AU Powerlab

USER REFERENCE MANUAL FOR LINE CONSTANT EVALUATION AND LINE MODELLING ANALYSIS DOCUMENT NO. ANLPM-URM-1.0

MAY 2004 ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI - 600 025

CONTENTS Page No. 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 ABOUT THE PROGRAM Introduction Utility of the Program Features of the Program 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1

1.3.1 Methods used 1.3.2 Program capability 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 GETTING STARTED Introduction The Opening Window for AU Powerlab Opening Screen for Line Constants Sub- Modules

2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-7 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-9

2.3.1 Menu bar Commands and its Uses 2.3.2 Tutorial option 2.3.3 Running the program with packaged sample data 2.3.4 Running the program with edited sample data 2.3.5 Viewing results 2.3.6 Editing Existing Project Data and Saving in a File 2.3.7 Running the program with Existing Project Data / Created data 2.3.8 Creation of a new data file 3. 3.1 3.2 LINE MODELLING AND ANALYSIS The Opening Window for AU Powerlab Opening Window for Line Modelling and Analysis Modules

3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-5 3-5

3.2.1 Menu bar commands and its uses 3.2.2. Tutorial Option 3.2.3 Running the Program with Packaged Examples 3.2.4 Running the program with edited sample data 3.2.5 Viewing results

3.2.6 Editing Existing Project Data and Saving in a File 3.2.7 Running Existing project data / created data 3.2.8 Creation of a new data file 4. SAMPLE SYSTEM STUDY 4.1 Data for Three Phase Transmission Circuits 4.2 Sample Output Data File

3-7 3-7 3-7

4-1 4-1

ANNEXURES I : SAMPLE DATA FOR LINE CONSTANTS PROGRAM ANNEXURES II : SAMPLE DATA FOR LINE MODELLING AND ANALYSIS ANNEXURES III : OUTPUT FROM LINE CONSTANTSPROGRAM ANNEXURES IV : OUTPUT FROM LINE MODELLING AND ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 1 ABOUT THE PROGRAM 1.1 Introduction This program module group named ‘Line Constants’ consists of two modules named as Line Constants Evaluation and Line Modelling and Analysis. The two modules are independent and each one can be invoked separately and run independently. The inductance and capacitance per phase per unit length of three phase single and double circuit transmission lines can be computed using first module while line modelling and analysis can be carried out using the second module. The software modules are provided with GUI. This interface provides a flexible, highly interactive, integrated and user- friendly environment. Some of the desirable features of GUI are, easy input data preparation, completely menu driven and informative reporting. 1.2 Utility of the Program The inductance and shunt capacitance per phase per unit length of the three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor arrangements with solid or stranded or bundle conductors can be computed using the first module. The series impedance and shunt admittance of transmission lines are required for modelling of transmission lines for static and dynamic analysis of power system. The second module computes the receiving voltage, current, power factor etc. of three phase transmission circuits when sending end voltage, current, power factor are given and vice versa. The series and shunt compensation for transmission circuits and the voltage profile along the length of long transmission line are computed. Short, medium and long transmission line modelling are included. 1.3 Features of the Program 1.3.1 Methods used The method of GMR and GMD are used for the calculation of series inductance and shunt capacitance of three phase transmission lines for various conductor arrangements and for different conductors namely solid, stranded and bundle conductors. The effect of ground on line capacitance is not considered. The ABCD constants are used to compute the sending voltage and currents of the transmission circuits when the receiving end MW and MVAR load and rated voltages are given. Similarly the receiving end quantities are computed when sending end MW and MVAR power and voltages are given. Long line model is used to compute the voltage profile along the length of the line. 1.3.2 Program capability The Line Constants Evaluation module is capable of computing the per phase per unit length inductance and capacitance of transmission lines for the following six cases. 1. Three phase single circuit – solid conductors 2. Three phase single circuit – bundled conductors 1-1

3. Three phase double circuit – solid conductor vertical configuration 4. Three phase double circuit – bundled conductor vertical configuration 5. Three phase double circuit – solid conductor – horizontal configuration 6. Three phase double circuit bundled conductor – horizontal Configuration The Line Modelling and Analysis module can carryout the following with short or medium or long transmission line model. 1. Calculation of sending end quantities for specified receiving end MW and MVAR load. 2. Calculation of receiving end quantities for specified sending end MW and MVAR load 3. Calculation of sending end quantities when load impedance at the receiving end is specified 4. Calculation of receiving end voltage of open ended line and MVAR compensation to limit receiving end voltage 5. Computations of shunt capacitive compensation to keep receiving end voltage at specified value for a specified load. 6. Computation of series capacitive compensation for a specified compensation

