AU Powerlab

USER REFERENCE MANUAL FOR FAULT ANALYSIS (DOCUMENT NO. ANFA –URM – 1.0)

MAY – 2004 ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI – 600 025

CONTENTS About This Document Preamble
1 GETTING STARTED

Page No (i) (ii)

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.3 1.3.1 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.6 1.6.1

Introduction The Opening Window Opening Screen for Fault Analysis Menu Bar Commands and its Uses Tutorial Option Running the Packaged Examples Viewing the Results Editing Packaged Examples and Saving your own copy Viewing, Modifying and Deleting packaged example data Adding New Data Saving Your Modified Packaged Example Data Running Fault Analysis Program with Edited Data / newly created data Viewing Results

1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-4 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-6

2. CREATION OF DATA FOR A NEW SYSTEM

2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.3

Introduction Data Creation Input Data Preparation Window Opening Saving the Data Created

2-1 2-2 2-2 2-4

3. SAMPLE SYSTEM STUDY

3-1

About This Document

(i)

This document briefly outlines the user-interface and helps for creating data, editing data, saving created data, viewing output and archiving results. It is written specifically keeping in mind a student in laboratory environment. The user interface is well planned and one can understand the program easily. Conventions used in this document : Menu items or button names are given in italics Accompanying Documents 1. Laboratory Manual for Power System Simulation Lab Doc. No. ANFA-LM-1.0

Preamble Why Fault Analysis?

(ii)

Balanced and unbalanced fault levels at generating stations and substations are required to check/size circuit breaker interrupting requirements and for design of protective systems. In addition, the voltage levels at a station for a fault on some other station are necessary to asses the “stiffness” of the system Methodology The program employs sparsity oriented admittance matrix approach to determine the driving point and transfer impedances seen from a station which are directly related to the fault level of that station, contribution to the fault from adjacent stations and post-fault voltage levels. Sparse vector methods are employed to accelerate the solution process and minimize storage. Features * Fault levels at specified stations for balance faults and all types of unbalanced faults (single-line-to-ground, line-line and double line-to-ground) * Contributions to the faulted bus from buses which are at one branch radii * No practical limitation on system size * Fault currents and post fault voltages * Extensive data error checking facilities like network discontinuity, isolated bus, abnormal line parameters etc. * Single-bus-fault mode option during which post fault voltages through out the system and contributions from all buses (branch flows) for a fault on a single bus can be obtained

CHAPTER 1: GETTING STARTED 1.0 Introduction This chapter gives an overview of short circuit analysis program exposing to facilities available for editing packaged examples, creating new data for short circuit analysis, running short circuit analysis program and viewing results and finally archiving. 1.1 The Opening Window for AU Powerlab Once the AU Powerlab software package is installed, the AU Powerlab icon will appear on the desktop. 1. Click the AU Powerlab icon on the desktop. A window carrying Anna University frontage will appear on the screen and will disappear within few seconds. Then the student Log-on Window will appear (Fig.1.1). 2. Enter student information in the respective boxes. After entering all information, click enter button. Then the Opening Window for AU Powerlab will appear (Fig. 1.2) 1.2 Opening Screen for Fault Analysis 1. Click the button ‘Fault Analysis’ in the opening window. Then the opening window for Fault Analysis will appear (Fig 1.3) 1.2.1 Menubar Commands and its Uses Submenu Lab. Manual Enables to read the Laboratory manual for Fault Analysis Enables to read the user reference manual for Fault Analysis Enables to select a sample data from the list of packaged example and edit or modify or run the fault analysis program with the data. Enables creation of new data for fault analysis Enables selection of an existing project data for editing or for running the fault analysis program with the data. Enables saving the edited data Enables saving the edited data or newly created data in a new file name 1-1

Main menu Tutorial

User Manual Examples

Project

New Existing

Save the Project Save the Project as

Edit the Project Exit Project Run View Output Voltage / Current

Enables editing the selected system data Enables to exit from the project and return to opening window. Enables running of fault analysis program with the existing data or newly created data Enables viewing fault analysis result in conventional text format Enables viewing of post fault phase voltages, sequence voltages, phase currents, sequence currents and sequence impedances. Enables viewing the post fault MVA and current feed through the lines connected to the faulted bus.

Line Diagram

1.3 Tutorial Option 1. Click Tutorial option on the menu bar, then a drop down menu will appear (fig 1.4) appears. Lab. manual option displays the laboratory manual for fault analysis User manual option displays the user reference manual for fault analysis Examples option displays packaged examples i.e. data created for sample systems

2. 3. 4.

1.3.1 Running the packaged examples 1. 2. 3. Point to Example, then the list of packaged example data appears. Click the desired packaged example data. Then the editing option window will appear (fig.1.5). Click Run fault Analysis button. Then the program will be executed and a message, ‘Program completed successfully’ will appear. Click ok to complete the process and return to opening window.

1.4 Viewing the results The short circuit analysis results can be viewed in two forms. (i) (ii) Conventional text format Bus-wise single-line diagram

1-2

The stepwise procedure to view the results are given below. 1. 2. Click view button on the menu bar. Then a dropdown menu will appear ( Fig 1.6) Click output button; then the conventional text output shown in fig 1.7 will appear. The output command causes the conventional text output to be brought to notepad. The student can take a printout of this results. Point to voltage/ current button; Then a dropdown menu with phase voltages (p.u), sequence voltages (p.u), phase currents (p.u) sequence currents (p.u) and driving point sequence impedances (p.u) appears. Click the button corresponding to your choice of output; then the desired results will appear. (fig 1.8) (phase voltage). A print out of this results can be taken. Results on Buswise Single Line Diagram.

3.

4. 5.

Point to line diagram button on the menu bar, then a dropdown menu with MVA and current will appear as shown in Fig 1.9. 6. Click MVA button and chose the bus name and fault type from the combo box shown in Fig 1.10. A single line diagram with fault MVA flow in to the faulted bus from neighbouring buses will appear. 7. Click current button and choose the bus name and fault type from the combo box, then a single line diagram with post fault current flow into faulted bus from neighbouring buses will appear. (fig 1.11). The single line diagram can be printed by copying it to the clipboard and then pasting it on to paint. 1.5 Editing Packaged Examples and Saving your own copy You can make changes in the packaged example system data and save your own copy of the changed system data. A copy of the chosen sample system data is stored in a temporary file. The changes in the data are made in the temporary file only. Before exiting the program; the copy of changed data must be saved in a new file name. 1.5.1 Viewing, Modifying and Deleting packaged example data You can modify the case title, general parameters; bus data, transmission line data, transformer data, source impedance data and fault description data of the packaged example data and save the changed data in a new file. The procedure for changing the data is given below. 1. 2. 3. Click tutorial button on the menu bar and point to examples; then a dropdown menu with packaged examples will appear. Click the desired example; then the editing option window will appears (Fig. 1.12) Click view/ modify/delete data button; then the editing input window will appear. (Fig1.13) 1-3

You can carryout changes in the following data i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Case title General parameters Bus data Transmission line data Transformer data Source impedance data Fault impedance data

The procedure for editing the above seven items of data are more or less the same. We will demonstrate the procedure for changing the transmission line data. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Click the transmission line data button, then the window for editing transmission line (Fig.1.14) appears. Choose the line name from the dropdown list and do the desired changes in the respective boxes. Click save button if you desire to save the changes made and return to editing input window. Click delete button if you desire to delete the line chosen and return to editing input window. Click Quit button if you desire to abandon the editing of data and return to editing input window. Similarly the other items of data can be changed

1.5.2 Adding New Data The packaged example network can be expanded by creating new buses and interconnecting these buses to the network by new lines. You can add new buses, transmission lines, transformers, source impedance and fault description data to the packaged example data. The procedure for adding new data for the above five items are similar. Let us demonstrate by considering the addition of a new bus data. The procedure is as follows 1. Click Add new data button, in the editing option window. Then the window shown for adding input will appear (Fig.1.15) 2. Click bus data button. Then window for adding new bus data appears (fig 1.16)

The bus name and voltage rating are entered. When you click the Add button, the data gets added and new window opens for next bus. When all the new bus data are entered, click quit button to 1-4

return to editing option window. Similarly new transmission line, transformer, source impedance and fault description data can be added. Once all new data are added, click Quit button to return to editing option window. 1.5.3 Saving Your Modified Packaged Example Data After carrying out modification, deletion, addition of new data etc in the packaged example data; the control will return to editing option window shown in fig 1.12. Now click save project as button. Then the file-open-dialogue window will appear (Fig. 1.17). Type your own file name and store in your folder. 1.6 Running Fault Analysis Program with Edited Data / newly created data 1. 2. Click Project and then point to Existing button and click Select Project button. Then file open-dialogue window will appear (Fig 1.18). Select the file where the edited data is stored and click open. Then editing option window will appear (Fig 1.19) Click Run Fault button; then the program will be executed and the message, ‘Program Completed Successfully’ will appear. End the process by typing Ok button. Viewing Results

3.

