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CH06-1
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
Modern Wireless
Communication
Simon Haykin, Michael Moher
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Chapter 6
Diversity, Capacity and Space-
Division Multiple Access
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• 6.1 Introduction
• 6.2 “Space Diversity on Receive” Techniques
– 6.2.1 Selection Combining
– 6.2.2 Maximal-Ratio Combining
– 6.2.3 Equal-Gain Combining
– 6.2.4 Square-Law Combining
• 6.3 Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output Antenna Systems
– 6.3.1 Coantenna Interference
– 6.3.2 Basic Baseband Channel Mode
• 6.4 MIMO Capacity for Channel Known at the Receiver
– 6.4.1 Ergodic Capacity
– 6.4.2 Two other special case of log-det formula: Capacities of Receiver and
Transmit Diversity Links
Contents
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– 6.4.3 Outage Capacity
– 6.4.4 Channel Known at the Transmitter
• 6.5 Singular-Value Decomposition of the Channel Matrix
– 6.5.1 Eigendecomposition of the Log-det Capacity Formula
• 6.6 Space-Time Codes for MIMO Wireless Communications
– 6.6.1 Preliminaries
– 6.6.2 Alamouti Code
– 6.6.3 Performance Comparison of Diversity-on-Receive and Diversity-on-
Transmit Schemes
– 6.6.4 Generalized Complex Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes
– 6.6.5 Performance Comparisons of Different Space-Time Block Codes Using a Single
Receiver
Content (Cont.)
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• 6.7 Differential Space-Time Block Codes
– 6.7.1 Differential Space-Time Block Coding
– 6.7.2 Transmitter and Receiver Structures
– 6.7.3 Noise Performance
• 6.8 Space-Division Multiple Access and Smart Antennas
– 6.8.1 Antenna Arrays
– 6.8.2 Multipath with Direction Antennas
Content (Cont.)
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6.1 Introduction
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• Diversity
– Frequency diversity
– Time (signal-repetition) diversity
– Space diversity
• Receive diversity
• Transmit diversity
• Diversity on both transmit and receive
• Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO)
– User terminal of limited battery power
– Channel of limited RF bandwidth
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6.2 “Space Diversity on Receive”
Techniques
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6.2 “Space Diversity on Receive”
Techniques
6.2.1 Selection Combining
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• Given N
r
receiver outputs produced by common
transmitted signal, logic circuit selects particular receiver
output with largest signal-to-noise ratio as received
signal.
• Assumption
– Frequency-flat: all frequency components constituting the
transmitted signal are characterized by same random
attenuation and phase shift.
– Slow-fading: fading remains unchanged during
transmission
– Fading phenomenon is described by Rayleigh distribution.
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• Complex envelope of received signal of kth diversity branch is
• With fading assumed to be slowly varying relative to symbol
duration T, we simply the above Eq. to
• The average signal-to-noise ratio at kth receiver output
• As mean-square value of is the same for all k , we have ( ) t w
k
~
( ) [ ]
r k k
N , 1,2, k E
N
E
SNR K = =
2
0
α (6.4)
( )
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ]
r k
k k
k
k
N , 1,2, k E
t w E
t s E
t w E
t s E
SNR K = =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
2
2
2
2
2
) (
~
) (
~ ~
α
α
(6.3)
r k
j
k k
N , 1,2, k and T t 0 t w t s e t x
k
K = ≤ ≤ + = ) (
~
) (
~
) (
~ θ
α
(6.1)
r k k k
N , 1,2, k and T t 0 t w t s t x K = ≤ ≤ + ≈ ) (
~
) (
~
) (
~
α (6.2)
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• Instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio
• Assume average signal-to-noise ratio over short-term fading is same,
the probability density functions of random variables pertaining to
individual branches as
• For some signal-to-noise ratio, the associated cumulative
distributions of individual branches are
r k k
N , 1,2, k
N
E
K = =
2
0
α γ
(6.5)
r k
av
k
av
k
N , 1,2, k f
k
K = ≥
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
Γ
0 exp
1
) ( γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
(6.6)
( )
0
d f prob
av
k k k f

|
|
¹
|

\
|
− − =
= ≤
∫ ∞ −
Γ
γ
γ
γ
γ γ γ γ
γ
exp 1
) (
(6.7)
k
Γ
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• Probability that all the diversity branches have a signal-to-noise ratio
less than threshold γis
• Cumulative distribution function of random variable
• Cumulative distribution function of selection combiner
{ }
1 1 1
, , , max γ γ γ γ K =
sc
(6.9)
( ) ( )
0
prob N , 1,2, k for prob
r
r
r
N
av
N
k av
N
k
k r k
≥ (
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
− − =
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
− − =
< = = <


=
=
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ γ γ γ
exp 1
exp 1
1
1
K
(6.8)
( ) 0 exp 1 ≥
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
− − =
Γ sc
N
av
sc
sc
F
r
γ
γ
γ
γ
(6.10)
SC
Γ
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• Probability density function of
• For convenience of graphical presentation, we use the scaled
probability density function
( )
sc
f γ
Γ
( ) ( )
0 exp 1 exp
1

(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
− −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
=

