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SEMESTER 2 Chapter 2 Static Networking V 4.

0 Name_Danny Ao_____________________________

2.1.1 2.1.3

2.1.3.2

What are the primary responsibilities of the router? What is the first serial connector described called at the router end? What is the first serial connector described called at the router end? What are the five standards supported by serial connections? When will static routes and dynamic routes be added to the routing table? What command will show the status and gives a detailed description for all interfaces on the router? What does the administratively down out put mean? What does the line down output mean? What does the show ip interfaces brief command list? Why is show ip interfaces brief command better than show running config to see if the state of the interfaces? What is the default state of router interfaces? What are the commands and prompt to enable an interface?

Determine the best path to send packets Forwarding packets to their destination dte

dce

EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-449, V.35, X.21, and EIA/TIA530 Static routes and dynamic routes will not be added to the routing table until the appropriate local interfaces, also known as the exit interfaces, have been configured on the router. Show interface

Administratively down means that the interface is currently in the shutdown mode, or turned off. Line protocol is down means, in this case, that the interface is not receiving a carrier signal from a switch or the hub. It shows the interfaces. The show ip interface brief command to quickly verify that interfaces are up and up (administratively up and line protocol is up). Shutdown / turned off

2.2.2

2.2.2.2

2.2.3

Even after configuring an interface, what must be received by the interface to change the state to up? What command will stop the messages returned by IOS not to interfere with your typing? What does a C mean in the output of show ip route? What types of addresses are seen in the routing table? What must be true for the network of each interface on a router?

R1(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.3.1 255.255.255.0 R1(config-if)#no shutdown A carrier signal from another device (switch,hub,pc, or another router)

the logging synchronous command It’s directly connected Network addresses Interface is up and line protocol is up

255.1 To provide the router w/ paths to different destination networks Any changes that the router performs when adding/removing routes Debug ip routing Undebug ip routing 2.5.2.5 A clock signal 2.2 Connect the DCE end of the cable to the interface Configure the clock signal on the serial interface using the clock rate command DTE/DCE crossover cable A DTE cables connected to a DCE cable Show controllers 2.2.2.16.3.2.2. why is the line protocol down? What end of a serial connection is the service provider? What end of the serial connection is the router by default? What device is used to convert the data from the router (DTE device) into a form acceptable to the WAN service provider? What do serial interfaces require to control the timing of communication? What two things must be done to configure a serial interface as a DCE? What are the two types of serial cables used in the lab? What command will tell you which type of cable is connected to the interface? What command will show the status of the interfaces? What is the second test to see if the interface is operational? What command will show if the router knows how to get to the network? What command will show you all the commands that have been configured on the router? What is the purpose of the routing table? What does the debug command show? What debug command will show you as networks are connected? What command is used to turn off the debug command? What two commands are used to remove a directly connected network? What is the crucial step in The FastEthernet interface will be the default gateway An ARP request R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address 172.2 The crucial step in configuring your network is to .3.2.5.2.4 What is the default gateway for a LAN? What does a device send if it does not have the ip address in its ARP table? What are the commands to configure a serial interface? Why may a serial interface still be down after it has been configured? After the other end of the connection is configured.0 R1(config-if)#no shutdown Depends on the WAN b/c you have not configured and enables the other end of the serial link The DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment) The DTE device (data terminal equipment) The CSU/DSU(DCE device) 2.3 Show interfaces and show ip interface brief Ping the remote interface Show ip route 2.1 255.255.3.2 2.

be specific? What information is contained in the advertisements? At layer 3.For example. R1 and R2 are CDP neighbors.3 verify that all the interfaces are "up" and "up" and that the routing tables are complete. a Cisco 7200 series router Neighbor device ID Local interface Holdtime value.3. in seconds Neighbor device capability code Neighbor hardware platform Neighbor remote port ID 2.static. R2 and R3 are CDP neighbors. R3 and S3 are CDP neighbors.3. which is the ping packet's destination IP address.1 or 192.The name of the local and remote port-in the form of an ASCII character string such as ethernet0 Capabilities list . ip interface brief command and the show ip route command before proceeding with more complex configurations.1.3.2 Why does the first ping fail and the second ping succeed? What is the network monitoring and troubleshooting tool used in this section? Which device will information be gathered about.168.configuring your network? What two commands should you use before you continue with more complex configurations? What does a failed ping display? 2.2 What are the commands to display CDP information? What is the default setting for CDP? What are the 5 types of information that CDP provides information about? 2.1. which is the ping packet's destination IP address.2.16. routing protocols consider neighbors to be devices that share the same network address space.Up to one Network layer address for each protocol supported Port identifier . what do routing protocols consider neighbors? What layer does CDP operate at? Describe Cisco CDP neighbors? 2. the configured host name of a switch Address list . It failed because R2 does not have a route in its routing table that matches either 172. Layer 2 R1 and S1 are CDP neighbors. the protocols The default is the CDP Device identifiers .The hardware platform of the device. or a combination of both .1. Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) neighbors router interfaces CDP At Layer 3. Regardless of what routing scheme you ultimately configure .2. R2 and S2 are CDP neighbors.For example.verify your initial network configurations with the show ip interface brief command and the show ip route command before proceeding with more complex configurations. for example. It is successful because R2 has a route in its routing table that matches 192.4 What information is displayed after issuing the show cdp neighbors command? .168.3.3. dynamic. whether this device is a router or a switch Platform .3.

