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Application Engineering Bulletin

Subject

Natural Gas Fuel Performance Specification (Wide Range Fuel Capable)

This AEB is for the following applications: X Automotive Industrial Power Generation

Date August, 2001 Engine Models included: B5.9G+, C8.3G+ Fuel Systems included:

Page 1

AEB Number 79.02

This takes Cummins Engineering Standard 14608 revision 000 for publication as an AEB.

Author: Yiping Zhuang

Cummins, Inc., Columbus, Indiana 47201

Form 5745-0281

This specification applies to fuel as it is delivered to the engine regardless of whether its origin was liquid or gaseous.4. State of California) 3. Current Release Number Std. and Cummins’ CORE hardware based control architecture (currently CM-556B ECM). Chemical Composition of Gases by Mass Spectrometry c. This specification is only applicable to engines with "Plus Technology" and approved ratings that are wide range fuel capable. Definitions Terms used in this standard that have a general definition for usage in Cummins Engineering Standards are defined in CES 10056. Land fill gas and gas with chlorine additives are not permitted. This specification covers natural gas fuel requirements for automotive spark ignited natural gas engines. Calculating Heat Value. Title 17 CCR 94112 Method 16 –Sulfur (Air Resources Board. SAE 922359. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins. ASTM D 1945. Effect of Gas Composition on Octane Number of Natural Gas Fuels g. Standards Organizations Addresses. Standards Organizations Addresses e.1. ASTM D 3588. CES 10054.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 1. 2.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL. a. 1. Scope 1. Inc. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 1 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form. Glossary. Applicable Documents Applicable documents listed below may be obtained from the responsive organizations listed in CES 10054. ASTM D 2650. 1.3. 1. reproduced by any means. Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography b. "Plus Technology" includes knock sensing and control. . and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Gaseous Fuels d. CES 10056.2. Compressibility Factor. Glossary f.

The reference fuels for methane number are methane as the high reference fuel (100) and hydrogen as the low reference fuel (0).3.1. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 2 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form.1. Specification 4. The requirements apply to the fuel as it is delivered to the engine. Carbon present in the diluents (example carbon dioxide) is not used in this calculation.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL. Current Release Number Std. The reference fuels are Iso-octane (100) as the high reference and n-heptane (0) as the low reference fuel.2. 4. . Octane number can be an excess of 100 and in this case tetraethyl lead is mixed with Iso-octane to create reference fuels with higher octane numbers. 4. Inc. reproduced by any means. 3. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins. Chemical Composition Chemical composition shall be determined using the test method in Table 1: Chemical Composition on page 3. 3. Since methane has an octane number of 140. relative to the reference fuels. 3. Mass Percent Mass Percent is defined as the molecular weight of each component times the volume percent of that component divided by the molecular weight of the mixture. There are two reference fuels that all fuels are compared too. Motor Octane Number Motor Octane Number is defined as a method for rating fuels and their resistance to denotation. Reactive Hydrogen to Carbon Ratio Reactive hydrogen to carbon ratio is defined as the number of hydrogen atoms in one mole of fuel divided by the number of carbon atoms in one mole of fuel. Significance and Use This specification covers natural gas fuels for use in automotive spark ignited natural gas engines.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 3.2. the octane scale could not be used and a correlation relating octane number to methane number was developed. Methane Number Methane number is defined as a scale to calculate knock potential of natural gas in a spark ignited engine.4.

or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 Table 1: Chemical Composition Components Methane Ethane Propane C4 and Higher CO2 + N2 Hydrogen Carbon Monoxide Oxygen Sulfur (1) Test Method ASTM D 1945 ASTM D 1945 ASTM D 1945 ASTM D 1945 ASTM D 1945 ASTM D 2650 ASTM D 2650 ASTM D 1945 Title 17 CCR Section 94112 Method 16 Note (1): Sulfur requirement is weight percent. Title 17 CCR Section 94112 Method 16. Inc. is a test method for determining emissions of total reduced sulfur set fourth in the Air Resources Board’s Method 16 (State of California). .Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL. reproduced by any means. Current Release Number Std. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 3 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form.

Current Release Number Std. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 4 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form. Methane Number Methane Number shall not be below 65. Calculate the Octane Number Motor Octane Number = -406. when determined in accordance with the following equations. propane.119. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins.55y2) + (20. etc. Reactive --. a.14 + (508. see Section 3. ethane.3.1 Note: Calculations for methane number are based on equations in SAE 922359.624xMotor Octane Number) .) b. Reactive Hydrogen to Carbon Ratio on page 2) n Volume % of Component i  ∑  -------------------------------------------------------------- xNumber of Hydrogen Atoms in Componenti     100 H -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. . Reactive Hydrogen to Carbon Ratio – (only use reactive hydro-carbons.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 4. Convert Motor Octane Number to Methane Number Methane Number = (1.3.17y3) Where: H y = Reactive --C c.1.=  i = 1  n Volume % of Component i  C  ∑  -------------------------------------------------------------- xNumber of Carbon Atoms in Component i    100   i=1 Where: n = total number of reactive hydro-carbons (methane.04y) + (-173.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL. reproduced by any means.1. Physical Properties 4. Inc.

n Molecular Weight of Component i × Volume Percent i Molecular Weight of Mixture = ∑ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100 i= 1 b. = LHV  ----- ÷ 2.800 (BTU/lbm) when determined in accordance with the following equations. Calculate the Mass Percent The mass percent is the percentage of each component in the mixture divided by mass. Calculate the molecular weight of the fuel. reproduced by any means. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 5 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form. Molecular weight of a gas mixture is the sum of the molecular weight of each component times the volume percent of that component divided by 100.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL. Lower Heating Value (LHV) Lower heating value shall not be below 18. Convert Lower Heating Value from kJ/kg to BTU/lbm BTU kJ LHV  ----------. Inc.2. Molecular Weight of Component x Volume Percent Mass Percent = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Molecular Weight of Mixture c. a. . × LHV of Component i   100 i=1 d. Calculate Lower Heating Value n Mass Percent of Component i LHV of Mixture (kJ/kg) = ∑  -------------------------------------------------------------------. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins.3.324444  lbm   kg Current Release Number Std.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 4.

Additional Requirements The fuel shall not contain water.6. dust.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 4. Inc.001 % weight. 4.4. .5. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins. sand. 4. oils. dirt. Current Release Number Std. or any other substance/component in an amount that is detrimental to the operation of the engine. Mechanical Requirements There are no mechanical property requirements. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 6 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form. reproduced by any means. Sulfur Content The maximum allowable sulfur content shall be no greater than 0.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL.

01759x8)+(0.8535 C Current Release Number Std. .008 0.357 45.033 1.013 LHV (kJ/kg) 50.986 Molecular Weight 16.12 72. Methane Number H (0. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins.00008x4)+(0.04033x6)+(0.489 46.01 3. Inc.04033x2)+(0.90204x1)+(0.90204x4)+(0.= 3.759 0.00008x10)+(0.EPA Certification Fuel Component Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Nitrogen Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 N2 Volume Percent 90.07 44.742 45.097 58.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 Appendix A: Methane Number Calculation .044 30.Example Table A1: Example .01759x3)+(0.0 28.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL.204 4.0001x12) -----------------------------------Reactive --.=  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (0.00 A1.0001x5)  C H Reactive --.355 0.016 47. reproduced by any means. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 7 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form.

12 72 28. Lower Heating Value Molecular Weight of Mixture = (0.986 Molecular Weight 16.04033x30.64)-119.204 4.55x3.8535)+(-173.0)+(0.85353) Motor Octane Number = 128.34 Current Release Number Std.07 44.14+(508.097)+ (0. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 8 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form.82 A2.85352)+(20.033 1.90 4. Inc.01759x44.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 Appendix A: Methane Number Calculation .03 0.759 0.41 0.624x128.04 6.0001x72. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins.03986x28.90204x16.64 Methane Number = (1.01 3. .04x3.17x3.1 Methane Number = 89. reproduced by any means.00008x58.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL.29 6.008 0.013) Molecular Weight of Mixture = 17.070)+(0.013 Mass Percent (%) 82.044 30.59 Table A2: Mass Percent Component Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Nitrogen Volume Percent 90.Example (Continued) Motor Octane Number = -406.097 58.12)+(0.044)+(0.

41 0.489 46. .357 45.324444 = 20.11 ÷ 2.72 18.56 Current Release Number Std.04 6.016 47. Inc.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL.03 0. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 9 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form. reproduced by any means.14 0 Lower Heating Value (kJ/kg) = Sum of Calculation = 46.355 0 Calculation (kJ/kg) 41158.Example (Continued) Table A3: Lower Heating Value of Mixture (kJ/kg) Component Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Nitrogen Mass Fraction 82.34 LHV (kJ/kg) 50.511.17 3276.742 45.11 Lower Heating Value (BTU/lbm) = 46.511.90 4.29 6.34 13. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins.009.74 2044.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 Appendix A: Methane Number Calculation .

105 44.489 46.09 58.01 32.NATURAL GAS (WIDE RANGE) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (INTERFACE) Engineering Standard Number 14608 Appendix A: Methane Number Calculation .15 86.742 45.016 47.17 100. Inc.016 LHV (kJ/kg) 50. .00 28.22 44.2 114.Example (Continued) Table A4: Data for Typical Natural Gas Components Component Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Carbon Dioxide Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 CO2 N2 O2 CO H2 Molecular Weight 16.12 72. or used for any purpose without written consent of Cummins. Revision Level 012021-048 000 Page 10 of 10 CUMMINS CONFIDENTIAL This document (and the information shown thereon) is CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY and shall not be disclosed to others in hard copy or electronic form.926 44. reproduced by any means.01 2.355 45.Engineering Standards Name Identifier FUEL.01 28.357 45.791 0 0 0 0 0 Current Release Number Std.04 30.07 44.