1-2

CHAPTER 2 GETTING STARTED 2.1 Introduction This chapter describes the procedure for accessing the specific program modules Line Constants Evaluation and Line Modelling and Analysis in the AU Powerlab. Both the modules have features for creating new data, editing stored data, running program and viewing the results etc. The guidelines to use these features of the software modules are briefly explained in this manual. 2.2 The Opening Window for AU Powerlab Once the AU Powerlab software package is installed, the AU Powerlab icon will appear on the desktop. 1. Click, the AU Powerlab icon on the desktop. Then a window carrying Anna University frontage will appear on the screen and will disappear within few seconds and the student Log-on-Window will appear (Fig.2.1).

Fig. 2.1 Student Log-on-Window 2 Enter the student information in the respective boxes. After entering all informations, click Enter button. Then the opening window for AU Powerlab will appear ( fig 2.2.)

2-1

Fig. 2.2 Opening Window for AU Powerlab 2.3 Opening Screen for Line Constants Sub- Modules Click ‘Line Constants’ button in the opening window. Then the window containing the sub-modules in Line Constant will appear (fig 2.3).

Fig 2.3 Opening Screen for Line Constants Sub-Modules 2-2

Click the button Line Constants Evaluation or Line Modelling and Analysis depending upon the module you require. Assume that Line Constants Evaluation button is clicked. Then the menu screen for this module will appear (fig. 2.4). A menu bar with five commands appears at the top of the window. The uses of these commands are explained below.

Fig 2.4 Opening Window for Line Constants Evaluation 2.3.1 Menu bar Commands and its Uses Main menu Tutorial Submenu Lab. Manual / User Ref. Manual Examples Enables to read either the User Reference Manual / the Laboratory Manual. Enables to select a sample data from the list of Packaged example and edit or modify or run the program with the data Enables creation of a new input data file for a new problem Enables selection of an existing data for editing, or for running the program with the data Enables to exit from the project and return to opening window 2-3

Project

New Existing Exit Project

Edit Run

Enables editing stored data file Enables running of the program with packaged example data, or existing data or newly created data Output Tutorial option Enables to view the output results of the latest run of the program

View 2.3.2

1. Click the tutorial option on the menu bar, then a dropdown menu will appear (Fig. 2.5 )

Fig. 2.5 Dropdown Menu bar for Tutorial Option 2. Lab. Manual option takes you through the Laboratory Manual for the experiment ‘Computation of Parameters and Modelling of Transmission Lines’. 3. User Ref. Manual option takes you through the User Ref. Manual for ‘ Line Constants Program’ modules. 3. Point to Examples option; then the packaged sample data are displayed (Fig 2.6.) 2-4

Fig 2.6 Packaged Sample Data 2.3.3 Running the program with packaged sample data Few sample system data files are prepared and stored in the program. The user can use these sample data. The desired sample data may be chosen, viewed, edited or modified and stored in a separate file and used for running the program. The procedure for using the sample system data is explained below. 1. Click the tutorial button and point to examples. Then the list of packaged examples appears (Fig 2.6). Click the desired sample data. Then the control returns to the opening window (Fig 2.4) Now the program can be executed with the selected data directly, by clicking the Run button. But the user may not be aware of the details of data and the various options used in the data. Hence it is always better to view the data, choose appropriate options and give proper title for the study before running the program. The procedure for editing the selected data and running the program with the data is given in this section. 2. Click the edit button. Then the window for input data editing will appear (Fig 2.7) A copy of the chosen sample system data file is transferred to a temporary file. The changes in the data are made in the temporary file only. Before exiting the program; a copy of the changed data must be saved in a new file name.

2-5

Fig. 2.7 Window for Editing Sample Data for Three Phase Single Circuit 3. Type the new data in the respective boxes. After completing the change of data, click save button. Then the file-save-dialogue window will appear (fig 2.8). Type a name for the file and click the save button. The changed data will be stored in the file name and the control will return to main window.