Serial 0/0/0 interface IP address on R2. known as the parent route.Outgoing interface that would be used in forwarding packets to the destination network ip route .0/24 [1/0] via 172.2 List the output and explain each element from entering the static route.Routing table code for static route 172.1 What information will be provided even if you can not ping that interface? What information can be gathered if you telnet to a neighboring device? Can CDP be a security risk? What command can be used to shut off CDP on a router? (command and prompt) What command can be used to shut off CDP on an interface? (command and prompt) What are the two ways a router can learn about remote networks? What is a stub route? When are static routes used? Why would dynamic routing be a waste of resources for a stub route? What is the complete syntax for entering a static route? What is the simpler version of the command that we will use? Describe the first 2 parameters used. 2.1.Commonly referred to as the next-hop router's IP address exit-interface .0 .168.2. List the output and explain each element from entering the show ip route command.4. Router(config)#ip route prefix mask {ip-address | interface-type interface-number [ip-address]} [distance] [name] [permanent] [tag tag] Router(config)#ip route network-address subnetmask {ip-address | exit-interface } network-address subnet-mask ip-address .16.3 What are the 2 commands to verify static routes? What is recommended to do after entering and verifying the static routes? What does principle 1 define about where a router looks to Manually.255.Network address of remote network 255. Static routes are commonly used when routing from a network to a stub network.16. Therefore." . from configured static routes Automatically.2.16.16.2.168.16.2 2.Network address for the route /24 .IP address of the next-hop router. static routes are configured for connectivity to remote networks that are not directly connected to a router.2 2.255.Administrative distance and metric for the static route (explained in a later chapter) via 172. Describe the choice for the last parameter to use.2 .1.4. the IP address of R2's Serial 0/0/0 interface S 192.1.2.2 S 192.4.2 R1#copy running-config startup-config "Every router makes its decision alone.2. Router(config)#no cdp run Router(config-if)#no cdp enable 2.4. this is displayed in the line above.0/24 [1/0] via 172.2. and discussed in Chapter 8 [1/0] . which is the "next-hop" to this network S .2.Static route command 172.2. based on the information it has in its own routing table.16.0 .4. from a dynamic routing protocol A stub network is a network accessed by a single route.2 .0 .Subnet mask for this route.Subnet mask of remote network 172.1.

168.16.4. The next-hop IP address of the static route.2.0 255.16. As you can see in the figure. "The fact that one router has certain information in its routing table does not mean that other routers have the same information. these routes are resolved to routes in the routing table that are directly connected networks.2 no ip route 192. The packet's destination IP address is matched to the static route 192." the routing table process must determine the exit interface to use to forward the packet.168.2.2. If the static route cannot be resolved to an exit interface. Every route that references only a next-hop IP address. is matched to the directly connected network 172.2. Static routes that are configured with exit interfaces instead of next-hop IP addresses are ideal for most serial point-to-point networks. Point-to-point networks that use protocols such as HDLC and PPP do not use the next-hop IP address in the packet forwarding process. or return path.2 R1(config)#ip route 192.168.0/24 is directly connected.2." "Routing information about a path from one network to another does not provide routing information about the reverse.2.0 255.0 the Ethernet destination MAC address will be .255. 2. The routed IP packet is encapsulated in an HDLC Layer 2 frame with a broadcast Layer 2 destination address.2 2.16.0/24 with the next-hop IP address 172. and does not reference an exit-interface.16.4.5. because these entries will always contain an exit interface.2. resolving to the same Serial 0/0/0 interface.255. the other two static routes still must be processed in two steps. it will be able to resolve the route to an exit interface in a single lookup. 2.3 2. what is the process called? How can a static route be entered to stop the recursive lookup process? What happens to the static route if the exit interface goes down? What is the command to remove the static route with the next hop ip address? What is the command to enter a static route using an exit interface? What are the reasons to modify a static route? 2.168.255.4. 172.forward packets? What does principle 2 define about what other routers routing tables contain? What does principle 3 state about the return route of a packet? 2. must have the next-hop IP address resolved using another route in the routing table that has an exit interface.4 What is the most efficient way to enter a static route? What are the three commands listed to verify static route configuration? What is the destination MAC ip route 192.255.2.0/24 with the exit interface of Serial 0/0/0.1 Before a router forwards a packet. S 192.168.5.0 172.2.2 Can a static route be directly modified? Explain your answer when the routing table process has a match for a packet and this static route.2.0 172.255.255.1.0 255.4.2. what must be determined? List the two steps that the router uses to forward a packet.5. Serial0/0/0 When the router has to perform multiple lookups in the routing table before forwarding a packet. the static route is removed from the routing table. in this case Serial 0/0/0. 1.16.2 2.5.2.

