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Þro[ecL managemenL ls Lhe dlsclpllne of plannlngţ organlzlngţ securlngţ and managlng resources Lo

achleve speclflc goalsŦ A pro[ecL ls a Lemporary endeavor wlLh a deflned beglnnlng and end (usually
LlmeŴconsLralnedţ and ofLen consLralned by fundlng or dellverables)ţż1Ž underLaken Lo meeL unlque
goals and ob[ecLlvesţż2Ž Lyplcally Lo brlng abouL beneflclal change or added valueŦ 1he Lemporary naLure
of pro[ecLs sLands ln conLrasL wlLh buslness as usual (or operaLlons)ţż3Ž whlch are repeLlLlve permanenLţ
or semlŴpermanenL funcLlonal acLlvlLles Lo produce producLs or servlcesŦ ln pracLlceţ Lhe managemenL of
Lhese Lwo sysLems ls ofLen qulLe dlfferenLţ and as such requlres Lhe developmenL of dlsLlncL Lechnlcal
skllls and managemenL sLraLeglesŦ

1he prlmary challenge of pro[ecL managemenL ls Lo achleve all of Lhe pro[ecL goalsż4Ž and ob[ecLlves
whlle honorlng Lhe preconcelved consLralnLsŦż3Ž 1yplcal consLralnLs are scopeţ Llmeţ and budgeLŦż1Ž 1he
secondaryŸand more amblLlousŸchallenge ls Lo opLlmlze Lhe allocaLlon and lnLegraLe Lhe lnpuLs
necessary Lo meeL preŴdeflned ob[ecLlvesŦ

ConLenLs
1 PlsLory
2 Approaches
2Ŧ1 1he LradlLlonal approach
2Ŧ2 CrlLlcal chaln pro[ecL managemenL
2Ŧ3 LxLreme pro[ecL managemenL
2Ŧ4 LvenL chaln meLhodology
2Ŧ3 Þ8lnCL2
2Ŧ6 ÞrocessŴbased managemenL
2Ŧ7 Aglle pro[ecL managemenL
3 Þrocesses
3Ŧ1 lnlLlaLlng
3Ŧ2 Þlannlng and deslgn
3Ŧ3 LxecuLlng
3Ŧ4 MonlLorlng and conLrolllng
3Ŧ3 Closlng
3Ŧ6 Þro[ecL conLrolllng and pro[ecL conLrol sysLems
4 1oplcs
4Ŧ1 Þro[ecL managers
4Ŧ2 Þro[ecL managemenL Lrlangle
4Ŧ3 Work breakdown sLrucLure
4Ŧ4 Þro[ecL managemenL framework
4Ŧ3 lnLernaLlonal sLandards
4Ŧ6 Þro[ecL porLfollo managemenL
3 See also
6 8eferences
7 LxLernal llnks


żedlLŽ PlsLory
8oman soldlers bulldlng a forLressţ 1ra[anƌs Column 113 AuÞro[ecL managemenL has been pracLlced
slnce early clvlllzaLlonŦ unLll 1900 clvll englneerlng pro[ecLs were generally managed by creaLlve
archlLecLsţ englneersţ and masLer bullders Lhemselvesţ among Lhose for example vlLruvlus (1sL cenLury
8C)ţ ChrlsLopher Wren (1632Ŷ1723)ţ 1homas 1elford (1737Ŷ1834) and lsambard klngdom 8runel (1806Ŷ
1839)Ŧż6Ž lL was ln Lhe 1930s LhaL organlzaLlons sLarLed Lo sysLemaLlcally apply pro[ecL managemenL
Lools and Lechnlques Lo complex englneerlng pro[ecLsŦż7Ž


Penry CanLL (1861Ŷ1919)ţ Lhe faLher of plannlng and conLrol LechnlquesŦAs a dlsclpllneţ Þro[ecL
ManagemenL developed from several flelds of appllcaLlon lncludlng clvll consLrucLlonţ englneerlngţ and
heavy defense acLlvlLyŦż8Ž 1wo forefaLhers of pro[ecL managemenL are Penry CanLLţ called Lhe faLher of
plannlng and conLrol Lechnlquesţż9Ž who ls famous for hls use of Lhe CanLL charL as a pro[ecL
managemenL LoolŤ and Penrl layol for hls creaLlon of Lhe 3 managemenL funcLlons whlch form Lhe
foundaLlon of Lhe body of knowledge assoclaLed wlLh pro[ecL and program managemenLŦż10Ž 8oLh CanLL
and layol were sLudenLs of lrederlck Wlnslow 1aylorƌs Lheorles of sclenLlflc managemenLŦ Pls work ls
Lhe forerunner Lo modern pro[ecL managemenL Lools lncludlng work breakdown sLrucLure (W8S) and
resource allocaLlonŦ

1he 1930s marked Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe modern Þro[ecL ManagemenL era where core englneerlng flelds
come LogeLher worklng as oneŦ Þro[ecL managemenL became recognlzed as a dlsLlncL dlsclpllne arlslng
from Lhe managemenL dlsclpllne wlLh englneerlng modelŦż11Ž ln Lhe unlLed SLaLesţ prlor Lo Lhe 1930sţ
pro[ecLs were managed on an ad hoc basls uslng mosLly CanLL CharLsţ and lnformal Lechnlques and
LoolsŦ AL LhaL Llmeţ Lwo maLhemaLlcal pro[ecLŴschedullng models were developedŦ 1he ƍCrlLlcal ÞaLh
MeLhodƍ (CÞM) was developed as a [olnL venLure beLween uuÞonL CorporaLlon and 8emlngLon 8and
CorporaLlon for managlng planL malnLenance pro[ecLsŦ And Lhe ƍÞrogram LvaluaLlon and 8evlew
1echnlqueƍ or ÞL81ţ was developed by 8ooz Allen PamllLon as parL of Lhe unlLed SLaLes navyƌs (ln
con[uncLlon wlLh Lhe Lockheed CorporaLlon) Þolarls mlsslle submarlne programŤż12Ž 1hese maLhemaLlcal
Lechnlques qulckly spread lnLo many prlvaLe enLerprlsesŦ


ÞL81 neLwork charL for a sevenŴmonLh pro[ecL wlLh flve mllesLonesAL Lhe same Llmeţ as pro[ecLŴ
schedullng models were belng developedţ Lechnology for pro[ecL cosL esLlmaLlngţ cosL managemenLţ and
englneerlng economlcs was evolvlngţ wlLh ploneerlng work by Pans Lang and oLhersŦ ln 1936ţ Lhe
Amerlcan AssoclaLlon of CosL Lnglneers (now AACL lnLernaLlonalŤ Lhe AssoclaLlon for Lhe AdvancemenL
of CosL Lnglneerlng) was formed by early pracLlLloners of pro[ecL managemenL and Lhe assoclaLed
speclalLles of plannlng and schedullngţ cosL esLlmaLlngţ and cosL/schedule conLrol (pro[ecL conLrol)Ŧ
AACL conLlnued lLs ploneerlng work and ln 2006 released Lhe flrsL lnLegraLed process for porLfolloţ
program and pro[ecL managemenL (1oLal CosL ManagemenL lramework)Ŧ

1he lnLernaLlonal Þro[ecL ManagemenL AssoclaLlon (lÞMA) was founded ln Lurope ln 1967ţż13Ž as a
federaLlon of several naLlonal pro[ecL managemenL assoclaLlonsŦ lÞMA malnLalns lLs federal sLrucLure
Loday and now lncludes member assoclaLlons on every conLlnenL excepL AnLarcLlcaŦ lÞMA offers a lour
Level CerLlflcaLlon program based on Lhe lÞMA CompeLence 8asellne (lC8)Ŧż14Ž 1he lC8 covers Lechnlcal
compeLencesţ conLexLual compeLencesţ and behavloral compeLencesŦ

ln 1969ţ Lhe Þro[ecL ManagemenL lnsLlLuLe (ÞMl) was formed ln Lhe uSAŦż13Ž ÞMl publlshes A Culde Lo
Lhe Þro[ecL ManagemenL 8ody of knowledge (ÞM8Ck Culde)ţ whlch descrlbes pro[ecL managemenL
pracLlces LhaL are common Lo ƍmosL pro[ecLsţ mosL of Lhe LlmeŦƍ ÞMl also offers mulLlple cerLlflcaLlonsŦ

żedlLŽ Approaches1here are a number of approaches Lo managlng pro[ecL acLlvlLles lncludlng aglleţ
lnLeracLlveţ lncremenLalţ and phased approachesŦ

8egardless of Lhe meLhodology employedţ careful conslderaLlon musL be glven Lo Lhe overall pro[ecL
ob[ecLlvesţ Llmellneţ and cosLţ as well as Lhe roles and responslblllLles of all parLlclpanLs and
sLakeholdersŦ

żedlLŽ 1he LradlLlonal approachA LradlLlonal phased approach ldenLlfles a sequence of sLeps Lo be
compleLedŦ ln Lhe ƍLradlLlonal approachƍţ flve developmenLal componenLs of a pro[ecL can be
dlsLlngulshed (four sLages plus conLrol)ť


1yplcal developmenL phases of an englneerlng pro[ecLlnlLlaLlonŤ
plannlng and deslgnŤ
execuLlon and consLrucLlonŤ
monlLorlng and conLrolllng sysLemsŤ
compleLlonŦ
noL all Lhe pro[ecLs wlll vlslL every sLage as pro[ecLs can be LermlnaLed before Lhey reach compleLlonŦ
Some pro[ecLs do noL follow a sLrucLured plannlng and/or monlLorlng sLagesŦ Some pro[ecLs wlll go
Lhrough sLeps 2ţ 3 and 4 mulLlple LlmesŦ

Many lndusLrles use varlaLlons on Lhese pro[ecL sLagesŦ lor exampleţ when worklng on a brlck and
morLar deslgn and consLrucLlonţ pro[ecLs wlll Lyplcally progress Lhrough sLages llke ÞreŴÞlannlngţ
ConcepLual ueslgnţ SchemaLlc ueslgnţ ueslgn uevelopmenLţ ConsLrucLlon urawlngs (or ConLracL
uocumenLs)ţ and ConsLrucLlon AdmlnlsLraLlonŦ ln sofLware developmenLţ Lhls approach ls ofLen known
as Lhe waLerfall modelţż16Ž lŦeŦţ one serles of Lasks afLer anoLher ln llnear sequenceŦ ln sofLware
developmenL many organlzaLlons have adapLed Lhe 8aLlonal unlfled Þrocess (8uÞ) Lo flL Lhls
meLhodologyţ alLhough 8uÞ does noL requlre or expllclLly recommend Lhls pracLlceŦ WaLerfall
developmenL works well for smallţ well deflned pro[ecLsţ buL ofLen falls ln larger pro[ecLs of undeflned
and amblguous naLureŦ 1he Cone of uncerLalnLy explalns some of Lhls as Lhe plannlng made on Lhe
lnlLlal phase of Lhe pro[ecL suffers from a hlgh degree of uncerLalnLyŦ 1hls becomes especlally Lrue as
sofLware developmenL ls ofLen Lhe reallzaLlon of a new or novel producLŦ ln pro[ecLs where
requlremenLs have noL been flnallzed and can changeţ requlremenLs managemenL ls used Lo develop an
accuraLe and compleLe deflnlLlon of Lhe behavlor of sofLware LhaL can serve as Lhe basls for sofLware
developmenLŦż17Ž Whlle Lhe Lerms may dlffer from lndusLry Lo lndusLryţ Lhe acLual sLages Lyplcally follow
common sLeps Lo problem solvlngŸƍdeflnlng Lhe problemţ welghlng opLlonsţ chooslng a paLhţ
lmplemenLaLlon and evaluaLlonŦƍ

