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# ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION

FORM 5
MODULE 1
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CHAPTER 1: ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION
CONTENTS PAGE
1.1 Identify characteristics of arithmetic progression
2
1.2 Determine whether a given sequence is an
arithmetic progression
3
1.3 Determine by using formula:
a) specific terms in arithmetic progressions
b) the number of terms in arithmetic
progressions
4-5
1.4 Find
a) The sum of the first n terms of arithmetic
progressions
b) The sum of a specific number of consecutive
terms of arithmetic progressions
c) The value of n , given the sum of the first n
terms of arithmetic progressions.
6
1.5 Solve problems involving arithmetic progressions 7
SPM QUESTIONS 8-10
ASSESSMENT 11-12
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PROGRESSIONS
( Arithmetic Progression)
a = _______________
d = _______________
l = _______________
n = _______________
1.1 Identify characteristics of arithmetic progression:
EXERCISE 1:
Complete each of the sequence below to form an arithmetic progression.
a) 2, _____ , 8 , ______ , 14 , 17
b) -2 , -5 , ______ , -11 , ________
c) -4, ______ , ______ ,
1
2
, 2
d) 2x -3 , 2x -1 , __________ , __________ , 2x + 5
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION
n
n
The :
T = ___________
or
T = ___________
th
n term
n
n
The sum of the first n term:
S = ______________
or
S = ______________
Fill in the blank
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1.2 Determine whether a given sequence is an arithmetic progression
EXERCISE 2 :
1. Determine whether a given sequence below is an arithmetic progression.
a) 5 , 11 , 17 , 23 , ……….. ( ____________________ )
b) -20 , -50 , -30 , -35 , ………. ( ____________________ )
c) 1 , 4 , 9 , 16 , ……… ( ____________________ )
d) 2x + y , 4x – y , 6x -3y , …… ( ____________________ )
2. k +3 , 2k + 6 ,8 are the first three terms of an arithmetic progression,find the
value of k.
3. Given that
2
, 5 , 7 4 x x x ÷ are three consecutive terms of an arithmetic progression
W
here x has a positive value. Find the value of x.
4. Given that the first three terms of an arithmetic progression are 2 , 3 3 and 5y+1 y y + .
Find the value of y.
Note:
If x,y and z are three terms of
an arithmetic progression ,
y – x = z - y
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1.3 Determine by using formula:
a. specific terms in arithmetic progressions
b. the number of terms in arithmetic progressions
EXERCISE 3:
1. Find the 9
th
term of the arithmetic
progression.
2, 5 , 8 , …..
Solution:
a = 2
d = 5-2=3
9
2 (9 1)3 T = + ÷
= _______
2. Find the 11
th
term of the arithmetic
progression.
5
3, , 2,........
2
3. For the arithmetic progression
0.7, 2.1 , 3.5, ….. ,find the 5
th
term .
4. Find the
th
n term of the arithmetic
progression
1
4, 6 , 9,.....
2
5. Find the 7
th
term of arithmetic
progression k, 2k + 1, 3k+2, 4k+3,….
6. Given that arithmetic progression
9 +6x , 9+4x, 9+2x, ……
Find the 10
th
term.
( 1)
n
T a n d = + ÷
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EXERCISE 4:
1. Find the number of terms of the
arithmetic progression
a) 4,9.14,….. ,64
64
n
T =
4 + (n-1)5=64
4+ 5n-5 =64
5n=65
n= 13
b) -2, -7, -12, ……, -127
c)
1 1 1
1,1 ,1 ,......, 4
6 3 2
d) , , 3 ,........., 31 x y x y x y x y + ÷ ÷ ÷
2. For the arithmetic progression
5 , 8 , 11 , ……. Which term is equal
to 320 ?
3. The sequence 121 , 116 , 111 , …. is
an arithmetic progression. Find the
first negative term in the progression.
4. Find the number of terms of the
arithmetic progression
2 , 3 3 , 5 4 ,......, 23 13 a b a b a b a b + + + +
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1.4 Find
a) the sum of the first n terms of arithmetic progressions.
b) the sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of arithmetic
progressions.
c) the value of n , given the sum of the first n terms of arithmetic
progressions.
EXERCISE 5:
1. Find the sum of the first 12 terms of
the arithmetic progression
-10 , -7 , -4, ……
2. Find the sum of all the terms of the
arithmetic progression
38 , 31 , 24 , …., -18
3. For the arithmetic progression
-4 , 1 , 6 , …….find the sum of all
the terms from the 6
th
term to the 14
th
term.
Solution:
Sum of all the terms from the 6
th
term
to the 14
th
=
14 5
S S ÷
=
=
How many terms of the arithmetic
2, 8 , 13 ,18 , …… must be taken
for the sum to be equal to 1575?
( )
( )
n
t h
2 1
2
n
o r S = a + l
2
l = t h e n
n
n
S a n d
t e r m
( = + ÷
¸ ¸
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1.5 Solve problems involving arithmetic progressions.
EXERCISE 6:
1. The 5
th
and 9
th
of arithmetic
progression are 4 and 16 respectively.
Find the 15
th
term.
Solution:
5
9
4
(5 1) 4
4 4 ......(1)
T 16
a+(9-1)d=16
a+8d=16 ......(2)
T
a d
a d
=
+ ÷ =
+ =
=
Solve simultaneous equation to find
the value of a and d, then the 15
th
term.
2. The 2
nd
and 8
th
terms of an arithmetic
progression are -9 and 3 respectively.
Find
a) the first term and the comman
difference.
b) the sum of 10 terms beginning from
the 12
th
term.
3. The sum of the first 6 terms of an
arithmetic progression is 39 and the
sum of the next 6 terms is -69. Find
a) the first term and the common
difference
b) the sum of all the terms from the
15
th
term to the 25
th
term.
4. The sum of the first n terms is given
by
2
6 3
n
S n n = +
Find
a) the nth term in terms of n
b) the common difference
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SPM QUESTIONS:
1. 2003:
Paper 1: (no. 7)
The first three terms of an arithmetic progression are 3, 3, 2 2 k k k ÷ + +
Find
a) the value of k
b) the sum of the first 9 terms of the progression | | 3 marks
2. 2004:
Paper 1: ( no 10)
Given an arithmetic progression -7, -3, 1, …. , state three consecutive terms in this
progression which sum up to 75 | | 3 marks
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3. Paper 1: ( no. 11)
The volume of water in a tank is 450 litres on the first day. Subsequently, 10 litres of
water is added to the tank everyday.
Calculate the volume , in litres , of water in the tank at the end of the 7
th
day.
| | 2 marks
4. 2005:
Paper 1: (no. 11)
The first three terms of an arithmetic progression are 5, 9, 13
Find
a) the common difference of the progression
b) the sum of the first 20 terms after the 3
rd
term. | | 4 marks
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5. Paper 2 : ( Section A no.3)
Diagram 1 shows part of an arrangement of bricks of equal size.
Diagram 1
The number of bricks in the lowest row is 100. For each of the rows, the number of
bricks is 2 less than in the row below. The height of each bricks is 6 cm.
Ali builds a wall by arranging bricks in this way. The number of bricks in the highest
row is 4. Calculate
a) the height , in cm, of the wall [ 3 marks ]
b) the total price of the bricks used if the price of one brick is 40 sen. [ 3 marks ]
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ASSESSMENT:
1. The sequence -13,-10,-7,……,128,131 is an arithmetic progression. Find
a) the number of terms in the progression
b) the sum of all the terms in the progression.
2. Given that k-1 , 2k – 4 and k +5 are the first three terms of arithmetic progression.
Find the common difference.
3. Calculate how many months it will take to repay a debt of RM5800 by monthly
payment of RM100 initially with an increase of RM20 for each month after that.
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4. The 4
th
of an arithmetic progression is 18 and the sum of the first eight terms
of the progression is 124. Find
a) the first term and the common difference
b) the sum of all the terms from the 10
th
term to the 20
th
term.
5. Sum of the first ten of the arithmetic progression is 230 and sum of ten terms
after that is 830. Find the first term and the common difference.
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EXERCISE 1:
a) 5,11
b) -8,-14
c)
1
2 , 1
2
÷ ÷
d) 2x+1,2x+3
EXERCISE 2:
1. a) Arithmetic progression
b) Not an arithmetic progression
c) Not an arithmetic progression
d) Arithmetic progression
2.
1
3
k = ÷
3. x = 4
4. y = 5
EXERCISE 3:
1. 26
2. -2
3. 6.3
4. ( )
1
5 3
2
n
T n = +
5. 7k+6
6.
10
9 12 T x = ÷
EXERCISE 4:
1. a) 13
b) 26
c) 22
d) 45
2.
106
T
3.
26
4 T = ÷
4. 12
EXERCISE 5:
1. 78
2. 90
3. 369
4. 40
EXERCISE 6:
1. 34
2. a) -11,2
b) 200
3. a) a=14 , d= -3
b) -473
4. a) Tn=12n-3
b) d=12
ASSESSMENT:
1. a) 49
b) 2891
2. 3
3. 20
4. a) 33,-5
b) -407
5. 4,6
PAST YEAR QUESTION:
1. a) k=7
b)
9
252 S =
2.
10 9 8
29, 25, 21 T T T = = =
3.
7
510 T =
4. a) 4
b) 1100
5. a) 294
b) RM1019.20
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PROGRESSIONS
(Geometric Progression)
FORM 5
MODULE 2
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CHAPTER 2 : GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS
Contents Page
2.1 CONCEPT MAP (GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS) 2
2.2 IDENTIFY CHARACTERISTICS OF GEOMETRIC
PROGRESSIONS
2.3 DETERMINE WHETHER A GIVEN SEQUENCE IS A
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
2.4 DETERMINE BY USING FORMULA
a) specific terms in geometric progressions
b) The number of terms in geometric progressions
2.5 FIND
a) The sum of the first n terms of of geometric
Progressions
b) The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms
of geometric Progressions
c) The value of n ,given the sum of the first n terms
of geometric Progressions
2.6 FIND
a) The sum to infinty of geometric progressions
b) The first term or common ratio, given the sum to
infinity
2.7 SOLVE PROBLEMS INVOLING GEOMETRIC
PROGRESSIONS
3
4
6
6
11
14
SPM Questions 15
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Assessment test 18
CHAPTER 2 : GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
2.1 CONCEPT MAP
PROGRESSION
ARITHMETIC
PROGRESSION
GEOMETRIC
PROGRESSION
T
n
= ar
n-1
.a = first term
.r = Common ratio
.n = number of terms
SUM OF THE FIRST n TERMS
Sn =
1
) 1 (
÷
÷
r
r a
n
, r > 1
OR
Sn =
r
r a
n
÷
÷
1
) 1 (
, r < 1
THE n th TERM T
n
THE r th TERM T
r
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PROGRESSIONS
( Geometric Progression)
a = _______________
r = _______________
l = _______________
n = _______________
2.2 Identify characteristics of geometric progression:
EXERCISE 1:
Complete each of the sequence below when give a (fist term ) and r (common ratio) .
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
n
n
The :
T = ___________
or
T = ___________
th
n term
n
n
The sum of the first n term:
S = ______________
or
S = ______________
Fill in the blank
T
r
= S
r
- S
1 ÷ r
SUM OF INFINITY
Sn =
r
a
÷ 1
, -1 < r < 1
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2.3 Determine whether a given sequence is an geometric progression
EXERCISE 2 :
2.3.1 Determine whether a given sequence below is an geometric progression.
Example :
a) -8, 4, -2,……
.r = common ratio
.r =
8
4
÷
=
2
1
÷
,
4
2 ÷
=
2
1
÷
(true)
b) 5, 11, 17, 23,…
c) 16, -8, 4,…..
d) -20, -50, -30, -35,…..