Fig. 2.8 Window for Saving Edited Data 2-6

2.3.4 Running the program with edited sample data Click Run button. Then the program will be executed and a message. ‘Program Completed Successfully’ app ears. Click ok to complete the process and return to opening window. The procedure to view the output is given in the next section. 2.3.5 Viewing results The output of the latest run will be stored in the output file and can be viewed using view command. The previous output will be erased and the output of the latest run will be stored in the output file. The output of the latest run will also be erased when the session is completed and the user quits the program. The output results can be viewed as follows. 1. Click the view button. Then a drop down menu with output will appear (Fig 2.9)

Fig 2.9 Dropdown Menu for Viewing Output 2. Click the output button. Then the conventional text format output will appear (Fig 2.10). The student can take print out of this output.

2-7

Fig. 2.10 Text Format Output 2.3.6 Editing Existing Project Data and Saving in a File Data file already created by the user can be edited or data may be changed and stored either in the same file name or in a new file name and the program may be run with this edited / changed data. The procedure to carry out the above tasks is explained below. 1. Click project button, a dropdown menu with New, Existing and Exit Project will appear. 2. Point to Existing button and click. Then a file open-dialogue window will appear. Select the desired file and click open button. Then the control will return to opening window. 3. Click edit button. Then the window for editing input data will appear. 4. Type the new data in the respective boxes. After completing the change of data, click save button. Then the file-save-dialogue window will appear (fig 2.8). Type a name for the file to save the data and then click the save button. The changed data will be saved in the file name and the control will return to main window. 5. For running the program with the existing project data or edited data and viewing results refer section 2.3.4 and 2.3.5

2-8

2.3.7 Running the program with Existing Project Data / Created data 1. Point to project and click, then a dropdown menu with New, Existing and Exit Project will appear. 2. Click Existing button. Then a window shown in fig.2.11 will appear. Click the name of the desired data file and click open button. Then the control will return to opening window. 3. Click run button; then the program will be executed and a message Program Completed Successfully appears. Click ok button to complete the process and return to opening window. To view the output refer section 2.3.5

Fig 2.11 Window for Selecting Existing Data 2.3.8 Creation of a new data file The inductance and capacitance can be computed for the following six cases with this program module. You can create data for any of the cases given below. 1. Three phase single circuit – solid conductors 2. Three phase single circuit – bundled conductors 3. Three phase double circuit – solid conductor vertical configuration 4. Three Phase double circuit – bundled conductor vertical configuration 5. Three Phase double circuit – solid conductor – horizontal configuration 6. Three phase double circuit bundled conductor – horizontal Configuration 2-9

The procedure for creating new data for any of the above six cases is given below 1. Click project button. Then the dropdown menu with New; Existing and Exit Project will appear. 2. Point to new and click data preparation. Then the window for selection of transmission circuit will appear (Fig.2.12).

Fig. 2.12 Window for Selection of Transmission Circuit 3. Point to the transmission circuit for which data is to be prepared. Consider that three phase double circuit horizontal configuration is considered. Then click Three Phase Double Circuit button. Then a window for input data entry will appear ( fig 2.13) 4. Enter the data in the respective boxes as explained in the conductor configuration diagram given in the window. For solid conductors, enter the radius of the conductor in the box against Geometric Mean Radius while for stranded conductor; enter the GMR given in the manufactures data. For solid and stranded conductors enter one against ‘no of bundle conductor’ and zero for bundle spacing. 5. After entering all the data; click save button. Then the file-save –dialoguewindow for storing newly created data will appear (Fig.2.14)

2-10

Fig. 2.13 Window for Input Data Entry

2-11

Fig. 2.14 Window for Storing Newly Created Data 6. Type a file name to store the newly created data and click save button. The data will stored in the file name given and control will return to opening window (fig. 2.4) 7. To run the program with the newly created data, click run button. Then the program will be executed and a message ‘Program Completed Successfully’ will appear. Click ok button to end the process. To view the output refer section 2.3.5 The data preparation for other cases is similar to the above procedure.