żedlLŽ CrlLlcal chaln pro[ecL managemenLCrlLlcal chaln pro[ecL managemenL (CCÞM) ls a meLhod of
plannlng and managlng pro[ecLs LhaL puLs more emphasls on Lhe resources (physlcal and human)
needed ln order Lo execuLe pro[ecL LasksŦ 1he mosL complex parL lnvolves englneerlng professlonals of
dlfferenL flelds (Clvllţ LlecLrlcalţ Mechanlcal eLcŦ) worklng LogeLherŦ lL ls an appllcaLlon of Lhe 1heory of
ConsLralnLs (1CC) Lo pro[ecLsŦ 1he goal ls Lo lncrease Lhe raLe of LhroughpuL (or compleLlon raLes) of
pro[ecLs ln an organlzaLlonŦ Applylng Lhe flrsL Lhree of Lhe flve focuslng sLeps of 1CCţ Lhe sysLem
consLralnL for all pro[ecLs ls ldenLlfled as are Lhe resourcesŦ 1o explolL Lhe consLralnLţ Lasks on Lhe crlLlcal
chaln are glven prlorlLy over all oLher acLlvlLlesŦ llnallyţ pro[ecLs are planned and managed Lo ensure
LhaL Lhe resources are ready when Lhe crlLlcal chaln Lasks musL sLarLţ subordlnaLlng all oLher resources
Lo Lhe crlLlcal chalnŦ

8egardless of pro[ecL Lypeţ Lhe pro[ecL plan should undergo 8esource levellngţ and Lhe longesL sequence
of resourceŴconsLralned Lasks should be ldenLlfled as Lhe crlLlcal chalnŦ ln mulLlŴpro[ecL envlronmenLsţ
resource levellng should be performed across pro[ecLsŦ Poweverţ lL ls ofLen enough Lo ldenLlfy (or slmply
selecL) a slngle ƍdrumƍ resourceŸa resource LhaL acLs as a consLralnL across pro[ecLsŸand sLagger
pro[ecLs based on Lhe avallablllLy of LhaL slngle resourceŦ


Þlannlng and feedback loops ln LxLreme programmlng (xÞ) wlLh Lhe Llme frames of Lhe mulLlple
loopsŦżedlLŽ LxLreme pro[ecL managemenLln crlLlcal sLudles of pro[ecL managemenL lL has been noLed
LhaL several ÞL81 based models are noL well sulLed for Lhe mulLlŴpro[ecL company envlronmenL of
LodayŦżclLaLlon neededŽ MosL of Lhem are almed aL very largeŴscaleţ oneŴLlmeţ nonŴrouLlne pro[ecLsţ and
currenLly all klnds of managemenL are expressed ln Lerms of pro[ecLsŦ

uslng complex models for ƍpro[ecLsƍ (or raLher ƍLasksƍ) spannlng a few weeks has been proven Lo cause
unnecessary cosLs and low maneuverablllLy ln several casesżclLaLlon neededŽŦ lnsLeadţ pro[ecL
managemenL experLs Lry Lo ldenLlfy dlfferenL ƍllghLwelghLƍ modelsţ such as Aglle Þro[ecL ManagemenL
meLhods lncludlng LxLreme Þrogrammlng for sofLware developmenL and Scrum LechnlquesŦ

1he generallzaLlon of LxLreme Þrogrammlng Lo oLher klnds of pro[ecLs ls exLreme pro[ecL managemenLţ
whlch may be used ln comblnaLlon wlLh Lhe process modellng and managemenL prlnclples of human
lnLeracLlon managemenLŦ

żedlLŽ LvenL chaln meLhodologyLvenL chaln meLhodology ls anoLher meLhod LhaL complemenLs crlLlcal
paLh meLhod and crlLlcal chaln pro[ecL managemenL meLhodologlesŦ

LvenL chaln meLhodology ls an uncerLalnLy modellng and schedule neLwork analysls Lechnlque LhaL ls
focused on ldenLlfylng and managlng evenLs and evenL chalns LhaL affecL pro[ecL schedulesŦ LvenL chaln
meLhodology helps Lo mlLlgaLe Lhe negaLlve lmpacL of psychologlcal heurlsLlcs and blasesţ as well as Lo
allow for easy modellng of uncerLalnLles ln Lhe pro[ecL schedulesŦ LvenL chaln meLhodology ls based on
Lhe followlng prlnclplesŦ