1.6.1

Viewing the result is same as that explained in section 1.4

1-5

Fig 1.1 Student log-on window

Fig. 1.2 AU Powerlab Opening Window

Fig. 1.3 Menu Screen for Fault Analysis

Fig. 1.4 Dropdown Menu for Tutorial Option

Fig. 1.5 Editing Option Window

Fig. 1.6 Dropdown Menu for Viewing Results

Fig. 1.7 Conventional text output

Fig. 1.8 Text format output phase voltage

Fig. 1.9 Dropdown Menu for Single Line Diagram

Fig. 1.10 Window for Selecting Bus and Fault Type for Single Line Diagram

Fig. 1.11 Single Line Diagram with Fault Current

Fig. 1.12 Editing Option Window

Fig. 1.13 Editing Input Window

Fig. 1.14 Window for Editing Transmission Line Data

Fig. 1.15 Window for adding new data

Fig.1.16 Window for Adding Bus Data

Fig. 1.17 Window for Saving Project

Fig. 1.18 Window for Opening the Existing Project

Fig. 1.19 Editing Option Window

CHAPTER 2: CREATION OF DATA FOR A NEW SYSTEM 2.1 Introduction In this chapter we will see the step by step procedure for creation of data for a new system for fault analysis. Before starting the task of creating data, you must prepare the following data required for fault analysis. Maximum Dimension: Maximum number of buses, lines, generators and two winding transformers for your system. Case Title: The case title is the alphanumeric text used to identity the case study chosen.

General Parameters: Base MVA, input data print, detailed output print, multibus fault mode etc are to be specified.

Bus Data : Bus name (Max. 8 characters) and voltage rating in kV of all buses.

Transmission line data: The line name, from bus and to bus name, positive sequence resistance and reactance, zero sequence resistance and reactance, positive sequence half – line charging and zero sequence half line charging are to be given for each line.

Transformer data: (two and three windings) Transformer name, (max. 8 characters), from bus and to bus name, type of connection at from and to bus; positive sequence resistance and reactance, zero sequence resistance and reactance and phase shift from primary to secondary. Negative sequence impedance is taken as equal to positive sequence impedance

Source Impedance Data: Source bus name, nominal voltage rating in kV, positive sequence resistance and reactance in (p.u), zero sequence resistance and reactance in (p.u).

Fault Description Data: Name of the bus and the type of fault to be simulated. 2-1

2.2 DATA CREATION The data items are self explanatory and then there help buttons are provided against certain items. The respective buttons may be clicked to get explanatory notes. Some of the buttons in the windows are disabled and these buttons correspond to features beyond the scope of undergraduate syllabus. However these features can be enabled as a special case for interested institution. The procedure for itemwise data entry is explained below. 2.2.1 ‘Input Data preparation’ Window opening 1. Click the AU Powerlab icon on the desktop, then the AU Powerlab main window appears (Fig 1.2) 2. Click the Fault Analysis button. Then the menu screen for fault analysis appears, (Fig 1.3) 3. Point to Project button on the menubar. Then the drop down menu with New, Existing, Save project, Edit project and Exit project appears. 4. Point to new and click data preparation. Then a confirmation messages appears and confirm by clicking ok (click cancel if you desire to abandon data preparation ). Input data preparation window appears (Fig 2.1) Maximum Dimension 1. 2. Click, Maximum Dimension button. Then the window for maximum dimension entry shown in appears (Fig 2.2). Enter the maximum dimension desired in the boxes against the respective items or click the default button if you desire to use default values. After typing the last dimension data, enter return; then only save button will be activated. Click save button to save the entered values or default values and return to window for input data preparation main window for data entry. If you desire to abandon the maximum dimension data entry; then click quit; then control will return to window for Input data preparation window.

3.

Case Title 1. 2. 3. Click Case Title button. Then the window for case title entry appears (Fig 2.3). Enter the case title in the box. A maximum of 80 characters may be entered. Click Ok button. The control will return to input data preparation window. Click Cancel if you desire to abort the case title entry.

General Parameters: 1. Click General Parameter button. Then the general parameters data entry window will appear (Fig 2.4). Enter the required data in the boxes against respective items. 2-2

2. 3. 4. 5.

Type a non – zero value for multibus fault mode and 0 or blank for single bus fault mode. Click Default button; if you want to use default values and options. Click Save button: The entered data are saved and control will return to window for input dta preparation. Click Quit button. if you desire to abort general parameters data entry process.

