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8efrlgeraLlon revlewer chapLer 6 10 Lheorles

Compressors
3 baslc phases
cLlon
Compresslon
ulscharge
cLlon of vapor
O ,echanlcal compresslon
O ecLor compresslon
O ComblnaLlon of absorpLlon pmplng
and desorpLlon
,echan|ca| compressor
klnds
O 9oslLlve dlsplacemenL ensres no
reversal of flow ses expanslon valve
reclprocaLlng
roLary
scroll
screw
O -on poslLlve dlsplacemenL work ls
Lransferred by vlrLe of change ln
momenLm
cenLrlfgal compressors
volmeLrlc efflclency
1erm deflned ln Lhe case of poslLlve
dlsplacemenL compressor Lo acconL
dlfference ln Lhe dlsplacemenL or swepL
volme
Clearance facLor
8aLlo of clearance volme Lo swepL
volme
ffecL on reclprocaLlng compressor
4 8edcLlon of scked vapor
Ways Lo redce dlscharge LemperaLre and
work
-ormally cooled by Lhe se of waLer
ackeLlng or by naLral alr convecLlon
WaLer ackeLlng reslLs
Lower dlscharge ln cyllnder wall
Less heaL Lransfer
Plgher volmeLrlc efflclency
ec|procat|ng compressor
CapaclLy conLrol of reclprocaLlng compressor
n and off conLrol
Poldlng valves open
4 ,osL common meLhod of
nloadlng mlLl cyllnder
compressor
4 LlfLlng slng depressors and
flngers
4 esL meLhod ln capaclLy conLrol
PoL gas bypass
4 PoL compressed gas ls bypassed
back Lo Lhe scLlon llne
uslng mlLlple nlLs
4 used lf nloadlng ls reqlred for
long perlod of Llme
ConsLrcLlon of reclprocaLlng compressor
PermlLlcally sealed
eml sealed
pen Lypes
LbrlcaLlon sysLems
plashed
lorced
otary compressors
Plgh volmeLrlc efflclency de Lo
negllglble clearance
ll fllm forms Lhe seal beLween hlgh
and low pressre slde
1ypes
8olllng plsLon Lype
8oLaLlng vane Lype
crew compressors
Composed of 2 hellcal grooved roLors
(male and female)
,ale drlver(lobe)
lemale drlven (gllles)
4 lobes ls Lo 6 gllles
ll lnecLlon serves Lhe prpose of
coollng and lbrlcaLlng along wlLh LhaL
of seallng leakage paLh
lLable for large capaclLy low
LemperaLre appllcaLlon
cro|| compressors
valveless
very poplar
2 lnLerflLLlng splralshaped scroll
members
4 llxed
4 rblLlng
114 18 (capaclLy)
Plgh efflclency and low nolse level
CapaclLy conLrol
varlable speed sed an lnverLer Lo
drlve freqency AC
varlable dlsplacemenL
CenLrlfgal compressors sed ln large capaclLy
lnsLallaLlon ln whlch load varles ln wlde range
lnleL caslng acceleraLe flld Lo
lmpeller lnleL
lmpeller Lransfer energy Lo Lhe flld ln
Lhe form of lncreased sLaLlc pressre
ulffser converLs k Lo enLhalpy whlch
cases pressre rlse
volLe caslng collecL flld and frLher
converL k Lo enLhalpy
CapaclLy conLrol
varylng compressor speed Lhrogh
speed redcLlon gear
use of varlable lnleL whlrl vanes
(changlng of angle)

Condensers
1ypes
Alr cooled
WaLer cooled
vaporaLlve condensers
Crond coollng
PeaL reecLlon raLlo
Ioudng on thc condcnsc
unt o] c]gcuton

|r coo|ed condenser
uses alr
used ln small capaclLy machlne
1ypes
4 lln and Lbe
4 9laLe condensers
Jater coo|ed condenser
1ypes
4 hell and Lbe
4 hell and coll
4 uoble Lbe
aporat|e condensers
8efrlgeranL reecL heaL Lo waLer Lhen
waLer Lo alr
used ln large ammonla planL as Lhey
fond Lo be cheaper
9resence of alr ln Lhe condenser
Alr ls noL a condensable gas and 1 by
volme can redce condenslng
coefflclenL by 30