ÞrobablllsLlc momenL of rlskť An acLlvlLy (Lask) ln mosL realŴllfe processes ls noL a conLlnuous unlform
processŦ 1asks are affecLed by exLernal evenLsţ whlch can occur aL some polnL ln Lhe mlddle of Lhe LaskŦ
LvenL chalnsť LvenLs can cause oLher evenLsţ whlch wlll creaLe evenL chalnsŦ 1hese evenL chalns can
slgnlflcanLly affecL Lhe course of Lhe pro[ecLŦ CuanLlLaLlve analysls ls used Lo deLermlne a cumulaLlve
effecL of Lhese evenL chalns on Lhe pro[ecL scheduleŦ
CrlLlcal evenLs or evenL chalnsť 1he slngle evenLs or Lhe evenL chalns LhaL have Lhe mosL poLenLlal Lo
affecL Lhe pro[ecLs are Lhe ºcrlLlcal evenLs" or ºcrlLlcal chalns of evenLsŦ" 1hey can be deLermlned by Lhe
analyslsŦ
Þro[ecL Lracklng wlLh evenLsť Lven lf a pro[ecL ls parLlally compleLed and daLa abouL Lhe pro[ecL duraLlonţ
cosLţ and evenLs occurred ls avallableţ lL ls sLlll posslble Lo reflne lnformaLlon abouL fuLure poLenLlal
evenLs and helps Lo forecasL fuLure pro[ecL performanceŦ
LvenL chaln vlsuallzaLlonť LvenLs and evenL chalns can be vlsuallzed uslng evenL chaln dlagrams on a
CanLL charLŦ
żedlLŽ Þ8lnCL2
1he Þ8lnCL2 process modelÞ8lnCL2 ls a sLrucLured approach Lo pro[ecL managemenLţ released ln 1996
as a generlc pro[ecL managemenL meLhodŦż18Ž lL comblned Lhe orlglnal Þ8CMÞ1 meLhodology (whlch
evolved lnLo Lhe Þ8lnCL meLhodology) wlLh l8Mƌs Ml1Þ (managlng Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe LoLal
pro[ecL) meLhodologyŦ Þ8lnCL2 provldes a meLhod for managlng pro[ecLs wlLhln a clearly deflned
frameworkŦ Þ8lnCL2 descrlbes procedures Lo coordlnaLe people and acLlvlLles ln a pro[ecLţ how Lo
deslgn and supervlse Lhe pro[ecLţ and whaL Lo do lf Lhe pro[ecL has Lo be ad[usLed lf lL does noL develop
as plannedŦ

ln Lhe meLhodţ each process ls speclfled wlLh lLs key lnpuLs and ouLpuLs and wlLh speclflc goals and
acLlvlLles Lo be carrled ouLŦ 1hls allows for auLomaLlc conLrol of any devlaLlons from Lhe planŦ ulvlded
lnLo manageable sLagesţ Lhe meLhod enables an efflclenL conLrol of resourcesŦ Cn Lhe basls of close
monlLorlngţ Lhe pro[ecL can be carrled ouL ln a conLrolled and organlzed wayŦ

Þ8lnCL2 provldes a common language for all parLlclpanLs ln Lhe pro[ecLŦ 1he varlous managemenL roles
and responslblllLles lnvolved ln a pro[ecL are fully descrlbed and are adapLable Lo sulL Lhe complexlLy of
Lhe pro[ecL and skllls of Lhe organlzaLlonŦ

żedlLŽ ÞrocessŴbased managemenLAlso furLherlng Lhe concepL of pro[ecL conLrol ls Lhe lncorporaLlon of
processŴbased managemenLŦ 1hls area has been drlven by Lhe use of MaLurlLy models such as Lhe CMMl
(capablllLy maLurlLy model lnLegraLlonŤ see Lhls example of a predecessor) and lSC/lLC13304 (SÞlCL Ŷ
sofLware process lmprovemenL and capablllLy esLlmaLlon)Ŧ

żedlLŽ Aglle pro[ecL managemenLAglle pro[ecL managemenL approaches based on Lhe prlnclples of
human lnLeracLlon managemenL are founded on a process vlew of human collaboraLlonŦ 1hls conLrasLs
sharply wlLh Lhe LradlLlonal approachŦ ln Lhe aglle sofLware developmenL or flexlble producL
developmenL approachţ Lhe pro[ecL ls seen as a serles of relaLlvely small Lasks concelved and execuLed
as Lhe slLuaLlon demands ln an adapLlve mannerţ raLher Lhan as a compleLely preŴplanned processŦ

żedlLŽ Þrocesses
1he pro[ecL developmenL sLagesż19Ž1radlLlonallyţ pro[ecL managemenL lncludes a number of elemenLsť
four Lo flve process groupsţ and a conLrol sysLemŦ 8egardless of Lhe meLhodology or Lermlnology usedţ
Lhe same baslc pro[ecL managemenL processes wlll be usedŦ Ma[or process groups generally lncludeťż20Ž

lnlLlaLlon
plannlng or developmenL
producLlon or execuLlon
monlLorlng and conLrolllng
closlng
ln pro[ecL envlronmenLs wlLh a slgnlflcanL exploraLory elemenL (eŦgŦţ research and developmenL)ţ Lhese
sLages may be supplemenLed wlLh declslon polnLs (go/no go declslons) aL whlch Lhe pro[ecLƌs
conLlnuaLlon ls debaLed and decldedŦ An example ls Lhe sLageŴgaLe modelŦ