Bus Data: 1. Click Bus Data button. Then the bus data entry window will appear (fig 2.5). 2. Enter bus name and voltage rating of the bus in the respective boxes and click next button to get new window for the next bus and so on. After completing data entry for all the bus, click End Bus Details button. 3. Click Save button; to save the entered data and return to window for input data preparation window. 4. Click Quit button, if you desire to abort bus data entry process. 5. Click Previous button, to view the previous bus data Transmission Line Data 1. Click Transmission Line Data button. Then the window for line data entry will appear, Fig.2.6 2. Enter the line name, select the From and To bus names; enter the positive and negative sequence resistance etc in the respective boxes. Click Next button; then a new window opens for next line data entry. Once all the line data are entered; click End Line Data button. 3. Click Save button to save the entered data. The control will return to the window for input data entry. 4. Click Quit button; if you desire to abort the line data entry process. 5. Click Previous button to view the data for previous line. Transformer Data 1. Click Transformer Data button. Then a message ‘Is System Having Any Transformer ?’, will appear. If there are transformers in the system; then type Yes or else type No, then the window for transformer data entry appears (Fig 2.7). 2-3

2.

Enter the transformer name, select the from and to bus names from the dropdown list and also select transformer connection type at from bus and to bus. Enter the positive and negative sequence resistance etc. in the respective boxes. Enter the phase shift depending on transformer connection (Refer help). Click next button, a new window appears for next line data entry. Once the data entry for all transformer is completed; click End Transformer Details button; Click save button, to save the entered data and return to window for input data entry. Click quit button, if you desire to abort the transformer data entry process.

3. 4. 5.

Source Impedance Data 1. Click Source Impedance Data button. Then the window for source impedance data entry will appear (Fig. 2.8). 2. Choose the bus name from the dropdown list. 3. Enter the nominal voltage, positive sequence resistance and reactance and the zero sequence resistance and reactance in the respective boxes. Click Next button, then a new window appears for next source impedance data entry. Once the data entry for all the sources are completed click ‘ End Sequence Impedance Data’ button. 4. Click Save button, to save the data entered and return to window for input data entry. 5. Click Quit button, if you desire to abort the source impedance data entry process. Fault Description Data 1. 2. Click Fault Description Data. Then the window for fault description data entry shown in the will appear (Fig 2.9). Select the bus from the dropdown list and select either one, or more or all faults clicking the respective button. Click next, then a new window appears for next fault description data entry. Once all data entry for all the faults is completed, Click End Fault Description button; Click Save button, to save the data entered and return to window for input data entry. Click Quit button, if you desire to abort fault description data entry.

3. 4.

2.3 Saving the data created You may enter all the eight data items in one sitting or you may enter say few data items in one sitting and may wish to complete the data in another sitting. In both cases the entered data is saved as follows. 2-4

1. Click project on the menubar and click save project as button. Then the file-save-dialogue window will appear (Fig 2.10). 2. Type a file name to save the data entered and then click save. This file may be used for fault analysis or editing later. Running the Fault Analysis Program with Data Entered 1. After completing the entry of all items of data or a few items of data, click Quit button in the window for input data entry and then the control will return to main window shown in Fig. 1.3 Click Run button. Then the program will be executed and a message ‘Program completed successfully’ will appear. End the process by typing o.k. The results of fault analysis can be viewed as explained in section 1.4.

2.

Note: The user may not be able to complete the data entry in a single sitting especially when thesystem is large. In some cases the user may want to run the Fault analysis program with data for some groups changed. This can be accomplished by the edit option. Note that if you have changed the project then you must specify the saved project name. If you are editing after a fresh data entry without saving the project the editing option changes are done in a temporary file and you must save it if you want the changes to be retained. The step-by-step procedure for editing the system data created by the user is exactly the same as explained in section 1.5.

2-5

Fig. 2.1 Window for input data preparation

Fig. 2.2 Window for maximum dimension data entry

Fig 2.3 Window for case title entry

Fig. 2.4 Window for general parameter data entry

Fig. 2.5 Window for bus data entry

Fig. 2.6 Window for transmission line data entry

Fig. 2.7 Window for input data entry

Fig. 2.8 Window for source impedance data entry

Fig. 2.9 Window for fault description data entry

Fig.2.10 Window for saving data in a file

Reference [1] HW Dommel, NOTES ON POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 1975. [2] J Arrillaga, CP Arnold, BJ Harker, Computer Modelling of Electrical Power Systems, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, 1983. [3] LO Chua, PM Lin, Computer-aided Analysis of Electronic Circuits, Prentice-Hall Inc., USA, 1975. [4] R Ramanujam, R Raghunatha, “Fault Analysis – Theoretical Development”, unpublished document based on the above references, 1989.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful