM VLR WSM PSTN BSS BSS GSM PSTN SM VLR WSM WGSM WSM .0 May 22.Public Telephone Switched Network .Global Switching Module .

10:47:13 [djw. 1991 -.304] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-84 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0.0 June 28.5ESS MSC PHASES OF A MOBILE TO LAND CALL Version 1.

0 May 22.0.14:46:42 [djw.5ESS MSC PHASES OF A MOBILE TO LAND CALL • Request for Service • Authentication∗ • Ciphering∗ • Equipment Validation∗ • Call Setup • Handover(s)∗ • Release ∗ Phase might not occur Version 1. 1991 -.304] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-85 .

The base station forwards the service request message to the MSC.15:37:37 [djw.5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service The following is an example of an interprocessor message scenario for a mobile-to-land call. 0 A mobile originated call starts by the user entering the directory number digits. The WSM containing the VLR record for a given mobile subscriber is referred to as the "VLR WSM. The mobile station transmits a service request message to the base station over the SDCCH. It is over the SDCCH that the mobile station will communicate with the BSS and MSC until a traffic channel is assigned. 1991 -. The user presses the "send" key after all digits have been entered. Random Access Channel (RACH). 1 2 3 4 5 Version 1. Mobile station transmits a channel request message over a common access channel. The access scheme for this channel is similar in concept to slotted ALOHA. it is possible that the mobile will have to retry this message several times. It is assumed that the mobile station is already registered with the system and has been allocated a Temporary Mobile Identification Number (TMSI). Included in this message is the mobile station TMSI and Location Area Identification (LAI). it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the mobile station over the Access Grant Channel (AGCH).0.0 July 12. associated with the person to be called. on the mobile station handset. This message also establishes a layer 2 signaling connection between the mobile station and the base station. Although unlikely. Once the base station receives the Channel Request message." Included in this message to the VLR WSM is the BSS number currently serving the mobile station. which is first received by the WGSM.622] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-86 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . The Protocol Handler (PH) in the WGSM that receives the Service Request message will use the high-order bits of the TMSI to determine which WSM contains the VLR data for the mobile subscriber and forward the service request to the appropriate WSM.

. . . . . . Service Request . . . . . . . . . . . Service Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . .0 July 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . .622] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-87 . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:33:34 [djw. . . Dedicated Signaling .5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service Um A MS BSS WGSM VLR WSM 1 2 3 4 5 . . .

It is possible that the trunk WSM selected is the same as the VLR WSM. One of the triplets would be used for this call. the VLR WSM needs to generate. the AM does not bias its BSS trunk hunt to favor the trunks on the VLR WSM. The remaining 4 triplets would be available for future calls. If equal. or retrieve previously generated. 9 The mobile station reads its Authentication key (Ki) from the SIM. it is necessary to determine if the TMSI received from the mobile station is from the SIM that the TMSI was assigned. applies the random number. Version 1. The MD-PH should only receive requests one out of every five times that authentication is necessary. This WSM is referred to as the Trunk WSM. and the Cipher Key (Kc). The mobile station then returns the generated SRES to the MSC (VLR WSM). to the mobile station requesting it to apply the random number to its A3 and A8 algorithm. VLR. Note: it is not known what the exact timing relationship will be between the mobile station authentication response and the assignment of a BSS trunk from the AM. In this scenario. and Ki to both its Authentication Algorithm (A3) and Cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and Cipher Key (Kc). Presently. authentication parameters: Random number (RAND). RAND. 1991 -. appropriate actions will be taken--which could result in the SIM being disabled. 10 The Trunk WSM then informs the VLR WSM that it has been selected as the Trunk WSM and that a BSS trunk has been reserved. It is not important that this be known since the VLR WSM will not proceed with the call until both the authentication response and a report is received from the trunk WSM. If no authentication parameters exist.10:25:49 [djw. this step performs many operations that do not result in interprocessor messages. the mobile station passes authentication.0. the VLR WSM will send a message to its MD-PH (Message Delivery Protocol Handler) requesting it to execute the Authentication Algorithm (A3) and Cipher Key Algorithm (A8) for a given IMSI and Authentication Key (Ki). 7 In parallel with mobile station authentication. To authenticate the mobile station. If unequal. we’ll assume that authentication passes. 6 Since the functionality of the HLR. and the AUC have been integrated in to the VLR WSM.623] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-88 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . and return 5 authentication parameter triplets. and will use Kc when it receives a command to cipher the channel. The VLR WSM then sends the random number. The mobile station saves Kc for later. The VLR WSM compares the SRES returned from the mobile station with the expected SRES generated earlier from the AUC entity in the VLR WSM.5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Authentication and Call Setup Since the air interface is vulnerable to fraudulent access. the VLR WSM sends a request message to the Administrative Module (AM) to allocate a trunk to the BSS currently serving the mobile station. RAND.0 July 5. Signed Response (SRES). 8 The AM allocates a BSS trunk and sends a message to the WSM that manages this trunk.

. . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . .10:35:32 [djw. . . . . . . . WSM & BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk Selected . . . . . . . Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authenticate Mobile . . . . . .0 July 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk WSM & . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Authentication and Call Setup MS VLR WSM Trunk WSM AM 6 7 8 9 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . .623] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request BSS . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication . . . . . Assign Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13 The WGSM receives the cipher command message. via the WGSM. the VLR WSM constructs a cipher command and sends it to the BSS. Included in this message are the dialed digits. the trunk WSM sends a call proceeding message to the mobile station. If the MSC elects to skip ciphering the channel.624] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-90 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . The WGSM forwards the cipher mode complete message to the VLR WSM. routes the call setup message to the trunk WSM. 16 The BSS upon receiving the cipher mode complete message starts ciphering the downlink channel. assuming that the call can proceed.0 July 5.5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Ciphering and Call Setup 11 The VLR WSM then transfers a copy of the subscriber VLR record to the trunk WSM. and transmits a confirmation over the ciphered channel to the BSS. upon receiving this message. such as international calls. This is the first message trunk WSM has received from the mobile station. 15 The mobile station uses the cipher key generated previously when it was authenticated to cipher the uplink channel. The WGSM uses the Trunk WSM identification to begin routing most messages from the BSS directly to the Trunk WSM instead of the VLR WSM. checks its local copy of the mobile station VLR record and determines that the call can proceed. and forwards this command to the BSS. 18 The WGSM. 14 The BSS retrieves the cipher key. 12 Using the Cipher Key (Kc) that was generated earlier during authentication. Again. Kc.10:26:55 [djw. 17 The mobile station upon receiving the cipher command stimulus transmits to the MSC a call setup message. Version 1. The VLR WSM includes in this message the Trunk WSM identification. then the MSC must send the mobile station a message indicating that ciphering will not be performed and that the mobile should send a call setup message. 19 The trunk WSM analyzes the dialed digits.0. and then sends a cipher complete message to the MSC. from the message and then transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to begin ciphering the channel. extracts and saves the Trunk WSM identification. One example on where a call might be denied if the mobile station is restricted from dialing certain directory numbers. 1991 -. Note: the mobile station waits until the channel is ciphered before transmitting the dialed digits.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Command . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Complete . . . . . Information .5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Ciphering and Call Setup Um A MS BSS WGSM VLR WSM Trunk WSM 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . + WGSM Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:37:05 [djw. Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete Call Setup Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer copy of VLR record Call Proceeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Command .624] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The VLR WSM then requests the MS’s IMEI information from the EIR by sending a message to the PSTN GSM MDPH. The mobile station. Once the MDPH receives the EIR data. or sends a MAP message to the EIR off the MSC. The VLR WSM uses the received IMEI a key into the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) to determine that status of the mobile equipment. the trunk WSM will allow the call to proceed. Equipment validation is performed after the ciphering phase and in parallel with call setup. the phone rings). Included in the message is the terrestrial circuit identity code (trunk number). 20 21 The VLR WSM transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to respond with its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). such as deny service. The BSS reserves a radio traffic channel. 1992 -. the mobile station user is unaware that he/she is receiving al call. The mobile station no longer uses the SDCCH after tuning to the designated radio traffic channel. The trunk WSM and VLR WSM are operating in parallel at this point in time.16:22:03 [jjm. the trunk WSM will begin to terminate the call. Equipment validation is optional and is controlled by the service provider. The mobile station then begins alerting the user (i. and sends a radio traffic channel assignment message to the mobile station (over the Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)). It retrieves the EIR information on the MSC. followed by sending the mobile station a call proceeding acknowledgment. and forwards both the IMEI and status to the trunk WSM. The BSS upon receiving the assignment complete message. If the results are good. Prior to this point in time.e.0 May 5. over the encrypted radio path.625] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-92 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . If the EIR results are negative. 22 23 24 25 26 Version 1..5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Equipment Validation and Call Setup The purpose of the equipment validation phase is to read the mobile equipment serial number from the mobile station and check it against the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) to determine if special action should be taken. upon receiving the IMEI request. The MDPH then determines whether the EIR is located on the MSC or on another network entity. returns the IMEI back. to the VLR WSM. it then sends it back to the VLR WSM for checking. if the MSC contains the EIR. places the SDCCH on a free list and transmits an assignment complete message to the trunk WSM. connects the radio to the specified MSC trunk. The last activity performed by the trunk WSM was to analyze the call setup message received from the mobile station. The next task for the trunk WSM is to send a message to the Base Station System (BSS) requesting it to allocate a radio traffic channel and connect the radio to a terrestrial trunk to the MSC.0. The mobile station tunes to the specified traffic channel and transmits an assignment complete message back to the BSS.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic . . from EIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk Assignment & . . . . . . IMEI Check . . . . . . Request IMEI Return IMEI . . . . . . Channel Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13:58:49 [jjm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic Channel . .0 May 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assign Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Equipment Validation and Call Setup Um A MS BSS VLR WSM Trunk WSM PSTN GSM F EIR 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk & Radio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request IMEI. Request Radio . . . . . . 1992 -. . . IMEI Response . . . . . . Request IMEI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . IMEI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . .

5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 AM finds an available trunk in the specified trunk group and reserves an inter-SM network timeslot.0. Version 1.626] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-94 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.16:58:43 [djw.0 December 9.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . trunk selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-95 . Assign PSTN . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SM & PSTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Alerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate PSTN Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk . . . . . . . . . . Network Alerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer . .10:40:13 [djw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Established . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alerting . . . .0 July 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer . . . .0. . . . . . . Network Setup . . . . . .5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup MS Trunk WSM AM SM PSTN 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0. 1991 -.627] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-96 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 June 28.10:48:23 [djw.5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Mobile Release Version 1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release PSTN Trunk . Mobile Disconnect Mobile Release Mobile Release Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . Network Release Release BSS Trunk Billing Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Mobile Release MS Trunk WSM AM SM PSTN 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10:41:32 [djw. . . Network Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

628] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-98 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 1991 -.0.5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Mobile Release (cont.) Version 1.0 June 28.10:48:36 [djw.

. Clear Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) Um A MS BSS WGSM VLR WSM Trunk WSM 46 47 48 49 50 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Release . .10:42:35 [djw. . . . . . . . . Connection Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear Command Clear Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . .0.5ESS MSC MOBILE TO LAND CALL Mobile Release (cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 July 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1991 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 July 5.10:42:35 [djw.5ESS MSC Version 1. 1991 -.0.628] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-100 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-101 .LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Version 1. 1993 -.0 April 27.0.16:10:02 [unit05.

1992 -.07:45:20 [term.0.1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-102 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .5ESS MSC CALL DELIVERY TO A MOBILE STATION Via Gateway with External HLR Version 1.0 May 11.

0 June 8.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-103 . 1992 -.5ESS MSC CALL DELIVERY TO A MOBILE STATION Via Gateway with External HLR BSS 1 MSC BSS 2 HLR MSISDN 1 3 Gateway M SR N M SIS DN 6 PSTN M SIS DN 2 MSC 4 5 Need MSRN MSRN Home PLMN 7 N SR M VLR 8 SI TM BSS 1 TM SI 9 Visited MSC BSS 2 Voice Path Signaling Version 1.17:36:51 [djw1101.

1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-104 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 1992 -.0 May 11.0.5ESS MSC LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing Information Query Version 1.07:45:20 [term.

. . Information Result. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . . . . . . . .1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Send Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing Information Query Gateway MSC HLR MSC VLR MSC PSTN SM IAM AM Routing WSM C HLR SM D VLR SM . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Send Routing . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HLR Query . . . . . . . . to VLR_MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roaming Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17:27:59 [term. . . . . . . . . . . . . Provide Roaming . . . . . . . . 1992 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 May 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0.0 May 11.5ESS MSC LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing to VLR MSC and Paging Version 1.2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-106 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 1992 -.07:45:32 [term.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IAM ACM . . . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Termination . . . . .0 May 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing to VLR MSC and Paging Gateway MSC VLR MSC PSTN SM AM ISUP SM ISUP ISUP SM VLR SM BSS MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-107 . . . . . . . . . ACM . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Response. . . . . . Received . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . to VLR MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17:31:45 [term. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ciphering Version 1.0.0 May 11. BSS Trunk Hunt.5ESS MSC LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Authentication. 1992 -.07:45:36 [term.3] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-108 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Authentication, BSS Trunk Hunt, Ciphering

Gateway MSC

VLR MSC

ISUP SM

ISUP

ISUP SM

VLR SM

AM

Trunk WSM

BSS

MS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Setup Complete

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . Setup . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ready . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VLR Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode. . . . . Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mode Set . . . . . Cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Radio Channel Assignment, Call Connection

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LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Radio Channel Assignment, Call Connection

Gateway MSC

VLR MSC

PSTN SM

ISUP SM

ISUP

ISUP SM

Trunk WSM

BSS

MS

CPG

ANM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Network Alerting Answer

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CPG

ANM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Network Alerting Answer

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. . . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . Call Confirm . . . . . . . . Assign Radio . . . . . Channel . . . . . Radio Assign . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . Mobile Alerted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connect Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER STEPS
The handover capability on the International 5ESS Mobile Switching Center (MSC) allows mobile subscribers to continue active calls as the move through the different radio coverage areas handled by the MSC. As the mobile station moves, the call is transferred between Base Station Systems (BSSs). To help support this movement, the 5ESS allocates a trunk to the new BSS and internally "moves" the the data associated with the mobile station (terminal) to a new Wireless Switching Module (WSM). The handover process on the International 5ESS Switch can be logically divided into the four steps (phases) as illustrated on the following page.

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HANDOVER STEPS • Handover Request from BSS • Allocation of New Resources • Handover Execution • Release of Old Resources

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4 STEPS TO A HANDOVER SWITCHING VOICE PATHS
The following diagram illustrates the first two steps of a handover on the International 5ESS Mobile Switching Center (MSC). Let’s assume that the mobile station is engaged in a mobile-to-land voice call and is currently being served within a cell area under the control of BSS 1 (Base Station System). The initial voice path for this call is through the following entities:

• • • • •

BSS 1 WSM 1 (Wireless Switching Module) Communications Module (CM) SM 3 Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

STEP 1: HANDOVER REQUEST (from BSS) The handover described in this scenario is intra-MSC inter-BSS. The handover process starts (from the MSC perspective) with a handover required message from BSS 1. Included in the message is a rank-ordered list of qualified cell areas that meet BSS 1 requirements to receive the call. WSM 1, upon receiving this handover required message will extract the first cell area from the rank-ordered list to determine which BSS controls the specified cell area. WSM 1 then determines the trunk group that serves the candidate BSS. There is a one-to-one mapping between a BSS number and trunk group number. WSM 1 forwards this trunk group number along with the remaining candidate cell IDs (if any) to the Administrative Module (AM). STEP 2: ALLOCATION OF NEW RESOURCES The AM, upon finding an available trunk to the candidate BSS, will reserve the trunk and inform the WSM associated with the trunk that it should begin preparation to receive a handover. In this example, it is assumed that the selected trunk terminates on WSM 2. The AM also reserves a new Time Multiplexed Switch (TMS) path between WSM 2 and SM 3. WSM 2 then has three basic operations to perform:

• Inform SM 3 that it needs to establish another TMS path between itself and WSM 2. • Request the candidate BSS (BSS 2 in this scenario) to reserve a radio traffic channel, and pass BSS 2 • Request WSM 1 to pass a copy of all call related data to WSM 2.
Once all of the above operations have been successfully performed, WSM 2 will inform WSM 1 that the mobile station should be ordered to retune to the new radio traffic channel (which was reserved by BSS 2). Note: each BSS connected to the 5ESS is represented by one trunk group (i.e., a 40 BSS system would have 40 groups of trunks serving BSSs). Recalling from a previous discussion, it is possible (and preferred) that that a group of trunks serving one BSS be spread across several WSMs. It is possible that the WSM serving a given call (WSM 1 in this example) has trunks to both the serving BSS (BSS 1) and the candidate BSS (BSS 2). The handover trunk-hunt algorithm in the AM does not attempt to favor any particular WSM in its search for an available trunk. In other words, it is possible to have an available trunk from WSM 1 to BSS 2, but the AM select a trunk to BSS 2 that is associated with WSM 2; as assumed in this example. BSS MS SM TSI - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Switch Module - Time Slot Interchanger CM PSTN TMS WSM - Communications Module - Public Switched Telephone Network - Time Multiplexed Switch - Wireless Switch Module the current Encription key, Kc.

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5ESS MSC

4 STEPS TO A HANDOVER SWITCHING VOICE PATHS

STEP 1:
Trunk WSM

HANDOVER REQUEST (from BSS)
TMS path through the CM

WSM 1 TSI

WSM 2 TSI

SM 3 TSI

BSS 1

BSS 2

PSTN

STEP 2:

ALLOCATION OF NEW RESOURCES
New TMS path

Pivot SM

WSM 1 TSI

WSM 2 TSI

SM 3

Passing WSM

Receiving WSM

BSS 1

BSS 2

PSTN

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5ESS MSC

4 STEPS TO A HANDOVER - continue SWITCHING VOICE PATHS
In order to proceed to Step 3, all resources necessary to perform a handover must be allocated and ready. If one or more resources are not available, then a handover to the given cell area cannot be performed. In this situation, WSM 2 would look to see if there is another cell on the rank ordered candidate list and if so, translate the next candidate cell ID to a BSS trunk group and then request the Administrative Module (AM) to search for an available trunk; a process very similar to what WSM 1 did back during Step 1. Assuming all resources have been reserved, we proceed as follows. STEP 3: HANDOVER EXECUTION WSM 1 informs the VLR WSM that the call is about to be handed off from WSM 1 to WSM 2. Next, WSM 1 instructs BSS 1 to order the mobile station to retune to a new radio traffic channel. The mobile station will transmit an access burst on the new radio channel to BSS 2. BSS 2, upon receiving an access burst from the mobile station will perform two operations: • Help the mobile station align its transmission in the correct time slot by determining the mobile station propagation delay (the time between when the access burst arrived relative to when the BSS expected the access burst to arrive in the mobile station’s timeslot), and then sends physical channel information to the mobile station asking it to advance it transmission by x number of bits. • Send a handover detected message to WSM 2 informing it that the mobile station has almost completed its handover. WSM 2 uses this stimulus to ask SM 3 (the pivot SM) to switch paths from the old BSS (BSS 1) to the the new BSS (BSS 2). Notice that the SM that actually performs the hot switch of paths is neither WSM, but the the other half to the call--SM 3 in this example. Once the mobile station aligns its transmission to fit precisely into the new radio channel timeslot, it will inform BSS 2 that it has successfully handed over. BSS 2 will forward this indication to WSM 2. STEP 4: RELEASE OF OLD RESOURCES WSM 2, upon receiving the handover complete indication from BSS 2, will inform the WSM 1 that the handover has completed. WSM 1 will then inform the VLR WSM that the handover has completed (which also results in a message being sent to BSS 1 to free up the old radio traffic channel), and request the AM to free up the trunk to BSS 1 and the TMS path between WSM 1 and SM 3. Upon conclusion of a handover, the passing WSM no longer has any association with the call--the receiving WSM owns the call.