copy the matching 22 bits and add all 0 bits to the end to make 32 bits. You are at the summary boundary.2. This number becomes your subnet mask for the summarized route.2 and a corresponding MAC address. R1 receives the ARP reply and adds the 172. The destination networks can be summarized into a single network address.255.2. 5.2.255. start with the left-most bit. Now.2. there may be many different devices sharing the same multi-access network. R1 checks its FastEthernet 0/1 ARP table for an entry with 172. The difference between an Ethernet network and a point-to-point serial network is that a point-to-point network has only one other device on that network the router at the other end of the link.16. Write out the networks that you want to summarize in binary.0 255. Work your way to the right.16. and The multiple static routes all use the same exitinterface or next-hop IP address 1. With Ethernet networks. including hosts and even multiple routers.2.16. 4.16.2 Will a static route with an exit interface on a Ethernet interface always work? 2.6.252. the size of the routing table will be reduced. To find the subnet mask for summarization.0 6.2 If two routes in the routing table match the packet. and the associated MAC address. stop. However. because there are fewer routes to search. R1(config)#ip route 192. R1 does not know the nexthop IP address and therefore it cannot determine the destination MAC address for the Ethernet frame. The default route What are the 2 rules on when a static route can be summarized? What are the six steps in creating a summary route? 2.6. To find the network address for summarization. count the number of left-most matching bits.2. R1 knows that the packet needs to be encapsulated in an Ethernet frame and sent out the FastEthernet 0/1 interface.2 IP address. /22 or 255. When you find a column of bits that do not match. If one static route can be used instead of multiple static routes.address if the packet is to be forwarded to the next hop router? If the ip address does exist in the ARP table what type of request is issued? What is the difference between entering an exit interface for a static route on a serial interface and an Ethernet interface? 2. finding all the bits that match consecutively. 2.255.5.0 fastethernet 0/1 172. which route will the router choose? What is a default static route? Default routes are very common on routers . 3.4. to its ARP table. which in our example is 22.168.2 Creating smaller routing tables makes the routing table lookup process more efficient.1 What is the command to configure both the exit interface and ip address for a static route? Why does making a routing table smaller improve the efficiency of the router? matched to the next-hop IP address 172.

R1 encapsulates the packet in a new frame. they can store a single default route to represent any network that is not in the routing table.6. What is the ip address and subnet mask for quad-zero? What does the * mean next to the S in the routing table? What is true about a default static route and matching packets? When no other routes in the routing table match the packet's destination IP address.0 0.2. 1. The frame is forwarded out the serial 0/0/0 interface. R3 decapsulates the frame and looks for a route to the destination.0/24.0. A common use is when connecting a company's edge router to the ISP network. R2 adds an "all 1s" address for the Layer 2 destination address.168. 4. Router(config)#ip route 0. R1 adds an "all 1s" address for the Layer 2 destination address.What are the 2 times a default static route is used? 2.0.2 List the complete command to enter a default static route.0.0 0. 8.0.2.7. R1 uses the default static route. R2 encapsulates the packet in a new frame. Because the link to R3 is a point-to-point link. There is an over-saturation of links.2. The packet arrives on the FastEthernet 0/0 interface of R1. R2 has a static route to 192. In other words. If any of the steps are confusing. The packet arrives on the Serial 0/0/0 interface on R2. 2. A service provider drops a connection. This condition is known as a stub router. Because the link to R2 is a point-to-point link.7. 3.0/24 out Serial0/0/1. R1 does not have a specific route to the destination network.0 the asterisk indicates that this static route is a candidate default route. 192.0. The frame is forwarded out the Serial0/0/1 interface. Instead of routers having to store routes for all of the networks in the Internet.0.1 Definitely understand each step in the process explained.2 What are some forces that can cause a networks status to change? . therefore. R3 has a connected route to 192. When a router has only one other router to which it is connected.0.0/24 out FastEthernet 0/1. 7. 5. An administrator enters a wrong configuration. Default routes are very common on routers. 2.2. The packet arrives on the Serial0/0/1 interface on R3.168. 6. An interface fails.168.0 [exit-interface | ip-address ] 0. list your questions here 2. when a more specific match does not exist.0. R2 decapsulates the frame and looks for a route to the destination.

What are some of the commands you can used to troubleshoot a network? ping traceroute show ip route .

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