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5-1 DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION DIGITAL-TODigital-toDigital-to-analog conversion is the process of changing one of the characteristics of an analog signal depending on the

information in digital data. data.


From Chapter 5, we will study 5.1.

Chapter 5 Analog Transmission


Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Topics discussed in this section:


Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion Binary Amplitude Shift Keying Binary Frequency Shift Keying Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

5.1

Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Figure 5.1 Digital-to-analog conversion

Figure 5.2 Types of digital-to-analog conversion

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Aspects of Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Bit rate is the number of bits per second. Baud rate is the number of signal elements per second.

Data element versus Signal element Data rate (N) versus signal rate(S)

In the analog transmission of digital data, the baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate.
Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

Baud Rate = bit rate /number of bits per signal unit

Bandwidth Carrier Signal

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Example 1
An analog signal carries 4 bits per signal element. If 1000 signal elements are sent per second, find the bit rate. Solution baud rate = 1000 baud/s Number of bits per signal= 4
Bit Rate

Example 2

An analog signal has a bit rate of 3000 bps and each signal unit carries 6 bits. What is the baud rate? Solution
Baud Rate = bit rate /number of bits per signal unit = 3000/6 = 500 baud/s

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Carrier signal
A carrier signal is a transmitted electromagnetic pulse or wave at a steady base frequency of alternation on which information can be imposed by increasing signal strength, varying the base frequency, phase, or amplitude. This modification is called modulation. There are three major classes of digital modulation techniques used for transmission of digitally represented data: Amplitude shift keying (ASK). Frequency shift keying (FSK). Phase shift keying (PSK).

Digital Modulation Techniques

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)


ASK is a form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. The amplitude of the carrier signal varies according to the bit stream (modulating signal), keeping frequency and phase constant.

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

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Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

Bandwidth for ASK


Bandwidth = (1+d) Nbaud

Advantages Very simple modulation and demodulation Disadvantages High sensitivity to noise Low bandwidth efficiency

Nbaud is the baud rate d is the modulation factor with minimum value =0 0 In BASK baud rate = bit rate Minimum BW = Nbaud

ASK
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on/off keying (OOK).


Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Example 5.4
We have an available bandwidth of 10 kHz (1000 to 11,000) In data communications, we normally use full-duplex links with communication in both directions. Draw a diagram of the system?
5000 5000

Frequency shift keying (FSK)


FSK is a method of transmitting digital signals. The two binary states, logic 0 (low) and 1 (high), are represented by an analog waveform. Logic 0 is represented by a wave at a specific frequency, and logic 1 is represented by a wave at a different

Solution
BW = 10000/2 = 5000 Hz

1000

3500

6000

8500

11,000

frequency.

fc(forward) = 1000+5000/2= 3500Hz fc(backward) = 11000- 5000/2= 8500Hz

Peak amplitude and phase are constant.


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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Frequency shift keying (FSK)

Frequency shift keying (FSK)


FSK rejects unwanted signals (noise) that are weaker than the desired signal. It can ignore spikes. Better bandwidth efficiency than ASK Simple modulation and demodulation Disadvantages: FSK is limited.

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Bandwidth of FSK
FSK is a combination of two ASK.
BW= f2-f1+Nbaud

Bandwidth of FSK
Example 7 Find the maximum bit rate for FSK signal if the bandwidth is 12000 Hz, and the carriers are separated by 2000 Hz using fullduplex links .

BW= f2-f1+Nbaud

Example 5.5 Find the minimum bandwidth for FSK signal transmitting at 2000 bps using half-duplex mode, and the carriers are separated by 3000 Hz.
BW= bit rate + (f2-f1)= 2000+3000 = 5000 Hz
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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

BW= baud rate + (f2-f1) Baud rate = BW (f2-f1 ) Baud rate = 6000-2000 = 4000 baud/s Bite rate = 4000 bps
Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Phase shift keying


Phase-shift keying (PSK): the phase of a transmitted signal is varied to convey information. There are several methods that can be used to accomplish PSK.

Phase shift keying


The simplest PSK technique is called 2-PSK or BPSK. It uses o two opposite signal phases (0 and o 180 ). The state of each bit is determined according to the state of the preceding bit. If the phase of the wave does not change, then the signal state stays the same (0 or 1). If the phase of the wave o reverses that is changes by 180 then the signal state is flipped.
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Phase shift keying


PSK minimum bandwidth = ASK minimum bandwidth. Advantages of PSK: Not susceptible to noise. No bandwidth limitation Disadvantages: Distinguishing small difference in phase depending on the equipment used.