Γ Γ
sc
N
av
sc
av
sc
av
r
sc
sc
sc

N
F
d
d
f
r
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
(6.11)
( ) ( )
av sc sc av X
x is x variable normalized the where f x f
sc
γ γ γ γ = =
Γ
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• From figure 6.2
– As the number of branches increase, probability density function
of normalized random variable moves progressively to right.
– Probability density function becomes more symmetrical and
Gaussian as N
r
increase.
• Procedures of scanning version of selection-combining:
– Selecting receiver with strongest output signal.
– Maintain the procedure by using the output of this particular
receiver as combiner’s output.
– When the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio of combiner falls
below the threshold, select a new receiver with strongest output
signal.
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6.2.2 Maximal-Ratio Combining
6.2 “Space Diversity on Receive”
Techniques
4
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• Limitation of selection combiner can be mitigated by maximal-ratio
combiner
• Complex envelope of linear combiner output
• From Eq. (6.12), we notices that
– Complex envelope of output signal equals
– Complex envelope of output noise equals
( )

=
r N
k
k k
t w a
1
~
( )

=
r
k
N
k
j
k k
e a t s
1
~ θ
α
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
∑ ∑


= =
=
=
+ =
+ =
=
r r
k
r
k
r
N
k
k k
N
k
j
k k
N
k
k
j
k k
N
k
k k
t w a e a t s
t w t s e a
t x a t y
1 1
1
1
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
θ
θ
α
α (6.12)
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( )
( )
( )
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]
ratio density spectral noise - to - energy symbol the is E/N where
e a
N
E
e a
t w
t s
t w a
e a t s
SNR
is combiner linear of ratio noise - to - signal output the N , 1,2, k for t independen mutually are t w Assuming
0
N
k
k
N
k
j
k k
N
k
k
N
k
j
k k
k
N
k
k k
N
k
j
k k
c
r k
r
r
k
r
r
k
r
r
k
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
¸
(

¸

⋅ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
¸
(

¸

=
=






=
=
=
=
=
=
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
~
~
) (
~
~
,
~
α
α
α
α
α
θ
θ
θ
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
K
(6.13)
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• Let denote the instantaneous output signal-to-noise ratio of
linear combiner, then using
as the instantaneous values of expectations in numerator and
denominator of eq.(6.13), we can write
∑ ∑
= =
r r
k
N
1 k
k
N
k
j
k k
a and e a
2
2
1
θ
α


=
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r
r
k
N
k
k
N
k
j
k k
c
a
e a
N
E
1
2
2
1
0
θ
α
γ (6.14)
c
γ
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• According to Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for complex number, we
have
• Applying Cauchy-Schwarz inequality to instantaneous output signal-
to-noise ratio
• Canceling common terms in Eq.(6.16)
∑ ∑ ∑
= = =

r r r N
k
k
N
k
k
N
k
k k
b a b a
1
2
1
2
2
1
(6.15)

∑ ∑
=
= =
|
|
¹
|

\
|

r
r
k
r
N
k
k
N
k
j
k
N
k
k
c
a
e a
N
E
1
2
1
2
1
2
0
θ
α
γ
(6.16)

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|

r
N
k
k c
N
E
1
2
0
α γ (6.17)
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• Therefore, the equality in Eq.(6.17) holds for
• Instantaneous output signal-to-noise ratio of maximal-ratio combiner
• According to Eq.(6.5), the maximal-ratio combiner produces an γ
mrc
that is the sum of instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios of individual
branches
• The term “maximal-ratio combiner” has been coined to describe the
combiner of Fig. 6.4 that produces the produces optimum result.
( )
r
j
k
j
k k
N , 1,2, k e c
e c a
k
k
K = =
=


θ
θ
α
α
(6.18)

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
r N
k
k mrc
N
E
1
2
0
α γ
(6.19)

=
=
r
N
k
k mrc
1
γ γ (6.20)
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• Chi-Square with 2N
r
degrees of freedom
( )
( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|


=

Γ
av
mrc
N
av
N
mrc
r
mrc
r
r
mrc
r N
f
γ
γ
γ
γ
γ exp
!
1
1
(6.1)
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6.2.3 Equal-Gain Combining
6.2 “Space Diversity on Receive”
Techniques
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• Three issues for maximal-ratio combiner
1. Significant instrumentation is needed to adjust the complex
weighting parameters of maximal-ratio combiner to their exact
values.
2. Additional improvement in :
1. output signal-to-noise ration gained by mrc over sc is not
large
2. Receiver performance is lost in inability to achieve the exact
setting of mrc
3. other details of the combiner may result in a minor improvement
in overall receiver performance.
• Equal-gain combiner: all the complex weighting parameters have
their phase angles set opposite to those of their respective multipath
branches.
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6.2.4 Square-Law Combining
6.2 “Space Diversity on Receive”
Techniques
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• No need phase estimation.
• Applicable to orthogonal modulation.
• With binary orthogonal signaling, receiver generates
• In orthogonal modulation, two signaling waveforms approximately
satisfy the condition
• If binary symbol 0 is transmitted, the two decision variables are
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )dt t s t x
N
Q and dt t s t x
N
Q
T
k k
T
k k ∫ ∫
∗ ∗
= =
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
~ ~
1
~ ~
1
(6.27,28)
( )
¹
´
¦