2-12

CHAPTER 3 LINE MODELLING AND ANALYSIS 3.1 The Opening Window for AU Powerlab The opening window for AU Powerlab (Fig.2.2) and the window for Line Constants Sub-modules (Fig.2.3) are obtained by following the steps explained in section 2.2 and 2.3 of chapter 2. 3.2 Opening Window for Line Modelling and Analysis Modules Click the Line Modelling and analysis button in the opening window for line constants sub-modules (Fig.2.3). Then the opening window for Line Modelling and Analysis module will appear (Fig.3.1). A menu bar with five commands is located at the top of the window.

Fig. 3.1 Opening Window for Line Modelling and Analysis Module 3.2.1 Menu bar commands and its uses The uses of these commands are the same as that explained in section 2.3.1 3.2.2 Tutorial Option The operations are same as described in section 2.3.2

3-1

3.2.3 Running the Program with Packaged Examples: Few sample system data file are prepared and stored in the program. The user can use these sample data. The desired sample data may be chosen, viewed, edited or modified and stored in a separate file and used for running the program. The procedure for using the sample system data is explained below. 1. Click the tutorial button and point to examples. Then the list of packaged examples appears (Fig 3.2). Click the desired sample data. Then the control returns to the opening window (Fig 3.1)

Fig. 3.2 Packaged Example Data Now the program can be executed with the selected data directly, by clicking the Run button. But the user may not be aware of the details of data and the various options used in the data. Hence it is always better to view the data, choose appropriate option and give proper title for the study before running the program with the selected data. The procedure for editing the selected data and running the program with the data is given in this section. 2. Click the edit button. Then the window for editing the basic line parameters data will appear (Fig 3.3)

3-2

Fig 3.3 Window for Editing Line Parameters A copy of the chosen sample system data file is transferred to a temporary file. The changes in the data are made in the temporary file only. Before exiting the program; a copy of the changed data must be saved in a new file name. 3. Type the new parameter data in the respective boxes. After completing the change of data, click save button. Then the next window for the selection of the case will appear (fig3.4). Point to the button which is highlighted and click. Then the window for entry of data for this case will appear (fig.3.5) After entering all the data in the respective boxes, click save button, then the filesave-dialogue window will appear (fig. 3.6). Type a name for the file and click the save button. The edited data will be stored in the file name and the control will return to main window.

4.

3-3

Fig.3.4 Window for Selection of Case to be Studied

Fig 3.5 Window for data entry 3-4

Fig. 3.6 Window for Saving Edited Data 3.2.4 Running the program with edited sample data Click Run button. Then the program will be executed and a message. ‘Program completed Successfully’ appears. Click ok to complete the process and return to opening window. The procedure to view the output is given in the next section. 3.2.5 Viewing results The output of the latest run will be stored in the output file and can be viewed using view command. The previous output will be erased and the output of the latest run will be stored in the output file. The output of the latest run will also be erased when the session is completed and the user quit the program. The output results can be viewed as follows. 1. Click the view button. Then a drop down menu with output will appear (Fig 3.7)

3-5

Fig 3.7 Dropdown Menu for Viewing Output 2. Click output button, then the conventional text format output shown in fig 3.8 will appear. The output command causes the conventional text output to be brought to notepad. The student can take printout of this results.

Fig 3.8 Text format Output 3-6

3. Click plot button if it is enabled; Then the plot of the quantity will appear. A printout of the plot can be taken. The plot button will be enabled only if the output consists of plot of variables. 3.2.6 Editing Existing Project Data and Saving in a File

Data file already created by the user can be edited or data may be changed and stored either in the same file name or in a new file name and the program may be run with this edited / changed data. The procedure to carry out the above tasks is explained below. 1. Click project button, a dropdown menu with New, Existing and Exit Project will appear. 2. Point to Existing button and click. Then a file open-dialogue window will appear. Select the desired file and click open button. The control will return to opening window. 3. Click edit button. Then the window for editing input data will appear. The rest of the procedure for editing the data, running the program and viewing the outputs are the same as that explained in the previous sections 3.2.3, 3.2.4 and3.2.5 3.2.7 Running Existing project data / created data 1. Point to project and click, then a dropdown menu with New, Existing and Exit Project will appear. 2. Click Existing button. Then the file –open dialogue will appear (Fig 3.9). Click the desired data, and then the open button, the control will return to opening window.

3-7

3.9 Window for saving created data 3. Click run button; then the program will be executed and a message Program Completed Successfully appears. Click ok to complete the process and return to opening window. For running the program and viewing the output refer sections 3.2.3,3.2.4 and3.2.5 3.2.8 Creation of a new data file The following six cases can be analysed using this program modules. This six cases can be analysed either using short line model or medium line model or long line model. 1. Calculation of sending end quantities for specified receiving end MW and MVAR load. 2. Calculation of receiving end quantities for specified sending end MW and MVAR load 3. Calculation of sending end quantities when the load impedance at the receiving end is specified. 4. Calculation of receiving end voltage of open ended line and MVAR compensation to limit receiving end voltage to rated value. 5. Computation of shunt capacitive compensation to keep receiving end voltage at specified value. 3-8

6. Computation of series capacitive compensation for a specified percentage compensation 7. Computation of voltage profile of the line for 1/8 wave length for different load condition. The procedure for creating new data file for any of the above seven cases is given below. 1. Point to project and then click, then the dropdown menu with New, Existing and Exit project will appear. 2. Point to New and click the button Data Preparation. Then the window for line parameter entry will appear( fig 3.10)

Fig. 3.10 Window for line Parameter Data Entry 3. Choose line model, by activating the respective button 4. Enter the resistance per km, inductance in mH per km, shunt capacitance in microfarad per km, shunt conductance in simens per km, frequency in HZ and length of the line in km in the respective boxes. For short lines, zero should be entered for shunt capacitance and shunt conductance. For medium lines zero should be entered for shunt conductance 5. After entering all the data, click save button. Then the window for selection of specific case will appear (Fig 3.11) 3-9

3.11 Window for Selection of Specific Type of Problem 6. Point to the case depending upon your choice and click the respective button, Consider that To calculate Sending End Quantities for Specified Receiving End MW and MVAR button is clicked. Then the window for entring the remaining data for this selected case will appear. (fig 3.12)

Fig 3.12 Window for Data Entry 3-10

7. Enter the required data in the respective boxes. 8. After entering all the data, click save button. Then the file save –dialogue window will appear 9. Type a file name to save the data and then click save button. The data will be stored in the name of the file and control will return to the opening window. The data for other cases can be created similarly 10. To run the program with newly created data, click run button; then the program will be executed and a message ‘Program completed Successfully’ Will appear. Click ok button to end the process. To view the output refer section 3.2.5

3-11

CHAPTER 4 SAMPLE SYSTEM STUDY 4.1 Data for Three Phase Transmission Circuits The data required for the computation of line parameters of three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for typical conductor arrangement are given in Annexure I and II. The data required for the computation of voltage, current and power factor at the sending end of a three phase transmission circuit is given in annexure III. 4.2 Sample Output Data File The sample output files generated by running the modules Line Constants and Line Modelling and Analysis using the data given in Annexure I and II are given in Annexure IV and V.

4-1

ANNEXURE - III
----------------------------------AU POWERLAB LINE CONSTANT PROGRAM -----------------------------------

Input data given for three phase single circuit configuration: THREE PHASE SINGLE CIRCUIT CONFIGURATON DISTANCE BETWEEN CONDUCTORS 1 AND 2: DISTANCE BETWEEN CONDUCTORS 2 AND 3: DISTANCE BETWEEN CONDUCTORS 1 AND 3: CONDUCTOR DIAMETER : GEOMETRIC MEAN RADIUS : SINGLE CONDUCTOR 11 11 22 0.03625 0.01439 Mt Mt Mt Mt Mt

--------------------------------------------AU POWERLAB LINE MODELING AND PEFRFORMANCE ANALYSIS PROGRAM ----------------------------------------------Input data given for a long line for the program to compute the line efficiency, voltage regulation and the shunt capacitance required to maintain the receiving end voltage at 500 kV. LINE PARAMETER VALUES --------------------RESISTANCE PER PHASE SERIES INDUCTANCE PER PHASE SHUNT CAPACITANCE PER PHASE SHUNT CONDUCTANCE PER PHASE FREQUENCY LENGTH OF LINE LONG LINE MODEL : : : : : : 0.016 0.97 0.0115 0 60 300 OHMS/Km milliHENRY/Km microFARAD/Km SIMENS/Km HETRZ Km

ANNEXURE - IV
----------------------------------AU POWERLAB LINE CONSTANT PROGRAM ----------------------------------DATE:6:5:2004 TIME:15:55:4:31 THREE PHASE SINGLE CIRCUIT-EXP NO:1 INPUT VALUES -----------THREE PHASE SINGLE CIRCUIT CONFIGURATON DISTANCE BETWEEN CONDUCTORS 1 AND 2: DISTANCE BETWEEN CONDUCTORS 2 AND 3: DISTANCE BETWEEN CONDUCTORS 1 AND 3: CONDUCTOR DIAMETER : GEOMETRIC MEAN RADIUS : SINGLE CONDUCTOR OUTPUT ------EQUIVALENT GMD PER PHASE EQUIVALENT GMR FOR L CALCULATION EQUIVALENT GMR FOR C CALCULATION INDUCTANCE PER PHASE CAPACITANCE PER PHASE 11 11 22 0.03625 0.01439 Mt Mt Mt Mt Mt

:13.859132 : 0.01439 : 0.018125 : 1.374033 : 8.374241

Mt Mt Mt mH/Km nF/Km

ANNEXURE - V
--------------AU POWERLAB --------------LINE MODELING AND PEFRFORMANCE ANALYSIS PROGRAM ----------------------------------------------DATE:6:5:2004 TIME:16:23:33:15 EXPERIMENT NUMBER:XXX LINE PARAMETER VALUES --------------------RESISTANCE PER PHASE SERIES INDUCTANCE PER PHASE SHUNT CAPACITANCE PER PHASE SHUNT CONDUCTANCE PER PHASE FREQUENCY LENGTH OF LINE LONG LINE MODEL --------------EQUIVALENT PI MODEL SERIES IMPEDANCE PER PHASE TOTAL SHUNT ADMITTANCE PER PHASE ABCD PARAMETER VALUES: ---------------------0.929501+j0.003048 4.574137+j107.119014 -1.334077e-06+j0.00127 0.929501+j0.003048 SHUNT CAPACITOR COMPENSATION: ----------------------------SENDING END VOLTAGE (L-L) SENDING END VOLTAGE PHASEANGLE SENDING END 3-PHASE REAL POWER SENDING END 3-PHASE REACTIVE POWER SENDING END APPARENT POWER SENDING END CURRENT SENDING END CURRENT PHASE ANGLE SENDING END POWERFACTOR RECEIVING RECEIVING RECEIVING RECEIVING RECEIVING RECEIVING RECEIVING RECEIVING END END END END END END END END VOLTAGE (L-L) VOLTAGE PHASEANGLE 3-PHASE REAL POWER 3-PHASE REACTIVE POWER APPARENT POWER CURRENT CURRENT PHASE ANGLE POWERFACTOR : 4.574137+j107.119014 :6.963796e-07+j0.001316 OHMS SIEMENS : : : : : : 0.016 0.97 0.0115 0 60 300 OHMS/Km milliHENRY/Km microFARAD/Km SIMENS/Km HETRZ Km

: 500 : 20.24786 :812.468664 :-55.006172 :814.328563 :940.305631 : 24.121017 : 0.997716 : 500 : 0 : 800 :-13.848568 :800.119855 :923.898828 : 0.991732 : 0.99985

KV DEG MW MVAR MVA AMPS DEG LEAD KV DEG MW MVAR MVA AMPS DEG LEAD

REAL POWER OF LOAD REACTIVE POWER OF LOAD LOAD CURRENT PHASE ANGLE OF LOAD CURRENT LOAD POWERFACTOR

: 800 MW : 600 MVAR :1154.700538 AMPS :-36.869898 DEG : 0.8 LAG

REQUIRED SHUNT CAPACITOR : -----------------------SHUNT CAPACITOR REACTANCE(Xc)/PHASE :407.266568 OHMS/PHASE SHUNT CAPACITANCE/PHASE : 6.513136 MICRO FARAD/PHASE 3-PH MVAR RATING OF SHUNT CAPACITOR :-13.848568 MVAR SHUNT CAPACITOR CURRENT :708.811272 AMPS PHASEANGLE OF SHUNT CAPACITOR CURRENT: 90 DEG PERCENTAGE VOLTAGE REGULATION TRANSMISSION LINE EFFICIENCY : 7.584051 % : 98.465336 %

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful