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1. Tariff- tax on imported goods 2.

Strict construction- government should only use the implied powers of the constitution when it was absolutely necessary (belief that the government should not do anything that the constitution does not specifically say it can do) 3. Jays Treaty- Britain agreed to leave the forts it occupied in the Northwest Territory. Treaty signed in 1794 between united staes and britain in which britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts within northwest territory. 4. Political party- group of people who seek to win elections and hold public office in order to shape government policy and programs 5. Xyz affair- controversy in 1798 over French demands for bribes from American negotiators. 6. Alien and sedition acts- Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government. 7. Missouri compromise- 1820 agreement calling for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and outlawing slavery in future states to be created north of 36 degrees north latitude. 8. Union- the United States as a national unit or during the civil war the north. 9. Prejudice- an unreasonable, usually unfavorable opinion of another group 10. Manifest destiny-argument that it was the undeniable fate of the united states to expand across North America 11. Annex- to join or attach as in the joining of a new territory to an existing country 12. Treaty of Guadeloupe hidalgo- treaty signed in 1848 by the United States and Mexico ending the Mexican war. 13. Gadsden purchase-1853 purchase by the united states of southwestern lands from Mexico 14. Wilmot proviso= amendment to an 1846 bill stating that slavery would not be permitted in any of the territory acquired from Mexico though it never became law northerners continued to attach it to bills related to new territories 15. Compromise of 1850 agreement designed to ease tensions caused by the expansion of slavery into western territories 16. Fugitive slave act-part of the compromise a law ordering all citizens of the united states to assist in the return of the slaves 17. Nationalism- devotion to ones nation 18. Kansas Nebraska act- 1854 law that called for the creation of these two new territories and stated that the citizens in each territory should decide whether slavery would be allowed there. 19. Popular sovereignty- policy of letting the people in a territory decide whether slavery would be allowed there 20. Free soiler- person dedicated to preventing the expansion of slavery into the western territories

Border states.civil war battle in 1863 in Virginia won by the confederacy the civil war the states between the north and south Delaware Maryland Kentucky and Missouri.civil war battle in 1863 in Pennsylvania won by the union and a turning point in the war 42.21. Mississippi Alabama Florida Georgia and south Carolina 26. Civil war. Battle of cold harbor-civil war battle in 1864 in Virginia 44. Louisiana. Greenbacks-name given to the national paper currency created in 1862 36. Reconstruction.association of seven seceding southern sates formed in 1861 28. Draft-required military service 35.famous speech by president Lincoln on the meaning of civil war given in November 1863 at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the battle of Gettysburg 43. 1st battle of bull run. Battle of Shiloh. 24. Lower south. Lincoln Douglas debate-series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Copperhead.First major battle of the civil war. Fort Sumter. 31.presidential decree by president Lincoln effective January 1 1863 that freed slaves in confederate held territory protection requiring that a court determine whether a person is lawfully imprisoned 38. Battle of Fredericksburg. Write of habeas corpus. Arsenal. Douglas on the issue of slavery in the territories. Confederate states of America. 13th amendment. Guerilla.items seized form the enemy during wartime 40. Battle of Antietam. Battle of Gettysburg.civil war battle in 1863 in Maryland in 1862 34. Sanford. Emancipated proclamation.during the civil war an antiwar northern democrat 37. 27.civil war battle in Tennessee in 1862 where weapons are made or stored.soldier who uses surprise raids and hit and run tactics 46.person who wanted the south to succeed. War of Attrition. won by confederates.1857 supreme court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens that living in a free state or territory even for many years didn’t free slaves and declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional 23. 25.a type of war in which one side inflicts continuous losses on the other in order to wear down its strength. 22.war between the union states of the north and the confederate states of the south fought from 1861 to 1865 30. Gettysburg address.states of Texas. 29.program implemented by the federal government between 1865 and 1877 damage to the south caused by the civil war and restore the southern sates to the union 47. Radical reputation-groups of congressmen form within the republican party who believed that the civil war had been fought over the moral issue of . Secessionist.federal fort in the harbor of Charleston South Carolina the confederate attack on the fort marked beginning of the civil war. Contraband.constitutional amendment ratified in 1865 abolishing slavery 45. Dred Scott V. 32.

15th amendment. Vertical consolidation.production of goods in great amounts 62. Freedman’s bureau. Bessemen process. 53. Mass production. 63. Compromise of 1877. Trust-a group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board passed by congress in 1890 that outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce .agreement in which democrats agreed to give Rutherford B Hayes the victory in the presidential election of 1876 and Hayes in return agreed to remove the remaining federal troops form southern states 58. Patent.process for making steel more efficiently in 1856 61. Enforcement act of 1870.loose association of businesses that make the same product 67.amendment ratified in 1870 that guaranteed voting rights to all male citizens. 52. Horizontal consolidation. Transcontinental railroad. Oligopoly. Black codes.the process of together many firms in the same business to form one large company 69. Carpetbagger. Sherman antitrust act.term used to describe the domination of post civil war southern politics by the democratic party 57.railway extending from coast to coast 60.process of gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of a products development 68. electric power.passed by congress to ban the use of terror force or bribery to prevent people form voting because of their race 56. Thomas A. Sharecropping. His goal was to develop affordable in-home lighting to replace oil lamps and gaslights.Constitutional amendment ratified in 1868 to guarantee citizens equal protection under the law.slavery and insisted that the main goal of reconstruction should be a total restructuring of society to guarantee blacks true equality 48.complete control of a product or service 66. improved stock tickers that sent stock and gold prices to other offices.laws that restricted freedmen’s rights 51.negative nickname for a northern republican who moved to the south after the civil war 54. Monopoly. Cartel. Solid South.license that gives an inventor the exclusive right to make use or sell an invention for a set period of time 59.derived form Darwin’s natural selection the belief that society should do as little as possible to interfere with peoples success 64. Edison-Helped make new source of energy.a market structure dominated by only a few large profitable firms 65. Pocket veto.system of farming in which a farmer tends some portion of a planters land and receives a share of the crop at harvest time as payment 55.created by congress in 1865 the first major federal relief agency in the united states 49. 14th amendment.Type of veto a chief executive may use after a legislature has adjourned it is applied when the chief executive doesn’t formally sign or reject a bill within the time period allowed to do so 50. Socialist Darwinism.

Scab.process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers 77.1894 railway workers strike that spread nationwide 81. Collective bargaining.1862 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens who met certain condition and would farm the land for five exaggerated or oversimplified description of reality held by a number of people .1862 strike in Pennsylvania against Carnegie steel 80. He also donated sums of his money to the community and preached a gospel of wealth. Pullman strike. Sweatshop.71.1886 labor related violence in Chicago 79. Morrill land act. 85.mining technique in which miners shovel loose dirt into boxes and then run water over the dirt to separate it from gold or silver particles 92.settlers who ran in land races to claim land upon the 1889 opening of Indian territory for settlement 90. Andrew economic and political philosophy that favors public instead of private control of property and income 76. Turner thesis. who farmed claims under the homestead act 93. Land speculator-person who buys up large areas of land in the hope of selling them later for profit 84. Placer mining. Socialism. Homestead strike. Homestead act. Battle of little bighorn.negative term for a worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers 78.passed by congress in 1862 this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund stae agricultural colleges. Assimilation.factory where employees work long hours at low wages and under poor working conditions 74. He owned a steel business. Boomers.1889 people who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began 91. 83.system in which workers are pained not by the amount of time worked but by the number of items they produce 73. 72. Haymarket riot. Exoduster.successful business leader and industrialist. Piecework. Sooners.technique used to raise crops in areas of little rain. Dry farming.1876 Sioux victory over army troops led by George Custer African American who migrated to the west after the civil war 86.1893 theory of Frederick Jackson that claimed that the frontier had played a key role in forming the American character and conditions that either force people to move elsewhere or strongly attract them to do so 82.union of laborers devoted to a specific craft 75. Stereotype. Push pull factor. Dawes act. water conservation techniques 94. Craft union.1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots 89.process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture 88.

Also a populist 103.conservatives supporting the reduced amount of money in circulation by amount of gold held by government. . Gag rule. Populist.1878 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver increasing the money supply and causing inflation 99.96.follower of the peoples party formed in 1891 to advocate a larger supply of money and other economic reforms 101. 102.currency of united states prior to 1873 which consisted of gold or silver coins as u.the unlimited coining of silver dollars 98. Bland Allison act. Gold bugs. 100. Division of labor. William gennings Bryan.rule passed by house of representatives in 1836 promoting antislavery petitions from being read or acted upon.former silverite congressman from Nebraska and a powerful speaker captured the democratic nomination with an emotional plea for free silver. Bimetallic standard.s treasury notes that could be traded in for gold or silver 97. Free silver.way of producing in which different tasks are performed by different people.

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