BSS MS SM TSI

- Base Station System - Mobile Station - Switch Module - Time Slot Interchanger

CM PSTN TMS WSM

- Communications Module - Public Switched Telephone Network - Time Multiplexed Switch - Wireless Switch Module

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5ESS MSC

4 STEPS TO A HANDOVER - continue SWITCHING VOICE PATHS

STEP 3:

HANDOVER EXECUTION

Pivot SM

WSM 1 TSI
Passing WSM

WSM 2 TSI
Receiving WSM

SM 3

BSS 1

BSS 2

PSTN

STEP 4:

RELEASE OF OLD RESOURCES
Trunk WSM

WSM 1 TSI

WSM 2 TSI

SM 3 TSI

BSS 1

BSS 2

PSTN

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5ESS MSC

INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 1
Presented in the following scenario is an inter-BSS intra-MSC handover for an active mobile station involved in a mobile-to-land call. This scenario presents details concerning message communication between processors within the 5ESS MSC. Many of the steps in this scenario can be further decomposed into interprocess message communication within the same processor. Inter-process message communication details are not presented here.6 1 At periodic intervals, the mobile station provides signal strength and signal quality measurement reports to its serving Base Station System (BSS). The BSS also monitors the strength and quality of the signal being received from the mobile station. This monitoring and measurement process, by both the mobile station and serving BSS, continues for as long as the mobile station is up on either a dedicated signaling channel or a voice/data traffic channel. 2 The serving BSS (soon to be the old BSS) determines from the measurement report data that there are one or more qualified cell areas that can serve the mobile station, and decides (based on some criteria) that a handover should be performed. The serving BSS reviews the candidate list to see if any of the cell areas are under its control, and in this example we’ll assume there are none. The serving BSS packages the rank-ordered list of qualified candidate cell area identities (IDs) in a handover required message and sends this to the MSC.7 In this case the MSC is represented by the WSM managing the call on the trunk to the serving BSS (commonly referred to as the "trunk WSM" or "passing WSM" in 5ESS handover documentation); hereafter referred to as the passing WSM. The handover required signaling message is routed the passing WSM via the WGSM. 3 4 5 The passing WSM upon receiving the handover required message, extracts from the rank-order list of candidate cell IDs the best candidate. The passing WSM then translates the cell identifier to a BSS trunk group number. The passing WSM then sends a message to the Administrative Module (AM) asking it to allocate a trunk to the candidate BSS. Included in the message is the BSS trunk group number and the remaining cell area IDs (if any). 6 The AM, upon receiving this request, searches for an available trunk in the specified trunk group. If the AM cannot find a trunk, the requesting WSM will be informed of the situation. Assuming the AM does find and reserve a trunk, the AM determines which WSM is associated with the new trunk, reserves an inter-SM voice path (Time Multiplexed Switch (TMS) path) between the new WSM (the receiving WSM) and the pivot SM. The AM then sends a message to the receiving WSM informing it that it should begin preparation to receive a handover. Included in the message are the following: trunk number to the new BSS, inter-SM path number, and the rank-ordered list of qualified cell areas. 7 The receiving WSM, upon being informed that it has been nominated to receive a handover, first informs the pivot SM that a new inter-SM TMS path has been reserved by the AM. The pivot SM, upon receiving this indication, will send a message to the Communication Module (CM) requesting that it setup the reserved path between the receiving WSM and the pivot SM. The pivot SM, upon completing this operation, is now "primed" and ready to switch paths to the new BSS when instructed to do so. In the mean time, the current talk path remains in use and is not affected by this message.

6 . For very specific details concerning handovers on the 5ESS MSC, you can find additional information in the "Wireless Hand-over Feature" located on the International DSS library: " intldss/111001/v5121/75". 7 . See GSM 08.08, Version 3.9.2, Section 3.2.2.17 for cell identifier formats.
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18:58:02 [djw1125.5ESS MSC INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 1 MS Um Old BSS A Passing WSM AM Receiving WSM Pivot SM 1 Signal strength measurements Handover required Initiate handover Handover initiated Allocate new BSS trunk 2 3 4 5 Receive handover notification 6 Setup new inter-SM path 7 Version 1. 1992 -.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-121 .0 June 5.0.

0. Kc. Any call processing related messages sent to the passing WSM. 1992 -. for example. This is the first indication to the passing WSM regarding the identity of the receiving WSM. the mobile station directory number (MSISDN). The VLR WSM will queue any supplementary service and/or short messages associated with the mobile station until the handover has completed. The receiving WSM sends a handover request message to the candidate BSS. Kc. The new BSS.5ESS MSC INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 2 8 9 The receiving WSM then informs the passing WSM that is has been selected to receive the handover. reserve a radio traffic channel. Associated with the SCCP connection will be two WSMs: the VLR WSM and the receiving WSM. A couple examples of VLR and connection information include: the current encryption key. signifying that there will be a short open interval where messages cannot be reliably exchanged between the MSC and mobile station. The receiving WSM forwards the handover request acknowledgment message to the passing WSM. is billing related information and the call processing state of the call. from now on will be queued and shipped to the receiving WSM after the handover has completed. and VLR WSM number associated with the mobile station. this message is sent to the new BSS via the WGSM. At this point in time. will determine which Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is associated with the candidate cell identifier. associated with the mobile station. Before executing the handover. The diagram on the following page suggests that the receiving WSM sends the message directly to the new BSS. pass the encryption key value to the BTS. and terrestrial circuit identity code (trunk number). Included in this data. the new BSS sends a handover request acknowledge message with the reserved radio traffic channel number back to the MSC. the WGSM will initiate the establishment of a Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) connection (i. the passing WSM transfers a copy of the call record (dynamic data pertaining to the call) to the receiving WSM. upon receiving the handover required message. 10 11 12 13 14 15 Version 1. the candidate cell identifier.19:10:27 [djw0630.e. The receiving WSM acknowledges the receipt of the call record data. and connect the reserved radio to the MSC terrestrial circuit (trunk). Since the handover required message is the first message to the new BSS for the mobile station.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-122 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . The passing WSM informs the VLR WSM that the handover interval has started. Assuming a radio traffic channel is available.0 June 5. The passing WSM then transfers a copy of VLR and signaling connection information to the receiving WSM. Actually. a virtual channel). Included in this message is the encryption key. the passing WSM now knows that all the necessary resources have been reserved/established to support a handover.

0 June 5.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-123 .5ESS MSC INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 2 VLR WSM Passing WSM Receiving WSM A New BSS New trunk WSM & BSS trunk selected 8 Transfer copy of VLR record 9 Handover request 10 Handover request acknowledge 11 Handover request acknowledge 12 Transfer call record Transfer acknowledge 14 15 Handover started 13 Version 1.18:58:40 [djw1126. 1992 -.0.

This is the last message the serving base station sends to the mobile station. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Note: it is not known what the exact timing relationship will be between messages 16 through 22. from the GSM specifications. sends an acknowledgment back to the receiving WSM. The new BSS. The mobile station retunes to the new designated radio traffic channel and begins transmitting access burst messages (mini packets with a lot of guard band) to the new BSS. sends a handover detected message to the MSC. and getting the handover detected stimulus to the pivot SM as soon as possible to cause the voice path to be switched to the new BSS. The new BSS informs the MSC that the mobile station has successfully performed the handover. since there are two activities occurring in parallel. The BTS accomplishes this by measuring the mobile station transmission propagation delay (the time between when the access burst arrived relative to when the BTS expected the access burst to arrive in the mobile station’s timeslot).txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-124 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . upon detecting that the mobile station is attempting to gain access to the new BSS. It is required. The serving BSS transmits to the mobile station a handover command with the new radio traffic channel number. the BSS steals voice time slots (discarding them) and inserts the handover command in the stolen slots.0. and then sending physical channel information to the mobile station asking it to advance its transmission by x bits. The rational. It is necessary to adjust when mobile stations begin their transmission to prevent two mobile stations on adjacent timeslot from interfering with each other. the receiving Base Transceiver Station (BTS). 1992 -. The two most time critical events involve: getting the mobile station to advance its transmission to fit precisely in its designated timeslot. This message is a useful stimulus to the MSC to switch the voice path from the old and new BSS. The pivot SM upon switching the voice paths.0 June 5. behind this approach has to do with the notion that the logical out-of-band signaling channel associated with the voice channel has too low of bandwidth. Note: There are 8 timeslots per radio frequency. Included in this message is the new radio traffic channel that was reserved on the new BSS.5ESS MSC INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 3 16 17 The passing WSM instructs the serving BSS to send a handover command to the mobile station. that the open voice interval not exceed 150 milliseconds. has the responsibility to work with the mobile station to align the mobile’s transmission precisely within its assigned time slot. The receiving WSM upon receiving the handover detected message. supposedly. Once the mobile station has correctly aligned it transmission within its designated timeslot. While the BSS is sending the handover detected message to the MSC. This message and the next message occur in parallel. quickly sends a request to the pivot SM instructing it to switch the voice path to the receiving WSM.19:10:48 [djw0631. Version 1. Since the number of bytes associated with the handover command is rather large. it sends a handover complete message to its new serving BSS.

5ESS MSC INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 3 Um MS Old BSS A Passing WSM Pivot SM Receiving WSM A New BSS 16 Handover command Handover access 18 Handover command 17 Handover detected 19 Physical channel information 20 21 Handover complete 22 Handover complete Switch path complete 24 Switch paths 23 Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-125 . 1992 -.0 June 5.18:59:22 [djw1127.0.

release all resources associated with the old path. The Communication Module (CM) is not informed that the path is no longer needed. It is possible that the mobile user has just started a call whereby the destination party has not picked up yet (still alerting). The old BSS upon receiving a clear command releases the radio traffic channel (making it available for another mobile station). a handover is not a trivial procedure when the MSC hardware and software is highly distributed. All messages received from the passing WSM are acknowledged. it is possible for a handover to be performed. the passing WSM begins transferring messages (if any) to the receiving WSM that was received and queued since the time when the call record was transferred from the passing to the receiving WSM (message 11). upon detecting the "E-bit discontinuity" situation. you have made it through an intra-MSC handover scenario as implemented on the International 5ESS! As you can tell. If this was to occur. The VLR WSM uses this information to begin sending any supplementary service or short messages to the receiving WSM.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-126 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 June 5. The passing WSM informs the pivot SM that the old inter-SM voice path (Time Multiplexed Switch (TMS) path) is no longer needed by setting the "E signaling bit" (busy/idle bit) to idle in the inter-SM timeslot.19:11:13 [djw0632. While the mobile user is driving around listening to ringing tone. In parallel with message 24. The pivot SM. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Congratulations. Periodically (around 5 to 10 seconds) each SM sends a copy of their network timeslot busy/idle map to the AM. The next level of detail is beyond the scope of this course. it would be queued. but still possible) for the destination party to go off-hook while the mobile station is being handed off. Version 1. 1992 -. this scenario barely touches all the detailed steps necessary to perform a handover. disconnects the radio from the terrestrial facility (trunk) to the MSC. to the AM will result in the AM placing the inter-SM network timeslot back on the free list. The VLR WSM sends a message to the WGSM requesting that the SCCP connection to the old BSS be terminated. The passing WSM informs the Administrative Module (AM) that the trunk between the passing WSM and the old BSS and the old inter-SM path can be freed. this scenario may seem quite detailed. and terminates the SCCP connection that was associated with the mobile station. so the CM will continue to switch timeslots from the passing WSM to the receiving WSM (which is harmless). from either the passing or receiving WSM. and if the off-hook indication was delivered to the passing WSM. It is also possible (although statistically unlikely. Examples of messages that could be queued include off-hook and on-hook indications. The WGSM in turn sends a clear command to the old BSS.5ESS MSC INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 4 25 Once the receiving WSM receives the handover complete message from the BSS and the switch path complete indication from the pivot SM. The next copy of the map. For folks who must design/maintain handover software in the 5ESS. To some people.0. the receiving WSM informs the passing WSM that the handover has been completed. The passing WSM lets the VLR WSM know that the handover has completed.

1992 -.0.0 June 5.5ESS MSC INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 4 Old BSS VLR WSM Passing WSM Receiving WSM Pivot SM AM 25 Handover complete Release old radio channel 27 Radio channel released 28 Handover complete 26 Transfer queued messages (if any) 29 Transfer acknowledge 30 Release old path 31 Release old BSS trunk 32 Version 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-127 .19:46:18 [djw1128.

1992 -.5ESS MSC Version 1.0 June 5.19:46:18 [djw1128.0.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-128 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Version 1.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-129 . 1993 -.0.16:10:02 [unit05.0 April 27.

5ESS MSC 4 STEPS TO INTER-MSC HANDOVER SWITCHING VOICE PATHS Version 1.0. 1992 -.09:53:13 [hoterstp.1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-130 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 May 11.

0.17:56:15 [corel802.0 May 1.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-131 . 1992 -.5ESS MSC 4 STEPS TO INTER-MSC HANDOVER SWITCHING VOICE PATHS STEP 1: HANDOVER REQUEST (from BSS) Path through CM MSC A SM 3 SM 4 TSI TSI WSM 5 MSC B SM 1 TSI WSM 2 TSI TSI Trunk WSM PSTN BSS 1 BSS 2 STEP 2: ALLOCATION OF NEW RESOURCES MSC A MSC B Path through CM SM 1 TSI WSM 2 SM 3 TSI SM 4 TSI WSM 5 TSI Controlling WSM Inter-MSC Voice Facilities PSTN BSS 1 BSS 2 Version 1.

0 May 11.continue SWITCHING VOICE PATHS Version 1.2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-132 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .5ESS MSC 4 STEPS TO INTER_MSC HANDOVER .09:53:20 [hoterstp.0. 1992 -.

continue SWITCHING VOICE PATHS STEP 3: HANDOVER EXECUTION MSC A MSC B Path through CM SM 1 TSI WSM 2 SM 3 TSI SM 4 TSI WSM 5 TSI Inter-MSC Voice Facilities PSTN BSS 1 BSS 2 STEP 4: RELEASE OF OLD RESOURCES MSC A MSC B SM 4 TSI TSI WSM 5 TSI SM 1 TSI WSM 2 SM 3 Controlling WSM PSTN BSS 1 BSS 2 Version 1.17:57:12 [corel803.0. 1992 -.5ESS MSC 4 STEPS TO INTER-MSC HANDOVER .eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-133 .0 May 1.

1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-134 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . New BSS Trunk Assignment Version 1. 1992 -.07:45:53 [hoter.0 May 11.0.5ESS MSC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Required .

0 May 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . Call Connection Call Controlling MSC Target MSC MS Old BSS A Call MAP Connection Controlling WSM WSM AM New WSM A New BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Handover Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate . . . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal Strength . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Radio Channel Assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . .17:20:55 [hoter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . .1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-135 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform Handover . . . . . .

07:46:30 [hoter.2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-136 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0. 1992 -. Radio Channel Assignment Version 1.5ESS MSC INTER-MSC HANDOVER ISUP Trunk Setup.0 May 11.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IAM . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . . . . . . . .2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-137 . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 May 13. . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel Acknowledge . 1992 -. . . . . .17:22:26 [hoter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel Assignment Call Controlling MSC Target MSC Call Controlling WSM AM ISUP SM ISUP MAP ISUP SM Connection WSM AM New WSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC INTER-MSC HANDOVER ISUP Trunk Setup. . . . . . . . . . .0. . . Setup Complete . . Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Set Inter-MSC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time Slot . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate ISUP Trunk . . . . . . . New Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5ESS MSC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Command.07:46:33 [hoter.0 May 11.3] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-138 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 1992 -. Mobile Retune Version 1.0.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command .3] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-139 . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detected . . . . . . . . . Pre-determined Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . .17:24:18 [hoter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Path . . Wait for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACM ANM . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 May 13. . . . . . . . . Target MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform . Started . . . . and . . . . . . . Mobile Retune Call Controlling MSC Target MSC MS VLR WSM Call Controlling WSM ISUP SM ISUP ISUP SM New WSM New BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Command. . . . . . Joining . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . .

4] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-140 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .07:46:38 [hoter. 1992 -.5ESS MSC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover End. Old BSS Trunk Release Version 1.0 May 11.0.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1992 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Send End Signal . . . . . . . . . Old BSS Trunk Release Call Controlling MSC Target MSC Old BSS VLR WSM AM Call Controlling WSM MAP Connection WSM New WSM . . . . . .4] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-141 . . . . . . . . . . . . .17:25:40 [hoter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 May 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5ESS MSC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover End. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . . . . . . . . Handover End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release . . . . . . . Send End Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release . . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . . . . . . Released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5ESS MSC 5ESS TERMINOLOGY CLARIFICATION Version 1.16:10:02 [unit05.0.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-142 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 April 27. 1993 -.

0 December 6.682] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System 5-143 .17:42:22 [djw.0.5ESS MSC 5ESS TERMINOLOGY CLARIFICATION • VLR WSM and VLR SM • Passing WSM and Passing SM • Receiving WSM and Receiving SM • Trunk WSM and Trunk SM • Pivot WSM and Pivot SM Version 1. 1991 -.

1991 -.0 December 6.5ESS MSC Version 1.17:42:22 [djw.682] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 5-144 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0.

1993 -.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 27.16:12:37 [unit07.Unit 7 Overview of Japan Cellular Version 1.0.

12:59:10 [jjm.701] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-2 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Overview of Japan Cellular UNIT OVERVIEW Version 1. 1992 -.0 April 7.0.

0.0 April 14.Overview of Japan Cellular UNIT OVERVIEW Japan Cellular Telephone Company Overview Japan Telecommunication Standards Overview IDO Project Overview Japan Cellular Network Scenarios Version 1.701] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-3 . 1992 -.15:36:57 [jjm.

15:36:57 [jjm. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular Version 1.0.0 April 14.701] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-4 The Japan Digital Cellular System .

16:12:37 [unit07. Mac Namara Version 1.Overview of Japan Cellular John J.0. 1993 -.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-5 .0 April 27.

0 April 7.0.11:18:00 [jjm.702] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-6 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Overview of Japan Cellular WHAT ARE THE JAPAN CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the separate Frequency Bands issued for Cellular use? Version 1. 1992 -.

e.. KCT. 1992 -. Version 1.Cellular Telephone Companies – Same as 800 MHz Analog 3 .Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’S CELLULAR NETWORKS 1 ..text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-7 .0 May 18.Cellular Telephone Companies – Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) – Tokyo Digital Phone (TDP) – Tu-Ka 4 .Cellular Telephone Companies – Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) – Other Companies Considering. 800 MHz Band Digital . 2 ... IDO. etc.Cellular Telephone Companies – Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) – 8 New Common Carriers (NCCs) • i. 1.19:44:07 [jjm.9 GHz Band Digital "Personal Handy Phone (PHP)" .702.5 GHz Band Digital "PCN" . 800 MHz Band Analog . 1...0.

703] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-8 The Japan Digital Cellular System .12:59:20 [jjm.0 April 7.0. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’s CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 800 MHz Band Analog Cellular Telephone Companies? Version 1.

7.703.Overview of Japan Cellular 800 MHz BAND ANALOG CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANY OVERVIEW • Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) – Began service 1974.0.19:44:54 [jjm.Competition against NTT in 1985 1 .text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-9 . Chugoku Cellular Telephone Co. 1989 – Serving Tokyo Metropolitan Area – Teleway Japan Corp Long-distance company 2 . 8. 5. Kyushu Cellular Telephone Co.0 May 18. Shikoku Cellular Telephone Co. 4. Hokkaido Cellular Telephone Co. Expanded 1979 – Nationwide Service • 8 New Common Carriers (NCCs) . Tohoku Cellular Telephone Co. 1992 -. 1989 – Serving Kansai District – Dai Ni Deden (DDI) Long-distance company 3. 6. Nippon Ido Tsushin (IDO) – Began service May. Kansai Cellular Telephone (KCT) – Began service July. Version 1. Hokuriku Cellular Telephone Co.

1992 -.13:26:07 [jjm.0.704] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-10 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 7.Overview of Japan Cellular WHAT ARE THE JAPAN CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 800 MHz Band Analog Cellular Telephone Companies? Version 1.

18:35:06 [jjm. and other areas by the eight companies of the Cellular Group. Nippon Ido Tsushin Corp. Shikoku Cellular Telephone Co.0. Ltd.0 April 6.. Ltd. Okinawa Cellular Telephone Co. Hokkaido Cellular Telephone Co.. (Scheduled to begin operation in spring 1992) Kyushu Cellular Telephone Co. Ltd... Hokurika Cellular Telephone Co.704] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-11 .. 1992 -. Ltd. Tohoku Cellular Telephone Co..Overview of Japan Cellular 800 MHz BAND ANALOG CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANY MAP NTT is operating nationwide.. Kansai Cellular Telephone Co.. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. Version 1. The Kanto and Chubu regions are served by IDO. Chugoku Cellular Telephone Cto. Ltd.

Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’s CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 800 MHz Band Terminal Unit Charges? Version 1.0 April 7. 1992 -.705] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-12 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0.13:26:09 [jjm.

000 (2 yrs)  - -_Deposit (Y)      Monthly Fee (Y)  17.0 May 18.800 ____________________________________________________  100.19:46:11 [jjm.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-13 .000 _____________________________________________________    Call Charge (Y)  277  240  260  ____________________________________________________    _3 minutes Version 1.800 _Price of Unit (Y)  79.700  76.000  15. 1992 -.0.000 15.705.Overview of Japan Cellular TERMINAL UNIT CHARGES 800 MHz Band Analog _____________________________________________________    IDO  Cellular  Category NTT ____________________________________________________    Group _      Product Name  Mova-P Minimo  HP-211 _____________________________________________________   Weight (g) 220 _____________________________________________________    338  245 ____________________________________________________  93.

0 April 7. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’s CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 800 MHz Band Digital Cellular Telephone Companies? Version 1.0.13:26:11 [jjm.706] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-14 The Japan Digital Cellular System .

text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-15 .0. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular 800 MHZ BAND DIGITAL CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANIES • Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) – To Began service March 1993 – Nationwide Service • 8 New Common Carriers (NCCs) .706.19:47:59 [jjm.Competition against NTT ° Nippon Ido Tsushin (IDO) – To Began service September. 1993 – Serving Tokyo Metropolitan Area – Teleway Japan Corp Long-distance company Kansai Cellular Telephone (KCT) – Began service January.0 May 18. 1994 (??) – Serving Kansai District – Dai Ni Deden (DDI) Long-distance company 6 Other NCCs serving the remaining country ° ° Version 1.

6 GHz Band Digital PCN Cellular Telephone Companies? Version 1.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’s CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 1.0.0 April 7.13:26:14 [jjm.707] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-16 The Japan Digital Cellular System . 1992 -.

text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-17 . 1992 -.0 May 18.0.Overview of Japan Cellular 1.5 GHZ BAND DIGITAL PCN CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANIES • Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) – Scheduled to Began service mid-1994 – Nationwide Service • Tu-Ka Cellular Tokyo Inc.707.19:48:23 [jjm. Dai Ni Deden (DDI) & Foreign investment • Tokyo Digital Phone – Scheduled to begin service mid-1994 – Nationwide service – Japan Telecom Co Long-distance & Foreign investment Version 1. – Scheduled to begin service mid-1994 – Nationwide Service – Nissan Motor.

0 April 7. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’s CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 1.13:26:19 [jjm.9 GHz Band Digital PHP’s Cellular Telephone Companies? Version 1.0.708] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-18 The Japan Digital Cellular System .

text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-19 .9 GHZ BAND DIGITAL PHP’s CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANIES • Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) – Scheduled to Began service mid-1994 – Selective Service • Others ??? Version 1.0.19:48:33 [jjm. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular 1.0 May 18.708.

13:26:21 [jjm. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’s TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS Version 1.0 April 7.709] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-20 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0.

Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’S TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS • Japan Digital Cellular Standards – Research & Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR) Specification – Digital Mobile Network Inter-node (DMNI) Specification • Other Standards .19:48:53 [jjm.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-21 .0.709.0 May 18. 1992 -.Japan’s SS7 based on CCITT – Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) C7 Specifications Version 1.

Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’s TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS Version 1. 1992 -.0.710] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-22 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 7.13:26:24 [jjm.

.703 ..0 April 7.701 Q. 1992 -..Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN’S TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS Japan Standards TTC TTC TTC JTJTJTQ.702 Q.13:14:25 [jjm. DMNI 3...0.710] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-23 .1 RCR STD27a Japan’s SS7 Standards Japan’s Digital Cellular Standards Version 1.

1992 -.0.0 April 7.711] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-24 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN TTC OVERVIEW Version 1.13:26:26 [jjm.

19:49:35 [jjm. 7 – JT-Q762 General Function of Messages and Signals – JT-Q763 Format and Code – JT-Q764 Signaling Procedures Version 1. For example: – JT-Q701 Functional Description of the MTP of SS No.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN TTC OVERVIEW • Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) C7 Specifications – A subset of the CCITT (C7) Blue Book messages are used – Some additional charging messages are defined – TTC standards use JT-Q convention.0 May 18.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-25 .711. 1992 -.0. 7 – JT-Q702 MTP Signaling Data Link – JT-Q703 MTP Signaling Link – JT-Q704 MTP Signaling Network Functions & Messages – JT-Q707 MTP Test and Maintenance – JT-Q761 Functional Description of the ISDN User Part of Signaling System No.

1992 -.712] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-26 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0.0 April 7.13:26:28 [jjm.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN TTC OVERVIEW Diagram Version 1.

......... . .. ....... ... ......0................. ...... ... . ... .. .. .......Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN TTC OVERVIEW DIAGRAM GLR HLR .. ..13:51:44 [jjm... . ......... ......... 1992 -... ... TTC .......... .... .. ............. ....... .. GMSC . VMSC VMSC PLMN..... . ....... . . .. .... . ..................... . . . .......... ........ .... .. VMSC ........... .. . . .. ......0 May 26. .. . (TTC SS7 ISUP & MTP) Voice Trunks Signaling Links Version 1... . . ... . . BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS MS .. .... ........ .. . . . ............. .............. ..... .......................... .. ... ..... .. ........... ... ... .... ....712] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-27 . ........ . .... ... ... PSTN ISUP .... .....

0 April 7.13:26:31 [jjm.0.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN RCR OVERVIEW Version 1. 1992 -.713] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-28 The Japan Digital Cellular System .

08) – RCR Layer 3 covers Call Control (CC).2.08) – RCR doesn’t define Abis interface (BSC<-->BTS) – RCR defines 3 channel TDMA (GSM is 8 Channel TDMA) – RCR Layer 2 is LAPDm Version 1.3) between the MS and Network (Similar to GSM section 4.0 May 18.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN RCR OVERVIEW • Research & development Center for Radio systems (RCR) – RCR defines the Air Interface (Layers 1.19:50:20 [jjm.0. MSC & BSC vendors must agree on a proprietary protocol (IDO’s Similar to GSM 8.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-29 . 1992 -. – RCR sequencing of messages are slightly different – Some RCR message parameters are different – IMSI Attach/Detach is not used – No TMSI used – MS location area information is in HLR (No VLR) – MS is authenticated using NTT FEAL Algorithm (similar to GSM) – RCR doesn’t define BSSMAP (GSM section 8. and Radio frequency Transmission management (RT) (GSM’s RR). Mobility Management (MM).08).713.

0 April 7.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN RCR OVERVIEW Diagram Version 1.714] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-30 The Japan Digital Cellular System . 1992 -.13:26:33 [jjm.0.

.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . 1992 -. . .. . .. . .... . . . .. .. . . ... . . ..714] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-31 .. BSS BSS BSS . . . . . . . .... . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .... . Signalling Links Voice MS Version 1.. . . . . . . . . ... BSS VMSC ..0. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. .. . . . ..Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN RCR OVERVIEW DIAGRAM PLMN.. ... . . . .. . . .VMSC.. . . . . PSTN GLR GMSC HLR RCR CC & MM Only . . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . . ... . ... . . .. . . . .0 May 26. . .. . BSS BSS . .13:59:34 [jjm. . .. .. BSS . . . ... . . ... ... ... . . . . .. . . ..VMSC . . .. . ... . . BSS BSS RCR . . . . . . . . .. ... . ... .

715] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-32 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 7.13:26:38 [jjm.0. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular MSC<->BSS<->MS Protocol Model Version 1.

Overview of Japan Cellular MSC<->BSS<->MS PROTOCOL MODEL A VMSC BSS BSC A-bis BTS (Air) Um MS BSSMAP & SS7 Layers 1 & 2 & Layer 3 Radio Resource (RR) Layer 3 Call Control (CC) & Mobility Management (MM) RCR only specifies Layer 1. MM.0 May 18. MM. & 3 of Air Interface (CC.0. & Layers 1. RT) GSM specifies BSSMAP. & 3 of Air Interface (CC. 1992 -. SS7.20:11:19 [jjm. 2. A-bis. 2. RR) Version 1.715] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-33 .

13:26:41 [jjm. 1992 -.716] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-34 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW Version 1.0 April 7.0.

19:51:17 [jjm.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-35 .02) – DMNI MAP has the same protocol stack and interface to TCAP – VLRs are not used in the DMNI – DMNI HLRs are accesse more frequently and contain dynamic data (i.LM Control) – DMNI uses Gateway visitor Location Registers (GLR) – GLRs contain HLR data for visiting subscribers from other networks – Supplementary Services only work in Home networks (not for roaming) – Anchor-MSCs (A-MSC) and Float-MSCs (F-MSC) to handle multi-MSC LAs and handoffs between MSCs – SCCP/MTP use 16 bit codes vs 14 bit for GSM – DMNI adds data (IEs) to the ISUP IAM message to handle connections between MSCs – No EIR Version 1.716.0.e. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW • Digital Mobile Network Inter-node (DMNI) Specification – DMNI defines Mobile Application Part (MAP) and ISDN User Part (ISUP) for mobile communication purposes (GSM MAP Section 9.0 May 18. Busy/Idle status .

0. 1992 -.13:26:41 [jjm.716] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-36 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 7.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW Diagram DMNI Signaling Version 1.

... . ...... ..... .. .......... ..... ........ SS7 Signaling Links (MAP & ISUP) Voice Trunks Version 1... .. .. . .. PLMN . . .... ... ....... .. ........717.. ... .. .......Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW DIAGRAM DMNI Signaling .... ... .. . ... ... ... .. .. .......1] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-37 . .. .. ............ . HLR .... .... .. . ........ ... . .. . .... GMSC .. ............ ........ . .. . . .. ... ..... .. . ...... . ...... ........... . ....... . ........ ... ........ ... .... ... .... ..... . .... ..... .. .... .... ... ... 1992 -.. .... .. .. ... .... .. ..... ... . .. . .... ... ......... ....0. BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS .. Entities . .... .... ... .... . ......... .. . ..... ..... ....... .. .. ... ............. ....... . . . .... VMSC VMSC VMSC ..... Other ............ .. . .......... ...... . .. GLR ... .. . . ..... . ... ....... .. .......... .... ........... . ......... .. . ..... .. . ... ...... . ....... ......... ....... ..... ... . ..... .. .. ..... .. . . . . ..... ..... .14:12:56 [jjm... ........ ...0 May 26......

Mobile Applications Part ISUP .Gateway visitor Location Register GS .Operator Service Position System 5ESS® .Mobile Station CA .Remote Switch Module WRSM .Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW Diagram Area Definitions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • MSC .Communication Module SM .16:19:32 [jjm.Operation Maintenance Center MAP .0.mobile-services switching center Control Area LA .Gateway Switch BSS .717] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-38 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Mobile-services Switching Center VMSC .Home Location Register GLR . 1992 -.No.Service Area OSPS .Location Area SA .Visitor Mobile-services Switching Center GMSC .Base Transceiver System MS .Public Switch Telephone Network Version 1.0 May 1. 5 Electronic Switching System AM .Wireless Remote Switch Module OMC .Wireless Switch Module RSM .Administrative Module CM .Gateway Mobile-services Switching Center HLR .ISDN User Part PSTN .Base Station System BTS .Switch Module WSM .

. 1992 -.. Point of Interconnect for all Incoming Traffic SA .Integrated and Distributed among MSCs GMSC .. BSS BSS CA BSS LA BSS BSS CA BSS BSS BSS CA & LA BSS SA CA .Control Area (Area Controlled by MSC) LA .14:16:51 [jjm.0..717.Service Area (IDO’s Digital Network Serving Area) Version 1.2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-39 .0 May 26.Location Area (May cover multpile CAs) VMSC <-> PSTN Direct Connect for Outgoing Only HLRs/GLRs ... . .Gateway Switch.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW DIAGRAM Area Definitions GLR HLR PLMN. PSTN GMSC VMSC VMSC VMSC .

16:19:32 [jjm.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW Diagram GLOSSARY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • MSC .Location Area SA .Administrative Module CM .Service Area OSPS .Gateway visitor Location Register GS .Wireless Switch Module RSM .Mobile-services Switching Center VMSC .No.Base Transceiver System MS .ISDN User Part PSTN .717] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-40 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Public Switch Telephone Network Version 1.Base Station System BTS .Operator Service Position System 5ESS® . 5 Electronic Switching System AM .0 May 1.Gateway Switch BSS .Switch Module WSM .Remote Switch Module WRSM .Gateway Mobile-services Switching Center HLR .Mobile Station CA .mobile-services switching center Control Area LA .Mobile Applications Part ISUP .Wireless Remote Switch Module OMC .Operation Maintenance Center MAP .Home Location Register GLR .Communication Module SM . 1992 -.0.Visitor Mobile-services Switching Center GMSC .

... ..... ............ . .... . . ...... .... ..Location Area (May cover multpile CAs) VMSC <-> PSTN Direct Connect for Outgoing Only HLRs/GLRs .... .. .... . .. . . . .. .... .. ........... .... ...... . ..... . . ..... .. ... . ... ...... ... ........ ... . .. .. ...... ... .. ... ..... .. ..... . .... .... .... .. ....... .... . ...... ..... . .. ..... .. .. ........ .. .. ...... . .... .. ..... . ...... . .... ... .. ... ... . ... .... ..... . . . .... 1992 -.. .. .... ..... .14:09:55 [jjm......... ... . ... .. .. ....... . . ... PLMN... .. ..... .... .. . .... GLR .. . . .. .... ............... .. . PSTN .. .... . .... . . ....Control Area (Area Controlled by MSC) LA .... ........ . . ....... . ..... SS7 Signaling Links (MAP & ISUP) Voice Trunks Version 1.. .. . ...... .............. .. . . GMSC ..Service Area (IDO’s Digital Network Serving Area) ....Gateway Switch..... ..... .. ........... . .. BSS BSS CA BSS LA BSS BSS CA BSS BSS BSS CA & LA BSS SA CA .......... . ... ....... .. ... ..0 May 26.... . ... ......... . ...Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW DIAGRAM DMNI NETWORK MODEL . . HLR ..717] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-41 ..... .. .... .. . ... . ... ..... . ....... .. Point of Interconnect for all Incoming Traffic SA .................... .. .......Integrated and Distributed among MSCs GMSC ................... .. VMSC VMSC VMSC ...0... ....... . .. . . ...... ....

13:26:47 [jjm.0.718] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-42 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN to GSM Model Comparison Diagram Version 1.0 April 7. 1992 -.

0 May 18.0.718] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-43 .20:11:50 [jjm. 1992 -.E.J Version 1.H.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN to GSM MODEL COMPARISON DIAGRAM Other Networks AUC D GLR HLR EIR B J HLR C TTC ISUP MSC E TTC ISUP PSTN BSS BSC H VLR ISDN MSC BTS MSC Air MS RCR specifies Air Interface DMNI specifies B.D.C.

0.Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN Network Parameters Version 1.719] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-44 The Japan Digital Cellular System .13:26:51 [jjm. 1992 -.0 April 7.

Overview of Japan Cellular JAPAN NETWORK PARAMETERS • • • • MSN = Mobile Subscriber Number (DN) Mobile Station Identifier (MSI) .719.0 April 7.14:00:54 [jjm.Mobile Unit Number RON = Roaming Number (DN) for visiting MSs (GLR allocates) RMI = Roaming Number Unit Number for visiting MSs (GLR allocates) • PRN = Routing Number .Identifies the MSC • LI = Location Information • FLI = Floating Location Number JAPAN vs GSM Comparison _ ______________________________________  Japan Term  GSM Term _ ______________________________________  MS ISDN   MSN _ ______________________________________   _ ______________________________________  IMSI  MSI  MSRN  _RON ______________________________________  Roamer’s IMSI  RMI _ ______________________________________    _PRN ______________________________________   MSC Routing Number  _LI ______________________________________  LAI  FLI  LI Changed during Call    _ ______________________________________ Version 1. 1992 -.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-45 .0.

0.14:00:54 [jjm.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-46 The Japan Digital Cellular System . 1992 -.0 April 7.Overview of Japan Cellular Version 1.719.

0 April 27.IDO Overview Version 1.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-47 . 1993 -.16:12:37 [unit07.0.

1992 -.720] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-48 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 7.0.Overview of Japan Cellular IDO Overview Version 1.13:26:54 [jjm.

1992 -.Weekly.13:01:26 [jjm. Motorola • 800 MHz Band Digital Network – Vendors: NEC.Monthly (sometimes Bi-weekly) ° SN (System) WG Meeting . 30 to 60 submissions each week ° HN (Maintenance) WG meetings . Japan – MSCs & BSSs Interface Testing – Verifying Vendor’s Progress to IDO Version 1.0.Monthly – Kiba Software Center in Tokyo. Fujitsu – Working Group Meetings with vendors (in Japanese) ° KO (Technical) WG meeting . AT&T.Overview of Japan Cellular IDO OVERVIEW • 800 MHz Band Analog Network – Vendors: NEC.720.0 May 18.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-49 .

0 April 7. 1992 -.13:27:18 [jjm.721] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-50 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0.Overview of Japan Cellular IDO’s Network Architecture Version 1.

.. .. .NEC & Fujitsu (AT&T .... .. .......NEC Version 1... ......... ...... .Overview of Japan Cellular IDO’s NETWORK ARCHITECTURE .... ..... ...... .... . .. 1992 -.... .. .....0 May 18.... with HLR with HLR with HLR & GLR & GLR & GLR .. ..GMSC GMSC . .. ...... . PLMN........) GMSCs ... ... ...0................ VMSC VMSC .. ...... ....... .........Linear Amps....721] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-51 ...NEC... ...... STP . ... BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS IDO’s Vendors: VMSCs (with HLR & GLR) ... AT&T...... ..... ...... .......... VMSC . ... & Fujitsu BSSs .. .NEC STP . . PSTN . .....14:03:58 [jjm...... .

0 April 7.0. 1992 -.13:27:19 [jjm.722] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-52 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Overview of Japan Cellular IDO’s 5ESS Architecture Version 1.

... . . ... ... ...... . .. . ... ... . . ..722] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-53 . . .. . ....GLR PSTN Global SM & Other Mobile Networks .. . . .. . .... .. . .... . . . ... . ... Global SM ... . . . . . AM OMC . .. . ... . .. . .. Other Networks . . ... ... . .... . .... . . ...... . . .. . ... .MAP GS. . . . ...... . . . . .. . .. .C7 BSC Maint. . . ...... . .... ISUP. ... ... . ... .0.. . . . . . . . .... MSCs Wireless SM HLR... . ... ISUP . .. 1992 -. . . . . .. . . . .. . . ..25. . . C7 ... . . .. .. ... . .14:03:58 [jjm... . . .. . . .. . Wireless . . .. ....GLR .. RCR Air Interface .Overview of Japan Cellular IDO’s 5ESS ARCHITECTURE 5ESS MSC Billing Center .... ..... .. ... . . .... . . .. .. ... .. .GLR .. . .. PSTN & .0 May 18... BSC CM Wireless SM HLR. ... . . .. .. . . . . Wireless SM HLR. . .. .. .. . .. . .. . . BTS BTS ... . .. Voice Trunks Signaling Links Version 1.. . ..BX. ...

Overview of Japan Cellular IDO’s 5ESS Supplementary Services Version 1.0.723] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-54 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 7. 1992 -.13:27:21 [jjm.

723] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-55 .Overview of Japan Cellular IDO’s SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES Version 1.0.0 April 7. 1992 -.13:22:40 [jjm.

0 April 7. 1992 -.724] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-56 The Japan Digital Cellular System .13:27:23 [jjm.Overview of Japan Cellular IDO Documentation Status Version 1.0.

1   MAP & ISUP _ ________________________________________________________________  IDO Background  Cmpltd  IDO Mobile Telephone System      _ ________________________________________________________________  Info (#081291)   Description .0 May 28.   (#306)   _ ________________________________________________________________      JDC A-Inter Spec  Cmpltd  BSSMAP (MSC<->BSS) Draft   _ ________________________________________________________________   from NEC.      _ ________________________________________________________________  IDO Service Spec    NS-0203 (#243)  Cmpltd  IDO Maintenance Information   IDO Maint Control     Spec   _ ________________________________________________________________      IDO WG Summary  Cmpltd  Summarizes IDO WG Decisions   Kou 17-26   List Relevant WG Kou Documents   (#422)   _ ________________________________________________________________  Kou 20-37  Cmpltd  IDO Gateway Specification _ ________________________________________________________________      JT-Q. Version 0.Overview of Japan Cellular IDO DOCUMENTATION STATUS _ ________________________________________________________________  DOCUMENT NAME  TRANS   COMMENTS   STATUS   _ ________________________________________________________________     RCR Standard  Cmpltd  IDO Air Interface   RCR-STD 27a     DRAFT   _ ________________________________________________________________  RCR Standard  Inprog  IDO Air Interface   RCR-STD 27a        _ ________________________________________________________________  FINAL .0.763 (#183)  Cmpltd  TTC ISUP Standards   JT-Q.730 (#384)     JT-Q.707 (#387)     JT-Q.704 (#168)     JT-Q. Service Desc.1/30/92    DMNI Standard  Cmpltd  Intra & Inter-Network Info   Version 3.703     JT-Q.766 (#386) ________________________________________________________________     NTT MTP Book  Cmpltd  NTT’s MTP Signaling Info.3 Version 1.724.General  NS-0201 (#284)  Cmpltd  IDO System & Network   IDO System Spec   Description _ ________________________________________________________________  NS-0202 (#305)  Cmpltd  IDO Suppl.764 (#383)    _JT-Q. 1992 -.762 (#385)         JT-Q.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-57 .09:48:45 [jjm.

09:48:45 [jjm.text] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-58 The Japan Digital Cellular System .724.0 May 28.0. 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular Version 1.

1993 -.16:12:37 [unit07.0 April 27.0.Japan Cellular Network Call Scenarios Version 1.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-59 .

1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular Location Registration Home Subscriber Version 1.725] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-60 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 7.0.13:27:25 [jjm.

MS Sends LU Request (MSI) 2. 5.0 May 18. V-MSC send LU Accept to MS Version 1.Overview of Japan Cellular LOCATION REGISTRATION HOME SUBSCRIBER HLR 2.14:03:59 [jjm. V-MSC Requests Authentication data from HLR 3. HLR sends Auth. V-MSC 1. MS 1. V-MSC sends PRN & LI to HLR for registration 5. 4. Data to V-MSC for processing 4.725] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-61 . 1992 -. 3.0.

726] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-62 The Japan Digital Cellular System .0 April 7.0.Overview of Japan Cellular Location Registration Visiting Subscriber Version 1.13:27:27 [jjm. 1992 -.

V-MSC Requests Authentication data from GLR 3. GLR allocates the RON and sends to HLR 7. Network 2 Network 1 MS 1. MS Sends LU Request (MSI) 2.0 May 18. & Term) Version 1.726] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-63 . 5. GLR request/obtains Auth. GLR copies MS data and sends LU Accept to MS thru V-MSC (MSI is used by MS for LU. 8. HLR records RON & sends MS data to GLR 8. 8. 1992 -.20:18:22 [jjm. HLR 6. V-MSC sends PRN & LI to GLR for registration 6. GLR 2. Orig. 4. Data to V-MSC for processing 5. 7. GLR sends Auth.Overview of Japan Cellular LOCATION REGISTRATION VISITING SUBSCRIBER 3.0. Data from HLR 4. V-MSC 1.

1992 -.727] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-64 The Japan Digital Cellular System .Overview of Japan Cellular Call Termination Home Subscriber Version 1.13:27:28 [jjm.0 April 7.0.

5. 1992 -. A-MSC sends General page to all V-MSCs in LA 6. All V-MSCs page MS using MSI 7.Home MS HLR 2. PSTN 1.727] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-65 .0. MS responds with Page Response 8. 5.Overview of Japan Cellular CALL TERMINATION . PLMN. PSTN/PLMN sends IAM message with MSN to G-MSC 2. G-MSC sends IAM message to V-MSC which becomes A-MSC 5. V-MSC (F-MSC) 6. 3. This V-MSC becomes F-MSC & a connection is made from G-MSC <-> A-MSC <-> F-MSC Version 1. G-MSC 4. 7. 8.0 May 29. G-MSC obtains PRN & LI and routes to V-MSC 4. LA MS 1. V-MSC (F-MSC) 6. G-MSC accesses HLR using MSN as key 3. 8. V-MSC (A-MSC) 6.16:35:45 [jjm.

14:11:10 [jjm.728] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-66 The Japan Digital Cellular System . 1992 -.0.0 April 7.Overview of Japan Cellular Call Termination Visitor Version 1.

Network (NW) 2 Network (NW) 1 MS 1.728] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System 7-67 . 8. G-MSC sends IAM message with RON to G-MSC of NW 1 5.20:09:02 [jjm.Overview of Japan Cellular CALL TERMINATION . PLMN. G-MSC accesses HLR using MSN 3. G-MSC obtains PRN & LI from GLR and routes to V-MSC 7. G-MSC accesses GLR using RON 6. V-MSC 7. G-MSC obtains RON from HLR 4. 5.0 May 18. V-MSC pages MS using RMI 8.0. G-MSC 4. PSTN 1. 3. MS responds with Page Response Version 1. 6. G-MSC 6. PSTN/PLMN sends IAM message with MSN to G-MSC of NW 2 2.Visitor HLR GLR 2. 1992 -.

0 May 18.0.20:09:02 [jjm.728] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions 7-68 The Japan Digital Cellular System . 1992 -.Overview of Japan Cellular Version 1.

x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 April 1. 1993 -.0.Appendix 1 Index to GSM Specification Document Version 1.09:53:42 [unita1.

11  Service Accessibility   02.06  Service Implementation Phases and Possible Further Evolution   3.14    3.0.12 DCS  Location Registration Procedures 3.0  02.6.0.0.1 __________________________________________________________________________________         ___________________________________________________________________________________ Version 1.0.87 3.4.9.02  Network Architecture    03.0  03.0    03.01 3.2.0.09  Handover Procedures   3.6.08 3.0  Description of Advice of Charge    02.2.2.1  02.0    02.01    3.13  Subscription to the Services of a GSM PLMN   3.21  Transferred Account Procedure and Billing Information    02.0     3.1     3.0.1  02.0  Call Completion Supplementary Services    02.2  02. 1993 -.09  Security Aspects   3.0.0  Numbering.2.0  02.3.2.0   Subscribers       3.86  Charging Supplementary Services    02.1  International Mobile Station Equipment Identities    02.General     Aspects    03.0  02.2.81    3.0.06  Types of Mobile Stations   3.0 April 1.0  Additional Information Transfer Supplementary Service    _________________________________________________________________________________  Call Restriction Supplementary Services  02.2.1  02.07 3.03  Teleservices Supported by a GSM PLMN    02.7.3.30  Man-Machine Interface (MMI) of the Mobile Station   3.0  02.1  Restoration Procedures    03.0.1.12  Licensing   3.06 DCS  Types of Mobile Stations 3.0.0  03.0.1   Provision of Telecommunication Services   02.5.84  Multi Party Supplementary Services   4.0.16 3.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 1-2.0.3.2.Functional Characteristics   3.02    3.2   Phases in the GSM PLMN   __________________________________________________________________________________     02.1.40  Procedures for Call Progress Indications   3.1  02.83 3.1.1  General on Supplementary Services    02.0  General Description of a GSM PLMN    01.Index to GSM Specification Document ___________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________  SPEC   VERSION  TITLE   NUMBER  NUMBER  __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________     01.0.0.88 3.0  Quality of Service    02.0  02.02 3.10 3.0.1 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .04 3. Addressing.1   GSM PLMN Connection Types   3.85    3.0.0   Number Identification Supplementary Services   4.1.04  Vocabulary in a GSM PLMN   3.04  Signaling Requirements Relating to Routing of Calls to Mobile   3.0  02.11 DCS  Service Accessibility 3.09:53:42 [unita1.0.0   Community of Interest Supplementary Services   3.0.82  Call Offering Supplementary Services    02.07  Mobile Station Features    02.4.7.0  03.17  Subscriber Identity Modules (SIM).1     3.03 3.3.1  02.05  Simultaneous and Alternate Use of Services   3.10    3.0  02.15  Circulation of Mobile Stations    02.08  Organization of Subscriber Data   3.1  02.0  Principles of Telecommunication Services Supported by a     GSM PLMN     Bearer Services Supported by a GSM PLMN   3.0   Service Directory   3.0   Collection Charges   02.24 3.1 _   Network Functions   3.6.20 3.0. and Identification    03.4  03.0    02.1  03.12  Location Registration Procedures   3.1.05  Technical Performance Objectives    03.0.11  Technical Realization of Supplementary Services .1.1  03.1  01.

48  GSM SMS .83 3.1.2.81 1.1  Technical Realization of Videotex    03.2.44  Support of Teletex in a GSM PLMN   3.10      Specification General Aspects    04.2.0.General Requirements   3.2 .80 3.3.2.13.82 3.22  Radio Link Protocol (RLP) for Data and Telematic Services on   3.08 DCS  Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Specification   3.02  GSM PLMN Access Reference Configuration    04.0.0  Rate Adaptation on the MS-BSS Interface    04.3.0. 1993 -.Channel Structures and Access Capabilities    04.4.2.1.0  03.Supplementary Services   3.50  Transmission Planning Aspects of the Speech Service in the GSM   3.0.     Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Supplementary Services   04.2.0     2.4   Data Link Layer .General Description   3.84  Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 of Multi Party Supplementary   2.0.0  Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Number Identification     Supplementary Services Specification     Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Call Offering Supplementary   04.07 3.3.12      Interface    04.1   Technical Realization of Call Completion Supplementary Services   03.2.88  Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Call Restriction Supplementary   __________________________________________________________________________________   Services Specification    Physical Layer on the Radio Path .5  04.03 3.1.45    3.Formats and Coding    04.3.41  Technical Realization of the Short Message Service   3.2   PLMN System       3.83 2.43 3.1.3       Services Specification    04.7.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 1-2.3.0.0.0  Technical Realization of the Short Message Service     Point-to-point    03.0  03.3  04.0.0  03.0.2  04.1  04.88 3.0.01   __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Version 1.09:53:42 [unita1.Index to GSM Specification Document  03.0.0.0  04.0       Specification .21 3.5.9.0   Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 . and BSS/MSC Interf.01    3.Transparent   3.3  Mobile Radio Interface Signaling Layer 3 .2  03.0  Technical Realization of Call Restriction Supplementary   __________________________________________________________________________________   Services    MS-BS Interface .1   Technical Realization of FAX Group3 .70  Routing of Calls to/From PDNs    03.84  Technical Realization of Multi Party Supplementary Services    03.0  Point-to-Point Short Message Service Support on Mobile Radio     Interface     Cell Broadcast Short Message Service Support on Mobile Radio   3.2   Support of DTMF via the GSM System   3.General Aspects    04.13  Discontinuous Reception (DRX) in the GSM System   3.0   Cell Broadcast       3.14    3.04  Layer 1 .3  04.1.4.0 April 1.0   MS/BSS Interf.0.11 3.2  05. Service    03.2  03.0  03.05    3.81 2.0.40 3.08  Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Specification  3.42  Advanced Message Handling System (MHS) Access    03.General Aspects   3.General Aspects and Principles   3.0.46  Technical Realization of Facsimile Group 3 Service     Transparent    03.0  Technical Realization of Number Identification Supp.3.0  03.3  MS-BS Interface .82  Technical Realization of Call Offering Supplementary Services   3.0  Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Call Completion Supplementary     Services Specification    04.1  04.06  MS-BSS Interface Data Link Layer Specification    04.2.20  Security-related Network Functions    03.0  03.0  04.1   Services Specification       3.Cell Broadcast   3.

0  05.2      08.0.1  05.0.1  08.1  08.32  Voice Activity Detection    General on Terminal Adaptation Functions for Mobile Stations  3.0.0.0.1   Mobile Application Part (MAP)   3.01  General Aspects of the BSS-MSC Interface    08.1   Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) for Full Rate Speech Traffic   3.0 09.5.0.13.0.1.1  Substitution and Muting of Lost Frames for Full Rate Speech     Traffic Channels    06.7.03  Channel Coding    05.11 3.0     3.06 3.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 1-2.01  General Aspects of PLMN Interworking   3.0.6.0.03 3.0.10.0   Multiplexing and Multiple Access on the Radio Path   3. 1993 -.58  BSC-BTS Interface .General Description   3.1  BSS-MSC Interface .04 3.2  08.04    3.07  General Requirements on Interworking Between the PLMN and the   3.2  08.3.12  Comfort Noise Aspects for Full Rate Speech Traffic   3.2  Modulation    05.0  05.0    08.02    3.0  08.0 April 1.Layer 1   3.8.59  BSC-BTS Interface .51  BSC-BTS Interface   3.54  BSC-BTS Interface .2   BSC-BTS Interface .13.02 3.Layer 3   3.03  Terminal Adaptation Functions for Services Using Synchronous   3.1.08    3.05  Transmission and Reception  3.Layer 2    08.0  Interworking Between a PLMN and a PSPDN/ISDN for Support of     Packet Data    09.1  Signaling Requirements on Interworking Between the ISDN or     PSTN and the PLMN     Interworking Between the PLMN and the CSPDN   3.02 DCS  Mobile Application Part (MAP)    09.0.0  09.Layer 3 3.58 DCS  BSC-BTS Interface .10  Information Element Mapping Between MS-BSS/BSS-MSC Signaling   3.0  09.1  09.01 DCS  Physical Layer on the Radio Path .2  09.31      Channels   __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.0  06.0.08 DCS  Radio Sub-system Link Control   __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.Index to GSM Specification Document 05.0.2.Interface Principles   3.Interface Principles    08.O&M Signaling Transport    _________________________________________________________________________________ 3.05  Interworking Between the PLMN and the PSPDN for PAD Access    09.3.0.2.Layer 3  3.Layer 1    08.60  09.04  BSS-MSC Interface .0 09.1.0  05.0.10  Full Rate Speech Transcoding    06.General Description   3.06 3.09 3.1.0   Radio Sub-system Link Control   3.0.20  Rate Adaptation on BSS/MSC Interface   3.5.8.0   07.0.0.4.0  06.0    Bearer Capabilities  __________________________________________________________________________________     3.0.0  06.05 DCS  Transmission and Reception   3.0.2   Procedures and MAP       3.1  05.5.0   08.1  Network Management Signaling Support Related to the BSS    08.1  07.1  BSC-BTS Interface .3   Signaling Transport Mechanisms Between BSS and MSC   08.10  Radio Sub-system Synchronization    Speech Processing Function.7.0  Inband Control of Remote Transcoders and Rate Adaptors  _ 08.1.1.5.02    3.01    3.01    3.52    3.08  MSC to BSS Interface .0  06.56 3.02  Terminal Adaptation Functions (TAF) for Services Using     Asynchronous Bearer Capabilities    07.0   ISDN or PSTN       3.0.0.09:53:42 [unita1.0 05.10 DCS  Information Element Mapping Between MS-BSS/BSS-MSC Signaling      __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Version 1.09  Detailed Signaling Interworking Within the PLMN and with the     PSTN/ISDN    09.3 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

0.0  Subscriber Related Event and Call Data    12.2  12. 1993 -.1.0  System Simulator Specification     (MS conformance test system)   __________________________________________________________________________________    3.1  Common Aspects of GSM Network Management    12.0 11.20  GSM BSS .0.03    3.3.07    3.0.11 DCS  Specification of the Internal Logical Organization of the SIM 3.0   11.1  Maintenance of the Base Station System    12.1.13  Maintenance of the MSC   3.0  11.2.0    Specification of the Internal Logical Organization of the SIM  3.11      and its Interfaces   11.4 .10.20 3.1  Mobile Services Switching Center    11.2  12.31  Home Location Register Specification   3. and Services Data   3.4.0  11.09:53:42 [unita1.21  Network Management Procedures and Messages on the A-bis   __________________________________________________________________________________   Interface   ___________________________________________________________________________________ Version 1.01 3.1  12.Index to GSM Specification Document   Procedures and MAP     Signaling Interworking for Supplementary Services   09.1  12.2   Network Management Procedures and Messages   12.2.32  Visitor Location Register Specification   3.1  12.2.30 3.11 3.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 1-2.0.1  11.1   System Simulator Specification   3.0 April 1.1.00  Objective & Structure of Network Management    12.11 3.0.40 3.2.3.20 DCS  GSM DCS 1800 BSS .2   Operations and Performance Management   3.0.12.14  Maintenance of Location Registers   3.0     and its Interfaces      11.0.7.0.0   Administration     Security Management   3.1.0.2. Mobile Equipment.0.Equipment Specification 3.06  GSM Network Change Control   3.10  Maintenance Provisions for Operational Integrity of MSs    12.10 DCS  DCS 1800 Mobile Station Conformity Specifications   3.0     3.04  Performance Data Measurements    12.05 3.40 DCS      (MS conformance test system)    11.0  Principles of Type Approval Procedure for GSM Mobile Stations   11.02  Subscriber.6.01 3.1 __________________________________________________________________________________     11.0  12.2.4  12.Equipment Specification    11.0.10  Mobile Station Conformity Specifications  3.0     3.

0. 1992 -.Appendix 2 Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations Version 1.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .17:24:36 [unita2.0 April 29.

Internet Address • 125. dk linus c .1 Version 1. 1992 -. there are several different ways to access the database. Assuming you have a password registered on the LINUS machine.att. cu -s2400 9085821725 • login as linus 2 . linus b . Dial In a .com -l linus e . From a UNIX Machine a .20. call the Information Services Network Customer Support group at 908582-4840.0 April 13.txt] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 2-2 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . dkcu nj/mtdka/linus • login as linus f . (908) 582-1725 • login as linus 4 .95. rlogin mhuxd. linus (at the UNIX prompt) b . From DATAKIT DESTINATION Prompt a . you need to have an access password registered and confirmed by the AT&T Information Services Network. nj/mtdka/linus • login as linus 3 . rlogin mhuxd -l linus d . 1 .Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 1 In order to gain access to the databases available through LINUS. To register for LINUS. Some of the following methods might not be available on your local UNIX machine.20:28:37 [corel775.0.

21:06:41 [corel775.0 April 13.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 2-3 . PA N o r S S # ) : Enter Library Network password: Version 1.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 1 D E S T I N AT I O N : login: linus nj/mtdka/linus We l c o m e t o l i n u s ! ! terminal: Erase char is backspace. line kill is @ E n t e r y o u r I D ( i . 1992 -.0. e .

0. 1992 -.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 2 Version 1.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 2-4 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .17:24:36 [unita2.0 April 29.

< r e t u r n > t o r e d i s p l a y s c r e e n .0.HELP with database number 4 E n t e r a n u m b e r.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 2-5 . 1992 -. q t o Q U I T : 123 Version 1. a n a m e . options 1 & 1 ************************************************************************ TYPE THIS FOR TYPE THIS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------db name Database you know by database name or # db # feedback Provide FEEDBACK about LINUS (72) index INDEX searching all LINUS databases (128) linus L I N U S i n f o & PA S S W O R D c h a n g e s / c a n c e l l a t i o n s (21) ln Latest LINUS News [last updated Mar 03\ (95) menu MENU assistance with database selection (502) NOTE: ===> ? l i s t . t h e i n i t i a l p a r t o f a n a m e .00:56:25 [corel774.s e e D ATA B A S E l i s t ?4 .Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 2 WELCOME TO LINUS! LINUS Customer Help Desk (908) 582-4840.0 March 13. o r ? f o r G E N E R A L H E L P.