żedlLŽ lnlLlaLlng
lnlLlaLlng process group processesż19Ž1he lnlLlaLlng processes deLermlne Lhe naLure and scope of Lhe
pro[ecLŦż21Ž lf Lhls sLage ls noL performed wellţ lL ls unllkely LhaL Lhe pro[ecL wlll be successful ln meeLlng
Lhe buslness' needsŦ 1he key pro[ecL conLrols needed here are an undersLandlng of Lhe buslness
envlronmenL and maklng sure LhaL all necessary conLrols are lncorporaLed lnLo Lhe pro[ecLŦ Any
deflclencles should be reporLed and a recommendaLlon should be made Lo flx LhemŦ

1he lnlLlaLlng sLage should lnclude a plan LhaL encompasses Lhe followlng areasť

analyzlng Lhe buslness needs/requlremenLs ln measurable goals
revlewlng of Lhe currenL operaLlons
flnanclal analysls of Lhe cosLs and beneflLs lncludlng a budgeL
sLakeholder analyslsţ lncludlng usersţ and supporL personnel for Lhe pro[ecL
pro[ecL charLer lncludlng cosLsţ Lasksţ dellverablesţ and schedule
żedlLŽ Þlannlng and deslgnAfLer Lhe lnlLlaLlon sLageţ Lhe pro[ecL ls planned Lo an approprlaLe level of
deLall (see example of a flowŴcharL)Ŧż19Ž 1he maln purpose ls Lo plan Llmeţ cosL and resources
adequaLely Lo esLlmaLe Lhe work needed and Lo effecLlvely manage rlsk durlng pro[ecL execuLlonŦ As
wlLh Lhe lnlLlaLlon process groupţ a fallure Lo adequaLely plan greaLly reduces Lhe pro[ecLƌs chances of
successfully accompllshlng lLs goalsŦ

Þro[ecL plannlng generally conslsLs ofż22Ž

deLermlnlng how Lo plan (eŦgŦ by level of deLall or rolllng wave)Ť
developlng Lhe scope sLaLemenLŤ
selecLlng Lhe plannlng LeamŤ
ldenLlfylng dellverables and creaLlng Lhe work breakdown sLrucLureŤ
ldenLlfylng Lhe acLlvlLles needed Lo compleLe Lhose dellverables and neLworklng Lhe acLlvlLles ln Lhelr
loglcal sequenceŤ
esLlmaLlng Lhe resource requlremenLs for Lhe acLlvlLlesŤ
esLlmaLlng Llme and cosL for acLlvlLlesŤ
developlng Lhe scheduleŤ
developlng Lhe budgeLŤ
rlsk plannlngŤ
galnlng formal approval Lo begln workŦ
AddlLlonal processesţ such as plannlng for communlcaLlons and for scope managemenLţ ldenLlfylng roles
and responslblllLlesţ deLermlnlng whaL Lo purchase for Lhe pro[ecL and holdlng a klckŴoff meeLlng are
also generally advlsableŦ

lor new producL developmenL pro[ecLsţ concepLual deslgn of Lhe operaLlon of Lhe flnal producL may be
performed concurrenL wlLh Lhe pro[ecL plannlng acLlvlLlesţ and may help Lo lnform Lhe plannlng Leam
when ldenLlfylng dellverables and plannlng acLlvlLlesŦ


żedlLŽ LxecuLlng
LxecuLlng process group processesż19ŽLxecuLlng conslsLs of Lhe processes used Lo compleLe Lhe work
deflned ln Lhe pro[ecL plan Lo accompllsh Lhe pro[ecLƌs requlremenLsŦ LxecuLlon process lnvolves
coordlnaLlng people and resourcesţ as well as lnLegraLlng and performlng Lhe acLlvlLles of Lhe pro[ecL ln
accordance wlLh Lhe pro[ecL managemenL planŦ 1he dellverables are produced as ouLpuLs from Lhe
processes performed as deflned ln Lhe pro[ecL managemenL plan and oLher frameworks LhaL mlghL be
appllcable Lo Lhe Lype of pro[ecL aL handŦ

żedlLŽ MonlLorlng and conLrolllng
MonlLorlng and conLrolllng process group processesż19ŽMonlLorlng and conLrolllng conslsLs of Lhose
processes performed Lo observe pro[ecL execuLlon so LhaL poLenLlal problems can be ldenLlfled ln a
Llmely manner and correcLlve acLlon can be Lakenţ when necessaryţ Lo conLrol Lhe execuLlon of Lhe
pro[ecLŦ 1he key beneflL ls LhaL pro[ecL performance ls observed and measured regularly Lo ldenLlfy
varlances from Lhe pro[ecL managemenL planŦ

MonlLorlng and conLrolllng lncludesťż23Ž

Measurlng Lhe ongolng pro[ecL acLlvlLles (ƌwhere we areƌ)Ť
MonlLorlng Lhe pro[ecL varlables (cosLţ efforLţ scopeţ eLcŦ) agalnsL Lhe pro[ecL managemenL plan and Lhe
pro[ecL performance basellne (where we should be)Ť
ldenLlfy correcLlve acLlons Lo address lssues and rlsks properly (Pow can we geL on Lrack agaln)Ť
lnfluenclng Lhe facLors LhaL could clrcumvenL lnLegraLed change conLrol so only approved changes are
lmplemenLed
ln mulLlŴphase pro[ecLsţ Lhe monlLorlng and conLrol process also provldes feedback beLween pro[ecL
phasesţ ln order Lo lmplemenL correcLlve or prevenLlve acLlons Lo brlng Lhe pro[ecL lnLo compllance wlLh
Lhe pro[ecL managemenL planŦ