pans|on de|ce
9rpose
4 xpandlng Lhe llqld ln Lhe
condenser pressre Lo
evaporaLor pressre
4 ConLrol fncLlon conLrol Lhe
spply of llqld Lo Lhe
evaporaLor
8eslsLance Lo flow so LhaL Lhe pressre
drops (LhroLLllng processes)
1ypes
4 varlable resLrlcLlon
ase on conLrol
O ALomaLlc
expanslon valve
consLanL
pressre
expanslon valve
O 1hermosLaLlc
ase on floaL valves
O Plgh slde floaL
valves
malnLalns
consLanL llqld
level ln Lhe
condenser
O Low slde floaL
valves
malnLalns
consLanL llqld
level ln Lhe
evaporaLor

lllsLraLlon of an aLomaLlc expanslon valve
@hermostat|c epans|on a|e
Also called Lhe 1x valve
,alnLalns degree of sperheaL ln Lhe
evaporaLor
Appllcable ln alrcondlLlonlng and
refrlgeranL planLs
Capable of varylng load reqlremenL
keeps evaporaLor always fll of
refrlgeranL
Cross charge epans|on a|e
uegree of sperheaL A1 almosL remalns
consLanL aL dlfferenL evaporaLor
LemperaLres
as charged epans|on a|e
LlmlLed llqld charge of refrlgeranL
|qu|d cross charged epans|on a|e
used for evaporaLor LemperaLre 0
o
C
Cap|||ary tube
llxed resLrlcLlon Lype devlce
9ressre drops cases
4 lrlcLlon de Lo vlscoslLy
(frlcLlonal pressre drops)
4 AcceleraLlon de Lo flashlng
(momenLm pressre drops)
,osL commonly sed expanslon devlce
ln small refrlgeraLlon nlLs
,eLhod sed by manfacLrers CL
and Lry meLhod"
aporators
1ypes
4 llooded ses floaL valve
4 ulrecL expanslon(dry) ses
caplllary or LhermosLaLlc valves
used ln chllllng waLer
and coollng alr
1ypes
O ulrecL
expanslon
chlllers
O ulrecL
expanslon
coollng coll for
alr wlLh forced
convecLlon
O ulrecL
expanslon
coollng coll for
alr blasL freezer
O -aLral
evaporaLor of
freezer
O vaporaLor
sbmerged ln
brlne Lanks
onded evaporaLors sed by
convenLlonal evaporaLors
PeaL Lransfer reslsLances
4
4 8efrlgeranL slde for heaL
Lransfer of heaL from solld
srface Lo llqld refrlgeranL
4 ,eLal wall
4 Cooled medlm slde whlch
cold be cold be done Lo alr
waLer brlne or any oLher fllds
or a weLLed srface on a coollng
and dehmldlfylng medlm
olllng processes
4 9ool bolllng
4 llow convecLlon bolllng


nsta||at|on ser|ce and ma|ntenance of
apour compress|on system
ressure test
1esL for leakage
All valves shold be wlde open excepL
llne draln and prge
9erformed elLher by C
2
or -
2

4 lf nlLrogen ls sed se nlLrogen
gas cyllnder Lhrogh needle
valve
4 lf carbon dloxlde se reglar
sLop valve
4 AfLer connecLlng leave Lhe
valve sllghLly open
4 AfLer Lhe LesL leave lL for 24
hors aL 1224 ALm
4 -ever se oxygen lL may case
exploslon
acuat|ng
AfLer pressre LesL Lhe whole sysLem
msL be compleLely evacaLed
Alr ralses Lhe pressre and lncrease Lhe
load of Lhe compressor
8emove molsLre by lowerlng pressre
uslng compressor as vacm
9L a compond gage on compressor
scLlon servlce valve
8emove alr by rnnlng compressor nLll
vacm of 20 lnch/ 300 mmhg ls
reached
lnsLall a prge llne eqlpped hand shL
off valve lnLo Lhe gage of dlscharge
servlce valve sLem shLLlng off
condenser openlng
1rn Lhe scLlon servlce valve flly
creaLlng a hlgh vacm
AfLer creaLlng Lhe vacm 70 73
alr wold be removed
Alr wold be negllglble for lL ls
approxlmaLely 3
Alr wold Lhen be redced Lo 1
AfLer Lhe alr ls prged lnsLall drler
9roceed Lo LesL for leaks
Charglng refrlgeranL
Charglng from Lhe scLlon llne (small
sysLems)
Charglng from Lhe llqld llne (large
planLs)
LarLlng a sysLem
Check elecLrlcal sysLem (check phase or
volLage ls correcL)
,ake sre alr and waLer clrclL ls
Lrned on
hL down Lhe nlL aL flrsL slgn of
Lroble llqld valve closed pen Lhe
llqld and Lhe evaporaLor llne
Check low and hlgh pressre sldes
Checklng oll level ln Lhe compressor
Lop machlne
lsolaLe Lhe compressor by closlng
dellvery and scLlon llne
lacken Lhe oll fllllng plg and leL Lhe
gas dlsperse gradally
8emove Lhe plg when pressre
reaches aLmospherlc level
Charge Lhe oll Lo reach Lhe correcL level
whlch ls when Lhe oll ls fllled Lo Lhe Lop
of oll fllllng plg hole
8eplace Lhe plg pen Lhe valves and
sLarL Lhe machlne
ff deslgn gage pressre
1 Plgh condenser pressre
horLage of condenser waLer (hlgh
LemperaLre of coollng waLer)
vercharge gas ln Lhe sysLem

2 Low evaporaLor pressre
undercharge gas
ulrLy llqld sLralner
,olsLre or dlrL ln Lhe expanslon valve

3 Low condenser pressre
horLage of gas
lor hermlLlcally sealed compressor
lnadeqaLe coollng ndercharge
-o coollng gas leaked oL
-o coollng bL lC forms ln Lhe coollng
coll alr fllLer ls choked
undercharge refrlgeranL
lgns
Low condenser pressre
Low condenser LemperaLre
Large gas bbbles ln Lhe llqld llne slghL
lnadeqaLe coollng
ody of expanslon devlce wlLhoL frosL
undercharge refrlgeranL may case
verloadlng of compressor moLor
Llqld llne and drler LemperaLre
lncrease
vercharge refrlgeranL
Plgh condenser pressre
Llqld slghL glass fll of llqld
9mplng down
9mplng all Lhe refrlgeranLs ln Lhe
condenser
Leps
Close llqld llne
keep coollng waLer rnnlng ln
condenser
8n Lhe machlne nLll evaporaLor
pressre drops Lo 1 pslg
Lop Lhe machlne
Close dellvery valve and condenser
valve
Alr ln Lhe sysLem
Leps Lo remove
hL Lhe llqld llne vale 9mp down
Lhe refrlgeraLor ln Lhe condenser
Lop Lhe machlne shL Lhe condenser
ln valve
Allow Lhe condenser Lo be cooled by
allowlng waLer Lo conLlne Lo flow
8eLlghLen prge valve open llqld llne
slowly
8eLlghLen Lhe olnLs and LesL for leaks
so LhaL no alr agaln enLers Lhe sysLem
pen dellvery llne sLarL Lhe machlne
Add refrlgeranL of necessary
ervlclng condenser
Alr cooled needs cleanlng and
repalnLlng every 6 monLhs
WaLer cooled reqlres reglar Lbe
cleanlng
Cleanlng of Lbe ls don by clrclaLlng a
3 PCl solLlon
8efrlgeraLlon (prellm Lo mldLerm revlewer)
8efrlgeraLlon
A process of removlng heaL from a
sbsLance or a space prodclng and
malnLalnlng ln lLs LemperaLre lower
Lhan LhaL of srrondlng
Coollng
8efers Lo any naLral or arLlflclal
process by whlch heaL ls dlsslpaLed
Cryogenlcs
1he process of prodclng exLremely
cold LemperaLres
,eLhods of refrlgeraLlon
lce refrlgeraLlon
,echanlcal vapor compresslon sysLem
AbsorpLlon refrlgeraLlon sysLem
4 uses ammonla or llLhlm
bromlde solLlon
Alr cycle refrlgeraLlon sysLem
Leam eL refrlgeraLlon sysLem
1hermoelecLrlc refrlgeraLlon sysLem
,agneLlc refrlgeraLlon
4 AbsolLe zero LemperaLre
4 uemagneLlzaLlon of salL
AppllcaLlons of refrlgeraLlon
lood sLorage and dlsLrlbLlon
lood processlng
Chemlcal and process lndsLrles
peclal appllcaLlons
4 urlnklng fonLaln
4 uehmldlflers
4 lce makers
4 lce skaLlng rlnks
4 ConsLrcLlon
4 ue salLlng of sea waLer
8efrlgeraLlon can also be classlfled as cycllc and
non cycllc
Cycllc refrlgeraLlon
vapor cycle
4 vapor compresslon
refrlgeraLlon
4 AbsorpLlon refrlgeraLlon
Cas cycle
4 Cas compresslon followed by
reverslble expanslon ln
adlabaLlc machlne
4 Cas compresslon followed by
LhroLLllng or nresLralned
expanslon