=
=


j i
j i E
dt t s t s
b
T
j i
0
) (
~ ~
0
(6.29)
0
1
0
0
0
0
N
w
Q and
N
w
N
e E
Q
k
1k
k
j
k b
k
k
= + =
θ
α
(6.30,31)
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• Square-law receiver makes a decision between symbols 0 and 1 as
• With square-lave combining, we form the decision variable
• If s
0
(t) was transmitted, the variances are given by
1 say otherwise 0 say Q Q if
k k
2
1
2
0
> (6.32)
∑ ∑
= =
= =
r r N
k
k 1
N
k
k
Q Q and Q Q
1
2
1
1
2
0 0
(6.33,34)
( ) ( )
( )
( )
[ ] ( )
[ ]
1
1
1
)
0
0 2
0
1
0 0
0
0
0
+ =
= + =
= + =
av
k
k
b
k 1k
k j
k
b
k

N
w Var
N
E
w Var
N
Var(Q and
N
w Var
e Var
N
E
Q Var
k
γ
α
α
θ
E
(6.35,36)
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• Probability density function for correct symbol is
• For incorrect symbol, it is
• As Q
1
and Q
0
are independent random variables, the probability of
error is
( )
( ) ( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+

+ −
=

1
exp
1 ! 1
1
1
0
av av
N
r
Q
q q
N
q f
r
γ γ
(6.37)
( )
( ) q q
N
q f
r
N
r
Q


=

exp
! 1
1
) (
1
1
(6.38)
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
∞ ∞
|
¹
|

\
|
= <
0
0 1 1 0 1 0
0
1 0
dq dq q f q f Q Q prob
q
Q Q
(6.39)
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6.3 Multiple-Input, Multiple-
Output Antenna Systems
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• MIMO wireless communications include space diversity
• Three important points:
– Fading phenomenon is an environmental source of
possible enrichment.
– Space diversity provides the basis for a significant
increase in channel capacity or spectral efficiency.
– Increasing channel capacity with MIMO is achieved by
increasing computational complexity with maintaining
primary communication resources fixed.
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6.3 Multiple-Input, Multiple-
Output Antenna Systems
6.3.1 Co-antenna Interference
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6.3.2 Basic Baseband Channel Model
6.3 Multiple-Input, Multiple-
Output Antenna Systems
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• Spatial parameter, defines as a new degree of freedom.
• N
t
-by-1 vector, denotes the complex signal vector transmitted by the N
t
antennas at discrete time n.
• Total transmit power is fixed at the value
{ }
r t
N N n , min = (6.40)
[ ]
T
t
n s n s n s n ) (
~
, ), (
~
), (
~
) (
2 1
K = s (6.41)
2
s t
N P σ =
(6.42)
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• For flat-fading, we can use denote sampled complex gain of
channel, thus express the N
r
-by-N
t
complex channel matrix as
) (
~
n h
ik
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
antennas
receive
N
n h n h n h
n h n h n h
n h n h n h
n
r
antennas transmit N
N N N N
N
N
t
t r r r
t
t
4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 1
L
M M M
L
L
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
) (
2 1
2 22 21
1 21 11
H (6.43)
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• The system of equations, defines the complex signal received at ith
antenna due to transmitted symbol radiated by kth antenna
• Complex received signal vector
• Complex channel noise vector
• Therefore, the compact matrix form of the system equation which is
the basic complex channel model for MIMO wireless communications
• To simply the exposition, we get
( ) n s
k
~
w + = Hs x (6.48)
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( n w n n n + = s H x (6.47)
( ) [ ]
T
N
n w n w n w n
r
) (
~
, ), (
~
), (
~
2 1
K = w (6.46)
( ) [ ] ) (
~
, ), (
~
), (
~
1 1 1
n x n x n x n K = x (6.45)
( ) ( ) ( )
t
r
N
k
i k ik i
N k
N i
n w n s n h n x
t
, , 2 , 1
, , 2 , 1
~
) (
~
~
~
1
K
K
=
=
+ =

=
(6.44)
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• For mathematical tractability, we assume Gaussian model made up
of three elements
1. Transmitter
2. Channel
3. Receiver
– 1. Correlation matrix of transmitted signal vector s is
R
s
= E[ss

]

2
s
I
Nt
where is the N
t
-by-N
t
identity matrix
t
N
I
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• 2. The N
t
x N
t
elements of channel matrix H is
• On this basis, the amplitude component h
ik
is rayleigh distributes,
this is the reason why MIMO channel is a rich Rayleigh scattering
environment.
• Mean of squared amplitude component is a chi-square random
variable
( ) ( )
r
r
ik
N , 1,2, k
N , 1,2, i
jN N h
K
K
=
=
+ 2 1 , 0 2 1 , 0 :
(6.50)
[ ] k and i all for h
ik
1
2
= E (6.51)
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• 3. Correlation matrix of noise vector w is
R
w
= E[ww

]

2
w
I
Nr
where is the N
r
-by-N
r
identity matrix
• The average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at each receiver is
2
2
2
w
s t
w
N
P
σ
σ
σ
ρ
=
=
(6.53)
t
N
I
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6.4 MIMO Capacity for Channel
Known at the Receiver
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6.4.1 Ergodic Capacity
6.4 MIMO Capacity for Channel
Known at the Receiver
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• Information capacity of AWGN channel with fixed transmit power is
defined as
• With the sampling theorem, we can rewrite to
• Capacity of complex, flat-fading channel is
• Assume the channel is stationary and ergodic, C is commonly referred
to ergodic capacity of single-input, single-output (SISO) flat fading
channel.
s bit
P
B C
w
/ 1 log
2 2
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
σ
(6.54)
Hz s bit
P
C
w
/ / 1 log
2
1
2 2 |
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
σ
(6.55)
Hz s bits
P h
C
w
/ / 1 log
2
2
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
σ
E (6.56)
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• Ergodic capacity of MIMO channel
• Substituting Eqs. (6.49) and (6.52) into Eq.(6.57)
• Invoking definition of average signal-to-noise ratio, we get
• This is the log-det capacity formula for a Gaussian MIMO channel.
( )
( )
P tr max constraint to subject is which Hz s bit C ≤ (
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
=
+
) ( / /
det
det
log
2 S
R
W
S W
R
R
H HR R
E
s
(6.57)
Hz s bit C
w
s
Nr
/ / det log
2
2
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
+
HH I E
σ
σ
(6.58)
Hz s bit
N
C
t
Nr
/ / det log
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
+
HH I E
ρ
(6.59)
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• Asymptotic formula
• The ergodic capacity of a MIMO flat-fading wireless link with an
equal number N of transmit and receive antennas grows roughly
proportionately with N
constant
N
C
N

∞ →
lim (6.61)
CH06-50
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6.4.2 Two other special case of log-det
formula: Capacities of Receiver and
Transmit Diversity Links
6.4 MIMO Capacity for Channel
Known at the Receiver
CH06-51
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• 1. Diversity-on-receive channel
– Applying log-det capacity formula to this case, Eq. (6.60) reduces
to
– Eq. (6.62) expresses the ergodic capacity due to linear
combination of receive-antenna outputs.
– It designed to maximize the information contained in N
r
received
signals about the transmitted signal.
Hz s bit h E C
r
N
i
i
/ / 1 log
1
2
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =

=
ρ
(6.62)
CH06-52
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• 2. Diversity-on-transmit channel
– The log-det capacity formula reduced to
Hz s bits h
N
C
t N
k
k
t
/ / 1 log
1
2
2 (
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =

=
ρ
E (6.63)
CH06-53
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.4.3 Outage Capacity
6.4 MIMO Capacity for Channel
Known at the Receiver
CH06-54
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Outage probability of MIMO link is defined as the probability for
which the link is in a state of outage for data transmitted across the
link at a certain rate, R.
• To proceed on this probabilistic basis, we invoke a quasi-static
model:
– The burst is long enough to accommodate the transmission of
large number of symbols.
– Yet the burst is short enough that can be treated as quasi static.
– Channel matrix is permitted to change.
– The different realizations of transmitted signal vector are drawn
from a white gaussian codebook.
10
CH06-55
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• In light of the log-det capacity formula, we may view the random
variable
as the expression for a sample of the wireless link.
• Outage probability at rate R is
• Outage capacity of the MIMO link is the maximum bit rate that can be
maintained across the link for all bursts of data transmissions for a
prescribed outage probability.
Hz s bit
N
C
k k
t
N k r
/ / det log
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
+
H H I E
ρ
(6.64)
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
<
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
< =
+
k burst some for R
N
prob R P
ly, equivalent or
k burst some for R C prob R P
k k
t
N outage
k outage
r
H H I
ρ
det log ) (
) (
2
(6.65)
CH06-56
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.4.4 Channel Known at the
Transmitter
6.4 MIMO Capacity for Channel
Known at the Receiver
CH06-57
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Log-det capacity formula is based on the premise that
the transmitter has no knowledge of channel state.
• Knowledge of channel state can be gathered by
– first estimating the channel matrix at receiver
– then sending to the transmitter via feedback channel.
– Capacity is optimized.
CH06-58
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.5 Singular-Value Decompostion
of the Channel Matrix
CH06-59
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Diagonalize HH
+
by invoking eigendecomposition of Hermitian Matrix
• The matrixΛis a diagonal matrix whose N
r
elements are eigenvalues
of matrix product HH
+
• The matrix U is a unitary matrix whose N
r
columns are the
eigenvectors associated with eigenvalues of HH
+
.
• Inverse of unitary matrix is equal to Hermitian transpose of matrix, as
shown by
A =
+ +
U HH U (6.67)
r N
ly, equivalent or, I U U UU U U = = =
+ + + −1
(6.68,69)
CH06-60
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Let N
t
-by-N
t
matrix V be another unitary matrix, that is
• Inject the matrix product VV
+
into the center of left-hand side of Eq.
(6.67)
• Let the N
t
-by-N
t
matrix D denate a new diagonal matrix related to N
r
-
by-N
r
diagonal matrixΛwith N
r
≤ N
t
by
• Examining Eqs.(6.71) and (6.72) and comparing terms, we deduce
the new decomposition, which is singular-value decomposition (SDV)
r
N
I V V VV = =
+ +
(6.70)
Α =
+ + +
U )H H(VV U
(6.71)
[ ][ ]
+
= Α 0 0 D D
(6.72)
[ ] 0 D HV U =
+
(6.73)
11
CH06-61
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• According to SVD theorem, we have
– Elements of diagonal matrix
are the singular values of channel matrix H.
– Columns of unitary matrix
are the left singular vectors of matrix H
– Columns of second unitary matrix
are the right singular vectors of matrix H
( )
t
N
d d d diag , , ,
2 1
K = D (6.74)
[ ]
r
N
u , , u , u U
1 1
K =
(6.75)
[ ]
t
N
v v , v V
1
, ,
2
K =
(6.76)
CH06-62
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Using the definitions of Eqs.
(6.74) through (6.76), the
decomposed channel model
can changed to scalar form
r i i i i
N , 1,2, i w s d x K = + =
~ ~ ~
CH06-63
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.5 Singular-Value Decompostion
of the Channel Matrix
6.5.1 Eigendecomposition of the Log-
det Capacity Formula
CH06-64
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Substituting Eq. (6.59)into Eq. (6.67) leads to spectral
decomposition of HH
+
in terms of N
r
eigenmodes, we may write
• Substituting the first line of this decomposition into determinant part
of Eq. (6.59) yields
• Invoking the determinant identity.

=
+
+ +
=
=
r N
i
i i i
1
u u
U UΑ HH
λ
(6.82)
( ) ( ) BA I AB I + = + det det (6.84)
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+ +
U UΛ HH I
t
N
t
N
N
I
N
r r
ρ ρ
det det
(6.83)
CH06-65
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• And then using the defining Eq. (6.69), we can rewrite Eq. (6.83)

=
+ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
Λ + =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
r
r
r r
N
i
i
t
t
N
t
N
t
N
N
N
N
I
N
1
1
det
det det
λ
ρ
ρ
ρ ρ
I
UΛ U HH I
(6.85)
CH06-66
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Finally, subsitute Eq. (6.85) into Eq. (6.59)
• Ergodic capacity of a MIMO wireless communication system is the
sum of capacity of N
r
virtual single-input, single-output channels
defined by the spatial eigenmodes of the matrix product HH
+
.
• Using the log-det capacity formula of Eq.(6.60), for N
t
≤ N
r
, we can
show that
Hz s bits
N
E C
i
t
N
i
r
/ / 1 log
1
2 (
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =

=
λ
ρ
(6.86)
Hz s bits
N
E C
t N
i
i
r
/ / 1 log
1
2 (
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =

=
λ
ρ
(6.87)
12
CH06-67
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.6 Space-Time Codes for MIMO
Wireless Communications
CH06-68
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Space-Time codes
– Joint channel encoding of multiple transmit antennas
– Employ redundancy for purpose of providing protection
against channel fading, noise, interference.
– Maximize outage capacity
– Classified into
• Space-time trellis codes
• Space-time block codes
CH06-69
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Space-time trellis code
– Permits serial transmission of symbols.
– Designed for two to four transmit antennas
– Well for slow-fading environment but not indoor data
transmission.
– For decoding, multidimensional version of Viterbi algorithm
is required
– Decoding complexity of space-time trellis codes increases
exponentially as the function of spectral efficiency.
CH06-70
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Space-time block code
– Transmission of signal takes place in blocks. Code is
defined by transmission matrix with 3 parameters
• Number of transmitted symbols l
• Number of transmit antennas, N
t
, defines the size of
transmission matrix.
• Number of time slots in data block m
– Ratio l/m defines of rate of code.
– For efficient transmission, transmitted symbols are
expressed in complex form.
CH06-71
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
– Linear processing
• Estimate transmitted symbols at receiver and simplify the
receiver design.
– Different receiver design procedures:
• Complex orthogonal design
• Generalized complex orthogonal design
– Complex orthogonality of transmission matrix in temporal
sense is a sufficient condition for linear processing at
receiver.
– Alamouti code: code with code rate of unity.
CH06-72
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
13
CH06-73
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.6 Space-Time Codes for MIMO
Wireless Communications
6.6.1 Preliminaries
CH06-74
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
CH06-75
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Two functional units:
– Mapper
• Take incoming binary data stream and generate a new
sequence of blocks.
– Block encoder
• Converts each block of complex symbols produced by
mapper into an l-by- N
t
transmission matrix S, where l and N
t
are temporal dimension and spatial dimension
CH06-76
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.6.2 Alamouti Code
6.6 Space-Time Codes for MIMO
Wireless Communications
CH06-77
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Two-by-one orthogonal space-time block code.
• Hermitian transpose of S
Space
Time
s s
s s


(
¸
(

¸



=
*
1
*
2
*
2
*
1
~ ~
~ ~
S (6.88)
Time
Space
s s
s s


(
¸
(

¸

=
+
*
1
*
2
*
2
*
1
~ ~
~ ~
S
(6.89)
CH06-78
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Multiply code matrix S by its Hermitian transpose, obtaining
• This result also holds for alternative matrix product S
+
S, which is
proof of orthogonality in the temporal sense
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + −
+ − +
=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸


=
+
1 0
0 1
~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
*
2
*
1
*
1
*
2
1 2 2 1
2
1
2
1
*
1
*
2
*
2
*
1
*
1
*
2
*
2
*
1
s s
s s s s s s
s s s s s s
s s
s s
s s
s s
SS
(6.90)
14
CH06-79
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• The transmission matrix of Alamouti code satisfies the unique
condition
• And Note that
( )I S S SS
2
2
2
1
~ ~
s s + = =
+ +
(6.91)
+ −
+
= S S
2
2
2
1
1
~ ~
1
s s
(6.92)
CH06-80
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Four Properties of Alamouti code
• Property 1. Unitarity (Complex Orthogonality)
– Alamouti code is an orthogonal space-time block code
– Product of transmission matrix with its Hermitian transpose
is equal to the two-by-two identity matrix scaled by the
sum of squared amplitudes of transmitted symbols.
• Property 2: Full-Rate Complex Code
– Only complex space-time block code with a code rate
unity.
CH06-81
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Property 3. Linearity
– Alamouti code is linear in transmitted symbols.
• Property 4. Optimality of Capacity
– For two transmit antennas and a single receive antenna,
the Alamouti code is the only optimal space-time block
code that satisfies the log-det capacity formula of Eq.
(6.63).
CH06-82
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 1 1 2 2 1
* *
2 1 2 2 1 2
With s and s transmitted simultaneously at time ,
the complex received signal at time ' , is
The complex signal received at time ' is
Ref
j j
j j
t
t t
x e s e s w
t T
x e s e s w
θ θ
θ θ
α α
α α
>
= + +
+
= − + +
% %
% % %
% % %
1 2
2 1
1
2
1 1
1 1 1
*
2
2 2
2 1
ormulate the variable and complex
conjugate of the second variable in matrix form
j j
j j
x
x
x w
e e s
s
x w
e e
θ θ
θ θ
α α
α α

− −
(
( (
(
( = + ( (
(
( ( ( − ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
%
%
% %
%
%
% %
(6.95)
(6.96)
(6.97)
CH06-83
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Multiply Eq.(6.97) by hermitian transpose of two-by-two channel
matrix
• And let
(
¸
(

¸


+
=
(
¸
(

¸


+
=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸


=
(
¸
(

¸

∗ − −
∗ − −
∗ − −
∗ − −
− −
− −
2 1 1 2
2 2 1 1
2 1 1 2
2 2 1 1
2
1
*
2
1
1 2
2 1
2
1
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~
~
and
~
~
~
~
1 2
2 1
1 2
2 1
1 2
2 1
x e x e
x e x e
w e w e
w e w e
v
v
x
x
e e
e e
y
y
j j
j j
j j
j j
j j
j j
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
(6.99)
( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸


+
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸


+
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸


∗ − −
∗ − −
− −
− −
− −
− −
2 1 1 2
2 2 1 1
2
1 2
2
2
1
2
1
1 2
2 1
2
1 2
2
2
1 *
2
1
1 2
2 1
~ ~
~ ~
~
~
~
~
~
~
1 0
0 1
~
~
1 2
2 1
1 2
2 1
1 2
2 1
w e w e
w e w e
s
s
w
w
e e
e e
s
s
x
x
e e
e e
j j
j j
j j
j j
j j
j j
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ θ
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
α α
(6.98)
CH06-84
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Recast Eq.(6.98) in matrix form of input-output relations describing
the overall behavior of Alamouti code
• Due to complex orthogonality of Alamouti code, the unwanted
symbols are cancelled out in the equations. This cancellations are
responsible for the simplification of receiver.
• The detrimental effect of fading arises when diversity paths suffer
from it. This means a wireless communication system based on the
Alamouti code enjoys a two-level diversirty gain.
( ) ( ) 2 , 1
~ ~ ~
form, expanded in
~
~
~
~
~
~
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1 2
2
2
1
2
1
= + + =
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

k v s y
v
v
s
s
y
y
k k k
α α α α
(6.102)
15
CH06-85
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
CH06-86
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Maximum-likelihood decoding rule:
– Given that receiver has knowledge of
• Channel fading coefficients α
1
andα
2
.
• Set of all possible transmitted symbols in the mapper’s
constellation denoted by S, the maximum-likelihood estimates
of transmitted symbols defined by
where the φdenote the different hypotheses for the linear
combiner output.
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ϕ α α ϕ α α
ϕ ϕ
2
2
2
1 2
2
S
2
2
2
2
1 1
2
S
1
,
~
min arg ˆ and ,
~
min arg ˆ + = + =
∈ ∈
y d s y d s (6.1)
CH06-87
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.6.3 Performance Comparison of
Diversity-on-Receive and Diversity-on-
Transmit Schemes
6.6 Space-Time Codes for MIMO
Wireless Communications
CH06-88
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
CH06-89
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.6.4 Generalized Complex Orthogonal
Space-Time Block Codes
6.6 Space-Time Codes for MIMO
Wireless Communications
CH06-90
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Generalized complex orthogonal designs of space–time
block codes distinguish themselves from the Alamouti
code in three respects:
– Nonsquare transmission matrix
– Fractional code rate
– Orthogonality of transmission matrix only in temporal
sense.
16
CH06-91
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Let G be a an m-by- N
t
matrix, N
t
is the number of transmit
antennas and m is the number of time slots, the entries of the
matrix
• G is said to be generalized complex orthogonalized design of size
N
t
and code rate is l/m if
* *
2 2
*
1 1
, , , , , , , 0
l l
s s s s s s ± ± ± ± ± ± K
I G G
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=

=
+
l
j
j
s
1
2
(6.106)
CH06-92
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Construction of space-time block codes using generalized complex
orthogonal design is exemplified by rate-1/2 codes.
• Case 1: For three transmit antennas (l=4, m=8)
Space
Time
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s


(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− −

− −
− −

− −
=
*
2
*
3
*
4
*
1
*
4
*
3
*
4
*
1
*
2
*
3
*
2
*
1
2 3 4
1 4 3
4 1 2
3 2 1
3
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
G (6.107)
CH06-93
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Case 2: For four transmit antennas (l=4,m=8)
Space
Time
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s
s s s


(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸



− −

− −
− −

− −
=
*
1
*
2
*
3
*
4
1
2
3
4
*
2
*
3
*
4
*
1
*
4
*
3
*
4
*
1
*
2
*
3
*
2
*
1
2 3 4
1 4 3
4 1 2
3 2 1
4
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~

~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
G (6.108)
CH06-94
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Compare with Alamouti code, space-time codes G
3
and
G
4
are at a disadvantage in two respects:
1. The bandwidth efficiency is reduced by a factor of two.
2. The number of time slots across which channel is
required to have a constant fading envelope is increased
by a factor of four.
CH06-95
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• To improve the bandwidth efficiency, we may use rate-3/4
generalized complex linear processing orthogonal designs referred
to as sporadic codes:
• Case 1: For three transmit antennas (l=3, m=4)
( )
( )
Space
Time
s s s s s s
s s s s s s
s s s
s s s


(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + + −
− + − −

=
2
~ ~ ~ ~
2
~
2
~
2
~ ~ ~ ~
2
~
2
~
2
~ ~ ~
2
~ ~ ~
*
1 1
*
2 2
*
3
*
3
*
2 2
*
1 1
*
3
*
3
3
*
1
*
2
3 2 1
3
H
(6.109)
CH06-96
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Case 2: For four transmit antennas (l=3,m=4)
( )
( )
( )
( )
Space
Time
s s s s
s s s s
s
s
s s s s s s
s s s s s s
s s s
s s s


(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + + −
− + − −

− + + −
− + − −

=
2
~ ~ ~ ~
2
~ ~ ~ ~
2
~
2
~

2
~ ~ ~ ~
2
~
2
~
2
~ ~ ~ ~
2
~
2
~
2
~ ~ ~
2
~ ~ ~
*
1 1
*
2 2
*
1 1
*
2 2
3
3
*
1 1
*
2 2
*
3
*
3
*
2 2
*
1 1
*
3
*
3
3
*
1
*
2
3 2 1
3
H
(6.110)
17
CH06-97
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.6.5 Performance Comparisons of
Different Space-Time Block Codes
Using a Single Receiver
6.6 Space-Time Codes for MIMO
Wireless Communications
CH06-98
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
CH06-99
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
CH06-100
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
CH06-101
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.7 Differential Space-Time Block
Codes
CH06-102
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
6.7 Differential Space-Time Block
Codes
6.7.1 Differential Space-Time Block
Coding
18
CH06-103
Modern Wireless Communications Modern Wireless Communications
• Given the new pair of complex signals to be transmitted at time t+2,
the row vector can be expressed as
• a
1,t+2
and a
2,t+2
are coefficients of linear combination and defined as
inner products of the row vector, therefore
[ ] [ ] [ ]
*
, 1
*
2 2 , 2 , 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 , 4 2 , 3
~
,
~ ~
,
~ ~
,
~
t t t t t t t
s s a s s a s s − + =
+ + + +
(6.111)
[ ] [ ][ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
+
+ + +
+
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ + + +
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
− =
1 , 2 , 4 2 , 3
1 , 1
*
1 , 2
*
2 , 4 2 , 3
*
1 , 1
*
1 , 2 , 2 , 1 2 , 4 2 , 3 2 , 2 2 , 1
~
,
~
~ ~
~ ~
~
,
~
~
,
~
,
~
,
~ ~
,
~
,
, 2
, 1
t t t t
t
t
t t
t t t t t t t t
s s
s s
s s
s s
s s s s s s a a
t
t
S (6.112)
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• Similarly, we can write
• Coefficients matrix is a product of two orthogonal Alamouti
(quaternionic) matrices.
[ ] [ ]
+
+ + + + +
− = −
1 ,
*
3 , 3
*
3 . 4
*
3 , 1
*
3 , 2
~
,
~
,
t t t t t t
s s a a S
(6.113)
+
+ + +
+ +
+ +
+ +
=
(
¸
(

¸


=
1 , 3 , 2
*
3 , 1
*
3 , 2
2 , 2 2 , 1
3 , 2
t t t t
t t
t t
t t
a a
a a
A
S S
(6.114)
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• Since S
t,t+1
is a unitary matrix by virtue of orthonormality of its tow
constituent row vectors, it follow that
• Basis for differential space-time block encoding at the transmitter
• In the absence of channel noise, the received signal matrix in
response to transmitted signal matrix S
t,t+1
is given by
1 , 1 , +
+ −
+
=
t t t t
S S
1 , 3 , 2
1 , 3 , 2 3 , 2
+ + +
+ −
+ + + + +
=
=
t t t t
t t t t t t
S A
S A S
(6.115)
H S X
1 , 1 , + +
=
t t t t
(6.116)
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• Similarly, the received signal matrix in response to the next
transmitted signal matrix S
t+2,t+3
is
• New two-by-two matrix
H S X
1 , 3 , 2 + + +
=
t t t t
(6.117)
( )
+
+
+
+ +
+
+ + +
+
+ + + + +
=
=
=
1 , 3 , 2
1 , 3 , 2
1 , 3 , 2 3 , 2
t t t t
t t t t
t t t t t t
S HH S
H S H S
X X Y
(6.118)
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• From the solution to problem6.12, we note that
• Accordingly. Eq.(6.118) reduces to
• This is the basis for differential space-time block decoding at the
receiver.
( )I H
2
2
2
1
1 2
2 1
HH H H and
1 2
2 1
α α
α α
α α
θ θ
θ θ
+ = =
(
¸
(