Þro[ecL malnLenance ls an ongolng processţ and lL lncludesťż20Ž

ConLlnulng supporL of endŴusers
CorrecLlon of errors
updaLes of Lhe sofLware over Llme

MonlLorlng and conLrolllng cycleln Lhls sLageţ audlLors should pay aLLenLlon Lo how effecLlvely and
qulckly user problems are resolvedŦ

Cver Lhe course of any consLrucLlon pro[ecLţ Lhe work scope may changeŦ Change ls a normal and
expecLed parL of Lhe consLrucLlon processŦ Changes can be Lhe resulL of necessary deslgn modlflcaLlonsţ
dlfferlng slLe condlLlonsţ maLerlal avallablllLyţ conLracLorŴrequesLed changesţ value englneerlng and
lmpacLs from Lhlrd parLlesţ Lo name a fewŦ 8eyond execuLlng Lhe change ln Lhe fleldţ Lhe change
normally needs Lo be documenLed Lo show whaL was acLually consLrucLedŦ 1hls ls referred Lo as change
managemenLŦ Penceţ Lhe owner usually requlres a flnal record Lo show all changes orţ more speclflcallyţ
any change LhaL modlfles Lhe Langlble porLlons of Lhe flnlshed workŦ 1he record ls made on Lhe conLracL
documenLs Ŷ usuallyţ buL noL necessarlly llmlLed Loţ Lhe deslgn drawlngsŦ 1he end producL of Lhls efforL
ls whaL Lhe lndusLry Lerms asŴbullL drawlngsţ or more slmplyţ ºas bullLŦ" 1he requlremenL for provldlng
Lhem ls a norm ln consLrucLlon conLracLsŦ

When changes are lnLroduced Lo Lhe pro[ecLţ Lhe vlablllLy of Lhe pro[ecL has Lo be reŴassessedŦ lL ls
lmporLanL noL Lo lose slghL of Lhe lnlLlal goals and LargeLs of Lhe pro[ecLsŦ When Lhe changes accumulaLeţ
Lhe forecasLed resulL may noL [usLlfy Lhe orlglnal proposed lnvesLmenL ln Lhe pro[ecLŦ

żedlLŽ Closlng
Closlng process group processesŦż19ŽCloslng lncludes Lhe formal accepLance of Lhe pro[ecL and Lhe
endlng LhereofŦ AdmlnlsLraLlve acLlvlLles lnclude Lhe archlvlng of Lhe flles and documenLlng lessons
learnedŦ

1hls phase conslsLs ofťż20Ž

Þro[ecL closeť llnallze all acLlvlLles across all of Lhe process groups Lo formally close Lhe pro[ecL or a
pro[ecL phase
ConLracL closureť CompleLe and seLLle each conLracL (lncludlng Lhe resoluLlon of any open lLems) and
close each conLracL appllcable Lo Lhe pro[ecL or pro[ecL phaseŦ
żedlLŽ Þro[ecL conLrolllng and pro[ecL conLrol sysLemsÞro[ecL conLrolllng should be esLabllshed as an
lndependenL funcLlon ln pro[ecL managemenLŦ lL lmplemenLs verlflcaLlon and conLrolllng funcLlon durlng
Lhe processlng of a pro[ecL ln order Lo relnforce Lhe deflned performance and formal goalsŦż24Ž 1he
Lasks of pro[ecL conLrolllng are alsoť

Lhe creaLlon of lnfrasLrucLure for Lhe supply of Lhe rlghL lnformaLlon and lLs updaLe
Lhe esLabllshmenL of a way Lo communlcaLe dlsparlLles of pro[ecL parameLers
Lhe developmenL of pro[ecL lnformaLlon Lechnology based on an lnLraneL or Lhe deLermlnaLlon of a
pro[ecL key performance lndex sysLem (kÞl)
dlvergence analyses and generaLlon of proposals for poLenLlal pro[ecL regulaLlonsż23Ž
Lhe esLabllshmenL of meLhods Lo accompllsh an approprlaLe Lhe pro[ecL sLrucLureţ pro[ecL workflow
organlzaLlonţ pro[ecL conLrol and governance
creaLlon of Lransparency among Lhe pro[ecL parameLersż26Ž
lulflllmenL and lmplemenLaLlon of Lhese Lasks can be achleved by applylng speclflc meLhods and
lnsLrumenLs of pro[ecL conLrolllngŦ 1he followlng meLhods of pro[ecL conLrolllng can be applledť

lnvesLmenL analysls
cosLŶbeneflL analyses
value beneflL Analysls
experL surveys
slmulaLlon calculaLlons
rlskŴproflle analyses
surcharge calculaLlons
mllesLone Lrend analysls
cosL Lrend analysls
LargeL/acLualŴcomparlsonż27Ž
Þro[ecL conLrol ls LhaL elemenL of a pro[ecL LhaL keeps lL onŴLrackţ onŴLlme and wlLhln budgeLŦż23Ž Þro[ecL
conLrol beglns early ln Lhe pro[ecL wlLh plannlng and ends laLe ln Lhe pro[ecL wlLh posLŴlmplemenLaLlon
revlewţ havlng a Lhorough lnvolvemenL of each sLep ln Lhe processŦ Lach pro[ecL should be assessed for
Lhe approprlaLe level of conLrol neededť Loo much conLrol ls Loo Llme consumlngţ Loo llLLle conLrol ls
very rlskyŦ lf pro[ecL conLrol ls noL lmplemenLed correcLlyţ Lhe cosL Lo Lhe buslness should be clarlfled ln
Lerms of errorsţ flxesţ and addlLlonal audlL feesŦ

ConLrol sysLems are needed for cosLţ rlskţ quallLyţ communlcaLlonţ Llmeţ changeţ procuremenLţ and
human resourcesŦ ln addlLlonţ audlLors should conslder how lmporLanL Lhe pro[ecLs are Lo Lhe flnanclal
sLaLemenLsţ how rellanL Lhe sLakeholders are on conLrolsţ and how many conLrols exlsLŦ AudlLors should
revlew Lhe developmenL process and procedures for how Lhey are lmplemenLedŦ 1he process of
developmenL and Lhe quallLy of Lhe flnal producL may also be assessed lf needed or requesLedŦ A
buslness may wanL Lhe audlLlng flrm Lo be lnvolved LhroughouL Lhe process Lo caLch problems earller on
so LhaL Lhey can be flxed more easllyŦ An audlLor can serve as a conLrols consulLanL as parL of Lhe
developmenL Leam or as an lndependenL audlLor as parL of an audlLŦ

8uslnesses someLlmes use formal sysLems developmenL processesŦ 1hese help assure LhaL sysLems are
developed successfullyŦ A formal process ls more effecLlve ln creaLlng sLrong conLrolsţ and audlLors
should revlew Lhls process Lo conflrm LhaL lL ls well deslgned and ls followed ln pracLlceŦ A good formal
sysLems developmenL plan ouLllnesť

A sLraLegy Lo allgn developmenL wlLh Lhe organlzaLlon's broader ob[ecLlves
SLandards for new sysLems
Þro[ecL managemenL pollcles for Llmlng and budgeLlng
Þrocedures descrlblng Lhe process
LvaluaLlon of quallLy of change
żedlLŽ 1oplcsżedlLŽ Þro[ecL managersA pro[ecL manager ls a professlonal ln Lhe fleld of pro[ecL
managemenLŦ Þro[ecL managers can have Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe plannlngţ execuLlonţ and closlng of
any pro[ecLţ Lyplcally relaLlng Lo consLrucLlon lndusLryţ englneerlngţ archlLecLureţ compuLlngţ and
LelecommunlcaLlonsŦ Many oLher flelds ln Lhe producLlon englneerlng and deslgn englneerlng and heavy
lndusLrlal have pro[ecL managersŦ

A pro[ecL manager ls Lhe person accounLable for accompllshlng Lhe sLaLed pro[ecL ob[ecLlvesŦ key pro[ecL
managemenL responslblllLles lnclude creaLlng clear and aLLalnable pro[ecL ob[ecLlvesţ bulldlng Lhe
pro[ecL requlremenLsţ and managlng Lhe Lrlple consLralnL for pro[ecLsţ whlch ls cosLţ Llmeţ and scopeŦ

A pro[ecL manager ls ofLen a cllenL represenLaLlve and has Lo deLermlne and lmplemenL Lhe exacL needs
of Lhe cllenLţ based on knowledge of Lhe flrm Lhey are represenLlngŦ 1he ablllLy Lo adapL Lo Lhe varlous
lnLernal procedures of Lhe conLracLlng parLyţ and Lo form close llnks wlLh Lhe nomlnaLed
represenLaLlvesţ ls essenLlal ln ensurlng LhaL Lhe key lssues of cosLţ Llmeţ quallLy and above allţ cllenL
saLlsfacLlonţ can be reallzedŦ

żedlLŽ Þro[ecL managemenL Lrlangle
1he pro[ecL managemenL LrlangleLlke any human underLaklngţ pro[ecLs need Lo be performed and
dellvered under cerLaln consLralnLsŦ 1radlLlonallyţ Lhese consLralnLs have been llsLed as ƍscopeţƍ ƍLlmeţƍ
and ƍcosLƍŦż1Ž 1hese are also referred Lo as Lhe ƍpro[ecL managemenL Lrlangleƍţ where each slde
represenLs a consLralnLŦ Cne slde of Lhe Lrlangle cannoL be changed wlLhouL affecLlng Lhe oLhersŦ A
furLher reflnemenL of Lhe consLralnLs separaLes producL ƍquallLyƍ or ƍperformanceƍ from scopeţ and
Lurns quallLy lnLo a fourLh consLralnLŦ

1he Llme consLralnL refers Lo Lhe amounL of Llme avallable Lo compleLe a pro[ecLŦ 1he cosL consLralnL
refers Lo Lhe budgeLed amounL avallable for Lhe pro[ecLŦ 1he scope consLralnL refers Lo whaL musL be
done Lo produce Lhe pro[ecLƌs end resulLŦ 1hese Lhree consLralnLs are ofLen compeLlng consLralnLsť
lncreased scope Lyplcally means lncreased Llme and lncreased cosLţ a LlghL Llme consLralnL could mean
lncreased cosLs and reduced scopeţ and a LlghL budgeL could mean lncreased Llme and reduced scopeŦ

1he dlsclpllne of pro[ecL managemenL ls abouL provldlng Lhe Lools and Lechnlques LhaL enable Lhe
pro[ecL Leam (noL [usL Lhe pro[ecL manager) Lo organlze Lhelr work Lo meeL Lhese consLralnLsŦ