0. 1992 -.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 2-6 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 April 29.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 3 Version 1.17:24:36 [unita2.

or item name to move to an item) (Hit return to select an item) search recommend Do general keyword searching on all text Search on the recommendation titles index gsm.0 March 13.keys.0.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 3 G S M R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S D ATA B A S E GSM Search Helps (Use +/. 1992 -.00:55:45 [corel773. tab.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 2-7 .info Peruse the index for relevant recommendations Read or obtain a copy of infor mation on GSM and this database feedback quit Give feedback concerning this online GSM database Quit this GSM database search session entirely A ***CELLULAR SYSTEMS ENGINEERING*** database p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e AT & T I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s N e t w o r k Version 1.

x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 2-8 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0.17:24:36 [unita2. 1992 -.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 4 Version 1.0 April 29.

0.00:55:12 [corel772.17 --------------------------------------------------------------------------A * * * C E L L U L A R S Y S T E M S E N G I N E E R I N G D E P TA R T M E N T * * * d a t a b a s e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e AT & T I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s N e t w o r k Version 1. 1992 -.0 March 13. Last update was Mar 12 1992 ? for HELP Enter terms (words. numbers.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 2-9 . locations) describing your search q to quit ==> 2.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 4 We l c o m e t o t h e * * * G S M R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S a n d W O R K I N G PA P E R S D ATA B A S E * * * Database has 684 items.

17:24:36 [unita2. 1992 -.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 5 Version 1.0.x] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 2-10 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 April 29.

1.0.. +/r Do a new search Move forward/back in display Request present item r p = b Print present display Put up brief displays Browse similar items Enter desired action: Version 1.17 Release Date: March 1990 Ve r s i o n : 3 . On item 1 of 1. 2 . C u s t o m e r s e r v i c e ( Te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) Notes: Changes agreed at GSM 26 are included. Previous version: 3. Order Number: gsm-10020 Record display: Page 1 of 2 Title: Subscriber Identity Modules : functional characteristics.eps] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 2-11 .1 Meeting Body(ies): Public Land Mobile Network. Subject Headings: Mobile communication systems--Access control. 0 Pages: 11 p.0 March 13.A c c e s s c o n t r o l .00:54:44 [corel771. Source of document: ETSI/GSM/PT12 ETSI/TC/GSM Document type: Recommendation Recommendation Number(s): GSM 02. Te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k s . 1992 -.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 5 Set of 1 items. --------------------------------------------------------------------------.

553] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 2-12 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 1992 -.0 March 15.19:13:16 [djw.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations GSM DOCUMENT COLLECTION CONTACTS If you have a need to consult a set of the GSM recommendations or contact someone about GSM documents there are complete sets of these documents at four Bell Labs locations. All of the individuals listed within the table have made an agreement with the AT&T library network to provide this service.0. Version 1.

Room Name e-mail _ ________________________________________________   1D-308C Chris Capece mhuxo!soda   WH 14A-464 Uday Kapadia whserva!usk   WH  IHP 2F-523 Steve Raiman ihlpk!raiman   IH  4J-415 Han Schiet ihlpl!jjs0  IHC 1H-418 Mary Ann Wator ihlpf!mwator   _ ________________________________________________ Version 1.Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations GSM DOCUMENT COLLECTION CONTACTS _ ________________________________________________  GSM Documentation Collection Contacts _ ________________________________________________  Loc.14:23:09 [djw.0 March 31.0. 1993 -.553] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 2-13 .

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations Version 1.0.0 March 31.14:23:09 [djw. 1993 -.553] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 2-14 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .

0 March 27.09:05:35 [page.0.04 Version 1.Appendix 3 Glossary of GSM Terms -. 1992 -.2] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .GSM 01.

3 Networks 2.2 Services 2.04 Vocabulary In A GSM PLMN.14:00:27 [page.3] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-2 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .Glossary of GSM Terms -.10 Expressions related to the radiosubsystem 2.0.7 Identity and Security 2.11 Miscellaneous 3. Version : 3. GENERAL 1.GSM 01. VOCABULARY 2. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 4.5 Access 2.2 Introduction 2. 1992 -.0. ALPHA SORTED INDEX 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-11 3-14 3-16 3-18 3-21 3-24 3-26 3-30 3-36 3-37 3-46 Version 1.9 Operations and maintenance 2.1 General 2.1 Scope 1.04 ETSI/TC GSM Title : Recommendation GSM 01.0 March 26.1 Date : February 1991 ------------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.8 Administrative and commercial definitions 2.6 Location and handover 2.4 Stations 2.

02).112. definitions are not considered to be part of the definitions.04 and in another and the definitions are different.112 Rec. for example.04 is valid in all recommendations where no definition is given within that recommendation. TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICE".14:02:12 [page. 03. 1. the definitions given here embrace only the essential concepts and on that basis it is considered that they are not inconsistent with the more specialized definitions that appear in those other recommendations. in parenthesis.Glossary of GSM Terms -. "201 SERVICE. Version 1. is shown as in the following example "419 FUNCTIONAL GROUP [FUNCTIONAL GROUPING]". Where a truncated term is widely used in an understood context the complete term is quoted following the colloquial form.4] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-3 . Any term in common usage but whose use is deprecated in the sense defined.04 1. Where both a reference and a definition is given in this recommendation. References to these definitions are given in parenthesis. When applicable they have been reproduced. then the definition given in that recommendation takes priority in only that recommendation. is given in both this recommendation 01. in this recommendation 01. The notes complementing CCITT I.and have the effect of an international treaty. for example (110). For this reason it is deemed inadvisable to alter or truncate such references simply to ensure complete relevance to GSM. A number of the terms and definitions in this recommendation are identical to those found in CCITT Recommendation I.2 Introduction This recommendation consists primarily of those terms and definitions that are considered essential to the understanding and application of the principles of a GSM PLMN.g. or reference to a definition. but they are applied to a GSM PLMN instead. A number of terms have a GSM recommendation number indicated after the term (e.GSM 01. Whenever necessary GSM notes have been added regarding the application to a GSM PLMN.0. Where a reference is made to the Radio Regulations the definition has been taken verbatim from that source (except where indicated) even though there may be some aspects that are not applicable to GSM. The definition. A listing by abbreviation is provided in chapter 3 of this recommendation. or a reference to a definition for the same term. as an aid to ensuring consistency between the two recommendations in the event of amendments. 1992 -. GENERAL 1.0 March 26. definitions and abbreviations to be used throughout the GSM recommendations. A number of terms are followed by their usual abbreviation. Where a definition. This indicates that reference should be made to that recommendation for the full definitions of the term. The Radio Regulations are published by the International Telecommunications Union ITU.1 Scope These are the terms.

2. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 20). 207 Demand service.14:03:11 [page. emission and/or reception of radio waves for specific telecommunication purposes. any radiocommunication service relates to terrestrial radiocommunication. or between mobile stations. including terminal equipment functions. for communication between users according to protocols established by agreement between administrations and/or RP0As. 203 Mobile service A radiocommunication service between mobile and land stations. images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire.GSM 01. 1992 -. telecommunication service (201) That which is offered by an administration or RPOA to its customers in order to satisfy a specific telecommunication requirement. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 26). optical or other electromagnetic systems.5] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-4 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . Note: The GSM PLMN connection type used to support a bearer service may be identical to that used to support other types of telecommunication service. unless otherwise stated.1 General 101 Telecommunication (110) Any transmission and/or emission and reception of signals representing signs. In these Regulations. 204 Land Mobile Service A mobile service between base stations and land mobile stations.04 2. in response to a user request effected by means of user-network signalling.0 March 26. radio. writing. VOCABULARY 2. 202 Radiocommunication service A service as defined in this section involving the transmission. 205 Bearer service (202) A type of telecommunication service that provides the capability for the transmission of signals between user-network interfaces. demand telecommunication service (205) A type of telecommunication service in which the communication path is established almost immediately. Version 1.Glossary of GSM Terms -.0. 206 Teleservice (203) A type of telecommunication service that provides the complete capability.2 Services 201 Service. or between land mobile stations. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 28).

14:03:36 [page. 209 Basic services The telecommunication services excluding the supplementary services (in accordance with table 1/I. 211 Calling line identification presentation The supplementary service which provides for the called party with the possibility to receive identification of the calling party.210). 215 Malicious call identification (MCI) The supplementary service which enables a mobile subscriber to request that the source of an incoming call is identified and registered in the network. 212 Calling line identification restriction A supplementary service offered to the calling party to prevent presentation of the calling party’s ISDN/MSISDN number to the called party.04 208 Service attribute.0.Glossary of GSM Terms -. or just those associated with a specific Basic service. calls are forwarded no matter what the condition of the termination. 217 Call forwarding mobile subscriber busy (CFB) The supplementary service which permits a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming Version 1. 210 Supplementary service A modification of. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to originate calls is unaffected. telecommunication service attribute (208) A specified characteristic of a telecommunication service.GSM 01. 213 Connected line identification presentation The supplementary service which provides the calling party with the possibility to receive the identification of the connected party 214 Connected line identification restriction A supplementary service offered to the connected party to prevent presentation of the connected party’s ISDN/MSISDN number to the calling party. addressed to the called mobile subscriber’s directory number to another directory number. or a supplement to.0 March 26.6] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-5 . 216 Call forwarding unconditional (CFU) The supplementary service which permits a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming calls. a basic telecommunication service. 1992 -. If this service is activated.

222 Closed user group (CUG) The supplementary service which provides the possibility for a group of subscribers.Glossary of GSM Terms -. to intercommunicate only amongst themselves and. 218 Call forwarding on no reply (CFNRy) The supplementary service which permits a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming calls. or just those associated with a specific Basic service. 219 Call forwarding on mobile subscriber not reachable (CFNRc) The supplementary service which permits a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming calls. addressed to the called mobile subscriber’s directory number and which meet no reply to another directory number. Subsequently.without having to make a new call attempt. addressed to the called mobile subscriber’s directory number. If this service is activated. the subscriber can either answer. 223 Advice of charge (AoC) The supplementary service which provides the possibility for a mobile user who pays for the use of telecommunications services to receive charging information related to the used telecommunication services. reject.7] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-6 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . if required. 221 Completion of calls to busy subscribers (CCBS) The supplementary service which allows a calling mobile subscriber. Version 1. 220 Call waiting (CW) The supplementary service which offers a mobile subscriber the possibility to be notified of an incoming call whilst the termination is in the busy state.GSM 01. no paging response or because the subscriber is not registered. to another directory number.0. but which cannot be reached due to radio congestion. addressed to the called mobile subscriber’s directory number and which meet mobile subscriber busy to another directory number. a call is forwarded only if the call meets mobile subscriber busy. connected to the PLMN and/or the ISDN. or just those associated with a specific basic service. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to originate calls is unaffected.14:03:45 [page. or just those associated with a specific Basic service. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to originate calls is unaffected.04 calls. If this service is activated.0 March 26. a call is forwarded only if the call meets no reply. one or more subscribers may be provided with incoming/outgoing access to subscribers outside this group. encountering a busy called destination to have the call completed when the busy destination becomes not busy. or ignore the incoming call. 1992 -.

229 Barring of outgoing international calls (BOIC) The supplementary service which makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing international calls or just those associated with a specific basic service.8] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-7 . i. The "retrieve" operation re-establishes communication on a channel..Glossary of GSM Terms -. a simultaneous communication between more than two parties.. re-establish communication.14:03:55 [page. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to receive calls remains unaffected. have an established end-to-end connection). 228 Barring of all outgoing calls(BAOC) The supplementary service which makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls or just those associated with a specific Basic service. if desired.0. Version 1.04 224 Call hold (HOLD) The supplementary service which allows a served mobile subscriber to interrupt communication on an existing call and then subsequently. and/or release one call and return to the other. 225 Call transfer (CT) The supplementary service which enables the served mobile subscriber to transfer an established incoming or outgoing call to a third party. or join the two calls together into a three-way conversation. A mobile subscriber who is active on a call is able to hold that call. make an additional call to a third party. This service differs from the Call Forwarding supplementary service in that Call Forwarding deals only with incoming calls that have not yet reached the "fully-established" state (i. switch from one call to the other as required (privacy being provided between the two calls). 227 Conference call. The ability to set-up emergency calls remains unaffected .e.0 March 26. Call set-up possibilities only exist to subscribers of the PLMN(s) and the fixed network(s) of the country where the mobile subscriber is currently located.GSM 01. The ability to set-up emergency calls remains unaffected . 1992 -.e. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to receive calls remains unaffected. The present PLMN may be the home PLMN or a visited PLMN respectively. the fixed network may be that of the home PLMN country or that of a visited PLMN country.add on (CONF) The supplementary service which provides a mobile subscriber with the ability to have a multi-connection call. 226 Three party service (3PTY) The supplementary service which enables a mobile subscriber to establish a three party conversation. The traffic channel remains assigned to the mobile subscriber after the communication is interrupted to allow the origination or possible termination of other calls.

The ability to set-up emergency calls remains unaffected. 231 Barring of all incoming calls (BAIC) The supplementary service which makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all incoming calls or just those associated with a specific basic service The ability of the served mobile subscriber to originate calls remains unaffected. The withdrawal may be: Version 1.04 230 Barring of outgoing international calls except those directed to the home PLMN country (BOIC-exHC) The supplementary service which makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing international calls except those directed to the home PLMN country. — prearranged: where the service is made available to an individual subscriber only after the necessary arrangements have been made with the service provider. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to receive calls remains unaffected. The present PLMN may be the home PLMN or a visited PLMN. Call set-up possibilities only exist to subscribers of the PLMN(s) and the fixed network(s) of the country where the mobile subscriber is currently located or to subscribers of the home PLMN of the served mobile subscriber and to subscribers of the fixed network(s) in the home PLMN country.0.0 March 26.14:04:09 [page. 234 User-to-user signalling (UUS) The supplementary service which allows a mobile subscriber to send/receive a limited amount or information to/from another PLMN or ISDN subscriber over the signalling channel in association with a call to the other subscriber. respectively the fixed network may be that of the home PLMN country or that of a visited PLMN country. The ability for the served mobile subscriber to originate calls remains unaffected. 235 Provision An action to make a service available to a subscriber. or just those associated with a specific basic service.GSM 01.Glossary of GSM Terms -. 233 Mobile access hunting (MAH) The supplementary service which enables incoming calls to be distributed over a group of accesses .9] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-8 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 232 Barring of incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN country (BIC-Roam) This service makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent incoming calls or just those associated with a specific basic service only if the mobile subscriber roams outside the home PLMN country. 236 Withdrawal An action taken by the service provider to remove an available service from a subscriber’s access. 1992 -. The provision may be: — general: where the service is made available to all subscribers (subject to compatibility restrictions enforced) without prior arrangements being made with the service provider.

Glossary of GSM Terms -. For certain services the registration procedure may cause activation whilst for others the service may already be in the active phase. Decision points.g. taken by the subscriber (e.g.04 — general : where the service is removed from all subscribers provided with the service. e.10] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-9 .04 The test procedure allows the subscriber to check whether or not the service is operating as desired. the normal served subscriber’s actions and the system response.13:55:28 [page. The time during which the process is activated is defined as the active phase.g. calling line identification for each incoming call) 242 Normal operation with successful.0.0 March 26. In some cases the use of the service is sufficient. During activation the service will be either "operative" or "quiescient" according to whether or not the system is actually using the service. outcome Description of the normal operation of the service. 239 Activation An action taken by either the service provider. pressing a specific button) or automatically by the network or terminal as a result of a particular condition (e. for others a method of testing is included in the control procedure. the subscriber or the system to terminate the process started at the activation.04) Version 1.GSM 01. The programming action involves input of specific supplementary information. to forward a call or to apply call waiting indication. 243 Testing 02. — specific : where the service is removed on an individual basis from subscribers provided with the service. 240 Deactivation An action taken by either the service provider. the subscriber or the system to enable a process to run as and when required by the service concerned. the subscriber or the system of information stored against a particular service by a previous registration(s). 237 Registration ((supplementary) service registration) The programming by the service provider or subscriber of information to enable subsequent operation of a service. 1992 -. 238 Erasure The deletion by the service provider. 241 Invocation An action to invoke the service required. timing and call progress signals would be some of the subscriber.( see GSM 02.

outcome Abnormal situations not described in "normal operation with successful outcome". 250 Transparent support of services Support of services where the network is unaware of the higher layer protocols.11] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-10 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . This information can be requested by a — Status check. a Short Message Service interworking with MHS access). The PLMN returns an appropriate announcement or indication (e. "the forwarded-to number is etc. services. Procedures on time-out. See also GSM 03.GSM 01.10 Version 1.04 244 Interrogation ((supplementary) service interrogation) The request by the subscriber to the PLMN to provide information about a specific supplementary service."). supplementary services etc. 1992 -.Glossary of GSM Terms -. This interrogation function compares the data input by the subscriber during an interrogation procedure with the information stored in the PLMN.g.g. 245 Exceptional operation. The PLMN returns a standard tone.0. 248 Service interworking The interworking required when the services at the calling and called terminals are different (e. 246 Interworking considerations Identification of subscriber perceptions when a call exits from an ISDN/PLMN to another CEPT specified network or enters an ISDN/PLMN from another CEPT specified network.13:55:36 [page. 247 Interworking The general term used to describe the inter-operation of networks.g. 249 Supplementary service interworking This the interworking between the same supplementary services in different networks. unexpected signalling response and other such events would be defined. — Data check. — Data request This interrogation function enables the subscriber to obtain confirmation of input data. "check is positive" or "check is negative"). ie the higher layer protocols are transparent to the PLMN.. The following values can be returned by the PLMN: – not supported – activated – deactivated Not all values are applicable to all supplementary services. announcement or indications (e.0 March 26. unsuccessful.

ie some aspects of the higher layer protocols are not transparent to the PLMN.10.04 251 Non-transparent support of services Support of services where the network makes use of knowledge of the higher layer protocols. See also GSM 03.0.11:35:08 [page. 1992 -. Version 1.12] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-11 .GSM 01.0 April 17.Glossary of GSM Terms -.

without the subscriber’s knowledge of the actual location of the mobile station within the area. 302 Integrated services digital network (ISDN) (308) An integrated services network that provides digital connections between user-network interfaces. and is the PLMN with which the MS is registered via the radio interface. 304) provides telecommunication services according to the GSM Recommendations to mobile users.0 March 26. 304 GSM public land mobile network (GSM PLMN) A PLMN which complies with the GSM recommendations. be a part of a country or comprise several countries. for the specific purpose of providing land mobile communication services to the public.3 Networks 301 Network. Note : CCITT Recommendation Q. 309 GSM system area (GSA) The group of GSM PLMN areas accessible by GSM mobile stations. the home PLMN.1001 corresponds to the GSM System Area. telecommunication network (305) A set of nodes and links that provides connections between two or more defined points to facilitate telecommunication between them. For communication between mobile and fixed users interworking with a fixed network is necessary. A service area may include the areas served by several PLMNS. It provides communication possibilities for mobile users. A service area may consist of one country. 306 Visited PLMN (VPLMN) A PLMN whose services can be used temporarily.13:56:48 [page. established and operated by an Administration or its licensed operator(s).13] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-12 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .GSM 01.1001 does not contain a definition of a PLMN area. 308 GSM PLMN area (GPA) The geographical area in which a GSM PLMN (see definitions 303.0. based on a subscription in another PLMN.04 2.Glossary of GSM Terms -. 305 Home PLMN (HPLMN) The PLMN where a subscription is held and therefore which contains the HLR of the subscriber. Version 1. 310 GSM service area 03. Note : The system area according to CCITT Recommendation 0. 307 Local PLMN (LPLMN) The LPLMN is the HPLMN or VPLMN depending on the location of the MS at the time.02 The area in which a mobile station can be reached by a fixed subscriber.) 303 Public land mobile network (PLMN) A network. 1992 -.

320 GSM PLMN connection element. GSM note: In a GSM PLMN a switched connection only supports demand services since no reserved circuit services as defined in CCITT Recommendation I.see GSM 03. 318 GSM PLMN connection type attribute A specific characteristic of a GSM PLMN connection type whose values distinguish it from another GSM PLMN connection type.112.0. to support a single communication.GSM 01.EIR and IWF).10 for the basis of partitioning.14] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-13 . 314 Connection (309) A concatenation of transmission channels or telecommunication circuits.connection type (316) 03. 321 GSM PLMN connection element attribute An attribute of a GSM PLMN connection element. 206 are foreseen. 316 Switched connection A connection that is established by means of switching. A gateway MSC is also an Interrogating Node for incoming PLMN calls.AuC. Version 1.10 A connection that is established through a GSM PLMN between specified GSM PLMN reference points. 313 Gateway MSC (GMSC) An MSC that provides an entry point into the PLMN from another network or service. to support a single communication. 312 Mobile-services switching centre (MSC) The MSC performs the functions of switching.. 317 GSM PLMN connection (314) 03. routing and control of the call and charging and accounting.The MSC also controls the interworking with fixed networks.04 311 GSM PLMN fixed infrastructure The part of a GSM PLMN consisting of all fixed equipment.Glossary of GSM Terms -.0 March 26.connection element (317) A partition of a GSM PLMN connection. switching and other functional units set up to provide for the transfer of digital signals between two or more points in a telecommunication network.eg information transfer rate. 1992 -.HLR.13:56:57 [page. 315 Digital connection (310) A concatenation of digital transmission channels or digital telecommunication circuits.including the BSS’s.the MSC’s and associated functional entities(such as VLR. 319 GSM PLMN connection type.10 A description of a set of GSM PLMN connections which have the same attributes. switching and other functional units set up to provide for the transfer of signals between two or more points in a telecommunication network.

to route a call for an MS to the visited MSC. a GSM PLMN and a non-GSM PLMN. service interworking.0. Examples of terminating networks are the PSTN.15] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-14 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . 327 Interworking function (IWF) A network functional entity which provides interworking (network interworking. 323 Point to multipoint GSM PLMN connection (321) A GSM PLMN connection that is established between a single specified GSM PLMN reference point. and more than one other specified GSM PLMN reference points. PDNs.15) 325 Network interworking The interworking required between two different networks (e.g. supplementary service interworking or signalling interworking). Version 1.Glossary of GSM Terms -. 326 Terminating Network Network which in cooperation with a GSM PLMN provides telecommunication services between their respective users. 324 Public Data Network (PDN) A network established and operated by an administration for the specific purpose of providing data transmission services to the public. 328 Interrogating Node (IN) A switching node that interrogates a HLR. It may be a part of one or more logical or physical entities in a GSM PLMN.13:57:10 [page. The Public Data Network may carry other services.packet switched (PSPDN) and leased circuit data transmission services are feasible depending on national regulations. between two GSM PLMN) in order to provide an end to end connection. between a PLMN and ISDN.04 322 Point to point GSM PLMN connection (320) A GSM PLMN connection that is established between two specified GSM PLMN reference points. GSM PLMNs.GSM 01. the ISDN.(Adapted from CCITT Rec.0 March 26. 1992 -. X. Circuit switched (CSPDN).

The functionality is described in Recommendation GSM 08. 406 GSM Mobile Station (GSM MS) Equipment intended to access a set of GSM PLMN telecommunication services. 1992 -. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 65). or the radio astronomy service.13:57:22 [page. Version 1.16] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-15 . 405 Land Mobile Station A mobile station in the land mobile service capable of surface movement within the geographical limits of a country or continent. If an internal interface according to the GSM 08. then the BSS shall consist of one Base Station Controller (BSC) and several Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs).) which is viewed by the MSC through a single interface as defined by the GSM 08 0x series of recommendations. etc. necessary at one location for carrying on a radiocommunication service. Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. A BSS may consist of one or more base stations. 408 Base Station System (BSS) The system of base station equipment (transceivers.02. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 69).. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations No 68).Glossary of GSM Terms -. including the accessory equipment. 402 Mobile Station (MS) A station in the mobile service intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points.0 March 26. Services may be accessed while the equipment capable of surface movement within the GSM system area is in motion or during halts at unspecified points.04 2.0. 407 Mobile Equipment (ME) The ME is the Mobile Station (MS) without the SIM. The radio equipment of a BSS may cover one or more cells.5x series at recommendations is implemented.4 Stations 401 Station One or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 58). as being the entity responsible for communicating with Mobile Stations in a certain area.GSM 01. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 67). Note : This definition has been adapted from the definitions of a Mobile Station and a Land Mobile Station in the Radio Regulations. 403 Land Station A station in the mobile service not intended to be used while in motion. 409 Base Station Controller (BSC) A network component in the PLMN with the functions for control of one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). 404 Base Station (BS) A land station in the land mobile service. controllers.

04 410 Base Transceiver Station (BTS) A network component which serves one cell.GSM 01. If Slow Frequency Hopping SFH is not used.02.0 March 26. The BTS contains one or more Transceivers (TRXs).13:57:37 [page. 1992 -. 411 Transceiver (TRX) A network component which can serve full duplex communication on 8 full-rate traffic channels according to recommendation GSM 05. and is controlled by a Base Station Controller.Glossary of GSM Terms -.17] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-16 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0. Version 1. then the TRX serves the communication on one RF carrier.

functional grouping (419) A set of functions that may be performed by a single equipment. 513 Terminal adaptation function(TAF) The terminal adaptation function is a functional entity associated with an MS. 505 Access capability. GSM PLMN access capability (416) The number and type of the access channels at a GSM PLMN access interface that are actually available for telecommunication purposes. The TAF is required to convert the Version 1.04 2. (GSM 04.18] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-17 . 510 Reference configuration (421) A combination of functional groups and reference points that shows possible network arrangements. 512 Functional group.GSM 01. The TAF provides the functionality necessary to permit interworking between an MT and Terminal equipment(TE). 504 Physical interface (411) The interface between two equipments. 511 Multipoint access (422) User access in which more than one terminal equipment is supported by a single mobile termination. 506 Terminal Equipment (TE) (417) Equipment that provides the functions necessary for the operation of the access protocols by the user. user network access (402) The means by which a user is connected to a telecommunication network in order to use the services and/or facilities of that network. 503 Service Access Point (SAP) In the reference model for Open System Interconnection. 509 Reference point (420) A conceptual point at the conjunction of two non-overlapping functional groups. The function of the TAF depends on the service and the type of TE.0.02) 508 Mobile Termination (MT) The part of the Mobile Station which terminates the radio transmission to and from the network and adapts terminal equipment (TE) capabilities to those of the radio transmission. 1992 -. 507 Terminal adaptor (TA) A physical entity in the MS providing terminal adaptation functions.0 March 26.13:57:49 [page. 502 Interface (408) The common boundary between two associated systems.5 Access 501 User access. Service Access Points (SAPs)of a layer are defined as gates through which services are offerred to an adjacent higher layer.Glossary of GSM Terms -.

04 protocols provided by the MT to those used by the TE.11:38:02 [page.Glossary of GSM Terms -. 516 Mobile Terminated (MT) Call or short message intended to be delivered to the Mobile Station. The terminal adaptation functions are described in GSM 07.07. Version 1.GSM 01. 1992 -. 515 Mobile Originated (MO) Call or short message originated from the Mobile Station.01.03.0 April 17. 514 Direct access Interworking to a Private Telecommunciations Network via a dedicated link.19] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-18 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0.02 and 07.

609 Paging. 03. 612 Location updating procedure 09.02 The part of the PLMN covered by an MSC. 610 Location area identification 03.0. 602 Location information 03.0 April 17.01 The functional unit in which the location information is stored.9/ Q. indicating where a mobile station is located in the system area.02 The procedure by which location register updating takes place. 603 Location registration 03. Version 1.04 2. location deregistration The updating of a location register by removing location information.01 The information. 611 Deregistration.01 The function whereby PLMNs keep track of the location information of Mobile Stations located in the system area.GSM 01.01 The procedure by which the location information is removed from a location register.11:33:53 [page.01 The location register where the current location and all subscriber parameters of a mobile station are permanently stored. 605 Visited location register (VLR) 03. 613 Location cancellation procedure 03. 604 Home location register (HLR) 03. 607 MSC area Q.1001.Glossary of GSM Terms -. 606 Location area Q.03 The information indicating the location area in which a cell is located.01 The location register where all relevant parameters concerning a mobile station are stored as long as the mobile station is in a location area controlled by this register. before any other network-initiated procedure can take place. An MSC area may consist of one or several location areas.20] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-19 .6 Location and handover 601 Location register (LR) 03. 1992 -.08 The procedure by which a GSM PLMN fixed infrastructure attempts to reach a Mobile Station within its location area .1001 An area in which a mobile station may move freely without up-dating the location register. A location area may comprise one or several base station areas. Paging procedure 04. 608 Base station area The part of the GSM area to which a base station gives service.

616 Reset procedure The procedure for recovery of information for a location register after restart.0. e.01 The procedure by which the home location register obtains information on which of its mobile stations are registered with a visited location register. "External intra-BSS handover" is an intra-BSS handover which is controlled by an MSC. cell. Restoration procedure The procedure to recover the information in a location register. when mobile stations move from one base station area to another. Version 1. the words "internal" or "external" may prefix the term intra-BSS handover with the following meanings "Internal intra-BSS handover" is an intra-BSS handover which takes place without reference to the MSC (although the MSC will be informed on completion).GSM 01. e. MSC.0 April 17.g. 1992 -. 621 Subsequent handover procedure 03.21] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-20 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .09 A procedure in which a call is handed over from the MSC under which the call was originated to another MSC. base station. etc. These entities are listed in nested order such that "inter-BSS handover" is implicitly inter -BS. 620 Basic handover procedure 03.g. 619 Handover The action of switching a call in progress from one radio channel to another radio channel. 622 Cell The area of radio coverage locally defined as seen by the Mobile Station with a Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) and uniquely defined as seen by the network with a cell global Identification. after the location information is lost due to a failure.Glossary of GSM Terms -. BSS.04 614 Location information requested procedure 03. Handover may take place between the following GSM entities. inter-cell. 617 Restart (Restart procedure) The procedure to recover the information in a location register after the location information is lost due to a failure. after which some mechanisms are provided to keep track of the reliability of each element in memory. timeslot .09 A procedure in which a call is handed over from an MSC under which the call was not originated to another MSC. The prefixes "inter" and "intra" are used to describe the type of handover according to context. 615 Location information retrieval procedure 03. It consists of a restart procedure.RF carrier. 618 Restoration. Handover is used to allow established calls to continue by switching them to another radio resource. inter-cell handover. Additionally.01 The procedure by which a VLR enquires whether or not a MS should be kept in the register.11:34:42 [page.

706 Base station identity code (BSIC) A block of code. 709 710 Reserved Cipherkey A sequence of symbols that controls the operation of encipherment and decipherment.GSM 01.7 Identity and Security 701 Algorithm A3 Cryptographic algorithm that produces SRES. using Kc. 713 Cryptographic algorithm [ cryptological algorithm] Mathematical method used in encipherment and decipherment or in non-reversible encipherment. 708 Cell Identity (CI) A block of code which identifies a cell within a location area. 702 Algorithm A5 Cryptographic algorithm that produces ciphertext out of cleartext. One Base Station can have several Base Station Colour Codes.0 April 17. 705 Authentication centre (AUC) Component of the fixed part of the PLMN which contains subscriber authentication keys (Ki) and generates security related parameters (RAND. 1992 -. 712 Ciphertext Unintelligible data produced through the use of encipherment. Version 1. using RAND AND Ki. 714 Decipherment The transformation by cryptographic techniques to produce plaintext from ciphertext. Kc) . 707 Cell Global Identification A block of code which uniquely identifies a cell within all GSM PLMNs.Glossary of GSM Terms -. SRES.22] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-21 . 711 Cipherkey setting Mutual agreement between the Mobile Station and the fixed part of the system upon a common cipherkey (Kc) to be used in a subsequent encipherment/ decipherment process.11:35:37 [page.04 2. 704 Authentication The corroboration that a peer entity is the one claimed. consisting of the PLMN colour code and a base station colour code. 703 Algorithm A8 Cryptographic algorithm that produces Kc using RAND and Ki.0.depending on implementation. It consists of the LAI and CI.

0. 1992 -. 726 Signed Response (SRES) Response to a challenge in the challenge response protocol. the country code (CC). mainly in order to ensure the privacy of user related information.04 715 Encipherment Transformation by cryptographic techniques to produce ciphertext from plaintext.03 Uniquely defines the mobile station as an ISDN terminal.0 March 26. It can serve as a key to derive subscriber information such as directory number(s) from the HLR. 724 Random number Non-predictable number. The MSRN is used by the home location register for rerouting calls to the mobile station. 718 Key setting See cipherkey setting.1. 721 Personal Identification Number (PIN) Confidential information which may be used in the authentication between subscriber and SIM to corroborate that the subscriber is the one claimed. 716 International mobile station equipment identity (IMEI) Uniquely identifies the mobile station as a piece or assembly of equipment.23] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-22 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .03 A code which is allocated to a mobile station when registered with a VLR for the purpose of routing calls to the MSC in which area the Mobile Station is located. It consists of three parts. 723 RAND Random number to be used as challenge in a challenge response protocol. 717 International mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) Uniquely identifies the subscription.13:59:11 [page.GSM 01. 720 Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) 03. 722 Plaintext Unciphered Data.Glossary of GSM Terms -. 719 Mobile station international ISDN number(MSISDN) 03. the national destination code (NDC) and the subscriber number (SN). Version 1. 725 Security feature Security features protect • the access to the mobile services • any relevant item from being disclosed on the radio path.

Glossary of GSM Terms -.13:59:22 [page. 729 Subscriber authentication key Subscriber individual confidential information used in authentication and in the cipher key generation process 730 Subscriber identity authentication The corroboration by the fixed part of the PLMN that the subscriber identity (IMSI.0.03 A unique identity temporarily allocated to visiting mobile subscribers in order to support the subscriber identity confidentiality service. 731 Subscriber identity confidentiality The property that the subscriber identity (IMSI) is not made available or disclosed on the radio interface. It contains security related information (IMSI. when the MSRN allocation is done on a per call basis (see definition 720) Version 1.GSM 01.0 March 26. TMSI).24] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-23 . other subscriber related information and the Algorithms A3/A8. is the one claimed.04 727 728 Reserved Stream cipher Bit by bit binary addition of plaintext bitstream and cipherkey bitstream. transferred by the mobile subscriber within the authentication procedure at the radiopath. 734 Local Mobile Station Identity(LMSI) A unique identity temporarily allocated to visiting mobile subscribers in order to speed up the search for subscriber data in the VLR. 733 Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) 03. Ki. 732 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Removable module which is inserted into a Mobile Equipment. 1992 -. it is considered as part of the Mobile Station. PIN).

as may be required by the GSM PLMN operator or an authorized agent concerned. 807 User The user is the individual or entity designated by the customer. Note : This definition is adapted from CCITT Rec. as having access to the service and having such authorization. 804 Subscription The subscription permits participation in telecommunication services (basic telecommunication services and those supplementary services for which it is necessary). 805 Customer The customer is the individual or entity who. D. 808 Collection charge The collection charge is the charge in its national currency collected by a GSM PLMN operator or an authorized agent from its customers for the use of the service.25] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-24 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . The charge is registered on a per case basis. 810 Network utilization charge Part of the collection charge which is intended to cover use of the networks/telecommunications services. D. Note : This definition is adapted from CCITT Rec.000. 802 GSM PLMN operator An administration or its licensed operator(s) which provides a GSM PLMN and its telecommunication services.0.GSM 01.Glossary of GSM Terms -. The establishment of the collection charge is a national matter. D. obtains a service from a GSM PLMN operator or an authorized agent and is responsible for payment of all charges and rentals due. Note : This definition is adapted from CCITT Rec.000. intended to cover cost of service which is not dependent on the actual use of networks/telecommunications services. individually or by class. or which. individually or by class.8 Administrative and commercial definitions 801 CEPT Administration The national administration which has signed the "Arrangement instituant la Confrence Europenne des Administrations des Postes et des Telcommunications". Version 1. This may be a network operator or possibly a separate body. 806 Subscriber The definition of this term is identical with that of the term "customer" under 805.0 March 26.04 2. It may consist of an initial fee and a subscription fee.000. 1992 -.13:59:32 [page. 803 Service Provider The organisation through which the subscriber obtains GSM telecommunication services. 809 Network access charge Part of the collection charge.

814 Approved testing laboratory A laboratory which has been accredited by the appropriate Administration or an accrediting body recognized as competent in its country. Note : This definition is adapted from CCITT Rec. functions and procedures and service requirements) together with a precise definition of the test and test methods enabling the conformity of the equipment with the prescribed technical characteristics to be verified. T/G 01-01.13:59:45 [page.0. or the national Approval Authority such as an independent body or the approved testing laboratory which conducted the tests. 812 NET (Norme Europeenne de Telecommunications) An approved conformity specification recommendation of the CEPT or part or parts hereof. Version 1. according to Rec. the body issues a certificate of conformity. It includes.GSM 01. If so.0 March 26. using appropriate test methods. adopted in accordance with the procedures set down in that MoU. issued in accordance with the Recommendation T/SF 48. and which is approved by that Administration or State as competent for conducting conformity tests on telecommunications terminal equipment. 1992 -. 815 Certificate of conformity A certificate. 813 Conformity specification A document giving a full description of the technical characteristics of the relevant telecommunications terminal equipment (such as safety. or parts thereof. such as NETs. and is in conformity with defined standards.000. which indicates that a telecommunications terminal equipment has been tested by an approved testing laboratory. where appropriate.26] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-25 . 816 Certifying body A body which determines whether a test report from an approved testing laboratory shows that a telecommunications terminal equipment has been tested using appropriate test methods and is in conformity with defined standards. requirements made necessary in a given country by historical network peculiarities or established national provisions concerning the use of radio frequencies. 15.Glossary of GSM Terms -. Note : This body may be the appropriate national authority. which the signatories of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on European Telecommunications Standards for terminal equipment (Nov. technical parameters.04 811 Rental Payment(s) due to a GSM PLMN operator or an authorized agent for the access to certain services for the designated periods. D. 1985).

907 Local Communication Network (LCN) CCITT M. a state in which it can perform a "required function". However. Nx4119 A level of subdivision of an item from the point of view of a "maintenance action". (The reference model for open systems interconnection .27] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-26 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . a component.106. Note 1: examples of indenture levels could be a subsystem.00 The inability of an "item" to perform a "required function". Note 2: the indenture level depends on the complexity of the item’s construction. a circuit board. 2x A LCN connects NEs to MDs or MDs to MDs within a telecommunication centre. for practical reasons.Nx 4105/CEPT T/CS 10-13 The "maintenance" carried out after "fault" (failure) recognition" and intended to restore an "item" to a state in which it can perform a (its) "required function". test equipment facilities. intended to retain an "item" in.CCITT Rec. 904 Fault GSM 12. Data communication links may be required as part of a Local Communication Network. X. etc.9 Operations and maintenance 901 Controlled maintenance CCITT G. Version 1.Glossary of GSM Terms -. a LCN may connect remote NEs to local MDs. safety considerations. Note: In general. the accessibility to subitems. 200 should be followed).106. 908 Maintenance CCITT G. 906 Indenture level CCITT G.Nx 4103 CEPT T/CS 10-13 The combination of all technical and corresponding administrative actions including supervision actions. 1992 -. 902 Corrective maintenance .0. or restore it to. Nx 4123/CEPT T/CS 10-13 A method to sustain (or sustaining) a desired"quality of service" (network technical performance) by systematic application of analysis techniques using centralized supervisory facilities and /or sampling to minimize "preventive maintenance" and to reduce "corrective maintenance".106.04 2.13:59:56 [page. 903 Data Communication Network (DCN) CCITT M 2x A DCN connects Network Elements (NEs) with internal mediation functions or mediation devices (MOs) to the Operations Systems (0Ss). a DCN does not provide all the data communication functions for a TMN. repair CCITT G.106. skill level of maintenance personnel. 905 Failure GSM 12.00 The termination of the ability of an "item" to perform a "required function".GSM 01.0 March 26.