¸


=
+ +
− −
− −
j j
j j
e e
e e
(6.119,
6.120)
( )
( )
3 , 2
2
2
2
1
1 , 3 , 2
2
2
2
1 3 , 2
+ +
+
+ + + + +
+ =
+ =
t t
t t t t t t
A
S S Y
α α
α α
(6.121)
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• With two sets of signal points involved in formulation of Eqs (6.115)
and (6.121), we identify two signal spaces
– – A A, is spanned by pair of complex coefficients (a
1
,a
2
) constituting
matrix A
– S, is spanned by the complex signals constituting matrix S
• Properties of these signals:
• 1. With M-ary PSK as the method of modulation transmitting
Alamouticode,
– points representing signal space S are uniformly distributed on
circle of unit radius
– Points representing signal space A constitute a quadrature
amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation
2 1
~
,
~
s s
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• 2. Minimum distance between the points in signal space
S is equal to the minimum distance between the points in
signal space A.
• 3. To construct matrix A
– Bijective mapping of 2b bits onto the signal space A.
– The mapping bijective in the sense that it is one-to-one
and onto.
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6.7.2 Transmitter and Receiver
Structures
6.7 Differential Space-Time Block
Codes
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Differential space-time block encoder
1. Mapper
• Generate the entries that make up matrix A
t+2,t+3
2. Differential encoder
• Transforms the matric A
t+2,t+3
into matrix S
t+2,t+3
• Delay unit feeds back the matrix S
t,t+1
to input of differential
encoder
• Multiplier multiplies matrix inputs A
t+2,t+3
and S
t,t+1
to provide
the transmitted signal matrix S
t,t+3
in accordance with
Eq.(6.115)
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Differential space-time block decoder
1. Differential decoder
• Delay unit feeds forward the matrix X
t,t+1
• Multiplier multiplies the matrices X
t+2,t+3
and X
t,t+1
to produce new
matrix Y
t+2,t+3
2. Signal estimator
• Computes the matrix that is closest to
3. Inverse mapper
• Operates on estimate to produce corresponding
estimates of original pair of data bits transmitted at time t+2 and
t+3.
2, 3
ˆ
A
t t + + 3 , 2 + + t t
Y
2, 3
ˆ
A
t t + +
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CH06-114
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6.7.3 Noise Performance
6.7 Differential Space-Time Block
Codes
20
CH06-115
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CH06-116
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6.8 Space-Division Multiple
Access and Smart Antennas
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CH06-118
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• Advantages of 120
o
sector antennas at base station
– Can be applied with FDMA, TDMA or CDMA
– Allows multiple users to operate on same frequency and/or
time slot in same cell
– More users in same spectrum and improved capacity
– Can be applied at base station without affecting mobile
terminals
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• SDMA
– user terminals can spatially separated by virtue of their
angular directions.
• SDMA relies on smart antennas
• Examples of smart antennas
– Sector antenna
– Switched-beam antennas
– Adaptive antenna
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• Advantages of smart antenna
– Greater range
– Fewer base stations
– Better building penetration
– Less sensitivity to power control errors
– More responsive to traffic hot spots
• SDMA improves system capacity by
– Minimization of effects of interference.
– Increasing signal strength
21
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6.8 Space-Division Multiple
Access and Smart Antennas
6.8.1 Antenna Arrays
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• Complex envelope of transmitted signal
• Received symbols
• Key assumptions
1. Incident field is a plane wave
2. The attenuation
3. .
4. There is no mutual coupling between the antenna elements.
( ) ( )
0 0
A l A l A ≡ ≈
( ) ( ) ( ) t m c l t c l t m
0 0
≡ − ≈ −
( ) ( )
ft j
e t m t s
π 2 ~
=
(6.122)
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) c l f j
e c l t m l A l t r
π 2
,
~
− =
(6.123)
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• Under the above assumptions, analysis depends solely on phase
relationship of different elements.
• If antenna element k is at distance l
k
from the transmitting antenna,
then the carrier phase is
• The phase offset is
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
k
k
k
k
t
c l f t
c l l f c l t f
c l t f t
φ φ
π φ
π π
π φ
∆ − ≡
∆ − ≡
− − − =
− =
0
0
0 0
/ 2
2 2
2
(6.124)
( )( )
θ
λ
π
θ π φ
sin 2
sin 2
|
¹
|

\
|
=
= ∆
kd
kd c f
k
(6.125)
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• The received signal at element k is
• Complex rotation
• A phased array computes a linear sum of the signals received at
each element in Fig 6.29, yielding the received signal
( )
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
T
N N
T
N N
N
N k
k k
a a w w w t s
t s w t r
θ θ θ
2 2 2 2 0
2
2
*
, , a and , , where
) (
K K
− −
+
− =
= = =
=

a w
(6.129)
( )
( ) ( )
( ) t j
kd
j
k
e t m A t s
kd
e t s t s
0
0 0 0
sin 2
0
here w sin 2
) (
φ
θ
λ
π
θ
λ
π = |
¹
|

\
|
=
=
|
¹
|

\
|
(6.126,127)
( )
θ
λ
π
θ
sin 2 |
¹
|

\
|
=
kd
j
k
e a (6.128)
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6.8.2 Multipath with Direction Antennas
6.8 Space-Division Multiple
Access and Smart Antennas
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