żedlLŽ Work breakdown sLrucLure1he work breakdown sLrucLure (W8S) ls a Lree sLrucLure LhaL shows a
subdlvlslon of efforL requlred Lo achleve an ob[ecLlveŸfor example a programţ pro[ecLţ and conLracLŦ
1he W8S may be hardwareŴţ producLŴţ servlceŴţ or processŴorlenLed (see an example ln a nASA reporLlng
sLrucLure (2001)Ŧż28Ž

A W8S can be developed by sLarLlng wlLh Lhe end ob[ecLlve and successlvely subdlvldlng lL lnLo
manageable componenLs ln Lerms of slzeţ duraLlonţ and responslblllLy (eŦgŦţ sysLemsţ subsysLemsţ
componenLsţ Lasksţ subLasksţ and work packages)ţ whlch lnclude all sLeps necessary Lo achleve Lhe
ob[ecLlveŦż17Ž

1he work breakdown sLrucLure provldes a common framework for Lhe naLural developmenL of Lhe
overall plannlng and conLrol of a conLracL and ls Lhe basls for dlvldlng work lnLo deflnable lncremenLs
from whlch Lhe sLaLemenL of work can be developed and Lechnlcalţ scheduleţ cosLţ and labor hour
reporLlng can be esLabllshedŦż28Ž

żedlLŽ Þro[ecL managemenL framework1he Þrogram (lnvesLmenL) llfe cycle lnLegraLes Lhe pro[ecL
managemenL and sysLem developmenL llfe cycles wlLh Lhe acLlvlLles dlrecLly assoclaLed wlLh sysLem
deploymenL and operaLlonŦ 8y deslgnţ sysLem operaLlon managemenL and relaLed acLlvlLles occur afLer
Lhe pro[ecL ls compleLe and are noL documenLed wlLhln Lhls guldeż19Ž (see an example of an l1 pro[ecL
managemenL framework)Ŧ

lor exampleţ see flgureţ ln Lhe uS unlLed SLaLes ueparLmenL of veLerans Affalrs (vA) Lhe program
managemenL llfe cycle ls deplcLed and descrlbe ln Lhe overall vA l1 Þ8C!LC1 MAnACLMLn1 l8AMLwork
Lo address Lhe lnLegraLlon of CM8 LxhlblL 300 pro[ecL (lnvesLmenL) managemenL acLlvlLles and Lhe
overall pro[ecL budgeLlng processŦ 1he vA l1 Þro[ecL ManagemenL lramework dlagram lllusLraLes
MllesLone 4 whlch occurs followlng Lhe deploymenL of a sysLem and Lhe closlng of Lhe pro[ecLŦ 1he
pro[ecL closlng phase acLlvlLles aL Lhe vA conLlnues Lhrough sysLem deploymenL and lnLo sysLem
operaLlon for Lhe purpose of lllusLraLlng and descrlblng Lhe sysLem acLlvlLles Lhe vA conslders parL of Lhe
pro[ecLŦ 1he flgure lllusLraLes Lhe acLlons and assoclaLed arLlfacLs of Lhe vA l1 Þro[ecL and Þrogram
ManagemenL processŦż19Ž

żedlLŽ lnLernaLlonal sLandards1here have been several aLLempLs Lo develop pro[ecL managemenL
sLandardsţ such asť

CapablllLy MaLurlLy Model from Lhe SofLware Lnglneerlng lnsLlLuLeŦ
CAÞÞSţ Clobal Alllance for Þro[ecL Þerformance SLandards Ŷ an open source sLandard descrlblng
CCMÞL1LnClLS for pro[ecL and program managersŦ
A Culde Lo Lhe Þro[ecL ManagemenL 8ody of knowledge
PL8MLS meLhodţ Swlss general pro[ecL managemenL meLhodţ selecLed for use ln Luxembourg and
lnLernaLlonal organlzaLlonsŦ
1he lSC sLandards lSC 9000ţ a famlly of sLandards for quallLy managemenL sysLemsţ and Lhe lSC
10006ť2003ţ for CuallLy managemenL sysLems and guldellnes for quallLy managemenL ln pro[ecLsŦ
Þ8lnCL2ţ Þ8o[ecLs ln ConLrolled LnvlronmenLsŦ
AssoclaLlon for Þro[ecL ManagemenL 8ody of knowledgeż29Ž
1eam SofLware Þrocess (1SÞ) from Lhe SofLware Lnglneerlng lnsLlLuLeŦ
1oLal CosL ManagemenL lrameworkţ AACL lnLernaLlonalƌs MeLhodology for lnLegraLed ÞorLfolloţ
Þrogram and Þro[ecL ManagemenLŦ
vŴModelţ an orlglnal sysLems developmenL meLhodŦ
1he Loglcal framework approachţ whlch ls popular ln lnLernaLlonal developmenL organlzaLlonsŦ
lAÞÞMţ 1he lnLernaLlonal AssoclaLlon of Þro[ecL Ǝ Þrogram ManagemenLţ gulde Lo pro[ecL audlLlng and
resculng Lroubled pro[ecLsŦ
żedlLŽ Þro[ecL porLfollo managemenLAn lncreaslng number of organlzaLlons are uslngţ whaL ls referred Lo
asţ pro[ecL porLfollo managemenL (ÞÞM) as a means of selecLlng Lhe rlghL pro[ecLs and Lhen uslng
pro[ecL managemenL Lechnlquesż30Ž as Lhe means for dellverlng Lhe ouLcomes ln Lhe form of beneflLs Lo
Lhe performlng prlvaLe or noLŴforŴproflL organlzaLlonŦ

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