4-Phase shift keying

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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2-PSK Constellation Diagram


Bit 0 1
Bits

8-PSK Constellation Diagram


Bit
1 0

Phase 0 180

Phase 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315


101 110 111 100 011 010 001

000 001 010 011 100

4-PSK Constellation Diagram


Bit 00 01 10 11
Dibit

000

Phase 0 90 180 270


10

01

101 110
00

111
Tribits

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Example 8
Find the bandwidth for a signal transmitting at 2 kbps for 4-PSK using half-duplex mode.

Example 9
What are the baud rate and bit rate giving a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an 8-PSK signal.

Solution S l i For 4-PSK, 2 bits is carried by one signal element. This means that r = 2. So the signal rate (baud rate) is = N (1/r) = 1 kbaud/s. In PSK bandwidth = baud rate. Bandwidth = 1000 Hz.
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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Solution S l i In PSK bandwidth = baud rate. Baud rate = 5000 baud/s. For 8-PSK, 3 bits is carried by one signal element. This means that r = 3. So the bit rate is = 3 * baud rate= 15,000 bps.
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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Figure 5.12 Concept of a constellation diagram

Quadrature amplitude modulation is a combination of ASK and PSK. To achieve the maximum contrast between each signal unit.
In QAM the number of phase shift is always larger than the number of amplitude shifts. Bandwidth of QAM = ASK=PSK.
Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Constellation diagrams for some QAMs

Constellation diagrams for some QAMs

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Constellation diagrams for some QAMs

Bit rate for different modulation techniques


Modulation ASK, FSK, 2-PSK 4-PSK, 4-QAM 8-PSK, 8-QAM 16-QAM 32-QAM 64-QAM 128-QAM 256-QAM Units Bits/Baud Baud rate Bit Rate

Bit Dibit Tribit Quadbit Pentabit Hexabit Septabit Octabit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

N N N N N N N N

N 2N 3N 4N 5N 6N 7N 8N
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Example 10
Bit rate and Baud rate

A constellation diagram consists of eight equally spaced points on a circle. If the bit rate is 4800 bps, what is the baud rate? Solution S l i For 8-PSK with 45o apart, 3 bits is carried by one signal element. This means that r = 3. So the signal rate (baud rate) is = 4800 (1/r) = 1600 baud/s.

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Example

11 Telephone Modems
Analog-toAnalog-to-analog conversion is the representation of analog information by an analog signal. One may ask signal. why we need to modulate an analog signal; it is signal; already analog. Modulation is needed if the medium is analog. bandpass in nature or if only a bandpass channel is available to us. us. Chapter 9 section 2 pages 248-251 248Topics discussed in this section: Telephone Modems Modem Standards
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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Compute the bit rate for 1000 baud 16-QAM signal? Solution For 16-QAM, 4 bits is carried by one signal element. This means that r = 4. So the bite rate is = 1000 4= 4000 bps. Example 12 Compute the baud rate for 72000 bps 64-QAM signal? Solution For 64-QAM, 6 bits is carried by one signal element. This means that r = 6. So the baud rate is = 72000 1/6= 12000 baud.
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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

Telephone line bandwidth

A telephone line has a bandwidth of almost 2400 Hz for data transmission.

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Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007

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Modulation/demodulation Modem stands for modulator/demodulator

Modem Standards V.32 and V.32bis


The V.32 uses trellis coded modulation. Trellis is 32-QAM plus a redundant bit is transmitted instead of 4bits. 5bits

Bit rate = 2400 * 4 = 9600 bps.


Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

The V.32bis constellation and bandwidth The V.32bis is a ITU-T standard support 14,400 bps. It uses 128-QAM. Fall-back and fall-forward.

V.90 and V.92 Traditional Modem has maximum data rate of 33.6Kbps. 56K Modem which is asymmetric in downloading rate such as V 90 V.90 V.92 upload rate of 48 Kbps and download rate of 56 Kbps. Calles + internet access.

( 7 bits/baud 6 for data + 1 for error control)

Bit rate = 2400 * 6 = 14,400 bps.


Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan Based on Data Communications and Networking, 3rd Edition. by Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2007 Dr. Mznah Al-Rodhaan

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Traditional modems

56K modems

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