A .r the first four terms of geometric progression,
Example:
a) -3 2 -3, (-3)(2)
1
= - 6, (-3)(2)
2
= -12, (-3)(2)
3
= -24
.b) 3 -2
.c) 4 3
.d) -6 -2
.e)
2
1
3
1
.f)
3
1
y
3
4
y
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e)
3
1
x,
9
2
x,
27
4
x……
f) a
5
, a
4
b, a
3
b
2
g)
4
1
,
12
1
,
36
1
,….
h)
27
1
,
9
1
,
3
1
,…
EXERCISE 3 :
2.3.2 Given that the first three terms of a geometric progression are below.
Find the value of x
Geometric progression Value x
Example :
a) .x, x + 4, 2x + 2,…
x
x 4 +
=
4
2 2
+
+
x
x
(x + 4)
2
= x(2x + 2)
.x
2
+ 8x + 16 = 2x
2
+ 2x
0 = x
2
– 6x – 19
0 = (x – 8)(x + 2)
.x – 8 = 0 @ x + 2 = 0
Hence x = 8 @ x = -2
b) x, x + 2 , x + 3
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c) x + 3, 5x - 3, 7x + 3
e) x – 6, x, 2x + 16
2.4 Determine by using formula:
EXERCISE 4:
T
n
= ar
n-1
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2.4.1 specific terms in arithmetic progressions
Example :
1. Find the 7
th
term of the geometric
progression.
- 8, 4 , -2 , …..
Solution:
a = - 8 r =
8
4
÷
=
2
1
÷
T
7
= (-8)(
2
1
÷
)
7-1
=
8
1
÷
2. Find the 8
th
term of the geometric
progression.
16, -8, 4,…
3. For the geometric progression
9
4
,
3
2
, 1 , ….. ,find the 9
th
term .
4. Find the 3
th
term of the geometric
progression
50, 40, 32…….
5. Find the 10
th
term of geometric
progression a
5
, a
4
b, a
3
b
2
…………
6. Given that geometric progression
5.6, 1.4, 0.35, ……
Find the 10
th
term.
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2.4.2 Find the number of terms of the arithmetic progression
EXERCISE 5:
Example :
a) 64, - 32, 16,…….-
8
1
T
n
= -
8
1
a = 64, r = -
2
1
64
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1
1 ÷ n
= -
8
1
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1
1 ÷ n
=
|
.
|

\
|
64
1
|
.
|

\
| ÷
8
1
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1
1 ÷ n
=
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1
6
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1
3
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1
1 ÷ n
=
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
1
9
.n - 1 = 9
.n = 10
b) 2, -4, 8, ……512
. c) 405, - 135, 45, …… -
27
5
.d)
9
4
,
3
2
, 1……..
16
81
,
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2.5 Find
d) The sum of the first n terms of geometric progressions
e) The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of geometric progressions
f) The value of n , given the sum of the first n terms of geometric progressions.
2.5.1 Find the sum of the first n terms of geometric progressions
EXERCISE 6:
geometric progressions Find the sum of the first n term
Example :
.a) 2, - 4, 8,…………
.a = 2 r =
2
4 ÷
= - 2
S
7 =
) 2 ( 1
) ) 2 ( 1 ( 2
7
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= 86
b) 5, 10, 20………..
S
8
c) 12, -6, 3………
S
9
d)
3
1
x,
9
2
x,
27
4
x,….
S
6
S
n
=
1
) 1 (
÷
÷
r
r a
n
, r > 1
OR
S
n
=
r
r a
n
÷
÷
1
) 1 (
, r < 1
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2.5.2 The sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of geometric progressions
EXERCISE 7:
geometric progressions Find the sum of the first n term
Example 1
.a) 4, 2, 1,…………
64
1
.a = 4 r =
4
2
=
2
1
T
n =
64
1
4
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
1 ÷ n
=
64
1
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
1 ÷ n
=
|
.
|

\
|
4
1
|
.
|

\
|
64
1
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
1 ÷ n
=
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
2
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
6
n – 1 = 8
n = 9
S
9
=
( ) | |
( ) 2 / 1 1
2 / 1 1 4
9
÷
÷
= 7
64
63
3 1, 3, 9,……. 2187.
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c) 24, 12, 6, …….
4
3
2.5.3 The value of n , given the sum of the first n terms of geometric
progressions.
EXERCISE 8 :
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2.4 Find :
a) the sum to infinity of geometric progressions
b) the first term or common ratio, given the sum to infinity of geometric
Example :
.a) The first and 4
th
tems of a geometric progression are
1
2
and
27
128
.
Find the value of r
Solution :
T
4
=
27
128
1
2
(r
3
) =
27
128
(r
3
) =
27
128
2
1
| |
|
\ .
(r
3
) =
27
64
, Hence r =
3
4
b) The first and 6
th
tems of a geometric progression are 2
1
2
and 607
1
2
.
Find the value of r
c) The common ratio and 5
th
tems of a geometric progression are
2
3
and 7
22
27
.
Find the value of a
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progressions.
EXERCISE 9:
Find the sum to infinity of a given
geomertric progression below:
Example:
2 2
6, 2, , ,.......
3 9
÷ ÷
a = 6
2 1
6 3
r
÷
= = ÷
1
6
=
1
1- -
3
9
=
2
a
S
r
·
=
÷
| |
|
\ .
1. 24, 3.6, 0.54, …….
2. 81, -27,9, ……..
3.
1 1 1
, , ,.......
2 4 8
..
1
a
S
r
·
=
÷
sum to infinity
a = first term
r = common ratio
S
·
=
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EXERCISE 10:
1. The sum to infinity of a geometric
progression is 200. Given that the
first
term is 52. Find the common ratio.
2. Given that the common ratio of
geometric progression is
1
25
. The sum
of the first n terms,where n is large
enough such that 0
n
r = is 75. Find
the first term.
Example:
The sum to infinity of a geometric
progression is 8. Given that the first
term is 2. Find
a) the common ratio
b) the third term
Solution:
a)
8
8
1
2
8
1
3
r=
4
S
a
r
r
·
=
=
÷
=
÷
b)
3. The sum to infinity of a geometric
progression is 600 and the common
ratio is 0.4 . Find
a) the first term
b) the minimum number of
terms such that the sum of
terms to be more then 599.
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1
3 1
3
=2
4
9
=
8
n
n
T ar
÷
÷
=
| |
|
\ .
4. Express each of the recurring decimal below as a fraction in its simplest form.
Example:
0.3……
0.3…= 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.003 + …..
0.3
1 0.1
0.3
0.9
1
3
=
÷
=
=
a) 0.444…….
Example:
4.020202……
4.020202... 4 0.02 0.0002 0.000002 ...
0.02
= 4 +
1-0.01
0.02
= 4 +
0.99
2
=4
99
= + + + +
c) 1.121212…..
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b) 0.232323…… d) 5.070707…...
2.5 Solve problems involving geometric progressions:
EXERCISE 11:
Example:
A garderner has a task of cutting the
grass of a lawn with an area of 1000
2
m .
On the first day, he cut an area of
2
16m .
On each successive day, he cuts an area
1.1 times the area that he cut the previous
day the task is completed. Find
a) the area that is cut on the 10
th
day.
b) The number of the days needed to
Solution:
a) a=16 , r=1.1
Osman is allowed to spend an
allocation of RM1 million where
the maximum withdrawal each day
must not exceed twice the amount
withdrawn the day before. If
Osman withdraws RM200 on the
first day, determine after how
many days the amount of money
allocated will all be used up.
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1
10
2
16(1.1)9
= 37.73 m
n
n
T ar
T
÷
=
=
( )
n
n
n
n
b) 1000
16 1.1 -1
1000
1.1-1
160(1.1 1) 1000
1.1 1 6.25
1.1 > 7.25
log 1.1 log7.25
log1.1 log7.25
log7.25
n >
log1.1
n >20.79
The smallest integer valu
n
n
S
n
>
>
÷ >
÷ >
>
>
e of n is 21
hence,the number of the days needed to complete
SPM QUESTIONS:
1. 2003 (Paper 1: No.8)
In a geometric progression, the first term is 64 and the fourth term is 27. Caculate
(a) the common ratio
(b) the sum to infinity of the geometric progression.
[4 marks]
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2. 2004(Paper 1: No.9)
Given a geometric progression
4
, 2, , ,..... y p
y
,express p in terms of y.
3. 2004(Paper 1: No.12 )
Express the recurring decimal 0.969696……as a fraction in its simplest form.
[4 marks]
4. 2004(Paper2: Section A: No.6)
Diagram 2 shows the arrangement of the first three of an infinite series of similar
triangles. The first triangle has a base of x cm and a height of y cm. The
measurements of the base and height of each subsequent triangle are half of
the measurements of its previous one.
Diagram 2
y cm
xcm
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33
(a) Show that the areas of the triangles form a geometric progression and state
the common ratio. [3 marks]
(b) Given that x= 80 cm and y= 40 cm,
(i) determine which triangle has an area of
2
1
6 cm
4
,
(ii) find the sum to infinity of the areas, in
2
cm , of the triangles. [5 marks]
5. 2005 (Paper 1 : No.10)
The first three terms of a sequence are 2 , x , 8
Find the positive value of x so that the sequence is
(a) an arithmetic progression
(b) a geometric progression [4 marks]
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34
6. 2005 (Paper 1: No. 12)
The sum of the first n terms of the geometric progression 8,24,72,….is 8744.
Find
(a) the common ratio of the progression
(b) the value of n [4 marks]
ASSESSMENT:
1. The first three terms of a geometric progression are 2x + 3, x and x – 2
with a common ratio r , where -1 < r < 1. Find
(a) the value of x
(b) the sum of the first n terms ,where n is large enough such
that 0
n
r =
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35
2. In the progression 5 , 10 , 20 , 40 , ……. Find the least number of
terms required such that their sum exceeds 1000.
3. The third term and the sixth term of a geometric progression are
27 and 8 respectively. Find the second term.
4. In a geometric progression, the sum of the first five terms is
31
8
÷ .
Given that the common ratio is
1
2
. Find
(a) the first term
(b) the sum of all the terms from the fourth to the sixth term.
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36
5. The third term of a geometric progression exceeds the second term
by 6 while the fourth term exceeds the third term by 2. Find the
sum of the first 5 terms.
EXERCISE 1:
b) 3, 6, -12, 24
c) 4, 12, 36, 108
d) -6, 12, 124, 48
e)
1
2
,
1
6
,
1
18
,
1
54
f)
3
y
,
2
4
9
y
,
3
16
27
y
,
4
64
81
y
EXERCISE 2:
a) true
b) false
c) true
d) false
e) true
f) true
g) false
h) true
EXERCISE 3:
b) x = -4
c) x = 3
d) x = -12 @ x = 8
EXERCISE 4:
1. T
7
= -
1
8
2. T
8
= -
1
2
3. T
9
=
26344
2304
4. T
3
= 32
5. T
10
=
9
4
b
a
6. T
10
= 0.000021
EXERCISE 5:
b) n = 9
c) n = 8
d) n = 7
EXERCISE 6:
b) 275
c) 8
1
64
d)
665
729
EXERCISE 7:
c) n = 8, S
8
= 3280
d) n = 9, S
9
= -1022
e) n = 6, S
6
= 47
1
4
EXERCISE 8:
b) r = 3
c) a = 3
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37
EXERCISE 9:
1. 28.24
2.
3
60
4
3. 1
EXERCISE 10:
2. r=0.74
3. a=72
4. a) 360 b) 7
5.
4
a)
9
23
)
99
4
) 1
33
7
) 5
99
b
c
d
EXERCISE 11:
13 days
SPM QUESTION:
1. a)
3
4
r = b) 256 S
·
=
2.
2
8
p
y
=
3.
32
33
4. a)
1
4
r =
b)i. n=5 ii.
1
2133
3
5. a) x=5 b) x=4
6. a) r=3 b) n=7
ASSESSMENT:
1. a) x=3 b)
27
2
2. 8
3.
1
40
2
4. a) -2 b)
7
16
÷
5.
1
40
3
÷
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