Protocol conversion and data handling 3 . three functional types of OSs. 912 Network Management (NM) GSM 12. at least.04 909 Maintenance entity (ME) CCITT 6.106.00‘ (not in the sense of a body) Network administration is the network related part of the Operator’s Service Provider’s overall administration and any organization.Nx1012‘ Combination of all technical and corresponding administrative actions intended so that any "item" can perform a "required function".07‘ The NMC node of the GSM TMN provides global and centralised PLMN monitoring and control. i. 916 Operations System (OS) CCITT M.14:00:07 [page. 910 Mediation CCITT M. 915 Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC) GSM 12. Processes involving decision making 5 .01/12. 914 Operations CCITT G.106. 913 Network Management Centre (NMC) GSM 12. monitor and record the use and the performance of resources of a telecommunication network in order to provide telecommunication services to customers/users at a certain level of quality. and services Version 1. (Note: by external conditions are understood.GSM 01. Data storage.Nx 4130‘ A sub-item of a given "item" defined with the intention that an alarm caused by a "fault" in that sub-item will be unambiguously referrable to the sub-item.2x‘ There are. The processes that can form mediation can be classified into following five general process categories 1 . Note The definitions of CCITT and CEPT seem to be somewhat divergent. Since CEPT Recommendations are referring to CCITT Recommendation G.Glossary of GSM Terms -.e.28] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-27 . 2x‘ A process that routes and/or acts on information passing between NEs and OSs via DCN.07‘ The OMC node of the GSM TMN provides dynamic O&M monitoring and control of the PLMN nodes operating in the geographical area controlled by the specific OMC.0. basic. non-technical action to provide or to help to provide services of a telecommunication network. the CCITT view shall be applied. recognizing necessary adaptation to changes in external conditions. 911 Network administration GSM 12. 1992 -.0 March 26. by being at the top of the TMN hierarchy and linked to subordinate OMC nodes. service demand and environmental conditions).00‘ NM is all activities which control. 106. Mediation can be shared among NE (s) and/or OS (s). Communication control 2 . network. and the CCITT definition is more precise. Communication (passing) of primitive functions 4 . for example.01/12.

0Ss. 923 Work Station (WS) GSM 12. Note: This requires compatible communication protocols and a compatible data representation method for the messages.106. 920 Security Management GSM 12.0 March 26. 917 Preventive maintenance CCITT G. • reporting on security-relevant events that have occurred.29] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-28 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .00 Resource Management (by planning functions.) provides the network resources (active and passive telecommunication equipment) and the NM resources. Basic OSs and Network OSs share infrastructural aspects of the telecommunication network. Service OSs are concerned with service aspects of one or more telecommunication networks. 2x The standard interfaces which provide for the interconnection of NEs.00 The remote device via which O&M personnel executes input and output transactions for NM purposes. 924 Administration Centre (ADC) The ADC node of the TMN provides for PLMN Operator-specific requirements in the administration and commercial areas.0. including compatible generic message definitions for TMN application functions. procurement etc.GSM 01.Glossary of GSM Terms -.06 The mechanism which assumes the satisfactory function of the programmes controlling the system also ensures that programme change and updating are satisfactorily carried out.03 Security Management is the control and distribution of security-relevant information to various users and systems for • use in providing security services. • reporting on security services and mechanisms. MDs and WSs through the DCN or LCN. 1992 -. 918 Performance Management GSM 12.Nx4104 The "maintenance" carried out at predetermined intervals or according (corresponding) to prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the "probability" of "failure" or the (performance) degradation of the functioning of an "item".04 • Basic OSs perform TMN application functions related to Network Elements (NEs) located in specific regions. Version 1. • Network OSs cover the realization of network based TMN application functions by communicating with basic OSs. 919 Resource Management GSM 12. 922 TMN Standard Interfaces CCITT M.07 Performance Management of PLMN implies the maintaining of quality of service without sacrificing the set financial objectives of the Operator. • Service OSs perform specific application functions for managing and individual service. 921 System change control GSM 12.14:00:16 [page.

the full ste of which constitutes the TMN Version 1.30] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-29 .Glossary of GSM Terms -.0.04 925 Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) The implementation of the Network Management functionality required for the PLMN is in terms of physical entities.0 March 26.GSM 01.14:10:08 [page. 1992 -.

30 Area within which a defined quality of reception is provided. The physical content of a timeslot.g.02 A means of one-way transmission.31] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-30 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System . II 05.04 2.08 Forced disconnection after a fixed period when the ACCH data is no longer decoded correctly.02 The radio frequency channels allocated to a particular cell.08 The state of a MS when processing a call. 1003 Active part of timeslot 05.08 Means of ensuring that the timeslots received at the BS from active MSs at different distances from the BS are in time alignment. Transmit timeslot advance period in the MS necessary to ensure this.0 March 26. The planned radio coverage of a cell. 1992 -. The value can be assessed by measuring the "roundtrip delay". 1002 Active mode 05.0. Error detection is performed on class IA bits. Version 1.02 Identical with burst.10 Expressions related to the radiosubsystem 1001 Absolute RF Channel Number (ARFCN) 05.Glossary of GSM Terms -.01 Channels which carry system management messages. 1010 Cell Coverage Area 03. 1012 Class IA.03/05.05 An integer which defines the absolute RF channel number.14:13:48 [page.04 The classification of speech encoder bits depending on the degree of protection needed. 1005 BCCH allocation (BA) 05.08 The radio frequency channels allocated in a cell for BCCH transmission.02 Number which identifies the position of a particular bit period within a timeslot.02 A period of modulated carrier less than one timeslot. 1004 Adaptive Frame Alignment 05. lB.GSM 01. 1006 Bit number (BN) 05. 1008 Call Release 05. 1011 Channel 05. timeslots) in a TDMA system. 1009 Cell allocation 05. while Class II bits have no protection. A defined sequence of periods (e. Class IA and class IB bits have protection. a defined sequence of periods and frequency bands in a frequency hopped system. this depends on the distance of the MS from the serving BS. 1013 Control Channels (CCH) 05. 1007 Burst 05. a defined frequency band in an FDMA system.

Physical link from the BS towards the MS (BS transmits.02.04 Internal states of the modulator before and after a burst. 1021 Frame number (FN) 05. 1026 Handover Execution 05. 1015 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) 05. DCCH.10 BS on one of whose channels (TCH.09 Signalling message sequence that causes the MS to continue the call in another (predetermined) cell. 1992 -. 1023 Guard Period 05.g. Version 1. 1020 Ec/No Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density. 1017 Downlink 05. 1025 Handover Access Burst 05.0 March 26.g.04 1014 Current Serving BS 05. in HPUs) and reducing interference by automatically switching the transmitter off when no speech or data are to be sent.14:18:11 [page.08 Change of dedicated channel during call. 1022 Frequency correction burst (FB) 05.32] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-31 .02 Period of RF carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation bit stream allows frequency correction to be performed easily within a mobile station.0.08/03. 1027 Handover Execution Interval 05.02 A period of carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation is a defined sequence that carries no useful information. 1018 Dummy bits 05. Means of filling a timeslot with an RF signal when no information is to be delivered to a channel.GSM 01.05 Period at beginning and end of timeslot during which MS transmission is attenuated. in HPUs) by periodically and automatically switching the MS receiver on and off. MS receives).08 Period of time between consecutive handover execution commands.08 Means of saving battery power (e.08 Access burst used during handover. 1024 Handover 05. 1016 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) 05.08 Means of saving battery power (e. or CCCH) the MS is currently operating.Glossary of GSM Terms -.02 Identifies the position of a particular TDMA time-frame within a hyperframe. 1019 Dummy Burst (DB) 05.

1034 Intra-Cell Handover 05. 1040 Network Management Requirements 05.76s). 1036 Mobile allocation (MA) 05. Means to affect the traffic distribution between cells. 1033 Inter-Cell Handover 05.08 See network directed criteria. 1030 Hyperframe 05.02 A period of modulated carrier less than a timeslot. 1992 -.08 Handover between different RF carriers or different timeslots of the same RF carrier within one cell.0.33] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-32 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .01 Two types of multiframe are defined in the system: a 26-frame multiframe with a period of 120ms and a 51frame multiframe with a period of 3060/13ms.08 Handover criteria originating from network management requirements. precedence requests etc.14:27:15 [page. control channels (CCH) which carry system management messages and traffic channels (TCH) which carry users’ speech or data. 1031 Idle Mode 05.08 Procedure defined by an algorithm that prescribes how handover shall be carried out e.02 The radio frequency channels allocated to a MS for use in its hopping sequence.04 1028 Handover Margin 05.02 Two classes of logical channels are defined.02 Identical with guard period. handover to a cell which offers better signal strength or to a cell which allows communication with less power.02 A hyperframe consists of 2048 superframes (see definition 1055) It is the longest recurrent time period of the frame structure (12 533. 1035 Logical channels 05. 1032 Inactive part of timeslot 05..Glossary of GSM Terms -.g.g. 1038 Multiple timeframe See multiframe. 1029 Handover Strategy 05. e.08 Hysteresis factor that minimises repetitive handovers between adjacent cells. 1041 Normal Burst (NB) 05.08 State of an MS not actively processing a call.GSM 01. traffic. 1037 Multiframe (Multiple time-frame) 05.08 Handover between cells. Change of serving cell. Version 1.. 1039 Network Directed Criteria 05.0 March 26.

1052 Serving Cell 05. 1992 -.GSM 01.31 Frame which carries the averaged background noise information 1054 Sub-channel number (SCN) 05. mobile. handheld portable. 1047 Radiofrequency channel (RFCH) A partition of the system RF spectrum allocation with a defined bandwidth and centre frequency.08 BS with which the MS is currently communicating. 1044 Power control Level 05.Glossary of GSM Terms -.08 Change of channel during a call because of either degradation of quality of the current serving channel or the availability of another channel which can allow communication at a lower transmitted RF power.02 One of the parameters defining a particular physical channel in a BS.g. Defined by the maximum peak power that can be output by a MS. absolute MS-BS distance). or to prevent a MS grossly exceeding the planned cell area.08 Cell containing the serving BS. Five power classes are defined. e. 1048 Radio Sub-System Criteria 05. determined by the response behaviour of the MS and the MS-BS distance.g. 1045 Power Control Message 05.05 Peak power level (less than or equal to the maximum peak power corresponding to the power class) that a MS outputs on command from the BS of the serving cell. during the useful part of the burst.08 Message that controls the MS transmitted RF power level (see MS_TXPWR_REQUEST). 1051 Serving BS 05.14:30:48 [page.10 Timing of quarter bit periods (12/13 us) within a timeslot.04 1042 Peak power Measure of the maximum RF power when averaged over one radio frequency cycle. 1049 Radio Sub-System Directed Handover 05.05 Class of maximum output power to which a MS belongs. signal quality.34] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-33 . signal strength. 1043 Power Class (of MS) 05.08 Criteria used in the handover and transmitted RF power control processes (e. 1053 SID-frame 06.08 Time period between transmit and receive instant of a timeslot in the BS.0. 1050 Roundtrip Delay 05. Version 1. 1046 Quarter Bit Number 05.0 March 26.

1067 Uplink 05. 1066 Training sequence code 05.10 A set of counters which determine the timing state of signals transmitted by a BS or MS.14:34:57 [page. 1065 Training sequence 05. differs from the full burst because of the 1/2 bit shift of the I and Q parts of the GMSK signal.03/05. 1063 Timeslot Number (TN) 05. 1061 Timeslot 05. Physical channel in a TDMA system.(period 6.02 Identifies a particular timeslot within a TDMA frame frame. 1060 Time-frame 05. BS receives) 1068 Useful part of timeslot 05.0.35] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-34 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .02 Sequence of modulating bits employed to facilitate timing recovery and channel equalisation in the receiver.01 The repetition period of the (8) timeslots of a particular RF channel (period 60/13 = 4.01 One of a number of periods in a time-frame (period 15/26ms).GSM 01.02 Period of RF carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation bit stream carries information for the MS to synchronize its time-frame start to that of the received signal. 1059 Timebase Counters 05.12s). 1992 -. 1057 Tail bits 05. 1058 TDMA Frame Number 05.0 March 26.). Version 1.04 Known bits that are added at the end of the information stream to allow use of a convolutional code to build a (non-systematic) block code while preserving the minimum distance properties. It enables the MS to advance the timing of its transmissions to the BS so as to compensate for propagation delay.02 Parameter used to select one of a number of training sequences.04 1055 Superframe 05.Glossary of GSM Terms -.02 Physical link from MS towards BS (MS transmits. 1062 Timing Advance 05.02 Channels which carry users’ speech or data. 1056 Synchronization burst (SB) 05.01 A superframe is 51 traffic/associated control multiframes or 26 broadcast/common control multiframes.02 The number of a particular TDMA frame in the cyclic TDMA frame numbering range (2715647).10 A signal sent by the BS to the MS.62 ms approx. 1064 Traffic channels 05.04 That part of the burst used by the demodulator.This is referred to as a frame in the definition of multiframes.

GSM 01. 1992 -.04 1069 Voice activity detection (VAD) 05.04 A process used to identify presence or absence of speech data bits.0.36] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-35 .Glossary of GSM Terms -.0 March 26.14:37:04 [page.This is used along with DTX (see definition 1016) Version 1.03/05.

03.0 April 30.f. 7 1105 Signalling Interworking Signalling Interworking is the function required to connect the signalling protocols used in a GSM PLMN to those used in the appropriate fixed network. 1102 Queuing The procedure in which calls. A part of CCITT Signalling System No. 1103 Off-air-call-set-up (OACSU) The procedure in which a telecommunication connection is being established whilst the r.GSM 01.0.37] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-36 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .01/03.01. 1104 Mobile Application Part (MAP) 09.04 2. 1107 Radio Link Protocol (RLP) An Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) protocol used to reliably transfer user data between an MS and IWF. originating from a MS or terminating in a MS are kept pending for reasons of congestion or when the called party is occupied.07.02 and 07. 1106 Layer 2 relay (L2R) A function of an MS and IWF that adapts a user’s known layer2 protocol onto RLP for transmission over the GSM radio interface. Three categories of MS features are distinguished: basic.19:33:34 [page. 1992 -. See also GSM 07.11 Miscellaneous 1101 Mobile Station Feature A MS feature is a function or a piece of equipment which directly relates to the man-machine operation of the MS.01 The internetworking signalling between MSCs and LRs and EIRs. link between the MS and the BS is not occupied.See also GSM 04. supplementary and additional features.22 Version 1.Glossary of GSM Terms -.

0.19:39:38 [page.02 Broadcast Control Channel Frequency of the RF carrier on which the BCCH of a neighbouring cell is transmitted.GSM 01.38] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-37 .04 3. 05.56) Barring of Incoming Calls when Roaming Outside the Home PLMN Country (232) Full-rate traffic channel Bit Number (1006) Barring all outgoing calls except those to Home PLMN Barring of Outgoing International Calls (229) Barring of Outgoing international Calls except those directed to the Home PLMN Country (230) Base Station (404) Logical variable that indicates the combination of dedicated and associated control channels on the same physical channel 05.Glossary of GSM Terms -. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS A3 A5 A8 AB ACCH ACM ACU ADC AEF AGCH AOC ARFCN ARQ AUC AUT(H) BA BAIC BAOC BCC BCCH BCCH_FREQ_NCELL BCD BCU BIC-Roam Bm BN BNHO BOIC BOIC-exHC BS BS_BCCH_SDCCH_C0MB see Algorithm A3 (701) see Algorithm A5 (702) see Algorithm A8 (703) Access Burst Associated Control Channel Address Complete Message Antenna Combining Unit ADministration Centre (924) Additional Elementary Functions Access Grant CHannel Advice Of Charge (223) Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (1001) Automatic Request for Retransmission (1007) Authentication Centre (705) Authentication (704) BCCH Allocation (1005) Barring of All Incoming Calls (231) Barring of All Outgoing Calls (228) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Colour Code 05.0 April 30. 1992 -.08 Binary Coded Decimal (See 08.02 Version 1.

0.09:09:02 [page.02 Number of blocks on each common control channel reserved for access grant messages 05.39] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-38 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .Glossary of GSM Terms -.08 Base Station System (408) Base Transceiver Station (410) Conditional Cell Allocation Number of the frequency band that contains the cell allocation 05.02 Base Transceiver Station Identity Code (706) 05.0 March 27.add on (227) Connect Call RE-establishment procedure Circuit Switched Public Data Network(324) Channel Tester Call Transfer (225) Closed User Group (222) Call Waiting (220) Version 1.02 BSIC of an adjacent cell 05.04 BS_CC_CHANS BS_G_BLKS_RES BS_PA_MFRMS BSC BSIC BSIC-NCELL BSS BTS C CA CA_BAND_NUMB CBCH CC CCBS CCCH_GROUP CCH CCPE CELL-BAR-ACCESS CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS CFB CFNRc CFNRy CFU CI CLIP CLIR CMD COLI COLP COLR COM CONF CONN CRE CSPDN CT CT CUG CW Number of basic physical channels supporting common control channels 05.05 Cell Broadcast CHannel 05.02 Country Code Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers (221) Group of MSs in idle mode Control CHannel (1013) Control Channel Protocol Entity Cell Access Barred RXLEV Hysteresis required for Cell Reselection Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Busy (217) Call Forwarding on MS Not REAchable (219) Call Forwarding on No Reply (218) Call Forwarding Unconditional (216) Cell Identity (708) Calling Line Identification Presentation (211) Calling Line Identification Restriction (212) Command Connect Line Identity Connected Line Identification Presentation (213) Connected Line identification Restriction (214) Complete Conference Call.02 Base Station Controller (409) 05.GSM 01.02 Number of multiframes between two transmissions of the same paging message to MSs of the same paging group 05. 1992 -.

GSM 01. 1992 -.04 DB DCCH DCF DCN DET DISC DL DLCI DLD Dm DP DRX DTAP DTE DTMF DTX EA Ec/No EIR ERR FA FACCH FACCH/F FACCH/H FB FCCH FEC FN GMSC GPA GSA GSM GSM MS GSM PLMN Dummy Burst (1019) Dedicated Control Channel Data Communication Function Data Communication Network (903) Detach DISConnect Data Link (layer) Data Link Connection Identifier Data Link Discriminator Control Channel (ISDN terminology applied to mobile service) Dialled Pulse Discontinuous Reception (Mechanism) (1015) Direct Transfer Application Part Data Terminal Equipment Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (signalling) Discontinuous Transmission (Mechanism) (1016) External Alarms Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density (1020) Equipment Identity Register ERRor Full Allocation Fast ACCH Full rate Fast Associated Control Channel Half rate Fast Associated Control Channel Frequency correction Burst (1022) Frequency Correction CHannel Forward Error Correction Frame Number (1021) Gateway Mobile Services Switching Centre (313) GSM PLMN area (308) GSM System Area (309) Groupe Special Mobile GSM Mobile Station (406) GSM Public Land Mobile Network (304) Version 1.0.0 March 27.40] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-39 .09:09:13 [page.Glossary of GSM Terms -.

Glossary of GSM Terms -.41] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-40 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .19:39:48 [page. 1992 -.0.08 Local Area Network Link Access Protocol on the Dm channel Local Communication Network (908) Local Exchange Traffic channel with capacity lower than Bm Local PLMN (307) Location Register (601) Mandator Mobile Allocation (1036) Mobile Allocation Channel Number Mobile Additional Function Version 1.0 April 30.GSM 01.02 Information (frames) Initial Address Message Incoming Calls Barred Identification Integrated Digital Network Signalling Information Element International Mobile station Equipment Identity (716) International Mobile Subscriber Identity (717) Interrogating Node (328) Interworking Unit Integrated Services Digital Network (302) Inter Working Function (327) Constraint Length of the Convolutional Code Cipher Key see "subscriber authentication key" (729) Layer 2 Relay (1106) Location Area Code Location Area Identity 05.04 HANDO HDLC HLR HO_MARGIN HOLD HPLMN HPU HSN I IAM ICB ID IDN IE IMEI IMSI IN INU ISDN IWF K Kc Ki L2R LAC LAI LAN LAPDm LCN LE Lm LPLMN LR M MA MACN MAF Handover High Level Data Link Control Home Location Register (604) SDL Message name for Handover Margin Call Hold (Supplementary Service) (224) Home PLMN (305) Hand Portable Unit Hopping Sequence Number 05.

02 Neighbouring (or current serving) Cell 05.04 MAH MAI MAIO MAP MCC MCI MD MDL ME ME MEF MIC MM MME MMI MNC MO MPH MS MS_PWR_CLASS MS_RANGE_MAX MS_RXLEV_L MS_TXPWR_CONF MS MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH MS_TXPWR_REQUEST MSC MSCM MSCU MSISDN MSRN MT MT MTP MUMS N/W NB NBIN NCELL NDC NE Mobile Access Hunting (233) Mobile Allocation Index 05.Glossary of GSM Terms -.02 Mobile Application Part (1104) Mobile Country Code Malicious Cell Identification (215) Mediation Device (mobile) Management (entity) . Handover criterion to determine serving cell Lower Receive Level. Threshold of RXLEV received from the serving BS below which either power control or handover must take place to improve the cell quality 05.42] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Appendix 3-41 .GSM 01.02 Mobile Allocation Index Offset 05.PHysical (layer) [primitive] Mobile Station (402) MS PoWer Class.09:09:27 [page.Data Link (layer) Maintenance Entity (909) Mobile Equipment (407) Maintenance Entity Function Mobile Interface Controller Man Machine Mobile Management Entity Man Machine Interface Mobile Network Code Mobile Originated (515) (mobile) Management (entity) .08 Mobile Station Range Maximum. Parameter sent by the BSS that commands the required MS RF Power Level Mobile-services Switching Centre (312) Mobile Station Class Mark Mobile Station Control Unit Mobile Station ISDN Number (719 Mobile Station Roaming Number (720) Mobile Terminated (516) Mobile Termination (508) Message Transfer Part Multi User Mobile Station Network Normal Burst (1041) A parameter in the hopping sequence 05. 1992 -.0 March 27. Parameter sent by the MS to indicate its current transmitted RF power level Maximum Allowed Transmitted RF Power for MSs to Access the System until commanded otherwise MS Transmitted RF Power Request.08 National Destination Code Network Element Version 1.08 Transmitted RF Power Confirmation.0. Parameter defining the power class of an MS expressed in the same way as the R parameters 05.

09:09:27 [page.GSM 01.42] AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Appendix 3-42 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .0 March 27.0.Glossary of GSM Terms -. 1992 -.04 Version 1.

.............. 1-46 Multiplexing Voice and Signaling Using 13k bps Speech Coding ............................................................. 1-4 What is GSM? .................... 1-6 AGS1200 and the GSM Specification .......... 1-72 Mobile Stations and Features Types of Mobile Stations ................................................................................. 1-26 Second Generation Cellular Standards ....... 1-68 Continued Growth ................................................................. 1-48 Multiplexing 2 Voice Calls Using 6................................... 1-36 Multiple Access Methods ...5k bps Speech Coding ........................................................................ 1-38 FDMA/TDMA Structure Used in GSM ................................ 1-50 ISDN-Like Channel Structure Requires 6.........Contents Unit 1: Background and Fundamentals Overview of AGS1200 — The Pan-European GSM Cellular System ....... 1-60 Channel Reuse Example — Using GSM Frequencies .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-58 Channel Reuse................................................. 1-24 Expected Growth in European — Cellular 1991-1994 .............................. 1-34 Layout of a Cellular System ......................................................................................................................................................... 1-20 Adoption of GSM Standard ............................................................................................ 1-76 Version 1..5k bps Speech Coding......................................................... 1-62 Cell Coverage Area ................................................................................................................................................. 1-2 AGW1200 Versus CC1200 .............................. 1-22 Key Events ...................................... 1-12 Wireless Services Technology Perspective......................................... 1-30 Cellular System POTS / Mobile Telephone Connections ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-14 Market Trends in Wireless Communication ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1-52 Cellular Concepts Simple Non-cellular (Non-practical) Wireless System ......... 1-8 Background Evolution of Wireless Access Technology ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1-70 Sectorized Antennas .......................................................................................................................................0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System Contents-1 .................... 1-44 TDMA Frame Organization for Traffic Channels ................................................................................................................ 1-28 The Radio Spectrum .......... 1-56 Basic Cellular Principles ........... 1-64 Other Cell Clusters ................ 1-42 TDMA Operation .................................. 1-66 Cellular Growth Through Cell Splitting ................................................. 1-16 Cellular Systems in Europe Today ................... 1-18 Objectives Of The Pan-European GSM Based System ............... 1-40 Spectral Allocation ..........................

.................................. 2-26 Mobile Application Part (MAP) ............................................................ 2-2 GSM Network Management Architecture ....................................................................................................... 3-2 GSM Reference Model .................... 3-4 Location Areas Paging a Mobile Station .................................................................................................. 3-14 Location and Cell Area Identification....................................................................................................... 2-10 Mobile-Station/Base-Station Interface ..... 2-34 Service Quality Requirements .................................................................................................... 3-36 Version 1....... 2-24 Authentication Center (AUC)....................... 3-16 Country Codes and Mobile Country Codes — Partial List ......................................................... 2-30 Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs) ...........................................Continued ................................................................................................................................................ 2-4 The SS7 Architecture ................................................................................................................................ 3-24 Mobile Station Fixed vs................................................................................................................................................................... 2-14 BSS/MSC Interface (A) .... 2-36 Unit 3: Mobility Management Unit Overview ................................ 2-16 MS-BTS-BSC-MSC Signaling Protocol Model ........................0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Contents-2 Overview of the GSM Cellular System ................ 2-20 Visitor Location Register (VLR) .............................................................................................................................................................. 3-20 Summary of Area Relationships .......................................................................................................... 3-34 Home Location Register (HLR) ........................................... 3-22 Where the HLR Fits in the Picture .................................................. 2-18 Home Location Register (HLR) ....... 2-8 BSS ...... 3-18 MSC Areas and Location Areas ........................Unit 2: System Architecture Overview GSM Land-Mobile Network Reference Model .. Mobile Station Directory Number Translation................................ 3-12 Location Areas and Cell Areas ............... 2-28 Major Procedures Supported — By Map ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-8 Where is the Mobile Station? ............................. 2-22 Equipment Identity Register (EIR) .............. 3-10 Paging Performance ........................................................ 2-6 Base Station System (BSS) Architecture ............................................................................... 2-12 Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) ... 2-32 GSM System Area (GSA) ........................................................................ 3-28 Mobile Station .................................... 3-32 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) .......................... 3-30 Mobile Station Identification ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................. 3-48 Location Update Example — Movement between VLRs -............................ 3-70 Time Based Registration ........... 3-74 Confidentiality and Confidentiality & Security Mechanisms.... 3-84 Encrypted Traffic Channel Information ................ 3-42 Location Update Example — Movement within VLR Area ................................................................................................ 3-56 Land to Mobile Call Routing — Mobile Located in Non-Home MSC Area ............................................................................................................................ 3-64 Mobile Station 3 Types of Mobile Station Registration .Visitor Location Register (VLR) ......................................................... 3-100 Mobile Location Update — Update Location.............. 3-62 Land to Mobile Call Routing — Intelligent PSTN ............................................................................................................ 4-6 Mobile to Land Version 1.................................... 3-98 Mobile Location Update — Authentication .... 3-60 Land to Mobile Call Routing — Via Gateway MSC ...................................................... 3-50 Routing Calls Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) .. 3-68 Geographic Based Registration ....................................................................................... 4-4 Required Facilities for a Mobile-Land Call ..................................... ............................. 3-80 Subscriber Identity Authentication and CipherKey Setting ............ 3-46 Location Update Example — Movement between VLRs ................................................................... 3-96 Mobile Location Update — Request for Service .................................... 3-78 Why Authenticate? .... 3-40 Location Update Example — First Time -.........0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Overview of the GSM Cellular System Contents-3 ........................................................................ 3-54 MSC Directory Number Allocation ...... .......................................................................................................... 3-38 Location Update Example — First Time.................................................. 4-2 GSM Reference Model .............................................................................................................................. 3-82 Authentication Process — Network View ........................................... 3-72 ON/OFF Based Registration ............................ 3-90 Equipment Validation Process ................................................................................................................................... 3-88 Why Validate Mobile Equipment? ....................... 3-102 Mobile Location Update — Ciphering ................................................. 3-92 Detailed Location Phases of a Mobile Station — Location Registration Update . 3-44 Location Update Example — Movement within VLR Area -. 3-104 Mobile Location Update — TMSI Reallocation............ 3-58 Land to Mobile Call Routing — Mobile in Home MSC Area .........................................cont......................................................................................... 3-106 Unit 4: Call Management Unit Overview ........................................cont....................................... 3-86 Data Encryption Process ...........................................................................................Continued ...............................

........................... Intra-MSC Inter-BSS Handover Steps — Continued ........................................................................................................ Handover Overview Why Handover? .................... Mobile to Land Call — Ciphering........................ Land to Mobile Call — Call Setup -............................................................................................... Inter-MSC Handover Voice Facilities ................................................... Basic Inter-MSC Handover — Initial Condition .............................................. Mobile to Land Call — Equipment Validation ..................................................................... Mobile to Land Call — Call Setup -....... Mobile Station Measurement Process for Handover -......... Basic Inter-MSC Handover Steps................Example .................................. Handover Types — 4 Levels ......................................................................................... Subsequent Inter-MSC Handover Exercise — 3rd MSC -.....................................Phases of a Mobile to Land Call.................................................................................................................................. Inter-MSC Signaling .. Land to Mobile Phases of a Land to Mobile Call................. Mobile to Land Call — Release -. Basic Inter-MSC Handover Steps — Continued ....................................................... Mobile to Mobile Phases of a Mobile to Mobile Call ......................... Land to Mobile Call — Equipment Validation ............................ Land to Mobile Call — Paging ............. Land to Mobile Call — Call Setup -..........with Mobile ......................................... Land to Mobile Call — Routing Analysis ....................................... Subsequent Inter-MSC Handover Steps — Handback -.............................. MSC Directory Number Spectrum .................Continued ...........................................Network Initiated .................................. Subsequent Inter-MSC Handover Exercise — 3rd MSC ................................... Subsequent Inter-MSC Handover Steps — Handback ...................................................................................................................................Continued ... Land to Mobile Call — Release -........... Mobile to Land Call — Request for Service .............Example ......Mobile Initiated ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................with Land Network ....................................... Handover Open Interval Gap -.................................. Example of Different Handover Types ......................... 4-10 4-12 4-14 4-16 4-18 4-20 4-22 4-24 4-28 4-30 4-32 4-34 4-36 4-38 4-40 4-42 4-44 4-48 4-52 4-54 4-56 4-58 4-60 4-62 4-64 4-66 4-68 4-70 4-72 4-74 4-76 4-78 4-80 4-82 4-84 4-86 4-88 4-90 4-92 Version 1........................................................................................................................................................... Mobile to Land Call — Call Setup -.... Land to Mobile Call — Authentication ...........................0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Contents-4 Overview of the GSM Cellular System .... Mobile to Land Call — Authentication ........................................................... Handover Process .......... Factors that can Influence the Decision to Handover ................ Inter-MSC Handover Types ........ Handover Opportunity Window ...... Land to Mobile Call — Ciphering........................with Mobile .................................................... Intra-MSC Inter-BSS Handover Steps.....................................................................................with Land Network .......................................................................................

...................Steps 1 & 2 ............................ 5-40 Inter-SM Message Communication .............................................. 5-2 GSM Reference Model ................. 5-4 GSM Reference Model — AT&T Product Offering ............ 4-126 Inter-MSC Handover — 3rd MSC -......................Steps 1 & 2 .............................................................................................. 5-28 BSS-5ESS Signaling Architecture .. 5-34 MAP SIGNAL PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE .............. 5-10 Basic 5ESS Architecture .................Step 3 ............................ 5-6 INTERNATIONAL 5ESS System Architecture Overview ................................................................................................................. 5-16 Maximum Digital Facilities per WSM ...................................................................Steps 3 & 4 .......Step 2 continued ............................................................................. 5-14 32 Channel Digital Facilities used between MSC and BSSs . 4-98 Basic Inter-MSC Handover — Events After Handover Command....................................................... 5-30 MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL............................................ 4-118 Inter-MSC Handover — 3rd MSC -........................................................................................................................................... 4-110 Inter-MSC Handover — Basic -........ 4-114 Inter-MSC Handover — Handback -......................... 5-26 Wireless Global SM (WGSM) — Actual Signaling Path View ............................................... 5-24 Example: Facilities between 5ESS and 1 BSS ........................... 4-96 Basic Inter-MSC Handover — Facilities Before Handover ................................................................................. 4-100 Handover Scenarios Intra-BSS Handover ................................... 5-36 PACKET SWITCH UNIT SIGNAL LINK ARCHITECTURE .................................................................... 4-122 Inter-MSC Handover — 3rd MSC -.................0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Contents-5 ........................................... 5-32 PSTN & PLMN-5ESS Signaling Architecture ...... 5-12 Basic 5ESS Wireless Switch Architecture...... 5-18 WSM Trunk Engineering ...... 5-22 Wireless Global SM (WGSM) — Logical Signaling Path View ....... 4-116 Inter-MSC Handover — Handback -..................................................................................................................................................................................After Call Ends ............................................... 4-112 Inter-MSC Handover — Basic -.... 4-120 Inter-MSC Handover — 3rd MSC -.....................................................Basic Inter-MSC Handover — Handover Number Allocation ................................ 5-42 Summary of 5ESS Message — Switching Architecture .................................................................. 4-94 Basic Inter-MSC Handover — Inter-MSC Trunk Setup ........................................................Steps 1 & 2 ................................................ 4-104 Intra-MSC Handover — Steps 1 & 2 ......... 4-106 Intra-MSC Handover — Steps 3 & 4 .............................. 5-20 5ESS WSM Architecture. 5-44 Version 1..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-128 Unit 5: 5ESS MSC Unit Overview .......... 4-108 Inter-MSC Handover — Basic -.......................Step 4 . 5-38 GSM Terminology ......Steps 3 & 4 .

................ 5-114 4 Steps to a Handover — Switching Voice Paths .......... 5-82 Phases of a Mobile to Land Call.................................................. 5-76 MOBILE TO LAND CALL SCENARIO VLR SM & Trunk SM Relationship ..........................EXTERNAL DATABASE ACCESS )em High Level View ....................... 5-46 WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS )em Example ...............................................................................Cont ..................................................................................................................... 5-56 Routing Service Requests )em to the Correct VLR ............................................. 5-104 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL — Routing to VLR MSC and Paging ..................................... 5-54 Implementation of HLR & VLR on 5ESS............................................................. 5-90 Mobile to Land Call — Equipment Validation and Call Setup . Ciphering ......................... and EIR AT&T GSM HLR.......................................................................................................... VLR.................................................................................................. 5-92 Mobile to Land Call — Call Setup ........................... 5-106 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL — Authentication.............................................................................................. AUC...................................... 5-84 Mobile to Land Call — Request for Service ..... 5-60 Location of Authentication Center .................................................................................. VLR......................................................... 5-86 Mobile to Land Call — Authentication and Call Setup ........................................... 5-80 SMs Used for a Mobile To Land Call ........ BSS Trunk Hunt.. 5-64 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION SCENARIO ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION ..................................................................................... 5-110 INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Handover Steps ......................................................................................................................... 5-74 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION — TMSI Reallocation..................... Create New & Cancel Old VLR....................................................................................................... 5-58 TMSI Organization ............................................ 5-48 WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS )em MAP Message Routing ............. 5-72 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION — Auth........ AUC............. 5-62 Location of Equipment Identity Register ........................................................................................... 5-102 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL — Routing Information Query .................. 5-70 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION — Request for Service and IMSI Query.................................................................. 5-50 HLR......... Call Connection ..... 5-116 Version 1................................................................ 5-96 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL CALL DELIVERY TO A MOBILE STATION — Via Gateway with External HLR .............. & EIR........ 5-108 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL — Radio Channel Assignment............................................................................................. LU Complete . 5-88 Mobile to Land Call — Ciphering and Call Setup .................................0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Contents-6 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System ....................................... 5-94 Mobile to Land Call — Mobile Release ................. 5-68 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION ...

..................................................................... 7-14 1.................................... 7-2 Overview of Japan Cellular Japan’s Cellular Networks........................................................................................................................................continue — Switching Voice Paths ....continue — Switching Voice Paths ....................................................................................................................................... Intra-MSC Handover — Part 2 ....................................................................................... 7-16 1............................ 7-42 JAPAN Network Parameters .... 7-32 Japan DMNI Overview .............................. 7-20 Japan TTC OVERVIEW ................. 7-18 Japan’s Telecommunication Standards ...................... Radio Channel Assignment.. INTER-MSC HANDOVER — Handover End..................................................................................................................................5 GHz Band Digital PCN Cellular Telephone Companies .......................................... Mobile Retune ..................................................... 7-44 IDO Overview IDO Overview ............................ 4 Steps to a INTER-MSC Handover ........................................................ 7-52 IDO’s 5ESS Supplementary Services ................. 7-30 MSC<->BSS<->MS Protocol Model ....................................0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Japan Digital Cellular System Contents-7 ................................... Intra-MSC Handover — Part 1 ............ 7-26 Japan RCR Overview ..................................................................... 7-48 IDO’s Network Architecture ..........................................................................9 GHz Band Digital PHP’s Cellular Telephone Companies ........................ 7-50 IDO’s 5ESS Architecture .............................................. INTER-MSC HANDOVER — ISUP Trunk Setup............................................ 7-8 800 MHz Band Analog Cellular Telephone Company Map ....................................................................... Intra-MSC Handover — Part 4 ............................................. 7-12 800 MHz Band Digital Cellular Telephone Companies ......................................... INTER-MSC HANDOVER — Handover Command......................................................................................................................... INTER-MSC HANDOVER 4 Steps to a INTER-MSC Handover — Switching Voice Paths .................................................... INTER-MSC HANDOVER — Handover Required ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7-54 Version 1.............................................. 7-10 Terminal Unit Charges ............................... 7-24 Japan TTC Overview Diagram ................................................ Intra-MSC Handover — Part 3 .................................. Old BSS Trunk Release .....4 Steps to a Handover ......... Unit 7: Overview of Japan Cellular 5-118 5-120 5-122 5-124 5-126 5-130 5-132 5-134 5-136 5-138 5-140 5-142 Unit Overview ................ 5ESS Terminology Clarification ........................... 7-28 Japan RCR Overview Diagram ................................................. New BSS Trunk Assignment................................ 7-34 Japan DMNI Overview Diagram ........................... 7-36 JAPAN to GSM Model Comparison Diagram ......................... 7-6 800 MHz Band Analog Cellular Telephone Company Overview..................

.............................Visitor .......................................04 Glossary of GSM Terms -...........................Home MS ......0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions Contents-8 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System .............. Call Termination ........................................................................ Japan Cellular Network Call Scenarios Location Registration ........................Visiting Subscriber ...............................................................IDO Documentation Status ........................... Appendix 3-2 Version 1... Appendix 1: Index to GSM Specification Document 7-56 7-60 7-62 7-64 7-66 Index to GSM Specification Document ...................Home Subscriber ....................................................................... Appendix 1-2 Appendix 2: Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations Requesting a Copy of GSM via LINUS . Location Registration ....04 ........................................................... Appendix 2-2 Appendix 3: Glossary of GSM Terms -.............GSM 01.........GSM 01.............. Call Termination ....

0 AT&T Proprietary − Use pursuant to Company Instructions The Pan-European GSM Cellular System Contents-10 .Version 1.